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EXAMINATIONS PUBUSMING

CAMB'RIDGE

Vanessa Jakernan and Clare McDowe~~ (~) if;,;] J-t J~t

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Inri/jll r j,lto lE:L 1S .E.ttffl """Wr ArJ$l\w.~ by Vanessa.,iIl1l keman and ell! re McOow~U finn, published by Cwnbridg-e Ulilivel'S]ty ~~re,<;S 2003. lIIpnw.wdi e!.li~ion 2n03 Tihffi cdido.n (~r dle People 's Re::lJGbii~o.F Ch Ulli ii.publi&hed by ill rran:gcrru.:i!lt wit,h I~hePress :S1'lJII."1ic3:I.~tile Urli~r.iif)' o~ af Cambridge. United Kin~orti.

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Contents
-

THE LIStENING -UNliT 1


Mald

MODULE W

THI:E READ IINIG MOoD ULE


--

---

Orier:nating yourself

Irhe [ex~

UNI" 1

plcw.Tiflls to comext - rule at spec~h,r-s AI,I,ticiparing the speakersl ,questiOl.1S


and

Orienta ti 11g, ynurself tothe text 32 RerognisbJg tne t.epic and ,,'UJitl ideo.
SumRMrising mai/~ {d6t1S Recognising key IJOcah£tlo,I'Y Loo.king tU ullJ'rd jOJ'f1l'aUrm

lu:rs Section..1 trok


11

mltd'ioNsllip .

UNIT 2

UNlIT :2

Listening for specifi!c tnformatton Mu llipl'ft· choioe type questiom


IBL'[S SectJ'(J'n 1 task

Note completi(m - notes and full

Skimmingl SCillll1ing fur spaeifte informati.on and deian .wcaJi.rw specific in/,vrmatian IELTStmks

a'B

I& TS Section 1 ,ask


UNIT 3,
Id,entU';ing d _rain 15
IInd

sen tence jrn7rlfll

IdenUfying maiinand supponrng


ideas

40

.tlecogwising ttnttng wm-dsjumbled paragraph s

FQcu.s 0'''' facts, figlU"eS

taking tU:l,~es Bxpan.ding umue« notes il~tl)talb lEU'S Sec.~i()n2 task

details -

Types aI m rJ 'riple&chotc."e' q tte$~i(m,~ 113£lS (ask Linking idea:s


UNIT 4 fmproving gl.ob,a] read ing sid Us
45,

UNIT ,4

Jdeflltifymg main ideas


LisJenil:lg ta

19

Tab,l'e ,romple'tia'i1 fELTS Section 2 ,task UNn5 Seeing beyondtha

itien tibi ug speakers ~nd t017i


surface

shorr dialogues ~ 'UNlIT 5


22
t(Jn!l6J~a~iorlg

Pamgr-al,h stn,u:lure Thpic s 'menct tmd key oor:aIJ,u,/ary IBLTS ftlJik .

SUmmarishlg
Underslandillg pmuph m"se

51£1

ilne.ru:tmg Listening to short

JBLTS tasks

UNnl&

,speak-eroS Lis&en tng for up,[nim,j ,agreeing Ulul disagreqing


lruroducri,G1t .IELTS S ctian 3 task UINIT 6

Iden'ri/rit1g IflPic and mtmbef

u/

Und@n;tanding argumen; 54 Follo'wil~g tne line oj" de.lletofJment JE'1:I5 task

.Recogni,,~ing (.;I r~~ "lilll'l/£


fELTS ta.Oik

P'ickfng (he topic froln the

UNIIIT' 7

lden tiiying ophLio.n1anirude and making inferences Scall'l.iugfor mnne,s


BeL-"Qg1.~isil¥gthe lV,i£er'S lElTS task

5.,

FoHm'lling si~n~:mst words P,rmicHng wht:;lf~ comiilg lEtTS Se'c,rion 3 tmk Poem on sl_gJzPQst w'Of'(d,sBeing awsre of stress, rhythm and h11'loDaUon
Fm:m;.on

25 IlJNllll:
28

views

The General Training modume,


Section 1

162

UNIT 7

R:eoogtl ising text rype/i IErrstmks


UNIIJ' 9 The General 'l'raining module. Sectwon 2 lBerS tasks

prosodic /f!.atures in

l(!cnu'es and talks Note-ttd:ing lntonarinn in ques.a,Cl'n£ fELTS Sa'c~i,fJ'.n task 4

65

'T:H!E WRlllNG

---

MODULE
691

URn 1101Developing an argument

UNlrf 11 Describi[]g facts and :ligures


Getting rhe.!acu righf Bf!:ing prncistll Describing dam Approaching rhie uuk - 1

lO2 Stnu;turing an a,.gHm~l1:t Focus on rohesion: - ~f8inr Unkers IEL:TS TtMk ,2 106 Mow work o:l1lcoi'uzsion andaduerbs

me'

UNn 1" \I\lril[mg yom answer

UNlIT 2

Describing trends 74 Im:reasi'ng and de£f1!US,ing Frtmds Describing stabili,ty (Uut jlucruaticm

Complex .~lmten.ces Grammar - proc-i.se'use of adjecti'ves

--

Approac:hilJ.g the .task - 2 Langml,g8 focus


Summarising di!jta77

THE SPEAKING
UNIT 1

MOD'ULIE

Describ'ing sign:tfica'Rf ,demi ls PtirusuJph Sffuetu re and Zfrib


IEf.:fS 'fQ..~k1 UNliT4 Describing a process 82 Srudying lIre diagmffl Using appropriate Utlkers Drganising infi:rnnalion: IQgicai~y fELTS Task 1 UNlliT 2

Part one - the interview 110 Re.spcnldfng fully a1Jd .Q/,pmp.riaHtly linking Ideas

Guided $pmking

Se'N'tence stres« More pnu;dce fOJ Part one Ways ,of gl/lSweritlg questionJ 114

sport
UNIT 3

Guided spaakin;(J _ tatking abrmt


117

Opening phrases

UNITS

Gene:rnl TI'.unhlg; Task I Or-garJising the points


lEtTS XwkJ Deciding wnar ID include
Und'entGndtng the ,f&k;

86

P,aI,;n fINO _ the long turn

Pm;u.$ O,i rrwking notes Mode,l long tum«


UNIT' 4
1

Thlckl,rng tJu:! rapic

General 'fiiWlii.og, T'dsk I conUnuoo 89 Gerring your mess(lge across lELTS Task 1 UNIrr '1 Task 2
ReaSl1'1l5J for :tJJriting a leIter Setting the ,righ t tone

MOre praetice fair Part two Focus: on: whm the exammer IOfJlking for

:II.

20

is

Brain..~wrmi1"1,gideas

Mn'fil? Part UtilO .topics Giving the talk ~ checking your perjbnna,wc

Aca,\lle:rnJc Wild General Tr-aining, A.l'lalysing me ,task

92

'U Nn 5,

Part throl;l·_ thelll\lEi-"lAray disrnsMonJl23


How Ways of beg.in.nb~gyou.r rJmUJ€T Amiciparing the issues - expanding

q,r.tesl-wm
.t/:IJt!

UJ

approach

the' Au',t fthr'U

P-ornling ideas

URn S

Pl<lllIDjng structure, Task2 a

95 UNIT6

topic

Prosenti~lJ ideas

canclltSion
fELTS UNIT 19

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tDpic!:!,

Mare practice [or lP'rutthree 1:27 Marn wlork em giriing op,ft.tiON Usir:~lladverbs to' exlJ'r€SS CIII;t oplnwn , 130

IflItTQdudn;g

and main. tdeas 981 Using appropriate strndures NJzeMrir:al qUCSriONS fu'H'e5si'l~gfeelfngs
Improvi't~g t'U1 cUfswer

ANI:SWE R KEY' ACKNIOWLEDGEMENITS,

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Orientating yourself to the text ~

1!:t _~

Pre-Ustening
-il

Look ar tlte twelve pletures tndow showing p aople in difi:emnt situ.ations. • Try U:l inulgine what the speakers are taUting abCH..rt, b
c

Listening

UNlIT I

to Un.t 1 Exuact ] .."lOLlwill hear len shod extracts. As you USH!fl. mauch the pictures to each extract. There are two pklu.reS you do nor need . ., Listel'l [0 Extract I again. o,edde whwch speaker is asking for information and which one is,giving infolFma'[Jio[l. \l\lhere there Is only one speaker, can you say who the speaker is talktng 'UJI? • Now listen for a Hlli:1ll tim and make a note of me key word which help d you Ito de th is task.

'. Listen

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3 4, 5

6
7 8 9
10

FoUUI\V-UP, • Choose one of the pictures above and write your own cripl to match the 'nustra: ion. • Read it out loud W have chosen.
YOUI

stud}· partner and see ifhe/She can name the ptcture you

I nsig'ht irno IEILTS E:dra wH h An swers

EXTIRACT 2:

S~,tio" I +: ,Q. trllf).. ~ht. f! t l' ot7 " iliff! ~ ;"T il-lt :!l dJ ,,(.I'j i~fU1. i

"i-e.51' TIP

'·'Laok at the table below Wha~ Is the '[Opic: ufthe Hstemng text~' • Head '[he words at the top of each column and rum them into a fulJ que.nion. This will help you [0 follow l!.he con'le:!:'satioRs. " FOI! ea h question, declde what inlormiiltion you need to listen for, e.g. a type of food . .. HO,I\' many speakers do you expect to hear? .. Listen to On.it 1 Extf~ct 2 and cemplete the table.

QlfiBSfia,u 11-20

!O" each ~mSUJ€r.


STUDI

Camplete r/J€ table below. YVritt!! NO MORE THAN POODUU1'J.BT suall PJefene4fGod
ouUet1 Type 01 PQfChUe?

nvo I,fORDS

0'1"

USE it SYMBOL

Dall, expendl1ure?

More food outletl requJnld1

./,f V.

1
? Smdeld 1 Student 2 ~ Bw11i1r'9
lJ ."."
1'l'Y.1+ 18
".r ..

110 UlHledded

12 ".". 15._."_. 18 ......

IS ... -..
16 .. ""

14 "" .. Ii .. -. -.

Studeut 3

20 .... "

Follow-up
• .magine you are going to undertake
usc of tIhi!. VI). <rF ~
~pi1'9 sch:rl l;blriSL!Jy
acri\ftt1i!S i1t

,3

su.rv~y on one ofthe foUOli\1n.gmpi.es.


C&ltr~

I~O'1t

~~

fo.d'."t1it5 In th& Typ:. of d~ u.tn'1 u,5!,; of 'he I.i'ft~t

8JlM

• Think 0 flow: di.fIeIont questions you could ask on the topic you h eve chosen. '. Create a tab]€' Ukiathe one above andfind ,~U least two peopleto interview,

l.tsteninq
UNIT 2 Lis,tel1ingfo,r specific information JVf
'"
.. •

-:---:fr=;. -;.
• # "'" ~

.~ ~ ~2'~~,~~;, " ~--,

----~---

---

qtUtlJ!ifjj~gtt~ ~ 3 Jl~i&tif.m" fHOIl~~t&+r,1]lf.jmJ'I r~J§I~*4}l"~;:j 4lD 'Em~qrKj}lJ"


j

- -ffm~JMl [j ~;;<~,

Pre-Usl,enin,g
• What is the di:ftereru:,e between

follow? \l\fh~
• Read the stem of leach question

questions Ia and b be]ow? '\lVhjch is easier to

possible answers, This

wm

carefuUy to see what ZI is asking. Then read [he help you to focus your listening.

EXTRACT 1
--

.' Listen to UnW~ Extnu::~1 and answer question 2

Circle the correct leuer A-(,'.


h), Su.san is lookin,g for a A nat of her own. B cheap hotel. Jb Wh:i!ukind of,accommodEIJtilon does Susan ~'II':&rU? ,i\ a flat of her own D, a cheap hotel C, a share house

,e share

hoase.

Pm~Usten1n:1
tn question format between questlons 2 and 3 on page I27 • Wha,l~do yo u thmn_k is,the most likely context of each. q uestlont
Ii

Wba~ is 'the d~:n;erence

• "'he!l1 you read the stem. underline


exacdy what
to

any ke~r words which help you to understand

listen for.

E.XTIR.AC:l 2
• LisLen toEx.~~,~.ct2 :,md circle the correc t letter • We~e you
l,

A.-c.

temtuad

to cheese

any of the '\Vfong answe rs in Q 1Il,:2 and :U


aDS"",t~l'?

lho why? • VVhatwalia the ~ey wmds on the rape that Jed you to the cerrect

111

Insig,n1inl0 ~ELTSExtra wuth Answers

;:jl:

"t6~ft'l:

~lJ ~

~riIJ 'I"t

.I '''-A ~{i,Uf _ .n f.

IS."' •.

li'. '*r f:l ! »; .t. ~ 4

.fi".'"

,2 '\i\'hh::h lecture cUd the man attend in the afternoon?

A. psychology

,e history

H, soda 1ogy

3 The woman wan'lS [0, sntdy A, medicine. 8, medtcal science. ,e veL science .

EXTRA,ICT 3 -- - -

--,..-

---

_ ----

-,.,., =""'''''

..,,.,,.=== ... =""

=="= "".... ==---;;;;,-

...-~ .............. - ................. _--._---

----

----

_...,-

......, .".."..-======= ... .

== = == ---

• Read question 4,"Then US~e'n to Unit ,2 ENtra'ct ,3 and answer d:u~question. You have 10 choose' ~TO words belle, but yOlu wum. only get one mark as thws is considered to be one question, Il!lLis-ten again, and make a note of the exact words used! in the recording. the same words as the words in the IIiS{? Were they

Q,fwstion 4
Circle TWO

lerters A .... G. take on, th.e utalle?

VVildch J1N'O 11:i'~gsshotdd they

A, rucksack

Bi water container C soft dr~nts D'coldfuod E, insect repemmem F camera

G su:n;glasses

EXTn.AC1,4,
IIElIS Us1enililg Section 1
l!hlc,rJ;n r ~ ~ f:_ ¥'I'fj .... )l'li8. 1

Questinm ~ 11
Cfrr:le lhe correes ieuer« A-c'

ExarnlJ,te The students are going on a A ~Clgraphy pieaic,


sports club trip. @univlersityouting:.

5 The coach leaves the bus station at A 7.00 am. B 7.45 am.
C,8.GOam.

12

Listening

UNIT:2

16 The Journey trnlen~will take


,3Ippro:ldmatc.ly
A.2 hams"

.0 Z and a h~]f bours. e,3 hours, 7 Maria dQesn!t have the infomtath:m because she has A recently j oined the ut:U'!fe:rsi.ty. o been away on holiday. IIC ch.anged h€r course.
D The finn _activby will be to A. walk aCl:ioss 'm p' o.f '!he dam, l\I"j~w Mll'1! dam from dOl.YIilstream.

9 The studenl'SM]_~ sleep in: A c~eap accommo daitiolli. B ovenli:gi:lJ: cabins. C I~e'tus . 10 Meals will be pmvided!rurn ~he fbrm, o.f
A

breakFast only.

me

B b~ceakfasland ]uneh, C break[a,s'l and dinner; U Sydney's dailywa1ter co'nsump,t~mlis equal 1mthe contents of A ~OjOijO ,kTIlJIS, of pipes., B 600 ffull.- slze swinuni ngpoels, C 2HZ senrb::e reserve [[So

C .s~e ~he'dam ~n 0 pe];~tion.

QuesUon.s12--J4
W11,ith THREE ilri,'1.,g;:.' ooe.ll Ste,!)(t reromme'l:~d h~ntlng? Circ.le' TllllEii [,ef;te:rs bP. A. blnoculars
16,

camera

ICpe~fe
Dmapl

IE ralneeat

Pmabil.tl pl!lon~

t .i."1f'~ :ff·JJt~~o 161tl'; l';( #.l ~A.5I~ Z~ 'J' -t t11ffl. J:..t~:~~ oF • f;2<#: V~ ~-j-Jj~t{}::lI.itw. ~t,ij .:r-~~~*A~]~ t¢ .it~~j~lI-ttiT ~ t. 1r,Bt~ f1~ iL..
tJ
iJl,l~

.,~l'~

]+.j..'~~-t-

Pm~.~i:sten~llg
• 1..0 ok Ht the note cempleuontasks be]ow. Whkh ,type of note completion is eac h question! Wdte 1 Of .2Intbe se cond colamn, ~ Which of the 11:\'110 formats do you fiind easier w foUow when ]isten[ng. \I\'l'Jiy~ • Uum 1111erompts below iuu) full questioif.ls~ and decide wb:a;~~e of int(}FrnaUOill p you must US~Ii'!:r1out fa r, WtHeOli. note about thls tn Idle lhird co]umn ..

~'nsj l ~nto ~ gh ELlS Extra. with Answers


-

--

L'

fltampl,: Bus departs at ,.....................

~+ t~
15 The
11 Cost
milO

d.ocs tht N5 ~1

Type 1

AhN

wants to stUdy ......................

at uniliersIt~.

16 Louis Pasteur was born in ...................... (2 possIblE! que5tionsJ

..... of c:ol1lCe5sion ticket S .._. "... de'ay ......................

t; ••

";i;jlI

.. 'i. •

.;~iI

11 Address ....... _............. Slrt!et


19 Reasoo for

20 New Yorkers coo5.IJ.me ...................... gallons of water each day. 21 Date of arrival ......................
22 The problem of longitude plagued the earty navigators for

years because they lacked the ability to ••,....................


............. " .......

2J TYpe of t4D"
I

24 Sprl ng toUs are made from .................... "

EXTRACT 5
IEI.IS Listening SIBction 11

Hate completion.

" Look at me task b elo\l\!.\v:iIat gOI you think d:n.eeonrexr nhhe Ustening will b~? " Tum the notes in the task into iiIl full question, e~g.vVbcn ts the confereneet " Write a note i.1Il: ttl e column on 1h"1i! right abcut wha r you expect Ito heal, e.g. (j
IUlmber; pklce.

• Now lisu~n to Unit 2, Extract s, ,tBI..nd complete the task.

Q,lw,tions 25--34
CO'mp.~etehe note« below. Write NO MORE 1'llAAT mllEE WOlW& for eQCJi a.Rs,wer. t

Ar~ted~e
Confeyei1Ce Corfe .. ~e e
R-eser'll4tioQM

;1 ~~ Ja.te5

T~
l25)
R::;!.
ro . .. ~ ••••

needed
11

of inrorma,tion
,. ••

velliue
~

1""'

(26) ." (27) J,

.. _
n ..

Co:!ot

s.tude.,t ~~te .J5""O fQCcoffae.t


p€rSiOJ1

$300

for ">. ~

da~

cI'

(28)
(29)

do.

dA.)"; . " ..

!"Io\.m t ~ t f(l,,$..ti cb~ d4te bttJ!k!5i

(301 ~91) " (12) •.,..,.'" 1(33) ~

_ ..•
» ••
~i!'

Send
e~1

.~iI"oe

to ;:",;;,'uJe

Also Sl2nd .

~~

lel1<jtl-!

F'"

~"ifil"""

_.

I!

14

~e~!>

«3:1) .
(

~~..edu...tW

listening
UNIT 3 Identifying detail

it tH i&I ,.

~'~'

-----

'.,

--I

Pre-listening
• Look at the ideas b e~o,w. • Write questions tofind out ~hwsinfornllilUOn about the game of footbillll (snccer),

World famous fomball dubs?

oo o

o o

15

~ lis;ten to fiv,e m.il'l~-~aJk.s,on d.i:ffeIi"eIlJt '~!spEct:sof me ga:me of footbi'lJl. Murch the ralks to the lop.ics.itn tin: liiulUgh'[ lruhbles on page l3. Wdte the topic in the topic ICOJU mn [[[I ttl 1::' tabl e h EI[p"l,~. '.' Usten again and fJlOtB dc.rwriltmpcrtant detaUs. DCIM't write ftill sentences. '. Now sIPend ab ou!t 10 mi.nutes t~ng to ~umyou r notes bHCik lnro comp Iete sentences 80 that I[]-ruey could be read amid understood by somebody else.
'&Ik I

1bpk

Detalil

2 J,
,4

Asking£or detalls • Wo.rirding \Ilirmw your sWdy partner;, take ,furdler practi,ce

it in turns Ita ask leach other tile questians you ~v'[ntea~ the heglnning of~his 1J1nU. nswer frOlllil your no tes, A " You can aI S(}Iask :n:lIewquestions based Of) your no tes, Ask about cI[!tan~.

., Worl \~dt your' s:tudyparmer~ Baeh choose one of thetwa tnpies below' and Pli,t into a logical or cbronolog,ieru order, • Wl~temru sentences to mab a short talk ahnut tile' tCipfc. • Thenwrite some notes 1<'II'ith fOUJ OJ Ave pieces of tnformadcn missing to ghre' to
your sru.dy paetner,

• T~e it. mtums to read ou~ your talk and cempl erethe notes. rG ernHlllny - SchoOlIJO trai
help blind so!Miers ..
~19,28 YOlung
f1i

1927 Arti(:ile ~nN:ewYark


/ l1Iewsp'~per 0'" Ger,mal1l dog~ll'aii!'l~I!"!g program

,dogs; slililrtcd after WWllto "

American (bl'ind) ~

wen't t:oSwi'~erllan dl!CI tral n, _____. R£ltiumedi to U'SA w~~ dog ,I Buddy'. Guide dlo! H Q

181 9- Vrienn3; lnstltuee nor ttJe B~ir1d fou n d.:di - gu ide do,g.s trninltd but wo rik
j

op~ned in New

jll:'rl!ey.

unknown ihternatiionalUly.

~ 93i1 IFil'$t Gurde

Dog -----

---.1952.

Trainin,g o!!ntte
I

Ce ntre in Britai fl..

op~ ned in 1F'i! rth

AiJstiml~i!J..

listenl'l'lg U'NU 1'9410 M,cDornald bfiIJ1bBrs MalUrilcc Ind Riclharld set up~hei r ~rs t harn'burg'er nstalllmrrt illl San IBennaldinllI' CaUfornj,a.
1

3,

1948 IClos·ed lhe blllsbu~ssr,e~ope[ned w ~th ~ II se rvmce~,but

~.~

olfferjng cheap ~Dl!lld"

1950 The bnltlhers adYertis.e,dl [11 mli I non bur,gen sOlld'l, -----

./

19,54 Tihe I~rothlers sold 01:11' to IRIIJ~ Kroc - bouglh~'the busilness and the lIIame.

1'931 Mc,Donald bn'thers' olleilHld drivlein res1iiJuraol- no h'amblJlf1gen slid .•

195:2 US magazin'e diid a story OJ!) tlhe orothersi' success andl nn1' frnc·hi,se olpeilled 1[1n Plloen,ilit.

*~~ff-~••. •

~.Yi

~.*tK!-* i

'7a 1-~ 'if.J4 Jt.~! 1;~ if ~J'-j- AJlit.it!:At ~ J£. ~IfJi' -!fi. •

~~r~~*~su

I. Askyourself these questions.


Do you. play chess nr any othe r board games? What do you knowabout lhe game of chess? Have you ever wond ered where the game originated?

11

Insight into IEL1S Extra with Answers


___ .. ...,_.!"'_'" .. "" ""'''''
"",,,,",.-r.JIII!-

_-.,'IIi ,.,_""'_ ..."" ..

......,_._

... _ ""

... "........... . ------

__ ..,.~_~

..

-...... ,.. ---. __

... - .. ~ ... ""-'"'----

--

--~

'!Ii

liII,

,. For each quesunn, decide what Slott ofinform_ililion you should liswn. for. • Try making questinns to ask about th is inform auon, e.'g. flow (J,ld is the game cil'ess? Make it nete in the margin of what type nf information you expect UJ hear, e.g, Ii dtife. Now lis-ten to Uni'l3.Exnact 2 and comp1eu~ the task.

at

QUBS',tiDlllS

6--1.5

Compiele the ~lmesbelDw. WriCl'NO MORE llMJ'V T.HREE WOllDS for each .ms,wel:

The Origins, of IChess

1)peof

1infunnatlon
,
, around the 'y~ar , years l!lld.
bUll

Chess originated in. either Afghanool'l Dr 6 AD 600. Howevei"~ 'the game might even be.,

:') There is wntemadonal variations exist e.g.

*" Japan and

a.greement on
9

me 8
.

some

...... ' ••••

''In.h,.tI

..l< .......

Li,.... ~.,.'

o The

variety played in Europe and Amerita mme from Iran and was tts'tabUshed in Italy and Spain around [be year AD lOQ{l!.The Vikings took it m Scandinavia and it had reached Centra. Europe by 1'0AD usillg the pre's~n~ day ru~e5.
+
T

() Tile 11.1 used today in championships Qriginan;d in the 19th 1000nu.n:y and were named ..meT an Ensllsh chess chaO)!pion ..

o Fl(St official

championships ((Io:kplace in 1866 in Londen. lb illiIOid numing evertlme, tfiey used a 12 ,•., .

• •• tI_

•••

i..... ·.~ ~ "' · .. •••.•. t•••

,u ....

~) The winner was from Bohemia. - in effect the firsr 13 ,.•• H@held the record until 11894 Nhen he was beaten by a GenIlau born American who was men _beaten by a Cuban nam~ Jose Capabla;nca. Some people rank Capablanca among the 14 , who ever Jived.
I)

..

~."" •••••••

-, .tI~,.

"'".,. ..

Also .IDthis league was Bobby Fischel" - ''he fif"!if' beeome World Chess Ch i!!m pion.

IS

EO

....

.., •• ';':"'

'1-M

~rp.~

1B

Listeninq
UNliT4 Identifying main ideas

ft Hi it: jJ! ~

• You will bear aen short diglogues .

'!Ii

.. Listen to Unit 4i Extram 1 and decide who the speakers are and where they are, Complete th~ first two I!;Q,11.Ul'In.S of :the table as you listen, Lis,tlen~gainmd identify the topicend purpose of we CllIiWe>fsHtion. Complete [he third eohmm,
Conversation 1 &ample :2I

~l'Ii'

Wbere are they!'

Topic or purpose of conversation'


#;i!!"sI:Si-IU
1"0

S\-w ~
a.ncI ~-tDfI'IU

If'

~n:;.p

a~
~lt.

maU a.

3
4,

5
,6 "/'

8
91

10
I

• Listen again and 'this time Ilsren fur the phrasal verbs used in the dialogues. Mak.e a note ofthem and 'try to work mit what each verb means, e.g. in number 1, in try on means ''b) put elothes on ~osee ;i r they fit'.

~~~.M~~L._~.o~~.~.~~_~ .•
.L~~~~&.~.~~M*4*&#~.~.~**. 1~~~.
~t~~~tt&.
f," ,~IfJf /} ~j~ or mt 1i.
.jf
ilJ ~'oft

*"~ ~- ~.f...,i&-, *~.i.i~-Vt-"if

.tl: it IT

~*~.f~'.C.~a~~&~4~

19

Insight into IIIELTS Extra with Answers

P,l'ie~U:Stening
• Read the lnfurmatlnn
II

givenIn

the tables, What is the topic of each urble1

From the words given, \f'ol'~)i[k what kind Df tnfurmatlen you will need to out complete each table,

'TEsT TIp
fj; G'JI tA.

a ~--~~----~--~------~----~~~ _!_Go IUIlmaI Food ooR'JlflDl!d III ~w!tY_


Panda

~-@ f';(~~;';:'.(ii;!~
(j.Q ~

~ '"

;t, #- ~ ~ iP~ ~iP.lB. {.!.~,

Zebra

NuDe _~ CouDt- of ___ uI __-_·~--~~__~ __c~~.~-=~~ -

-'-I_

FamouI for dIKcmI- 01 ~_ ~~

Celumbus

.Anle.r~ca

Marco Polo

mSIDftY

OF HOT AIR BALWONI:NG

o.te

-r"BiIIOOD created
Charles

IJI

Meum!!!Of~!i!!~!!:==tJSI!ppil"'ikcaDCe~~=-~_:
F.int recorded (Ugh t
Fi rst new g'elll'er-ali.ou

Monlgolfier brothers

Yost
HI60

hi.gh altitude g~s

1101

air balloon

P;rOUJlype modern

hot-air balloon

---""...,-_....=-.--------""~........ ..------.-~""'~==~--,..---=..._~- .....------,....__;= ...=--------- .....,.~~ .-; ""'-... , ....... --""-----,....".,;;;;-, ...........

I.
I!
iii

Head questlnns

11-20. \I\lbat do you thiJ1t the cnnrextof

this ext![:!ilct _is? main Idea or

How man,y djffe[lem types of question can you. identifY?


!For eaclh Iq1LleslLion. decide what sort of inlermatlan
]S needed:

de'tam

20

listen ing IJI Nn 4


Queslirm. 1J
Choost> t'he

,omclle,~terA~C.

'lES,T TIP'
~ ~,"IJ

11 At (he start of'th.c talk, 'the announcer says that cannetng is A safer than people think.
B usually cl'ljoyab~e.

lH~.~

,.

ll~';r. •• i~:I;'~

i) ,~

~"ttf SHe"
i

C beenming more pop'ltliar.

Qll.estio'lIS J 2-18'
Comp~eR tile notes belou: Wrice NO MOIrE T1MN TIm_EB ImRD'S fur ead~ QR,5r..iVer. While~wat,er canDeing

'. Type of river;


I-

:12 "."

..

~ofnce 1,3, ake f

"

be Lween pohm,e.

g. Nrrnt r ,e.g. IS
__ ..

steer 'between 141

Pay between IIl' :£ "

Md ,

,,,

10

.5~t;"F.~~~~~.~lIn~~

•••••

ftlli.

Qllesfiorrs 19-20
Choose rhe correct leuer A.-C.

19 C~'nLhlasays that when you first try canoeing, you should Ai:~'l!ioid graded rivers. 0: chouse something Uke a canal. 'C take someone expenenced Irvith you. 2(J According to eyn tb la, s erlous can nelsrs J\ take risks,on purpose. B prefer to teach penple in winter. C know when a rtver is,too dangemus,

me

Pollow-up
.' Listen again to Extract 2. Make a note nfall the phrasal verbs you heal' on the t~pe and make sure 'you can e.Xp]ain ;liteir meaning within the eontext of the talk, ,a Try writing some sJu:m dialogues to iUu5trate lhe meaning 'of six of the phrasal verbs you found in either Ex;1J'~'I<I;t lor 2.

21

Listening
------------------EXTIRACT 1
., Usum
[0 Unit 5, Extract ~.You will hear ten short Cllfl.VlerSanons.IComp]ete the table behJw, with tnformatlon about thetopic, number or speakers and whether th.ey agree with each other or not

Seeing beyond the surface maaninq

wrm;I'zt

RD..,

....'
Do

a.,
r~"
I

~+

he.

8,\I~l,\.

!lre(lt

SOTOQ.

3 5 6 8

I)

• Now listen to l!.he convclI'SanO'Hs agaffinl and dll!is time write dO'WTl the exp'ressi.Qu(s) used by the speakem re gJvc their op~nions, When~ the speakers do. Dot agr,ee wilh each. other, CU"t! (hey expressing a stronG opinion. or PDHlf!lly disagreemg with each other? listen agaw.ll and notice how the speakersuse eJqJtession sand tntonatlon.

Listen ing UNIT 5

EXTRA,ICT 2'

?-Seclion 1}'f.8.

*~

3~7t*m 1fri'--:t~-i&-4,y._,1rN~. .!lilt- H~ tf: .~ +~it~ ''fr

1'[1*-1t~*#tj~"1i"fl}]~'

fiJ

Ii

.. In EXLraC[ 2, you wi]] near five' dUfcrcnt mtroduetlens A" B, C. D and E. Listen to Unit 5 Bxtract 2 and answer the foUoVl.iug questia,ns for each one. latroduedo~
Where an the
_"

ti1J

M;ih~ JC ' li' t_+'

&~Il.-t$;.I!f!.1J

(,t<1i'J~

~~{~~.a
t' t~

speakeoni'
aretherer

How many speakers,

WhalE is the topid

liEns, Li!tening SuctiDn 3

Mixed lIIlle:stion .,pes

again, Iullewed by the eernplete text. • L.nok ,at questions 1l-1 q below before you listen, to see what informatlon you need tn ltsten om for. • liQlIV many diffcr-cnl ,question types are mere? Have you met them before? .. Nnw listen to, Uni~5 B:tract 3 and answer the questions. .. In ElXlrrJ:c~3 you will hear one of the lnrmductlcns

'Q,ut?stiom 1J-J4
t1,IW!e NO MORE THAN 'fHREF.

WOlto.'S'

1(l-Ild/Of

A NfJMBEIl/or

each.ansr.tcOCf: .

11 How does john describe

the land his fattmr bought'?

12 .Bowlong dld It lake to change? 13 Whal was [he cause of the problem? _ 14 What did people believe to be the problem?

. . .

23

I rlsight into I'ELTS IExtra with Answers


Q1U!8dons 1.5-20

Cnoos« the rorre.tt letter A.-C.


IS, lohn chose South Australia for his sanctuary b cause

A Ithey we're s l,ow U) ,eb a lIl,ge the la.w.


B 11still had ma_ny nanve animals. C elllvironmentaUsts
~ 16

were welcomed. he

.ohrJ was put in


A. was

~a~b E!C3IUSI!!

ourspoken about: the environment, 8 wanted to kill C8~S and foxes. l[;tU t down some 'trees. 17 John sign~d the agreement because he A VIlaS SOler;' for wlt~'l. he had done. D Mlough~ the document was 'Wor[hless,. C. wanted to g,et out ofj3JiI.
18 The woman student. suggests 'you can protect endangered anhnals A. doing research.

by

n wrU~llg3rtides.
ICOOs,ing money.

HII The, male student

belteves

A wDlrndnced animale are a pest. B all animals have aright to live. C Watson's views are wrong; 2.0 Ultimately;, John's appreach is b~ed on A reason. D, science,

Ie ernntlen,

PaRow-up,

~ ":1

~~~.~m~m*-~~.~.~~.~~~k •• 4r~m~a~a~~*-* •.
,I

D._ -iJ..,. (i ron y

~ffl~~~ ~.~~.~~~A
the spea&u!:llr's intended rneillThing?

.' Llstento IJinit 5 Extract a again and listen Ior any language whtcheouldbe described as ironic, where [he speaker Ii" using language beyond the surface

meaning. _, Can you explain hmv you undersmod

24

Listening
UN rr 61 Foliowi'ng signpost words

BR Ill:! 11 iiJ

P're-Ustening
,. Look at the words of imorma[lon. • Com plete each 0 f the sp eecn b u.bblcs\i\rilh the mes Lapp ropriate word or phrase,
and phrases

in 'the centra nl'the pag~ and decide what kind

of wnform""tiu8 mtght ~onow. e.g. a contradtcnen, 311 example, an additianal

piece

EXTflACT 1
,. Nr,WI,T listen to Unit 6" Extract 1 and cheekyour ~(]the lmonalio.n uSEd by the' speakers, ,. Tr)r U5WIlgthese signpost ......""" ,, I tCl'llclher not words to express aDSVI.' rs, Pay particularanention

some of your own ideas.


_ befo re We' go, I'd just like to, th,mk YOti all for (10m in'l.Q a I 0[111 to the 9 meetijng this I,?vening.

to bother, my friend

.............. , we now' ha,ve' to' worry about my sick


glnmdmcth@r
1.00,.

insisted en driving me to the ,iii irpo rt.

~'

People alwillY'S think that foreign 'all'1gus;ges are

'spok,en mudi iaste r tha n


heir 'OWII"'I langu.age. ...................... , they sar)! 'IDon't New york.en'S~!Pealkfa,sW but; in reality, u1l!:;s just til

On, top, ,of eVlerytlhing else Ev',er! t:houg h Inspit,! of Secondliy Besides For examiP'le
,Nlo maUler wh,art. N~ot nly o

Finally

do, you can't avoi d gr owi ng 01 der e'lilch }lea ~~ but, fer your OWI'iI !HiI,ke, you can at Least tl)l' to stay fit .
....................... 'you,

problem of IUl'lder;standingl.

Nevertheless As fa resu II of

...................... blJrgl~ry. the we VE detide,d to put bars on the windowS. .

na

II1"II ew law go i rn9 to, rneke it more eXp'l;)lri ive to smoke ci g,aJtetles, it's also 5

............,......... is the .

,going to discourage

young people 'from,

takirnlg iii: up in the first place - which has to be a good thing.

25

I nsig ht into IELlS Extra with Answers

Pre-Ust.ening

.. Ask yourself these questions. Wha'l do you know about 'me Internatlonal Space Station USS)?' Wuul.d you like to spend 90 days in SI'H'i'[)e with 6 ether peop]'Ill'? Why? WIlY 1I10t? What kind of things would you have to pl,reparc yourself for? Wh at advice would you gi ve to anyone ll/liho was b'Oing?

EXTRACT 2
IEILIS Us:tenlng Sec'iion

a
'['0

.R,c'ad questic ns 1-3 below and ~,hcn moisten and answer them.
• Listen c~ndully fior any signpost words,

the fir5~ pan of Unit Ii Extract 2

'Qm~s:tifJns1-3
Chaose the correct tette1" A-C'.

I How many nattonsare


A5 H, 15 ,(; 20 ,2 How much should the A. $8 hilllon

1,T1voiVied the ISS?' in

rnss have

cost to

bw:wd1

8 120 billlon C $128 billinn 110w is the wa~t'!r SUPP~,)' maintained un ~oardt A by recycling aU the water D, by using very Utile Cby rtrransporUrng:pierntyliom Earth

• Now Look carefully at questions 4-1U before you listen to the s'econd part of Ex:tract ~.
• Wm:k out exactlywha~ kind of inform ad on you need (ulisten out for.

26

QfU!s'llam .f.".6

Hfhir/l. TH1lEBa~
Choose fKflEE

of 1'e.''if!lm;;IJwill take

place an the ISS?

letfers JI-G'.

o ]1,131'11 lCu][~\I'arion
C m3ppi~ D wealth lIT pattems

9 01M

energy

E .studies in w~~ghdE:ss,[!ess f p:5ych~,lGgy Gmlrnlion 'QueS'MIlS 1~ Which 11m thi,~g$do aU


C!uiQ~r n1i\O
the a:.~lron(lUts db e(lc#]

dny?

ietter.; A-fl.

A rum on the camputers B '(;oo,kbreakfast C anend meetings .I) ]J'ste:n to CDs E~ake phys~nll exercise , cemmunlcate w:Ir.hfamily

'TU'" TIP'

Q'lwstio'ns 8-J fJ
Camplete the tahk b'elmv. Write NO NOBlE :fHAlV THREB WO:.lDS for each answer.
Date 1988 Detab

r~.

it **'4' ~._ i(l:f!;o E:1 ,,~ 8. ?!~-9 ~'~if~, ~ V. Ii or, (! rt 1'i,$ *

'Unity' lAd ·Zarya·mod.uleJ

lamched ana (9)

,.

2000 2006

,B'Gppl, moduile altacb.et\ Pn'MdlDg D. watel. aDd .,.....•... ,......,....,..,..


Estimated

U0)

,.

date' of completion.

"PoUow-rup
II

lis~en ttl ExJl.::[.i.lIct 2~g~l:I aod IfU'Ike a note ur all the sign:postWQMS Can you Sil1JY \I\~h~t i~d orinf~,;l:nn~ they intrudu~e1 k t.iOW1

~~U

hear.

l7

l.istenlnq
Being aware of stress, rhythm and intonation

ji! mi, , ~~,! iJll t


(E:m:~~J1Ji-)J MtJlJtO\ISOCtio]] 4, f~~~RJf~~-&~ In.4: 1&WJ • 'E fr Ff-iW'1 'f~J~J9f .4- X .. Pre~Ustening
.' look at the extracts h e]ow. which a])~the 0 pen; ng paragraphs u:flee tures Of.! dilIerenllopics. Read them to yourse~r and decide what [be topi is ftu ea. h. e.g, bi1ography. astronomy . .. UnderlWn.e the words you think should he stressed and showwhere your velce
should rise omdfa11
~I

wU'i;t~Jtii :tjJJ.\iim~it. ~

., [..ookfor signp(Hi[ words that lIlalY help the listener antieipate the meaning. Make sure you emphasise these when you read them. • Now read the extracts out loud. as w{ YOiI" were giving the lecture.

EXTRACT 1
• Lisle.Dto the recordings tn Unit 7 Extract I and compare them tu your version. iii If you can, record your own voice and listen 'to yoU]rseLf.

11

1 ----

How tnleUi,genl are you? It's a que ticn


psychcJcgi ~ of len ask. btu now two rrmtheml'l:ti(;LlIin& argue thut if~fflQ8I11inglc:s:s.

l°hey say their experiruent» with computer


{I'll

<mhlliw-hmins' prove th.u illldIiS£oc" dCpC!rods the efl\'~ronmenl and clIn"t exist
fHUU

indeP!='ndently of it. The work has reignift;d • Who were tile first ,astronomets?: HIJ~ans have always looked to the sky. tryin.g to un?e(stan~ the celestial OOdres that sweep across it. ~he ancrelTrt Greeks were the first to record thel r .observSt]O.llS, and appjY them to cajculaM' tl1e s,~ o~ E.a rt~1 ahdl its relatiVllyto the Moon and the Sun. Then, In the second century AD. Ptolemy CO~clLla_ed tha.t Earth was the Centre of the . unn/erse, a JJtUI050Ph~ generally acc'epted for 11500 )rears.
a fierce debs te on '[he N;QJi melligellliCc .

We a~l hr.l\(e OUf nnage of tile An"ii;!zon

For

so me It'S ZI fom.:!fi tiC p~ace Vi.' here the wor lti's

gre.;JteSl river. us largest rainfofes;: i;lnd ilS·f1l,CSt diverse ecosystems C::QEXi<;lt in harmony For others, It' ij. place ef;hcling to (he SQuI'id or- . . e,h<:iins,tlws, ~urned La ashe'S by FaJll1cr'Saud . de fi led by rnercu ry spev.ring from 'gol d rn i nes\. :

28

IIA baJ~ad !s a na:rnt


!ell s

ive poem w hlCb


~Wle ~c:ilin

a~~-I

a :S'lory - u:smilly

ns.e. m lang , one e.. .S.. tihEl..t..... .ua.ges hi;lilie sln!lle purpose·~ to

listeni I'Ig UN If '1

swry - and fmc wh~dl ~l"ClC~DV~YS an ide:it 3 bout th e urne m w hlrh II W3.l!I wrilLen. IlaUilIds dale back hundreds of yeaTs, Ito the days when hunk s were ra re; and w~')etlple w(HJ!ld tt:i1 ~tories instead. Many .of l the f~rsl.~i!ln~ds lold mle~ or ~UrHlJe. I :!iupersL\~OWl and mysu~ll"

commlunicate t!19ught Nev.erthel,.ess, 'this aim is ac h leij'ed In man y diffref\e nt , w~Ys. ,As far as we c.an tell, U~ ~8 no aspect of ere , gl ram rna r Qf sy FII taxt hat is I universal or without which we cannot create· ~anguaQe.

~ The extr8!cts a-f hl!l;:ludrc a numher of th,lfee~i:1.nd fau:r~sy~~ahle ords" w them, in the applJ'uptiate culumn. 2 ~s[here a rule for [lle proauneta tion ·Df th€: d:iffert n l sp Bmng tH'l.tLems? J f se, what is it? Mrure sure you can pruncuncethem all with the stress on the correct syUable. Ihis"vj:1]help you te recognise them when yOll mB~l them. ln a lislil~n:in~ {est. 1 find! ~ these woeds in 'l:.he'texts andwrite

Makinl;: yonr OIwnnates


,~ V01,JwiUhear the rntroductionm a radio programme about Emma! Daillwltl,l1iIe wife of Cha:r]esDarwin, There are three clearseetrens to this u rurnd uctlnn.

A:$,

you listen, wrlre down the key words which carry the mao]"rneamng, uf a !itU~abl(i! he~din,g for each sec lion uf th e ln rro dillua.ia u. ..",wunIa
Section n Sectinn
Cl>utk;s

Thc]1[hink

'I

MUufonlt m.rd,

~k&;l:

i:rnTd If'ft-cll~_

Se['li(ln 3

~ How clear were yo ur no~es? From the [rnfor:m~tiom ya U wrote dewn, can YlOU re-eoasrructthethree main. points the speaker made abc ul Emma DHwin?

Insight into IELlS IExlr,a with Answers

IV) ~ •

f£&'~i:fl-~ro.d&

~. ~~. fifllrliJ ~'itJ~~Matt.Q iJM mJl' ~~~ .f~·(lIil-••

Ii~m~ )!l i4: Iift '*' ~

1'£s'" f:i~
t

mmnatioD in qiUl!stions,
,Ii

Lnok at these two pairs of'quesUons" 'Who was Pt!Oiemy¥

~Vha,t]5 the dillerence


10

between the

questfons in each prur? WIilichis easier


D

understandt

'*' ,rm

'* r;H!:;o •

"J tli SlI!cc.io!'l s

On you know ',,"vhoPtol'i::my was1


I)

When welle the pyramids

buUt?

Can you tell me when the pyramids w,eJil~ uU~? b 4 Read lhe questions our loud. How many different meanings can you make by putting the stress on dLfferenl words?

Pre-Iishming
Ii,

Read [he questiensln the task be1ow. \iVhatii'; the {opid Ho'.v many different types of question are mere?

• Look carefully a1 questions 6,,_;9 find out exacdy what iruorm.atlio.n is required, to Remember 'that ,a.now chart represents iii sequence of events .
.__ .-.~.""""""""' __ .... "'_~"'E.=-= __ ...
*,,,.,.~-................. ,... ..,....,.. .-......... .... ~ ... ....,,-_ .... ..;;;;=
,.._,. __ ...:-_

EX.TRAC;14
FI:ow ~halrll:,Inll malcilDiOI a QIIMStilm, 5

Ii,.

Clww·e the cerrec: terrer A~C.


5 What does the speaker compare a computer virus to? A a btetogtcal organism
'0, a corrupe program IC~n lrrl tarh:ilg person

Que:s,tio',w 6-9
Comple'U!:the flow chart.
Wfil'~e NO MOItE THAN THREE WORDS for eudl answer.

.Distcu'Y of ccnupur.cr viruses 6 I !::1'49 __.••..... ~ .


of virus presented,

'Core Wars' game developed by a,group of

1
Develnpmen
t

"_ ,

Ior 8

cnmpusers ..
in 19808.

of a new 9'

30

Listening UNIT' t

QlleStiDR 1 (JI
Choose lhe rorreci letter A~.

10 ~Vhau does the speaker find surpds:i.ng? A. '!.herise in the [I,umber of software infectWcms IBthe determination of'those who develop vtruses C the tact ;.ball people blame their 01Nfl computers
IQlleStiORS

11-J4

Lrsl FOUR rvays of coml;'lUttng vi.ru'ses.


Write NO MOllE THAN mREE WOIWS for ,each ansUN!r.

)_3 ••"•••••••••"

iI

"'~

•••••••

"'ofI~~iliilili,t,"'~;!!lililitli

14 "' ..

01

" ••••

~ ••

"

11,.,_' ••••••

"iI"'~

iii

lilitlrfl;t.;i-I'."It

I.

Lookat the diagrmu representing a Slo~a,f ootin,g system and work om what part h you will need to [abel Then listen to the beginnlng of a talk about solar energy and complete the task as. you lis [en.
11' ." ........ .,,,••.,,.. .,,. ••,,.••,'uc.,.

EneruY

exchBllger

'111 ... '".. .,,. ...... ., ... .,,. •.,, ••• , .....

:31

Reading
Onantating yourself to the text

Dl m:t 1;'1: ~1~J+-~iflM1lM,ijft'~,f£ij{1iB!k:~i,x 11~!~r:j~~:lllf4l]i.1i ~.~~t!t,H \ i 111 jjt\.Q itf-t ,~~: If~ j;fJJi! l;~ Mjffi~,t t 1'- j: :r;t fl ~ iIii nr~ lU' " m~ . r f
RIE:C'IlJGINUa THIE flllPIIC A,INID MAliN IIDEA

Mill ~in B.~

.' Read par'<lgrapha below, \1\;1uuare the ltJIp,k and main welea? a Time is one of the fundamental quantifies !Of the p,hJlSkal wmld, being' similar to ~f'ng1h and 'mass in this respect, Three methods of mea$\nilflg lime are in U5'e at present. The frrst two methods are ha ed on the daily retanon of 'the ea'rf.h on its a>lls.These methods ~re r1etc~ninf'd by the apparent merion of the SIJf1 in the sky (5'01,,1'1'lime) and by the apparent motlon of the starsirr [he sll:y {slderea] lime). The thlrd method of mealsuling tirne is based Ion the fCvolul-ion of the earth araund the S~1I1 [ephemeris lime).

it -it;t

Wit-~*-m

-n '* lit (Dij IY:],

~Jfl'A . 1:. XiA. "lit ~l" ~ tt $. *- :t 1i ~}ll! ff1" Iill % 1t

I Read paragraph b and underllae the lopk and main mdef.l.


'1iJ,

Photographs Laken as recently <15 30 years ago an:': a~read;y rad~ng In the nation's Family album'S, Mlmons of Images Laken since tbe Invention of modern colour photography are changrng because of the way their dye'S break down. Ju as we now tend to v,iew rhe 19th century In delicate shades or sepia there 15 a ralr chance that ruture generations will look back on the last~l1ree decad es a f the 20th as the era of pIJ rple lawns and red skiBS,

2 \l\lhaJ are the

in your

0"'"'111

two ways of descdbing the topic in p:illragrtl.ph e? V~lriu~the main idea words.

e People are skmecl at perce'ivlng the subtle details of human rnouon, A person can, for exampl,e. often recognise friends at a dlstanee pureilly ftrom thelr walk Because of rhis
abili.ry. people have high SC!lr'u:lard's for animations that feature humans, For

computer-generated

merton to be n~aUstic (llirnd ca.mp.emflg. the vktual actcrs must


style.

move wf'rh a natural-looking

32

Reading UNO 1

:8 IJJIMMAR:ISE THE M,AIIN IDEAS -=t 1["~1i-T Jt. t I~ 1$~. 4'+ ;!!Ilj,t;a ~;r $. o;t ~ m ft )L " ,if; !.:it.t~ {Ii it 4t ~ lll$ f 14t',~it ~ .W~ at M.!
1j, f.~iI#.:.t ~.ij- ~B~
d

,c.:

'* st.

j~

i:."* *"~ "

'• .Read paragraph d and underline

'me topic

and main idea.

d My palients ,aJlways encouraged me to plaYt and '1'm sure mv childhood experiences ,iilli€! pa'it1v why I have' been studying anim.a,1 pliY for the pas130 yeall's. I re'alised Bilirly Olll how much coulid be leamed aboutthe behav]ouir and minds '00 anima,i's by playitit! with them and wat'Chii ",g them play" but I 11150 d iSCiovered that studying Ipl1ay behaviour was eesi e r s~i d than deme', Many researd1ets had tried, but f,ew detaHs, were a,vailalblf! - trying to ~n,derstali1d p:~~y W'lllS mote' difficult than 'tbey had antidp'iiillied. Some even decided that there was no suclh b'hing as IPllay CH that this muddled area of behaviour ,coumd 'never be unravelled. But araduilliv. my researeh and that af others has proved them wron,g.

3< Wl1,]chof the following sentences best sumsnarises the main idea? It The 'Wlril1er is,as confused about the 1'.0[':: of aruma! playas other researchers. B The writer's research Is helping to explain what animal play involves. C The writer has used existing research on animal p1ay to support her own l:ihemIDes. 4 Read paragraphs
~__'g and write <! summary

se.l1tJen.c,e~or leach on.e .

., ,- f . b -c hed to t!JIl! I1m;t to identify planets, e Ob~eNational equipment has In,the past ew Y@,l'lrsl.e"en slP , mets ,a'nd'Qne that I'l as arua ned ~o$nll.-. - - , - " h b (iomea popular amalm a "t ..,.. 'orbiting nearby 5taF~. t nas ~. -, On@ of these is Dai'Will1i ill massive super" S,Ofl!'!, e of th_!i!,'moot wlldly amb~,tJlol.IS.spa" e pr,_,oJeth~'",th'" lJu-bble S.nac.e lelescope\ Il)1IMin's 40 umes larg,@f ""'. ~ n ' , 1'" _ • '. ' fnr-th _ ' 2'ts, century ' E_--'d tei~c~~I1~ t e '" lanets o'rbi~lng 300 51.1n-Ii ke stillS. many \nslbI'e to obl~f!(tlve' JSW, concentrate on .!3UII sue P ,'_ _, , ,~ , ',," the nlliked eye an d Iess ,'th an 5'" I'g~" \leaf'S aWa,IoI: next door 'Ill a,stronomu:Jiliu terms. ,OJ ~ m 1 J' ,

--as

j, ',_

-----

¥'

~-

sense of humour ns truly perpledng, Surveys show we are ten 'limes Imore likely to be seen, sharing a moment of ,lau§htcr Ithan any other form of strong emotion. Humour ,saturates our lives. yet only re-(;ently have brain scientists started ~o 'IiUm !:heir scanners and electrodes ~olhetask of~X3~il1rng the t1a.sh of amused insight thallies at the heart, of understanding aJoke. And the Jrlldlng~ are not at what you m f.g~tlhink.
OUf

an

g The very th~1f1 nun makes 'II,e lntemet a rebus! sysfiem. crlp~ or ~U!"Vivi'l19 1?ts ,of ~nd em 9 Me damag~. also makEs i'l more 51.li5t'e;Plible to an inte'llligenl attark~r tntent on tUll1'gmg ,l dJOY\l'l. Ac('oi'ding to a m3nu~miJlical model pllbHs_hEd this week,j'f Il'It'Clll'1eL ncdes were t,o sl~rt failiilg at random, 18 per cent could disappear and most of the Interne; would rem",n connected. Bm if an inlel]igE'flt attacser tiliTgetedll'l~ most importan'l nedes, the network. would quickly break intn isol.iillcdfmgmenLS and lop fUl1ctioning.

-~ _'

Insight inlo IELTS Extra with Answers

~I.

,.e:s"T TI.P

- "U&r,1 " il ~1~ri fta 4: U$;I!-j', 1<1 :f.H&i ;I' • 5 ~ if _

Re-read paragraphs a~,gand delddew~lich lechIlique is used La dil'nlop tire matn idea. There marybe more than one answer in each case, I draws, on personal experience li provides an everyday example ,iii predicts some unexpected result s Iv provides statistieal data v dr--aYIIS cnmparison a, 6, Match para.graph g wilth one of the heading,s below. A. Internet needs to become more powerful I Weakness revealed by current research C The fu lure, scientists argue, h.wks better n Just OJJe example ohro;:hal the cempujer can do

RECI~UU41ISE IKEY 'VQCA,BULA'HY

-j.il"Rl~ I t!1i
j~~

~~~.~~#~ ..
iH ~,I~~ II iii t ~~fI!If~ .. 6~i,,1;;~

L*t~.~~~. ~A~~~R~*~~
alilYwords that you do

~ j:~u~JLif..H'J tlt p~ht-i~.J;t,W.T

*
..

• Read the paragraph below andunderline

~10tunderstand

h. One a f th!l maj ar pmb Iems w~th 9 uide books is th at th ey are mrtd ated b do ra th ev are eWfll1

published. as it takes on avarage two years from Icommis.sitming 10 pLiblicallon And as thl£l shelf~life of most books is two years, there may be as mLich as four veal's belween Ihe orhlillal research aed a tourist's visit 1111 8xlreme cases thiS nan have serteus repercussions. 13.8 a young backpac~er. J10el Emond, 1S, dllSIXIVBred (me autumn, A waJk descrrbed as non-problematic by one trayel guide arolJnd a lake: near Ihe N,orl.n Korea border in nann-east China Iresulted in him being arrested bV s,llldiars and impris()nedfor a month. The guide has sinee a~ologisBd to him,

.$..~l_ ~*,-~K.. ~ ioi]' ~., ;to "outdated". "shel l - ]ife'" ;;fp "repercussions". if T!II-ti ~i" 3ft ;uJ rc, 1t1"published". "coruunssioning "publication"
ri

*'t!.*"-~ *

Loolk at how the word is, Ii.:umed

if.f1FJ- Sst. ::ft 1"rIIP[ ~:oh'~1!J-+-kjt~1"1


Z ~J "out-of-date"

~~;'f;"

~1~. _f,'ioiJ {tfH~ tfji.a- "cut

i17 "outdatc I'" ~ It; ~a "date" ~i'f. ~.1Jh

:;f\1njJ_M.:n.~jf;.~

"not current" ~;t "old-Iashloned" (!trJt61. ~

;.\~.
7'

e.~4-IY1)"

Can you guess die meentng of 'guidebook'. '8.helf~me·'nnn-pmblemasic' and 'backpacker't

Reading UNIT 1

Read the wo'rd 'lin €:ontext f,~~ 'if 1':< lr ~ ~ Jft i~~ J:. T ~ repercussions" 6 ~4i-6~A.. T it I!!. itt frit (back pac kef) V!J ifl] ::f it 1'-- 1;11 :r-~ WI f.~~.If if;; .... -j,:Jl J -.f; .'B i1f M £j "tfl~J" (effect);t ~jl.Ji 1-lt ~ Iii ~.,
U

+*

*.

8 Read the paragraph VDcabular~ builder

again and write a summary

sentence

or ill.

" The words and expresslons

below are taken from paragraphs ,a-h.\lVhi:ch meanmgs can you guess or work out from me contex~ of the paragraph, and which do )'OU need to look up in a dlcljuna_ry?

Warda
it

'Poroses a
b d in thi s respec
L

I CoUocadou I(woms often logemer)


ReD

based [on) aPP arentlly)

(good/fair}lchallce (highftowl standards (wildly) <lmib 1UOU!i [nul)r) perpJeJdng (only) recently (majod pro ble m s, (serious,) repercussions

b e
d f

f,ilI(Ung
Em

feature aTltig:~pa~e(d)

r
,g

louk back e easler said th an dCIIlm~ e pushed to th e liml lf the naked eye

lies at the heart of


at random

unraveltle dJ
saturate (s)

h she Lf-Hfe
(ro,)

robust.
susceptible

~argeH::d h outdated
backpacke r
I'

Complete the gmps ""rith a word from the vocahulary change the fo rm of the word.

bcx, You may needto _


OIl. a

9 My last day at school marked the end ohm important 10' The novelist admined II VnULlJg iuran ts are \fery 12 Gg<UieUeadvertlsers Gllmpaigns.

in my life.

that he had
'., should not

his book

dtildhDOd experience. in their promotion

to catchhlg oo~d!il,and other ccrmnen illnesses. adoleseems

• Complete the' gaps wub a r}hra~e. or C'olloC{uion from the voc;;!plI.Ilarybnx,


13 Givin,g up Irhooo]a~e is 14. I put , in the album . _ so meyar:e a biL muddled,

my pbotographs

151 There is a stage in lheir careers, 16 \lVhy ,arn}1{U1e lvuu1d

tbal mnst spurtsmener women will break a hune at some


work. w.iLh dBllge180US anlmals is .

\WIlU to

35

Reading
mming/Scanning for specific infnrmation and detallil
jij,'J::f

-i1.T / .. -bl1~ ~it;._- fkt Iii;' HE !~ ,;n tllD


J;r.;:

1'11:, ~

"PI ,~

"I i=i

I~

'lJ'i~ .... ,

*
I"'

., Befo:r,t! you

read the fo]lu:iWing,ear for meaning. praense Y01l.ll:rsC'tfnningkll iiii, by t s mov:in:~, your eyes down the 'lines IOf the text very qu!ddy in order to find, and underltae the fcllnwittg rhlngs, Take about 15 is'cconds; for each,

1'Es1" TIp
ltit~., Jj!it,ud i-of. *tHt it

3
.til

a US state an American soU researcher a company a country other man the Us. a frut t or vegetable

It's what tomatoes evetylNhere .nove been thirsting after


Ii, SiT'ldf1 Ifffgalmn sensor that 8NeS plants only as much to dnf1k ~$ th~ need can inori:!'~5ie l(lma!1ll yiekl.1ii

Fruitful Dri,nkinl

:a!

~ been devel~

by Yehoshuii ,Sl'1inor\ and ben-i:lml Bfavdo at lYle Hebrew UniVers11y of Jer~lem'5 faculty of il,glll::liJlture in Rehoilot, l!>f(l~1 The Ifesearci1ef5 XI~ Ihilt lheir system npt

mIlle than 40 per a:nt. The SElnSOfhilS

I~

also drilmaijCi:l]!y re-cluOO!i water l.15Qgti - by up to 00 ~r cent [or some crops, At Ihe h ~ rt or Ihe system Is il rI eledr()nic senser that dips onto a planl I~ leaf illi1d measures 115 Ihi~1l ss 19 en !lOCtJfilt.), ot ~ micromerre. 'f., r-eiilf't; thfclrncs5! IS dependern on the amount
of water
In

only h'cr~es ihE' yiE'ldof (rop~

bUi! I[

Unlike coTllIJentlon_,.1 ir~ig.ation ,system s, which Wll~f Ci'OpS ~ pe-riodiUliUV, th~ lSi'iletl !lYSte~ lNatel'5

moving plale is c:onneded to iii 5lllall compi;lt.N trial flilgulates 1he Ito,ltage in an el~~tntal [][cuiL As 111e leafs thick(l~s chi),nges. the pli1~e- mOlle, !d1IUSll'lts change In the lIolta~e, fhf$ a sl,gna'l ~ fed to g proc.essor tNl iBdlU~lS d,e plant's Willer supply.

S!!nJic;e in Florence" South Cilroline. "·Othef researchers ha~le measured s~reS$ py meilsurin8_ a plant's temr~<lM~ 01 stem ffid,Qe$$.. Bot I
!ill

'It is a.nin.. \'er'e!Sl'Il'lg Id~: · stl.rs John 5.;tdfeI, tl soli ~e!il~ist ilt the US government's Ag.riclJlltJral Researm

"it reFined level, he~,. . SadJer is a lrt\le surpn!>ed by t~1l fJgul~ for waler sa.vin8S. 'The';' wo~ld II

haver"l't heard of anyone dOFi'lg rfl'i~tiOJ11

sum
~t

III

healthy lear IS 60 per cent 'WoJIte:r,'A tnin le1tt IS Ii Sll.tre 918Jl that the plant is

a pi(;rnl:

$<Iv:;.

ShilrQII'I,

'A

l!i which

one flli.ed otod the olhcr 'spring-loaded. together grip the leaf, The

because It IS ij,ilSty. [)tld ~~ressis bad tor yields. nle sensar mnSJ51"s of tJ.\lO plates.
5uffenng str~s

Fi!!'ld ~h",~l~ shm'ii' lite syst.em fhe YIelds of several cops sl.Isc!'!phb e to sudden d'lar"ses in whlle reduong coosurnption of Wdl't:!r. Yields of graP,efrl,.lil increased bV 15 per Wilter S1JPPIy/ says. 'This means 'OJJF system has to opetiilm vel)' reliiJ illv: . •s cent while nee(hns 40 per cent less the res.eilrcnefs have founde;d a ',·"',3{er m p,:ppe~, the '1ieldl~e by :I ~ F comp\:my I4IUed Leatsen to se11 'Ihe per cent whJ!e water LJsa~ '!eI.1by ·S[)! 1"1ev;,; Im~ilJjon s'fSlemr~nd ·they hoe>~ per cent Tomato plBnt5 yierded 40 per
1J1(J;e~

the plants c;ontffllJOIJ~ly, bu I adlusts !hI!! fluw u;I 1J1e pl;mt's needs, 'The Ideal us to gi..... E!: plillOlthe proper amount Dj water CIt rhe eprrea bme, ilCOOrdifiS ~o M what Ih~ plant ~qlJlle5: says stI ~rol1

depend on the leChmqu¢ you re corn paring these results wLth,' he $~y~. $~1"Qt'I s.3~'5 the '5aving& are oo.$ed,·on
~ COffl'Pd'f

t"'~

U1tga-1J ng crops. f-ie admus thal the system has 10 be- 'llecry rehab I! if it Ii 'tQ be e"flet::tive ~p 'Bec.ill.r:.e ihe plants ClrlE' w1ltllirE!d c::c:mtinUlous1')' they die more

_ove~[!meht:s recommendations

ons

wnh

lhe

ISHler.

for

"fit

!i()

per cent ~es5watlilJ

ellrr! more flruil

while

~on:!iumlnlf 35

tp :;tall1' rt1arkeUlI'l8 itwilhm

Ihe f'lf;!Kt

fell1J

motrths,

-~-_.....

NIl\II( ~de!'ltiSt

36

1-- j:.~l,~ *61Js+~"t~

~~§ .•

«~~.m.~a~*~~&-_~~ .~~~"~&

• Look at the d i~~];~m bc~ow. Sam the text on p,ag~ and ci rcle thewrtnen 34:

descnptton of the diagram.

Qrwstio,z-s 6-9 $ -, I
Complete the labels on Ii'~ecliagmm be,&ow;Choo~~,e MOllE J'lMN'l'lmEli NO WORDS

from the ptlssa,ge/or

OOcll

lltn\S'urer.

... B . ".- mo rltoo.rsIl.lH'clrf~ ill eire lin'

VD£8bulary builder
][1(11

Scan' the text on pa,ge 3B and lUlde.rUnc the follolNdingwords an dphreses, Wha1 do they mean? :3. holds [he by f tropica:J ~;H~e'a:s,e.s. III m~l.hjIUl.tiolllall()orpom~~Gns I s()cietlly Fespans] bh:l c wcc.m.es h ta~~ hltUI acceunt d SOhlllel]ergy it geneticilUymodtfi ed em ps e develn pl ng cQuntrlc's j: nr'!/'ohltioiIT~Sle

37

~nsrghtinto IElTS Extra wi:lh Answers

Time stands still


IN II world where 2 billion people live. in homes that don't bu\.' bl:lht bulbs, t ~muhJgv holds the ke)' to bm:risbiIllll povU!y, soy!! the Umu.1.lI ,[\hldulb in !l! malor -:1' n. publi hed thi \!l~k, llbn rich "BnOnS and ~ mLili:irunlluml C'mporlni()ns need to d· II. lot rnor to put 'led1rll;dogy in~o lh hondil ohhe wo:rW's pnl1rest I'Jl.;tlpb.:. Bvt:"fI, the ~implii.'<;t Il:dmo~ !lllie.sl can 'll'mlsJo rill lives and 'Sn\'c muncy. V~r.clnes, tn)PS, (lompmel's and !io'OilJ'tl"B of SOl'lIf ene.rgy (9!.~ l1ilil(l~ Ml) all n"dllo~ 10 pm'!."I1)1 ira develo ping CUU1Hril'Sl_ P01r L'X::Impl.f1', cheap ol1i]-il'~hydflllljtm t'l:1J.::f0PY d~l,!t,Jo]}t.."'d n8Jlgl~des h bas in dramaUmll.y rut tBie death toll (ram dtlldhood GU"'t:mmems
friJlll

Simple solutions can transform lives, so what are we wait; ngfor?


rich
(:oul1m~

shnuld pay mot


!~

too. They and other s~JJrl.' " !iUch s Iht' WI)rld Brlilk lIml intf'TJl;ilt'illnal iDl!>ri nnes muM r mvid.~ ll~ mutk 0" SilO billion. Dwel l1ing CI)Ufnri ' sJUluld IIlso 11I1111r.e ktte:r w;:e of iJI'llo'l(<1mtnJ pr· f' 't'(" taws lhlll fnrhl~ Ithm 10 \'iral nU_'lIidI1M. ~l1liilIS SrJUmMrieti did

,l"CcoIilltl", wi~1iI runs tlmgs.

duumoetl.
i~
[I~

3i

Out UIi.!ruhas b 'n a "tUlHktil. rnllure to meer the or the pnor", !i)-of! lead a.uthor Slikiku ukLldaIP,OU'r. ~Thoere's 110 global r~mi!W.'Oik (or 'supporl:ing researeh and dev lopmf:l1i OUH ~ddl'~ the common nt:~'l' n] pmu pl;!(fptlJ.~ ht· saY:l, Muhi!uu:ionab'i must heeeme pillrt [If i11l!sLJlutio[J, lu:mOJ$1: lhl.')I own oroulld 60 t'}e' ~~H fir ~ev.'Qdd 's t~n filogy But LII(..;.' eldom make pux:lu CIS fbI fluor s ~s~om~l'6- Of 1.223 fleW d~g... mllTke-tool worh1widc'

ChUll solar aad Fuel c€ lls feu locill ill lectrlcity s(.IppUes eLides Dr mil:' rt'ptH1 ~n)' i1 doesn't 'i.a.k:e pt;lO'I~ ~opli.·"~ View6 into aeruunt, "V'(1u. ha\'I' 10 ask: L., i1 affordfllllo fw p..:ur1c ""hlJ '!un I~-.; tl1l:Ul a dol.lor
1I

~D

from Hn5

1'0

1996, ror

l!J(omple,

jU!lt

1~

wer

for

rr-opicn} diswSC!:i. ~ "H'li !lie big c!;Jrpomtiollli [hili: OWIl the h.·clUlology tho.t re;:lUy should read this repon.~ Soa}rn F'nlo.'11I'1a-f1arr. "'!Ve're nskmg thl!m l) be more lof_lI:iall)' n'spl.ltk-ible." Tl:1~' ~""\Jlddo more to pruvide vital prodm:Ll'I such as rnroicinCil I'll dlfi;it'r nt pr.rn'S IImllnd the wnrld ~n fiQh ~ wtUH p~orte {'3J'J, !lflUrtl tAl.~w SNf!rUlst. '7 ,ul,y. p61. OJ plt'..Jge III lleNellta:gc [If their r~l1fit rowoo:llJi resellnlb And d~!lIrrlopmcntror tile prmr.

day? 1~ i.E 3~ibl, <.~hflriL

~I'I

li'wm? Con lt hc< managen 'rlJlcdiale hnl'k"J

by local p«)ple'?~sa:",
Bri.iUb-bllS 'd

Lm:;lI. Wi:.JliIH!VJlka

of the
'!lo

lot

Tech n o.logy geneticllll, and

De!O'ciopmt'rll Gtollp.
ContmvcrsisH!!'. [hem the re;[lOl't

to non,ElovemmenUl1 (lrgani"atitlt'ls '"Tn n1cc! h. ~nlin~IJ' I~ forgoing 11 bug.: oppurrunity.~ ~II<)'S FIL!.iwdll 'crrr. ~Ir lllle: !i:CI' g,coo ror 'muhinlltinfll1l~, whr ~liItmldl'll'T if he used b~ flQfH 18m1v."".~!1hr
Il.mong W~tllm en..iI;o~llmHsts. (JmllVu~li

mociifil..o crops dL'SpJlC dIe widesprcnd opp~itmn

'3;1.

wu1d

ru~

~'l~~

l1\;\iu]1.1liunisl!' il'1l!

lives

or

fU)(.If people nl]m.villg them to tap into u globnl W' ~al[h 55 oE fret' inlhrmadul1i i11Ftl cuult1 ht'tp IlUhl'll IULul pmbit!lIls" BIn [111.1'\1 nc.t~d to be du,;&:p Eind wil:c[e~s, :Fukud,a.P~.rr ~ays that Dmzil 3nJ Iodin run ~ iltr~dy II vcloped cheap comp1ucr!l, P1'Ol.iHI': tbm OOLLrJl1l:;i1l'S can do iL for Uwna:;d,\Ii.:S, an Rut the obj~tive.s wi[! be di ffi~'UIt tp I'l d1 ieve. 'TTrm.u: ta.o,~~bK)t1 /.'lull in SlIb-Sahanl'l\ Arrl(;~, where thm;,e h(ls. ~ nn IOCII:OSl; i[J rractu r use Fur !:i cl.,ocorle. l\ndy Cadlllll!

New Sci!!!

38'

Reading UNIT 2

SENTIEltu:e CDIMPLETIDN

i' iiJ T

Pm-task ques:Uons
II.

What sun or blf(]l;rnat~onare you ]ooking for in ordeli to answer question 16? 12 \I\!hal l~ypeof SfirormatiQn do you need to answer questions l5, and un .13, \Vhat am the key words that you should scan for in question m? 14, How does the formet of question 21 differ from the others?

Qu,estifJ",J5' J s-z: I $ ~~ I
OJmp'lere 11u:~entesoe« b&lr:ntJ, [Jlbien are luueiJ em the pmJagc' s MORE THAN THREE WlUUJS or A NUMBBRftJr each allS,wer.
GJI,r~

page 38. Wr~te Nfl

... (15) .,' people in the world stil11ive wlUlout domestic electr.icity.
Fukada-Pau is, quoted in ... USJ ...

More than hi1lf the world'sIechnology Between 1975 and 1996 a, total of .'.

is owned
(18] ,..

by.,. (17J __ .
"

new tInlg:s were marketed.


!

SOuth Africa bas recently benefited from referring to .. t 19)

T'be writer is smprlsed. to find that the UN n~pon s'lJflPCU1S 'the productinn of •.. (201 ••.
... t21) .. ,

and ._.... have produced their own CClmpute.l'S.

~~~~m*~Q.AA~ •. ~*~4&T~~*~t~
RHE'TOfU CAL QUESTIONS

A~~~~ll.~~_~~.•~d~~m*~a.~~4~~ m
frJ.! I ~~OJ ~

- ~ :t.¥ 7!.i 1 ~ i~.l Jt.~.It i~ mr rv;;. 11:. III Y ft $f '!itt J~ t.J. .;t_ Ji~ lrA ;f;J'Z~ "tt-if·fi;" (rhelurlcal}, It. !I1fJ it~!~.rdlJ ;r; 1t;J}fF -!- .. J
• What posm is the writer trying: to make ill these rhetnrleal questlans from th~tellt1? 2;2 Simple sulU'l.ions C:~ transform Jives, so wha.t are w,e wahjng $or? {sub-heading} 2.3 [f ~fs so good for mulnnatlonals, why shouldn't it be used by pClarfarrnersY (lines 52-53) Try writing three of your own rhetorical questinn using words 'Orphrases from the vocabulary builder on page 3,7.e.g,
It

How sfJciaily respuruible is it to seUcigar~tres to cMfdnm?

Reading
---------------Identifying main and supporting ideas
~ W ,± iii 1.;tUJ + .11.1 d *"iii ~ ~ ±- 17r ·I± jJx IU'( .~.,;,,'I'Dx ~
did-

IlfI1d~Ui!l~JtJffJ;& ~ ~ m~i:JR. ..tEti!i 1:1:l ~~~~ ~ ~ ft::#ilfLi!t:f.~m'lfti, : t ~~'j-ll ~jIiT~l~Vf:!,jH~IJnm~~~ wmJ*1f~~xtt~ W '" iR§;Il~ . ~2frJl'~~.i£~i1i:l4~ fl Ph ff1'1iJJ.[~*11t~'i~I1j[#-tl:~!tt~.ZlirJn~1i ~111~

• Use your understanding ,gf 'linking words and phrases to put the ~ollow1.ng [urnhled pali~g!l'riiiph:s into [he correct order.
a This 1~llt:S~ 'lbbrc hlr;ion h !'< cuRle 'Jbcmf becauSCl' Il~ tlC'Chl1uiClg} l!'i rnakln,~,IL po'!>sfu1c to !>IOf[:' ehe l'ext of 1l

bf'lodk '1.H~i.L'd~l' '\"I' drnt i.1 ow. be duwru'oodedj S :md bntlld:d; 1)1l(: l:UI'li at:!i. Hme.

;m1J prirncd

ro rhiN prohlem will hay' m Dc ((lmld. true [hat while we re stU! prndm:i fig 'bnoks 'in uu:lr pre.l!em fum) (hey 9!'ill be ilV;Limhk ml :1 record or p.r'e:5tDH;I;l), k-n(jw[t:lI~e for the use 01 Juiure ge-nl:'l'<lti,{lr:ls. 0\1 thil'i ~ only true fer as IOl.'l.J::l! lht'y 1:I<liphy!,;lc:d'I~'. I[
'5

s.um.~ <lnswer

U"JlJi:ng bec'I,] 8tQred deCl'fOJltclilly, ~'ou ",,:'OultJ be ab:ll.;' UJ

choose lhoS[');eCliClns. uf tht: mllileriiil, wldCih I~'litcrest ilDlI, hlll~" Uu;11'l priii\tl U, leilving \IE all ~hC ~clion!l which 'j"ull dLl n T & eed, and do riot want 1.0 ha'l'~ LO
carry arOl.Ulrl ",,*tit yOll.
,

YOIU,

Hu~

pu'Ujn~ all the :Jd~lllt'l"es aside,

L11f' "'''llrr1'~

thing

l!l that the


(eOOf{:Uny

~Wious dcctfOl;:m,:: ~evli~~~l'1\Fl'CHd:y uiS"l1ln b-ook!> will !>r~otl{':rnr later bl' Supl.'rl'fC;detl by ~'l'ill:"ms

m:\\I'lIlt\' 19pments" wbich will m .. ke Lht: current


DUl-of..{IJle.

h
G The beek tratlt: has uSlCdCl'IfUirJ ab~nlViati(Jn!l tOI;" IiIl~[ly years. OR for example, ifJmls, for Om of Prlm, me«nim!-1 lh:Ji the hQllk i~ nUl lun,p.'eii a,,'aiPahle. lOP means lbnpur.;tdly GUil ui Print. which i_~ W 'If}f thai the publW1cl'S IUK not }"'l:"t gh~c:n :1.0(lti:tt'r LO m:epmn. and are nUL ~:ujut ~un: ,.",b,l'Uht:'r thl;:)1 will. Now ther have 01ne'W l'ibbr{'vi;]~i,on.lu~:1m' ~ POD, which means Print o~
DelU.iUld.

dcvelopn1en~ will ~CtlttlC C1h!;nl~l!i;!' ruru, And so u '~ill cnnti nne. Once obsolt'lK'cncl:: .. ' CCClir:!i, unless :..,,~dl m{a"'1lre~:1I' mk.<Ii.'ll.;tmiliY 'e~!)lly beoorne imfl~'l'~il)lc to reirtcve llt contents of OUtd;l~t-cl discs. t\tld thi~ mal" PI::Wj" our ~ncrn\ure. 1Ii~101'f ~l"d ~;chujU:lI knowl~~g:e I,ll filum: gencr-J~ifJ~.

in

m\~cn lime" t'he ne~

Reading UNU 3
!II'

'\¥rile a title and. sub-headme for the article,

.' Compare what you have written, with your study partner .
•' Read the !o]]O'iNmg extract froman artlcle on air trave 1at [he end of the ] 99 Os, and hjghljglliu~ny links that you can lmd between Oil:' w1.t.hin paragraphs. The th~
fir,st

two ~inks, have been identified for you.

Althou.gh jet ensines today are rr1U~ quTeler '!h,:m Ihey wfI!re ten yeiJrs ago, me huge rise in the n llImber of HI,ihts makes Ine
prbblem more JU~MlSIve To tap it al~ corsumer gfOL:.lP'S are IilOW al.1'aOOng.airtines for

Ii,!!

so

AirliHt*.!l arl! ntQ.k'fng mOHO).' ,again, bu.t they Me (11.&'0 tnr:ddug wir .vowing rtnrnben' of ~mgin ntiS-millie. T1u:y need ,(0 fir.rd rVlll'S ,of tIDing one without ,the adler.
s~at Is d~ining by an a,verage of 2% p~F year.
2
Atthe seme Ilme,CQnsurner dissa,tisfll(tian wl~h air tra,vel has readled i) new peak 01 America,

15

~noorporafe tftefrus:tradoTis of a]r trallel IF'! the ~IQt The prospect of airtlne rrrergers is mel wrth even greater hostilily. Seeing 35 wIla 4l poor job the: aIrlines ,are doi ng, Ihe. pubbc refuse 1:0 behe.-e that bl.8ller WIll mean

~osb!~d

il'flproarn the l"1ew centur,'> llollywood hss e~e.,


il~ we

5ql,Jilshin; In roo many poeopt~ Sitttng still fQ long periods tn cramped oondll1:ons, f1{ say, can c;:alJ5e blood dOtS. 11'1 response, some camers an:' w •ng out a few rows of 5ea;s, to cre2Ile mere sp.aoce for cr.ooofl'l;' p(l5sen8e~ t:o move arouoo i n, But dlssalisfactioo keeps risrns \l\i'liV 15 the 'indus.tljl tail! ng ~Ci keep its custOmers happy. One \lllSwer is ~hat it Ihas been gl'D'Wlng so rtls:t. even In 1'1 supposedly maltlJre market SU01 as AmeriCili. thai o11rlill& and the air-~I"ijpml inlrnstruct]Jre of alrpcl"ls oj nd (ilf4l'a'ffk control,

S5

flliIkJ"~mcM~lt1at

not th~r fault). many ot Il,ese delay~ ({Iuld III filet be il~id~d or shortenoo, if the syst;em

are caused by 'Ihe wei!lther (i.e...

ha'lle simply not b~n ilbk:! to keep up. Although the aJrlines hk~ 00 s;q that 1or¥c1 of dela>jIS

better.

MoreQller, !.he' i1'~m.es are


4(l

IlCMI Ming attaded by ,r;l"I'IiifOt1mOOfiliSit~for

coombiJting to global w~rmiflg as well Cis; CilUSlf1g nOise

pollution around

1I11fPOrrs..

'worked better. But oonSYJfH~r ressure i" p respense to gtldbck~ ski~ is ol1lyone: ror(e for mange Itl ~he air travel industry to' be fae,edl In the 21~ ,et'ltlJry. Equal~ impc$l'!t are the pl!rililel trends of ~rlvaliz:atiQf'l ilnd liher lu~tiot1, 'lllihrch are prQViI1,B unstoppabie •...

SQ'

41

I:nsight into IELlS Extra with Answers


• Using when you have hlghlighted
to.

help yuu, an wer these questions:

1 Gh,r,ean example of a Iinking word thar (l,ravides a contrast, ,2 What. does 'them' (Un~ 19) Ifefer io. \J\lhat type u:" Wink ls Lhis? ,3 Give an. example ,of a ]I nk.i:ng phrase t:hat can be used '[0 mrroduee ann ther point Loan argument erto lntrcduce an opposing ar-g:U11u·lU. 4, Give an example 'Of a linking word that is used te add anomer main point argument, 5, Is 'Ule sentence abnut Hollywood a main idea or a sup'porting poim? 6, What function. does the word 'even' have in Iine 291 1 Flnd another example of 'even' i:1JI paragraph .:I. Does 1Jhi:s example of funcrtnn in tbe same \llo'ay as the prevtousexemplej ,8 Which phrase means 'in addition tu ,id] the other bad lhi.ngfiJ Lh;JI.l ave h mentloned'? 9 \Nhich phrase introduces a positive response to 8 quesnnnt

:n13.In 'to an

'even'
been

MIUl TIPl.E eH D liCE .~

~. ~¥t~~(.~63#-~JT.it#-.

*~.~~~, ~~~~: & ••• 1.~~~.~-+£~~aR ~~.~*. *«.&-+~~~~~~9, ~~'1~


1~Uurlil:(.,131,[;
2.

J)I

:3!~k-+~-f-

Pre-task questions
• Read questWrJ,ns 13-17 ,lirs:l and 8f:l.·.wcr the fOUO"1NilJ,g questions lnfotmauon is being tested. 10 Which question asks you [0 judge the wrlter's purpose? U\N'hich questtnn focuses OI!l.II slIppo:l'l:ing point? 12 \'\I'hich que nons tB:Sl your understanding Dr 131 udo idea? K about what sort of

Quoestiom; 1 s-t '1

I E9 ID I

C11:oPl'e th.e coerea letters A-D. 13VVhaf claim is thewriter making in the first paragraphs
A Peoph~ disUke [be huge profits that airlines make. 11Anrerica and Europe have the mosl profitable air reuses, C There are postttveand negative developments in air navel.

D There are tlNO appreaehes to analysmg concerI1S about air travel,

42

Reading UNrr J
14 Accordt ng to the w;riter, the prnfirs that attUne!'! make A have consis'U~nUy grown. B 'len to their lowest in 1995. C cost the consumer mOI[t~than tnthe past, D are ~I)\ril]g lnereaslngly hard [0 maintain. 15 The Wli'ter refers to Hullywood movies [n order to Ulus'[raJ~ethe

A ov;erwhehlling

lmporranee Qf C1Ltravel.

B extent of public frustration with air travel, C' growth in public Invelvement in air travel. D current 6.naru::iru onv,eSIDletU in air navel,

116 \'Vhlch THREE of ilie followmg issues are filt!nti<oned by die ,wil,et?
A

m [he wodd\lVide pnllutlng ,e the fact [hal eng] nes are

me size

of modern

airports effects

or fuel

emissions

noisier than tbey used to be

D the iriU::rea:fing volume o[ air traffic

IE the dangers '[0 passen :ref health [l' the .size of aeroplane seats 17 hel ~he sixtl1 P aragraph, Ih~ writer is J\ 'makiIlg eXCU5f:S for Lh~airline industry. 8 suggeting reasons for rhe industry's problems,

C supporting an earUer argument about [be atrune industry. D uutllning snlutlons to the jndustry's problems. • Can yO'll explain M,rny the! other op rtons are wro n.g i:n each questiclll?

]
to

Use a word or phrase ~ha[ you h avo met rund'ds unit [0 create a lin t bet\'IIeen the pairs of sentences to HI-22. YOY should not try to make them into one sentence, but you need to make a bridge between d'temje.g. I need to be in '[Th'U":' right mood to study. [ ti nd it djf.6cu:lr to .\1, tu dy ina mom whi.ch is not j IlsuJIa~ed frcom nolse, I nee,d to be mom. Wl1idl

rl'l fhe

rigl-U mood to .:midy. MoreOlJef, J find

is nOl il1.sulat.edfrom noise.

it Id~ffic'Ult fO study Ena

18 The pubhsh~ng industry has recently mken a number of technologiclll1 leaps ~atwa:rd. The' q1l.Westioll rematns ::IS to wheraer techno] agy will ilnpwove ,literary
ennteut, m Compul,ers are \'Vide~yseen ill classrooms [uday. Chndn:n as young as ti,,~ are

h::~ndng to use them.

43

I'nsight into IELTS E>ltJTa. with Answers


Endustry taceseensldera b~e erl deism from healrh plFofessionrus these days. Companies now often daim [hat thewr food i nutritious and rulI of 'heal thy ingredients. 21 Wi arc now ina position 'to order nul" grocel:ies ollier the lntarnet, We ,can benefit from the e'lCtmleisure time this gives us. 22 It was d[sllIppointing that 'OUT foo~baU dub WOStn the final on 'S~uurday. It didn t i hel p that '[he eaptai n tripp ed over and ha.d to be take 11 off on a stretcher, [ben, the refereegave a pewdly kick tn the otner side as a result of the aceldent,
~ I.
~r •• :. • --

20 The fastfuod

IL.._,-.

~'!.:!,..I.:.!.:_ =;~"I

,II

__

• The VIIOl!"dsand phrases below, which refer to, groups, of people. appear in the ~elCts

'~STUP;; :.'~,~UiM· ,''£'' i\#I ~ (.ja.t,nrL,u) .m if ;4tat'.~:p i\;ii#


~- f
Uj, jJ •

in Ililis nn:it. • First: stan the texts


fOT

leach word and note Line numbers.

~fi;"ItfAfnib.

2:3 Using a dkl:1Oflary w he] p you; expl~in the meaning of tbe words as [hey are used in the text.
a futu re generations b publishers

c~dines d p~seillger!i e travellers 'f the average consumer ,g the public h envlronmenralists
i I;ustomers

44

Reading
usrr 4
Improving global .reading skills __ "

:.~t·t:. ..:" ' it ',~" :.~':'_:'.


,~.;~.; ..... I •• :

.~I,11J1~Jt~fl~IEi,Ir.J~~I~:ttJ. ~JtRtJtT;t~a~=t.f~ .t:mm$~t!~H,g,i£ ~-i!:JJ m. ~ ~'1:fjt Ell'f.JtlD fl1]'., -lffi x~,G;zi& fitilji~a~m ~t~~J~,
IPAIiI,A [UI:AP HI STA U eru REi

I~ ~.
j_~lJiL,~.*,

4,1:e,.,tf ~ ~

r 1,;d~.fttl$

_i_~.

3t#4i't,~,. ~:(Jl1~d-r"

it*--tli~.

hl~~~~~g_~{f.}_i_

'Ili ~

compam-~s,[}]1 to

srrcngl~enma~n ~de'a!
111'1.

He is if! leve with

t~f

crazy,

rip-roil·

g" vulgarconf'l;I:5rOn

th;il.t ~

,n!G'

n_

in m ,

but he also :knows how

iod wh i't works and eJ!:pla' it in words thel1ayman can. IJ nde'fstand. Like: 8mericanwestemS:" Hong &::pnJg.,_<l.qiiQ_n m~Qvi6 U~vel w..!:11! b~lle th£ir ,~omn1Of11 currency I,S basic emgt;pf1!.uu;.b_as_fe:ar .. anger. JQ~ and S_Ot'l".QW, A :them~ m many HORg Kiang l1is[orica,1 movj,e_s iil;. <I de-sire for re1Jlenge, a ulh~... rsal feehng. whil~ e J@!J')an~ehi},tol"iqlJl fiirns often [urn on theI;Wo-way [pull of d~ry-and rnd'ifilation. an ide~ that .' remore rflf l'!"Iost Imodem .3,Ii..u:fi-el1lces. Thi~Sis winy Bruce Lee's IMrf'is weil"e
.L

contrast with. lap ~n.


detailed expJanation
to fun::her

of main idea

.ma.Wl ldea

m U$~[are

speeiflc example given as

ev..chr:1'Ioefor main idea


of the

I \l\l'h.i.chof these words Of phrases Is most .impolltarU (0 Y01jj!f nnderstandlng maln ~de'a of thls pa.!.'agraph" Can you l!¥1O.rkow what it m.eans? A. rip ~romJilg D, common ,currency

Csormw
D'la}!ma~

Ill1s.ight into lEtTS IExtr,a VIIith Answers


.2 \rVhich is the most suitable headmg foil'this paragraph? A The social 'imponance 'ofChi.ne Ii! fUm stars

B The gro""ring success of Japanese ,dnema C The Global attracrion of Hong Kong cinema III The healthy enmpetittcn in the film industry
• Complete the labels on the foUo\ovi.ngparagraph. further Jnfcrmatlon

on 'Iellhard

TESl TIP
-1"gif~;i; Milt .. I.tl.,,,,, ;;r:4~dttR

I~a~·

[he e,mergeln,ce 9f.a _[I!QcsFber,. a nerwork lil1kmg man ..' rather than the p~ys~cal I~iiel.T~ijJba.r"d.wasa :!j(lC!Q~Qgii~.a scientist and a j~sUlt d:H~olQiiap]; hl!l'd(l!jfribed this 'w~:sphcrt portly In "JrysicQI terms~ of Qn 'lIfOl"mlllt1fJ'" rlebtt'l',*", am) f'drtlY ,,, spirj'tu,QJ (!nd philoropl:!jhlJ fanguage. Q$ Q fO!'.~ which would att to unl'6' metely. One of the' many metflphors whjeh he liud m pfJl ihe' concepf a,roSS was thar of (J ,aID of think inK,enelfI~ 'tmrtrding fhe pl(Jnl!t. Today; rhg ci J . il and hil so 'I a

ill

ill

Vfltich words, do you nutundarsrandt Do they prevent you from unders tanding the main idea? 6. Vilhat is tb~ p urpuse 0 r p'aragraph A?' t' Vi/ha:t ts fu~ purpose; otthe fourth and fifth sentences In pamgraph 8 Which_ sentence express,es· tbe main ideal in paragraph C?
9 \-Vbat IIh.E'IDe links plM3;g,rap 11.50D, E and 1'1

'. Read the p,~s:sa:ge ppo'S~'reand answer the foUowing questiens: o .B?

]0' VVlunare the twn main criteria [or selecting items for natlllural history museums? 11 What does 'such collections' refer back to in paragraph 111' 12 Write a two or three-sentence ummary ofthe pass6ge, using paragrapb 1 to help, yo u.

46

Reading UNIT 4

Behind the scenes at the museum


Witt! more'and men:::Qfwhat must,ums OWfI ~niilil'l9up behind I'ocked doors, (ura,tors 31iit 1in1artching p!a,ns to widen ISl!cessto ti'leir ,coUertiOi'ili.
Wln~l1. ln 1938, the Smfthsonf1l'1l of Sir Will~am eromltes, a 19~h ",-,nwry Na11!;ma:1 Mlu~u'm (If NBih.llil1 Himuy, ~i~ntiSf who built tllf flm r.athocJe~" W'a5I1fngUm. DC, decidt:lD II had run ray 'fubes, I.'!lI;perim litre wrtn radJLlm OUl of !;pace, it bE'!jan tfi!":iferrr",~ ami also l!Iisco\t.el'e,[j tl1alliL.lm - an part of its, ooll~tiDn from HI~exITem~ry IPOi&l:lflOIlS eleme,nt. He WIB crampE'd J1Uk ;lflU basement rooms ,8 sloppy wOMer, All hIs f'I!IUipmCiiH whe.re thr specimens nild been was C'cll'1tamHl!1teiilwilh radlo!lt'llvc lal'lgut,shin9 to an lIul-of-tQ'W1'I material5 but he wOrkt'fl in. an age wllreh!liJS~, Rt510rin9 thQS.4i: peelmens s when rlt:lbodV knl!'Wilbcul th~ to ~m.st~nl! t.''(:mQltiClI'IS,W3~ iii millifl,l'tdrnt eff~dll of tadiDjlcl~lJity. men umen.ta ~task, (] ne m~mber of ~th:~ I 5r0'W~ IS HI~5,erl,ior t:'1J rawr far staff, ror !lI;ampl~, spent SF!! mOI1'lhs . ~1a;.s.'5iIcal,llhV!li~ t~me and f1litfo:5{O~C5 do fig notfdng, bul gluing tilt ~egs at thr 5cienrl:: Museum. lie "prndis his

Thp. Emoom,51

OrVu~r pe~lmens 3ft \f"iI~ ua b III! IiItrii i1~ § of lhelr ilgc, Ollll! of thl!' mo~l fam(llYs
~t:tl(JJ"I W3Ii

ooc.k on to NaP'1~ flies. e.UI 30

milliolll

prof~ionallifr
that illLI!itratf

loolling

for obler~

d:emljfl!>tmtiOF'lSof nalural seleetlen in


made uslJIIgmu~um
p!riod

IBut tl:Jt: rapid pace I:If technp~O!I~C31 ~tN;jIl!Je, andthe vclurne of ne.w Di)j~'5" rn,3k~$ incn:3Singly hard to ,It identify wllilit Mure gen~rntrl]l'1swJli' regard ac~s~!llnifita'l1t nn'!,~ were originally. for el~rnpl'~, th~~ dlffrre:llt versions Df the videl}f.l;)~tle reeorder ..nd Inobody knew at the time, whlch Dtc'loing wll!!! 10 do Wit" these hug~ W1l5 going tEl wll'L And who, 'iill the ac<'ulmultltions Oflhillgs is b~ornin9 ilJ 1970~ would Iilal/t' Il:alis.td lh pr~ng pr(lbh:~m. lfhl'Y C:llnn(l~ Ibt , notlllltltls dfert tile computer wouta Ihrown aWlly, but onr, .1!1 ttll'1yt fraetien . have' by the turn or Eh~~~ntu,rv? ~fllb~ ~L1tiill'1 D.i~pl<lV' ,. ~Tl1e publir Ito~~rI surpri~ed at Ull! Ihe h ugl!!, iJ"lV~51 Je roriectlO I'IS b SCi enee M ~~um ~ 11'11'~reSlIn rl!t:'~n t bcl1lll1d th~' seenes ,!lIt stlenC'Ci!' ~l!Id objetts, Mr BJt:iW11S~\I'!i he rre~uMtly natur1!1hIstory ml.l5eums >Ire ~Il~ fault tlUlJ5 doYt'n antitlu!! brass and IIf tnt' !lUIlI runttions of 'these maho!l9ny ~ltttri~1 iliiii:n!ments on institlltions. On Hit one hand, they the grounds that Ule¥ Dirt lIy luvt
Eln! places for thlt publiC to go andl

lterns ami ~r:\!tl'l 'II'~alrs laler, the jr:lb was dorre. Allcast for the momellt far '[he 5mithsIlnian own§ 1130million p'IOllltS" ;1numals. k5 and f'o.~lIl;am:! that ~ number IS growrng lit 2-:3,% iI year. On sn jntemation<ll seale, howev~r, such III.11l'1DCl5sre net erup1;lmiial. Th~ Natural HIi!itory M'1iI~1.I1II1 Lontlliln in ~~S80 mUlfol'1 ~p.et~lme~5"And, in Ii! $ligh1lV differellll SA;:ijel'JlifiC' context, IMe.Sci ell e Museum n!I!)lt doer 'lO it has_300,OOO, ObJrU1S r~ord.ng the history of selence anti ~edlnIlID9'i1.

mme ,iisp~t"l of ~icntifk and lecilnologllOsl dt:lI~opmti'u. ColI~Elons of compLiters, am:! dDmr~n~ appUsiIlCtS sut'1'l as tel rvi SI1iHI ;ina waS:hing lidS
rll~H:hjl'li1!~,3rt growing

spe':lm~rI$, A study of moths collectetl

esp~~iaUy

that their wings betamr oarkrl' Iwl'1kh 1l'I3dt them Ins visible to in~di\i'orous, bllrd1) :15 the: industrial
rev'GJutlon m'aD'e Britain wore

9v~r il, long

of time stJo~nI

fast

I~Year;ifh:r y~'Jr. a n.li


collttt
j

pollutild.

nereases, as s~il'f1 list'S lid 11~ Yfould im~ been unlmagi,nab!e


rhl)Sl;

1(1

'~'U'Ie'UV

the .... e of such ill~. nd rehab IV

'~hi t

who S\iilrlell them 11 tcir>l'tury or two ago. G ·n 'tic n"lySis, pltarmaceutrc,al devel'llprnent, bio-mirndrlics (engineering that mimics nature to prm:lul."t nC"w deigns) and b o-d Iverslty molpPIl'l91 arr llnlmaglFllilble to th~ rnu.5(.\Jml.l' fuu'nde I'S.. ~ 8~t as tlu coltettlon~ 9fOw ,oll:l'e,; they grow big!jel. IfI§ec.U may !It' ~mljll, but thl::rc are mdlhons of thrm
t)'e(i'I and ~ritllmologists would lik.e to

lQ

.all d~'\i'~~op!1i~nt5

thaI

WQuid

have

t'ilough

of th~m. coffee

but hr f!i happy

EO

plca~li of ~ear(.h - and ft'~ar1;:ti",1'5 lire I'lot lnterested merely 111 the big. snowy lhin~<; th8tCUiftital~ IlkctO re ..eal tG:llhe pUblic. J Bilyth~ HOLl~ In West london" 'lhl' 5C"ir ncr: ~usru rl1 's pn rrcrp.al5torag e

IDDk at things . .on the other, UIt:V aJl'e

receive objcc~

pre('Il' lflo~lt-Yo(lj~'I!lf oolkit wpth t btu boHre. ~"blluml hiswrv mU5eu,m; COnfet far a ~iHtreflt reasan rhc'iir llCCUmu!i lions oil n~ part of II H milts t(J1 f.u:r[ity, nas, as might Ilc ~xj}!:ctt'lj. ,d ~rqtifY a ml Ufld~lSt3nd the n'~tlUr.lr eilbjn~l:i full of early asil'oJlomjc.1II 'tjorld. Some of the plal'!lJi and .. nimat~ instnlme-nt5 surh ac§, d~rIlldb~'al'ld they holJ:! are ·t't~1:s,!l~t'im"05'~ Ita I;'d~!itIJI gl!lbe!!i llu~ i"fiI.Ii~i.lm is also I[lthu words. ~l1ey are the standarD CIJ5lgdi,.rl Wi t h iIlglii tha t are rer~n:i'l(1! LH'iIt, li~.4I ref,!!~ nc~ weight dar'1gerous.II hlJlds iii lot Of1:'q,iIllpmfnt or ,length. !for the spt('i~!i ill qut'stioo.
. C!afl1,l'ar~ cast', and 9 9~en

o.om5tic.

Ylt;n

::1$ the Atomi ... maker; and a n4--

cattlloglJe" every Me. And wl1~n th~

referenee

m<ll rial is a pair of

or II blue whale, 5ipa~t!

ffltterl to turn to 001 0 r townS1arag e f,a,~tltlltS. 8u[ Il1ltJi5lI1!Umli that show Iht';' publfc Iln~'f R )lmall ~ractl{ln 01 Hum maWi~1 lisk lOSing the fidlt goodwJIII of grwernmenb anI:! thl! publte, whieh tht'V n!;'eil I~ h'~Jl rLHlfliflg. H~nce the Ildl'rminatiol'l of se mallY mu'Seums to make their bade room Ic:olh::ctiorl~ mer'l! ¥\ltd IV <lVl!ilablc.

prou lem, if" at is why mlJi$e~n1HiJ'C"h tM SlI'IiltJ.$(Injan are int:.'re-~~ingIV

comes a

'gJraffes
OJ!;
I

47

Insight inlc IElTS Extra wi1hAnswers

[
'1"£s"T TIP 1
~~iJ;Jfalj ~ Hili 1.1&. ~~ 1ft .G f<b,.'f. ~ f} iU i! ,"it" ij :Ii .i- jf.a. Iii .(l; i." .1'4 ~fl ti iIl;r. ~ £: .

~ IELTS Reading

Pre-sask questi!oms
U1 'Vifhat is the best way to approaca the paragraph 14 What ws. 'the key word in headlng vtt heading uIsk~'

«I

'*' ~

Questiow' 15-22 I (9 I~ I
rile rel1tlingpa.ssa,l!l! Iras nine paragraplls .. -4. 1 Frmn the Us" of l~eadings be/QUI,rhtmse t:he most suitable headrn:g for
each pctJ~rtlpl!.

List of Headings
i

An uneapected pre$erence

fOIi

modern items

ii
Uj.

Tw@ distinct reasons

fOD"

seleetien

in tine Lype of museum


ex_hibits

The grol!\ti:ng Cost of housing

mUSeUIJl

iv
V

The growing lmponance of collecnons 'f-o.research. purposes r The global 'size' or the p,mMern
Why some cellectlons are uns <lJfe
Why

Vi

vn
\iii

not all museums are the same


i(Elmsan~ di':al [ \!'loti 111. dlffieulties

The need 1.0 show as much as possible to visitors

Ix
,. xi

How uaexpected

The decision-making

of one

curator

The two roms of museums

xii
xm

\N'ho OW'llS

me museum

exhibits~
task

A lengthy. but: necessary

Exam.ple

P'ara,geaph A
15 Paragraph B
]6

Paragraph

n Paragraph n
18 P"dfagraph EU)I

Paragraph F

20 Pa:r:~graph G 2l Paragraph I-t

2'2 Parilg:nl:ph 1

Reading UftUif ,4

Vocillbularv tJuHder

,23Scan paragraphs A-E for noun phrases that have the following meaning.

:GIIobaUy

a dUficuit task a smllll parl ~'he twol ,[,oles the maio phu~e whie.l:le thingSJ ,are kept

poopl.c alive 1.11, lhe MU _00 years or SOl

49

Reading
Summarising

at ~

fij ~Jt(trl~~,

~lf~iHftW.il.:.I. f~\i£~~~'~; -~lMlfm R. ;k@Dj I=ljii'~~-'I':tf'~;i£ ~.(Htf>!.~&~ •


0

mft~~

v]~F11~J.~EJt! 1iij~!1TH~t:Il:&m ~t(~ -t~ ~ *i9;iiz(Hl p~m'¥iU-r~

• The following sentences are paraphrases of ldeas in the paJssagli below Read [me passage and see ffyou can find the origb:ndwording for each paraphrase.
Underltne yo ur answers,

I There are plenty of reasons why chQco~ate sell well. 2: The human love of chocolate is 3. Sloba.~phenornerron, :3 More money is spent marketin.g ehocelate and sweets '[ban any other slmllar predu ct, 4 Allhougb well-known brands achieve the highest sales, newproducts are ,;a]so imp orranr, 5 The short-term avaiJabmty ora ']tmited edhlon' appeals LO consumers' desire
for a cnan ge,

..
rn£
IS

Soit centres - hard profits


The
l

. Are you being seduced by the swee tin d usttyr •• ~ • ~.••••


'U1( ro~doi€'l

6 ,0 •

If dllOCDlale we-re found to be


scrioLll!l!iJy addictiVe, Wen tbe UK wul.lld need major therap)' [0 ki,ck hllb,il The DriliJ h I'~a,dthe wodd in their iove of

hss
20

shown consistent grcwtb -

inaeasing over the liI,.5t


decade by a [\~Ul:I:(:!i ~ 6%. 'C:hoeohll~ronfenionery is a market rh ..11!~i!"rnll rn be rem aikab I)' r~§lllem' ~M~ P melt'! Langworthy •
1

ru e cocea-based

lma{. As

product, chocolate

has a i01

going for ~t, appealing 10 aU .a_gn, bo th seses a nd all 10 income brackets. lin 1~9i.thevahJe of [otal UK

marJ;u1'ling fer Thom tons, (h,e:l:5

collfenionerr market rnrreased by 3% to a ~t01ggmng lS.lhn. '"'ith 15 chocolate sales Ole ount.ing fot ';1'Q%, al U.6bn. and 5Uaar conrenion~ry rhe RloawninB £1.6bn.

me

lw;ury chocolate pmducer


andrelllUcr. It ai~c increasl ngly t'l7:!.t1!!(,f!l'Ids,' national b uildarie-s. In ] 997 , wi~ N rs-tM. U:I~, ]a:rg~ t cQI'l!ClN:tloner, eJCported OYt"r a qU3iIl'it~ of its produrtien to mere than ~oac.()untri~, 'r-.test:tehas

30

50

Aeadlng UNIT'!5

Nmrded pa n ieu Ia r~)' <liStgrowth In ctln r'::(l ienery sales in Asia. wilh the expansion of KitKat into
35 ~'f'fill countries

daiming 1'0 be' '~he fir: \ malnsueam brand UJ addres~ Lht.: darnand ror IOWfF fin pr duct5_ Al ')8

es

pro.. i des rnar~1!. chall~rn&e ihe UK in tli!rms of CU!!1'em (~mfecLiDmHY consumption In the US, the land a';,SCf'L with exeess, ~ach Amnic:aln d~QUJs a led 40 m,f'U lD~G (()111 ffl'nioni.'!ry per PI1'f'SO n ,il )'lear, wher ali UK consumers each manage 16 kg, In

in the region. Eastern Europe anm h er prem ising market. Bu'l. f~

cdOnl?S bar. Flyte is, det;.ig1l1i"d sc app al lCl \Wi ~hH:ionsci CIIJ~ w~m.f'r1. Aoo~her 1997 Mars launrn, CeletliiuiOfi , is claimed by the oompant"s
annual review
tQ

be sbowing

Ingns of 70

or

turo]J , whl!~ tht"cho(olill

market ~s estimated

10 be 'WClI1~ over ,[ 1 :2 bn [ilS, Sblll, the UK acceuers or, ,lmOSI 11 third of th.u. lota], foll wed 45 som way behind by Cermany. Prance and WlllIly. ArouOld 6~ Df aU confeclionery iii bou8h1 on im pu.lse. whit h makes its av.ai 131:1llily a key d terminaru Qr al~. I mpuh:~ ~lJyiRg also m kie:s the development of a ~l.rongbrand image viral, ~ and lilrge. h:mg-esldbl ished b:mnds dorn irUH!." ilie market Ruddtng up these brands costs sanou mOrley Mt'dlal.':X'pcndhure On COl1fec1ionery exceeds that for any other Impulse marker, The C~dbu l')' & Trebor Bass-en ]997 eonfe£donef}" 5~ Rfllleuareveals lh:n in 1996, metHa expenditure on lhow~al re-Olched 194,m, compared 'With £69m spt'lll on sufi. drhlllls, 131 m on 'lhl'!:lonelY lind

're:vol!Jti()nislng the 00«00 chocolates market bt' ~un<L(ti nj!; new, younger [U StDmer:s ~ '-rr~cl hi ona1 ly, th boxed ehoeelates market hasn't changed, ,.. ry much. People who buy the products lend to be elder and lemale, Willh Ce,lebraliofl.5, Wi? ,life fmd~ng that young r Tfleop~eand, men are buying €'CIluse lherhocolal~ don',. orne in the lrildidonlll'!lMp d bD~- Lhey IDOl.! different Products su has FI)'t1.'and CelebralioQ5 ,3[ IUU:mpLS LO mtroduce a n r.' product cIJ1egmy and tncrease sales for retailers, rather t.IiJa n iUJ5~ ;;lhifti n S m<l:l'ket share,' ~ Milrs 5pl'lki:!sm<ln says. One e.aLur·e r~h' cbocoJate ~ndustry in re en! 'i' .us 'has been the erner £nce of sperial lediitlons. lihe' cencep l o'r a mil rk'f'!.ilng trl u I1I'Ip h. V(odm:ers b~liev@ that speriaI editions offcr the ransutnl'r a IiInv and exciLing varlauon of a product. while s.uggest.iftl!!the same conslstern
co

75

BO

!S

[13rn on crisps i!lind·~!'Iacks.

Il'lno\l,uion i alse ,e serulal for ongOing 60 ~uC(e~s,desp i!i' the ctu;u:o 1att marike~ lI'le~ng do rm na I d by ronsi5tent pt'tfqrmers, In 1996 lh~ cheenlate company Man, ]aum:illi"d 'Flyte',

qUailhy LhE1')'ilssm:I;Uo with ft!.miliaf brands, Since sp;fdll editicns all! on[y aV3il,lfbJ:e for . I~!"W w~l.?ks while ,~c Its, lalll, liIley also have a unique ql.l~lhy abeut them, far fruO'lI de'!Hiog. sales of [he' sn3JiGh~ version, limited editions app ar [0 si,mply boost overall Soltes.

901

SUMMAIFrt· COM PLEllON

It ~:ti ft.

. ~ &I ~*~f..-g.*::t. ~1 tJL~$1.-+~~flft"

Pt.;(ftl~ ir~ f~~. M'vX f;.4m! ~lif.! ~1l~ ~. T dis lI.;.~ ~ '1t ~JA It.~ :t. to;'" if,] ~~ ft !f "

*-~ ~*iJi. ~

Bl.f,.d~f~· - .reJl .

it~;tfM

Pre-tas Ie: q,uestions


6 Howmuch of the passage does [he summary 7 ls the summary [e~,tmgideas Dr facts?
ODI.I'e'l1

51

QueStiOflll8-12

[f!) e I

Complete the summary be.lulv. ChOOle ONE' Oil rwo WORDS ORA NUMBER frmn {he pa."'.w:~ge or each. answflr. J

TES"TTIp

The c]:ll)co13:te markel,

in (he If.K in 1997 WlIIS werth

... (,8) ."

,ha\rinc shown a

sready lncrca-tt

$.wi

p,;

Nt:

tle SlI"plb:.s ~bllC..o]3~eto In'C'" ... (9~ ...


In •..

during the prec(:dingren-yt:ar'

.pt:IF~Dd. OvernJ~ t'he'n1l1nufaC'l:UfCf ;miil the com.p:m • blls seen rn,pid

growth In rhe markeu ceunrerparts


,Ml'iOUfUS i1f1d, ,in

«1m ,...

Ne,,'en:hclc.l!i, ,the UK mamltl remains me

bl:ggot. 5u1]lIrtsinGly, Bt'iUs,1:t oosum.er~ d~¥our mere ~han. the-if ... (11) •.. c terms Dr du.:: EUfOpeat. ,chocoi:att mark~l, lbeir cUnsuDlI,t!lon
revenlle.

to ... (12) ... of Ute una!

~_+, ~~ •• ~~A.~~.a*~.~.~£4*t.
Questions 13---20

~-=.#4-J'!J.{*1 i -t--w.,.i&!---:l

;;"w~_l-t.

it t",,;...P.-+&.:tl!~#P';.

I(9 ,~I
1f;I.3.Ttet

Complete the summary below using word.5 frDm rite-box.


At."t.'O(ding to the: :j)nssilrge. the ,ebl'iCQHli:e this reason, t.'uilfectloners is dt:lntitlil~["d ITl" , .. (13) .. , b:mnd..5. Fur

'pend llirgil: sum~ of money en ... U 4) ... adverlh.emt'l'u~.

h'l

bct, in 1996, the ameuru spc;:nl ~Dra~lcd £9~mH:owcv,cr, i~ls a.lso ifl1.portant (or compani(.."S ~ 1I.I~QClltc' 'resource" [0 dlt'V(;luping

One exampl 'of lhj.s .b (he 'FJiyte' bar, wh~ch was dt.""ccloped by M<lf!$, CiloooJOJtc: producers ,dPiO 'r'f •. incre>lfiie s;'lle by 1."lmnging [heir '':U~U(l.m~fj'•.. ~II) .. , 0 'h.1bii~~. 'Olrcxi!Q\[1I.e, if a product 'h as an ... It 17) .•. tmage, it mily bl;:'neee ~:JJ~' to r
alter (hi!'!.
It. .,. UWI...

... U,5) ... id~,

sW1itc:h ~noonsum£r
['0 rnCft:3ii!e

behaviour can beachl

ved hy intrixhld.ng '~pecial

edition'

brnmds 'On [u liht: market. Tho;( aresucces ..ful because tb:e~' offer ,',. (lH) ... Ill· ... (20) ••. sa}es ,of, tOlnd. rd brands.

aflu • Ther aL'iUseem

media
liDlited

n.ew

purchasing

low-fat
OVlr5eilS

serious eatinl

outstanding impul'se children'§ similar weU-kinawn nowJty


intemationa1

outdiUed

temporary

overal~

52

Folluw-up
21 How much of I~~epass.~g,e dues this surnm ary Icc\I'Iel1 22. ~s [he suro.marny ~esting ideas or facts or both? 23 C~n you iden'tifythe Ii nics between Vocal:wlary butlder and wbth[D sen~ellces?

,24 This tex;l c·o:r:IJlamsa lot of vecabula ry that is ~ically used In [he \'Ilor~dof economks. USE ~e~tand a djctionamy w help you ,complete ~,]s table,

me

Noun
a. pmdtu::~ b market tmuk.et~fIIg

_ Verb

')be ~

_"..

p:wdluce

producer lmanufa.crurer

ReJated phnIe:I -I-------~--·-----~ pmdllcr~o n


mMS

c sales
[II
Ill'

gramh retail
brand

,g tndustry h stocks i launch

ea d... ... ·R . lngl


Understanding argu ment
lIB lim JI~'In l.sE m ~J...,~

:I~A ~llt fFJ (f.j ~ 'ff

W.~~fi~~~H~~~~~~~U~~~~, ma~.-t~~~~~ttfl
G

N~mm~~x~~¥m~ w~, ~~~~~~.*=~oo~~~m& ••


~I,j!it~M fI

FIDLU1W TIME UNE IOF DIEV'f]J}IPMENl

• Uead the u~Ueand sob-beading below. \r'Vhal do you think 'I!h.e verb 'ape" means [tum your reading 'of the suh- heading'\' \I\'hat points do you expect the' article to c'over? .. Th ~nk!lli u r how th e \wner might organis e the arti de. What do yO~i think will be bo included in [he opening paragraph? \Vh.ii'lt will form the body of thetext. HQw!;vill the [ext endt • Now read the passage and complete the 'questi.olls. in the margin as you read.

Do apes a'pel
Recent studies by two famoUrs scieflltists sJhD'wth'i3lt fl'himpanzees and o~ner apes can learn by imitatllan

lc..med h~w 10 open (he nut by triall and error, not by

imi'l;a.ting hi.. mother. ;

C Su~h a: cl1b.l1ru:tlon l1u impOrllilnl impHauioll5 (or my di5.l;lI~ion of cb~p.a.ll2ee


eulmses. nITI,t:sdcnli!;t;s

pa ragraph

What does
A,

as~?

Wha:t aspect of
b-eha'll'io[Jf does

p.ail'ag ra ph B eJltem plily?

I The notion [b:<l{ grcu aJK!. 'he - chim.piilnwes. ~milliLo;. IrmJIIg~ umn :lind gibbom, - 'CUI Unl.tine one ;moth("r mlght seem lms1l1!rprisi1l;gln amu.flt' wlto has w~uched these animals pla}'ing:OIl the zoo, .BtU In scace.lliilic:, (",Irel","!'! 'lite quCYion fif
i

dt'fine a CUllUr'l1 mtil as 0 De that i5 Pl'l~ ,!k)w,n not, b)' g't'n tic inherilance bm ln51iead when rbe y!.nlOw:r sene(S.l1on (QPi.:.oi IiIrlult IRtu'ol'io'Ul". (fcr.u;ldll(il, open II cnula .nI1i1il i!'lsomedUng thai dllmpUllC':e5:

Whos@ view is being


00 n,~idered7

wherh!;;.l' apes 'l:ontrO\'ersial

really d.g

'ape'; hils become

em '~1rnpll'I'igUrf' oUt how .. dn on lbe:ir 0 own OI'lCf' t~e)' hoJd !J hamlllClr ManC'. then It caji"E Dr (Ion iden:d plrf Qf dlcir cufrure.
fUVllh~N!:1olie, if lbesc anirm!l.$ I.c:lffl exclusivd).' by frhJ anderi'm. Lhe[1 chimpiU11.eeS mUS1. ~n a sense, reUl'I"t:Ol lite wh:td eaCh dmr Ithey HIckle II nt::w, J,;,ilI.

EI, COnSi.de r a

you nc chimp!,lj,iUl.ee .1oVII~cliIDlG

l1is mm,her ItToIck open .. cm1ia IilIU~.as has been ub5en'ed in ~he TliJ·" I'o.rd~ of ""'eM. What is be.lfi1gl d[scus'5ed in
Africa. [0 nHJ$l C3se'S. ~hc ,,()utti w.ill nJeo,umlll· lake up ~hi: J1"r.lclici:' bimself. Was lh.t!i bt.'C:IU!!f' he im i(3,'l~d hi~rtl(lther? ScepUc rblDk pcrh:lpl> IWt.Tht:) argue

parag raph 0

No (lII.m.urllll:~ve culeare ~

c=W!rd(:vc'iop.

Whit does
paragr,iiI,p'h II;) de~cribe?

CIlC'Oumgetl ~·in>· yO'W'lg~'I,,"!f5 [D rocus@n melD all wctL Once hj~ a'lll::mioll tl<1d been dwawn [0 rne rood, the }i'D'urng chirnpmllft

LWI[ the ,mmherl!'i allenHnH

lu (lu:: nuts

ch:"II'feSl way to cslabl!5h how ChIDlpMlees 1eam is [htnu~ laooGltm)' e"pcrimemlii. On~ of us (Wtrin:n). ~n coUabioL",lI[imrn. With Deborah M. CU$l'lAnt;e of Goldsmith's CoDcc • Unw~1i5jty ~I london, eonsteueeed :;inHici:a.l frulu;. to

nc

54

analogues oftkcse ~hc;.iJlnimals, mum deal w i~ in tbe wild. In II: 1}'picil Clllpenment, Qne group ,gf cWm;pan~:; \vau,hed a compla Il:(;hrdque for o~rung ene of t~1l: trults, while: it 5eColld ~up observed a very dlIferent method: WJ:\ tben ,rec:orned the ext'enl CO w'hith tbe !l:himpa.ru!.ees had been m..mu!l:ma::d by [he method they o~d. We-a!!so CQndUCl~d lliimiJar expinmmts with (Mce·~l!ilr-oldl children ;J;S'SliIb~cts.Our resuhs demonstrate' that. s1K.ye:.u"0ldchimp~zc::c!i show imitadve behliV:lour lot is m.mtedl~' l1ketluu seen m. the c:bildI:ren althQugh the' fidelity oJ lkircopylng l€nd8 fQ IJoc
Sien'C aSc
I

bcndil (lif ~xis:lif:lBU'3ditions, [he: (:~illlp<lOK~' ~erlme.11ued w~th;a hiO~ of I~~ u:;e~ acrfeus,

F ~n\trt.SI'll1gly. same ,of the result!; front the


,~petilrle:n,~ ~nvo]vin81M artificial fmi~" 'Cti[lVI!Jgr.; witll ili~ i~. 1.1'1 one: :sm.d)',
'dliQtpHI2:C!:e.smp.led an ,C'ntiK<;eqUCJ.11r(:of :II[,liOrnl Ittey had wi~.neS3Cd, hut illd ~ only ~u~.r Sev.r.1mi! vitlw,ings lind :lfierlryin!!1l, soml:' alten1:1il'.lW:."S_ In mb~r won;L they ..,

~iI!nd(:'d tnimitul.:
(!Iih€!f:;liltlcting

Wl'bll

dlt'y had @bserw::d

:u (he 'l::.'II:pe_n~ Qf dudli ,own

",i;lI·;l!f!{knnr (HSCnVefdes. 16' In Ollr ViieWI these fwn!1Xings mkcl1 logether iSllggt:SII: that ~pe:s do :iI,pe and (hat ija,i.., ab:iHry(orms 6n.c sfI:a:ndlln eukueal u"aJ1$Jl:IiS$i(ul. htdt.'f'd. ills dH'rJcul~ lQ
imagine ho:\\' d!,im panaees couLd develu,p «'min geograptii.(': V".tfil3lions. in Sict~~'it:ie!'j

poorer.

WWnat does palir.agJl3lph IE acid to, the previollis paragrapl'n ?

E mn 3i di.fferent Icl:nd lOf r:xm:u:rlment,qllC' of us {Boesdl), i10nG wlrh 50mc oO"wuikas, ~ve ,chi.mP:iIi£m:t"5 £Ii, tbe ZlHkh Zoe· iii Switzerland bmI.ll'la'S and nuts slmiill~r [0

tbose a,,"a.l.filble U1e wUd. We file.n in

~udt

W~alldoe.5 paragrap'rn IF suggest?

m('.mllored the repenoire ~n)Cba.¥i()rli di~pbyed by tbe capti ..l'.;' CWmpalUte!O,. M " It remed out, the 1i:1iim!p~a;s in the zoe
exli.Wj~ed Ii grea~ of 3,'LltiYilie:S '[han tbe ID.W'c Ilamed andfO'cused ~t of ..amnII; we hadseto m the wild, We lnilerpreu~d this ~O' m~ t!:ta,[ a 'Wild

Til.

;Ill .:lot-dippilng. and parasiu·handllim wi'lthol.l[ oopylng csmbH~ed U"ad~tiGns·, Th.ey roUS[ be irnitaLb~~ttier lII1emOOrIi uf o

rn~ti'gr-(]up.

Hwt' 's,holl.ldnote, bo'Wev~[. that - 11!!1~'l.~c~, lbe: cne y,.iLlt human~ - o::nain c'W.Jru!'".!l tr-ol'IlS :lire ~.o dpubu passed on by it
,combinat1Q,fI ,oI imH.aticm and ~mp1:f:r ·1mds of seelal lear~~. 5U~h a;,> ha vm:g eue's atu:nrloll drawn ~o ~c:I'u!, rou'Js. EliitltM"WiI,. k"ll rnll~ (mimi£!dt:rs is c:l"Li.rillI ~Il gMIIi\'ing up it!; a eemperenr wild

Wh~atdo~s 'pa rGigraph G statl!?

Wha~ is the fUll1dioT~


of paragnl:p'nl ~I?

clilinpalllKe"S cwrunl t~Vitmlmc:nl chann~Jled me khavior of ym;!rlg.-,'1!r;r!>, :;leu.!; tliLt'!m iI1! t~1!: dire~titlh of lhe.: mtj.\l[ useful skills. bl the :z®,with.t1u t ~e

c.hlm:p~lCc ,

-~.i!I:1, ~_}j!. ..i;t-1;: ~ 4~m


il<o.~~J!"
I ars Rea dJ~nfll

*'" ~il.~

'. 1 ~-i{fw.itJVtf~MTiQl1-$

Q.uestmm 1-5 E!'!~ I


The passage
"filS'

ldghr paragraphs claheUcd A.-H.


jI~ "-

M~ich p(}.FtJ(:ltlPi.lS; cOI,ltain ll!e /ollol;uin,g .f'llmW:lr:uiot~? I a rceference tOI avaricty efape activities that OCCll~[ in the ,vild 2 't~ef\esults ,of research on. &./0 dJfferem sub j ect gro]J![ps 3. an e>r-pl~a~on Q.f what epponents view as cultural behavtour 4, the research question being addressed m ~e passage 5 the resu I,~s ofre!;earch ~n rwo dttl'crunt en vironments

,t. ;f..ij.fi *J I ~j; f; i':

t ..

r~Jill :il fi) £: (j :£. (:!


rJllI.'!Jl ~ ~
p)"

~*;::, n~~aU: 1-A m


o '*' <lIHH!~ll.

"I~:~
55

Insig nl into IEnS Exl'ra wj~h Answers

·lE.s1'Tlp
~t fJlll!i

.!iI~.

.fit t11

~~.

1!~.OH~." I1'l &.. 1'.(1,. ~ :il 1

~ " 1: ,!- a.

r.iJ.f!~ iEAi;;r;;~~<i·t .~. -9"-

-~~~.1~._~~tt ..•
~ .1t91lfii! il'tJr ~
g.':netle iaheritance.

cs~n~.*~.*.8-

lilLaIbe]ltbe fClUo~ng sentences as.A fOlllTgtIDlien ~or IPfiO:r fact~

6 Your! g a~as watch tbeh: paliilllilil:S as mey 1 You ng chimpanze,es learn hrrv!s~o c P en 8 A cultural 'tra~l[must be gain.ed 11:Ii'unuJgh 9 Chimpmwees need trow<atlcil1. behav.i.ouf 10 Chimpan~ee skills inducJ,€anH~ipping

f'eed. n ms. by n'la!. a:lild!ermr onruy. If\~p€'aoodly beifore they can try copy~o it. and pi~:ras~'tea.mdling . h

.f14·1i~~. ~ ~ ~f~ i JI: tJ ~ '.~~"il)• ~':f- fI •

Qlftation, 11
Widen THBEE H. Chimpanzee
1(;

I€) l' ~
of tile foUowing a:rgumertts ate s,taled .by th£ wrlt1!rn oj' rhe pa..<;s~fl(i!?
I~at

A No~ ,everyone agre.es Cblmpanzee

cWmpmllZcees ,copy each adler'S behaviour. type


Gif

behaVliou!f depsfLd s anthe

,tool mam theyuse,


in t1l1.en

b~hi!.viQUFi'\lbest understoo dIby ot.Hil1ervmglhem. netural habi~at.


than cllhnpan zees.

D Children are be~terwmjtawrn IE Cap:~ive chimpanzees in [be 'wUiIi•

have a elearer idea of how to open nutsth an thes e

.F Chimpanzees.'

otlse[WMml of paeenr behavleur

[svita] tal tbe] r d o:v.c.lopm €:1'II't.

Vm::albulaluy builder

12 Scanthe

passale for thElloUo~ng words .: l1y te work:O:U'I:.lh.eir meamlll,Q look [hel1~up in the dlidiornary~TiId d edde on eorrect meanlng.

m.e

fin-SIt

then

Word
notlen con,trcwershL[

Meantng OOliCf ar Id;@. lrn1l«:a..~ ~th

!~!}

:sc.eptics:
distinction i:m;pLh::<1I.t[ons

e'xdu:si vely
collaboration in'litative momtored a:m:verge crucial

56

Readling
UINIT 71d,entifying opinion/attitude
'01 ;)~~~rn c!i \,\ )U .~A!~\ t

/.

* ~"'w- rr
i~\

and making inferen

IX7T .Il!

1-jI: 1,-

NrIII ntJi~

*"

WfB.m.I)5Jti:t~ji.D.1~·~&~ 00., :£*&"lif"!~~i3:~~tfFt~ tF::itfrr~.tt!H~tffitB ~tf' ~l,iif(fr:rHIWj t Wir·tl;i!~J\!.F,H.~lJp:'~fi; ~Ii~:f¥.n~! tEOOi~il·Pfflll w~ ~;rlri!JL~~~J.rJt~l~··;K'if(~o

*~

• F1ISl,read 'l1I.e1.@X1be]o\l'I,' and make runes about w~lal or did, D.r S~mQn COh:;l
film-aDds

the ~orhJwing pe,ople dn

GaJitnm

Byron Mitche.1I

Robert Ep,win

Fingerprints
IFi I1geJpn nts, ttl elOuchstone of forensic science". have' never been subjected to proper scientific scrutiny ,FOR
n'l!OS~ of

the 'oenh.ny s1nce it made u:s

CQu ifI!1rOom d ehut,. I1ingerprinl Lng llasElf'!l!;lcyed HI'I impecca b~e fiepl,ItaUcn fGr ~del!ltifyj I'Ig

crim~I'!~~S, What fury would -acq,uit a susj:ler,t Ir hr,s pri II'Irs m(1.lJ[c'hed ~11o!ie lou IIld at ~h scene of e ill crime? It was thus understandable ttlat. when a speaker ~Ha recem mefltB!'Igo n 5cien ce and the taw held in San lJ~egDby America':; Ju:')ltce Depar'lmenl hcll'lteld~h~l tile te'hnlQL:le~ might run d:eserve its Cl1JWa 'I[:!{ inta'II'ib~lit)i, an F81

agent in U'1 e a L,II:'J1:(lll1'ce waS Ilatll;!'r oveme.;rl'1~


iI

calhng him .Ell n Mnpr'n~able nam:e. Unders~andable, but not says, the speaker. Simon Cole. j,ustiflad. For he is 0 ne o:r a ~mall $1mup of peop'l'e ~hlal ilasstarted ~aokil'l,g at the tech nique wh~th,above ,~Uothers, gav,e rorens!c scieflce its scientific statu5. ArId, surp !is1!,!g~y, he has found Rlis, sdel1ltifically <lnd stalistil;.;IlIy w<lntin9-

Th i 5 is !'lot to say ~ha[th e world's pri sons are fuU 01 innocent VI,O'IJims of dodgy evi'del1lce_ BliIt~he' fa,CiI;s, .u;;mrdrfllg to Dr Cor.:!, who l resEt<:m;:hed the s1JlbJect ar ComeU un iverslly, that fingerprinting has rJ:everbeen SlJ bjeCled tn the scienril'lc scrutiny required In .11 modem eaurtrnorn, And he thinlG ilt should be',

Modern Angerprtr:l<tin9'goes back till Fltlnd~ Ganon, al9t11·ool1l]l1ry Brilistn scieriltiSl who, iF'l::mjqa!~y.heiped to pl'Ol1Ieer the use o:r SUllJstics, In 1~9::!l GaTto:n r·ooked ClI! the paltem or whor's. arctles i1Jrld loops &lilt make lip fLngBiq::)f.inls, and
,esliim1ft~cI ~flatli'te e:n<l.nceo~ t.'I«O pl'in~s mSIChi 'l9 at random 'WaS abruJ;! one ii'll 64 binion.

Insi:ght Into IELTS Extra with Answers

Thal estimate, howBll,iler, has IiIEVer been backed up by any datet Besides, (;almn 'was not Ireall)! comparing whole prints. 'n~t~ad, he' idef!tlfied' place5 where the ndges of Which fingerprl I"Itsaf,e composed, eit~er~nd or spl it These are now MQW"I,a5 'points of sh'i'1itarlty:. or 'Gallon details', and Ir [wo prints, have 1e'llougl1 poi nLS I", cornman they are deemed 'to be h:ll!!j9,li cal, Ii Galton's es~im81te I",etled GO using every availab'!e point Ithere are generally bet\tYeen 35, and 501. Current pr:i!ldice, whkh !fanes widely lrem DIU! plaoe to another, has been r~ dedare a match if there afe somewhere befWe~n eight and 1B pclints o'f s:imilarlry Ilnldn'l91 d print found at a, crime scef'lf! and one taken from a su:speCl Ulflfo;l'tiunarel'y, the valid'tty of Lhis process, and the rHJmber of paifllts of .sl miiafiJ;y need e.d [0 make II SbUiS· ~ic:aUy see::ufiH,lilave not been sc:jei!"itiliieally in'f,Iestigated Nor has the alternative 'technique] recently irl'lfoduced In Engiand of relying on an examiner's o¥efilU impression of a match, without' ,anY a!;empl at ql.iiantmcation. TMllPuts fin9etpi'iming on shaky theoretical ground. ArId: (WI) other thin Q<S rna ke the ~luation WorSE! ill pr~tlJlce, 1 The' 'Ilrst is thai til1gerpril1ts f'ound .111, enrne scenes tend LO be inc;omple1e. What ave being CO'mpared are thus not whole prinls, but me-re lfagmen;15. N(i)l~jf'l.g, [lot even Geltol't!l ol"igil1'iil'~ analysiis. has anything to SiJY about [he likelihood of fragments af prints coinciding In diff'e-~l1t if'll divid uals, e The' Hoond difficulty is 1ihal most fingerprilill eviden~e' found itt the scene of a ,crime lis 'Iatel'lt: In other words it requires treatmenf
5

"Iiihe'tI,jmliilgl point was the ease of Byron ~o Mitchell, who allegediy drO\'e the g,etaway oar In a robbery carried (l1Jl. in Pennsylvania n 1991, In 1.998,. Mr Mnthefl ap,pealed against tn is COn'Vi t'liion. The esse tU-l1'1 eel on !:'Wolatent pflllilts,- one found on the getaway ear's steering wheell and the other on its geer Iwer ~ that were said to Ilflk 11, Ie tile crime. m The vetBibi, 'of ttl e case are tortuous: M r '•• Mitchell's conviclioll was upheld this year, but hi~ lawyer- Rrober1 Epste n, another doubt,er ot I~he 'value of fii1f,J,e-rprtnts, ls stfil try-Ing to have it O\rei'tl.lrr'led, During the cow use 01 tl'Ie trlal however the FBI did .something thal had never been done before

n carri ad out

a rough ,and

ready ei(perim~n~ to tesl th e ~ lao illt)' or

HngelFPri lilts,

II did this b)' sending the I'<rtent prints. plus Illk'ed priflts of Mr MUcheil's fingers. to the

12

Ii bor&~ories of 53 state law enforceme:ru agenc:ies. Eight of the 35 agencies thilltt responded were uf1i\ble 1Q find a match for on~ of Ule latent prints, and six f<!tted to match (healher - an average failure rate of 1~. That is if] shocking re/iuIL Ami confidence in

113

with chemicals. er

II! umkJli:inon with

ultraviolet

IlIgh1. ~n order to makie'h visible enoUJghto

work ~1h - and, even then, it is,often indistinct How vaU:d F(is to eempare such 'tllt;eredf' evtdam::e with 'IMe cteill"! crIsp prifl1'.S obtained 'from suspects ill tornrolled conditlDns, is another unexplelltd ques~lol'l'. s The upshot is t.ha~ at ,least by comparisQn
wi(h ~he t~li:hnh.~uesused to process DNA e\lidence Iwhkh are often, in 1rlbute te the awe' in which the older ted1fllque is held~ r,efarred Ul as 'DNA f:ingerpi11'lting'I, "ng:erp rlr'llS loo'k. 't~hI'1itally Hawed, And lawyers - backed ~!'I Ameri:ta by a iudgmenr m~de in 1993 then set staru:laresfor the admission of sCienlil7c

evllll'el"!ce in court - lU@ 5,Mrt.ing to nDUoe,

tile bUreilU'5 obiEtttiveanlh.!de [0 scientific eyidence is not Elf'I han oed by its response to Ule' first round ,of HlSJJlts, I,l slipped efl1rarged photographs ur the larent prints and the' prints frCl'm M~Mifchell Into transP@trent plastic:: s'1~e'f,les. and marked red dots on 'the sJe~ tOI sugg~l which or Mr' Mftdie!J's anms rnatcheQ the :Iatent ones and where Whli'!i"I ttlll!; 'mcdIFLi::d'e~dence was sent bac~ W the errant "abcmtol'lles,. ,most of the ~ampners look the hint ~nd agireed: lh~ the prints did M'l.ually m.M,c:h, after a~l 'fiI1is, case, fn !Dr Cole"s '({jew. casts senou~, 1alild for We first 'Llme quanli1ahve doubt on me reliaJbllil,y of fingerprlnrs_ More research wculd tnu.s be welcome, and Americ;:JI's Nc:Ulona1 IMtitute ,td Jus~i(;e (alii arm of the Department or'Justice} is pnoposing 10 study the matter. arid has, made' 500,000 available' 10 do so. This is. in e1fed, an ildmis~lon that n!'llgerprinling as nClW practIsed m'i:t)t ru::d adually be reliab1e',In·the meantime the U$B efa tei;:hnique that lifIiJY have an error rate as, higih as 20% r~ls~ alOl of legal qLle:S~ons, If these are not answered soon, many more cases'tIlat turned on a few smudges left behind by a c,;!reless trhninal or an innocent byst1lJidler are going to be d rag!led befO'm the epp eal C:OYl~.
j

58

Reading UNIT 1
• VVhat is your view of the use of fingm:prbns to convict criminals?

.' VVhat nuo new pieces ,of inform aUon have you learnt from this passage?

~:it~ Jt: 1t!:.!t ~.ft J~ 1,.~ #!. -ffl ~ ~ AA:, 1iH~. ..}U,*-1'JoAt Wl "H is unclear wlrether ... " fF JJ t.I'7 6~~ ~. 1t~ E1. it~q

ff k Oif ~t;fjJ}'lift 1~.


':(f

*'

S 1't::t ~t~ :tJr ~ it


• Find expressions I first appear S
II

~b Jt

,u ~~

;t

to

Ii .. =Jrtf It'' .. .fr

in thetext

to match these' definlnons, U

I be shown (paragraph

2 nntiee hnponm:u

things missl Il;g:(paragraph

2~

h:31veno firm $oundation or basis (paragraph 6)

result or outenme (paragraph 9) 5 respect highly (paragraph 9)


6 criUcill moment {paragrapb 10) 7 no; very exact or serious tpar,agraph 8 make ,app@aJI less true (paragraph 11) 14)

• .[leptace' ilie \~o.rds ami phrasesin ttaltcs in, sentences 9-14, W*llrni of the one express,i.oJlS. It may be necessary 11:0 ebange jhe sen tence strucnue,
9 I lool'ed up to my English Professor so much that ~. as stunned w he had lest h~~ job. 10 The student had til rether to rum up at lectures, when Lheard that

casual attitude towards h.is studles and rarely managed


wilsdom.

The newspaper article seriously qUesZif)t1ed the popular pretects against the commun culd. in an old warehouse

mal vitamtn
H (lompany.

12 The actors fir:!l performed IS Hi Pete had


'W

on the edge eftewn,

nm's career ;s,uddenlytaok,offwhen

he got a job w~tb awell-known the texr,

accept that he no {unger enjoyed his friends- lcompany .


[I'll

•' Find cxamp'ie~ of the following devices


15 a rheLo[rlca.I.question

that suggests a certain viewpolnlF (par3.grnph Il or view (paragr:!lipb 2) that...' (par<lgraph 3)

Ui an adverb that 'carries' an attitude


]7

a structure

that means 'J am nOI suggesting

18 an expresslnn used ro give an opinion

(paragraph 6)

59

.nslghr ,into IELTS Extra with Answers

A4*,l- rll,i~~)Wil~ cr~;tr *=1~,Hl~1! ;f!i i~if ..~'tt1~ ,tt'r.JJl,I{lf ~ ti ~.


ii:.f:~!J

1;t:~·.J-ti!11f..TRUE~FALSE;!."iNOT ;f:.!5- ~ t ~ $jL~ifTl!~ 61;5; M-Jl~ (aHFJ ~ ( ~,t «fJatHfi.,~ iJ;_ ~ it.llf» " 5 5 ]In ~

t.

GIVEN (JE.~.

~1l~

Pre-task questions
19 How should you approach

:m

the Yes, No" Nor ghl'en task type? \Nh,!!l!'L is dIe diHereno~ between •No' and [Na t g_i,v,en' uestlen s'~ q

Q-".esti'om 2J-:2'1

I eJ I~ I
,11;~I.'

D'O 'he following .sta,remefU9 Wr,ite rES


NO NOTGIVEN if the

Luitil the

.uiews of the writer in rll'ernatling

pttssage '!

Sl.atement agrees with ,fhe' writer if lhe statement ccmu'adlcts ,the writer .ffU is tmpossib,te to say whm che wrUer E1~fnbabout tM.s

21 If a SU5p~CeS, :f:ingerpIrUlt:s, atch those found a~ the scene of a crime, a" ju.ry ~s m expect -d to find that person guill)". 22 It is surp ris]ng that criminal experts were reluctant to accept any erftlcisrn of tlngerp rin ring.
23, Simon Cole's in i[ial find irigs ware to be expected.

24 Many ct todays prisoners are actually innocent people who hUViIl! een b wrnnglyecnvieted, 25 There Me Slurprising gallS in G~.ltilln>s research on fing,erpdll1till G. 26 Finge1'!pnn:ts, cannot su ccessfully be taken Ion the' ground . . 7 further invesLig;uiol'l is needed into the w,ay fmgerprlnrs are' oomp3l:@d. 2

Asadlng lIINn 1

i~ 1iJ··-f G ~..ji £ 1:tm .~ il~.~A~ ti~, ~?lr Jt: ~ 1; s: I!l ~ ilt ~~ it :hfr r ~flJ ill. $.111--M:.1i·*"A.t;f ~ ., #.,strong argument", 1~ ~ ~A:. "heavy argument"; -I!!:..4Jt 11, "strong" 1;.~ "argument' ~. £ ~ ;ff ).t.

*-ii i'

• Look. at. ~he ~jstof neuns 2~3'6. Cn.OOSIf: a.~djrta,m

the box below that colloeates

,"vim each
28 a

0 ne ..More

tnan one aaswer maybe possible.

llepmacion

29' eenfldenee 301 an ex,erl ment 31 staM.Hi 32 questions. 83 ill :r.obb ery 84 scnniDy 85 argumenr
3S, a con¥icMOIn

subject (to)
give Comph~t~ raise

luck up (by/Vrifh) inueB.

enjoy
uphold

enhance
carry out
LI:1. the

iii

correct

l:J;l,e gaps ic. tllile fbUow~ngsentM.OllS ~1 U5ingan appmpriatt!!'!}e:rllJ, ten~elvoice'. MOlle than one answer may be possible ..

37 Mer the lecture some of the' students some' i[l~e[esil:mg questions abaut Itlle r,eliability of the· data and the ~x:perW:le.~~s !wat h2ld , . 91 Many academics carry out. research In order to ".. the lr goo d replua.tionb~ the. field and d1.elr s,ranmswUbin the lIniversUy. 39 At the appeal of his firs'( tdall the defendenr fin:a[~yadmitted tha.t hiehad, ....•,.......••........ '1Ji1e bbe.ry and .. ~sconvi.cUon was therefere lO h ,.••....... " . 4,1 The passengers were conside!l:'abhl: SCfitn~!l'Ily a~ the airp en which md m'l~e 00 "•..... ,th.e.~ oonfideo.r:f! in the ;al(]i.IllJ~. 41. The [politki,aJil \'1/<18 II.JJrruabhl! 'W " ""' any of his a:rgumenll8,atld :soon found that he c~uld nil IOr:!Eer .,., ""......•.• the rt:puta:tiom he nnee had.

Reading
The General Trainirllg module, Section 1

~I.i!iJl~~, 'il~ 'lit::

S Iec t ion

'QIfJt!StiO,'1S

l-.UJ

Ie9 1cl

Laak

the texts be{Dw, .usintg NO MOllE TlMN 'THltEE WOMIS1 urlswer

queslio'rl$ 1-1(I,

useum
ChateaU Grtrnaidl Antibe9 Franc&j
Th1l' Picasw
hO'U$ll!d in
11

MUflcJ.Jm (I f Antibt'~ is b.r.l'luUfli~ old 'IIi Ila, blllill 0'l'11


ol:"l(;e eIN,'u.plh::d ~

g:r001l1'lO 'lta~l ~5I

afu::ict1l [i,rte'l!;.-s ~nd later by e 'RtHTlarns. Pi ~$S,O h\ms~lf liVed tn n1!i~:house <lind ,ai,nted th~iTl 1946.
Guidedl lOliO!
'OII::IC
'~r1

rn

the

CAFE
,f{efreshmel'llts.Wir:h Yie~ of the holll'boiJr.

MUSEUM 5-HD,P
CraOilm!d with bQab aTld VOLUNiftER!i
iii nlJsya~!iOuvenii"S,

tag-"
JIIil

ar.~' 131 ~

ht: Drgal'lbKi
1;JI1DJlJ'2l11!. fOl

Of! i'Cqllt~t.

4-"

'Q"ro~PllI:m welihrll::~ays arui hD11days,


nil: I ~pll 30

n <lmlworkshop visll~ 'iiDndUlQI


10'am-fipm
~

(h,'dr~'n

[I.-~tl -. M.~:n '. 10. m-...... . ~ tliJ~~ Mllnt!:ays ami holidnl"S

ZoO."

OppD?Unrries- 9!St for in~ ted p~Qple to donate theil' ~ me br b~om [FIgfOUr ,guides ,ar th~ mL!~ljIm.
&.q!lii
lilt <lii

dh~ VQ'lIlillfeer~' df:S~.

PHOTlDIlRAPIft" L1~of flasill"o:~ penn'tted tl1i,sid~ tnl! M_urn, HOURS TO;am",S,.DllIpm Da.lly ~ptChnmnil$ 6 How .many eve nts 8 How-much on rodtly?

Day

I Whern'eis the

P[c,31!ii!5D

Muse

l;un?

<1ft'!

2. Vilho once Jived lhe[e?


3 \I'llbertam d~.i.ldmn most We]OOJll.e?

1 W1un can you see fro IT! '~hec~fe'~


,ne Hrue IOlluguides paid?' e !ilJ3Uday? 9 \Vhill is hoald yo U J1IlJIt do hElle?
llQ, l,.Vhef1lws, he !TI~seurn closed [(] the pLl bUd r

4 Vllhj,ch months

[si

l up

S. How do you gel a guided wur? 62.

11'-*. ~Jjii{ .!EJ Hf.. 1(, &'J 1~,~- it . -tt True ill' *- f.11 it£. ~ fo.li !t (~,1t' I~;r.;·J;f. • ~Pat~<",0 X.ffl :t.t it7IJ.u:Jt flt. £!_ ~. u~1t .fb •

4a•• ~t.

~*.~-a~*~-~~~~ .••
D

'" .Read the ~e'xt and anSVl,r!3r questtons U-lS. '. Uhde rIDi n e [he wortiis in thetext whidl gave' y,ou the an swer,
'. ULheidolmll!ili.on~!i nQi~ given

Fre,m,antl'e Prison 1
Western Australia~s,Pren:der
CQ'ltu,ral fferUtage Site
is a 14~ac[e walle,o; end.oI!;\.lIl!' . b~lt in .1,B50 hom timestone, ,quarried en the slte. The (\omJllex Includes the main bloek, the' 0 Id~ b~e h~~e~ the workshop and be spital. Today 'the' bUIldings stand. empty mdiUe open to the pu.b1Jc. Fre~'n:tePruon
Vi.sitfllf9' Dm.es
M~ndayto SMday 10am-~~m

in the t~t, is there B;[Qjything which m~l~ lead you to gi:ve '[he \'VI"() n g amn;wer1'

My:l a week)

Frtday 7.3Dpm Candlelight tours f'our.s' School. TOlliS avai[ahle AmenftieS Cafe SouVenirs Photog::m.pher
= ~

IClosed Chd5tmas Da:y and Good friday f

(bookings Gmly)

QuesritJm 11~Uj Write


'THUE FAlSE NO'F,G1VEN

lt9 ~

--_l1li

.i{eoo the ativer'(iseN'um

raoorc and .look at rhe st{J:t£mlen ts below (Qu.(/£tion'i 1J~ J' 6).

ifliJ"e sttUemelU agrees wfth .tJilein/ormarirm in rhe passage


if tile SWJement COI'uradicu .thi?inJorma {rem in rhe pmS(1gJl

it there is ,nO'i ll!a'ftTleuion a.bou!

rh is in tllrl pas:sage

II Tlie stnne enmes from the WOLind.(I n which the p[['~sonwas bun t,

l2.Fliemantle p~i5U]1 functions <'lSI;) wo.ddrJg p,rison today. l3; The p.risD.llis open every day of the year. 1-1 Hundreds. or vi!!i;]torstome to the prlsan every year. l5 YOIll eed la, bn ok;]l;head for [he night visit n 16 You cannut takepbomgraphs witJJ]Jn the bu.:i1dl:ings.

Insight in10 IELTS Exira with AnS.lAhers.

Quesrio,JS ''1'-22
Write TRUE

[!9 e I
.~fr he
stafenUNH

Rearll{c,e le.aJlet below ami look at rN~Sf:afemem.s bel'()u~ (Qucsttons 17'-22).

agrees wi l~l the' .informa tiOt1 tn chI? .pllSsa[!,fl

FALSE NrII'GlVEN
18
YCrl.ll'

lfine statemem oon:!ratllcu rhe information in

me pass'age

if lhere is tiO ['!jbrmalicUl nJmtu rhi!. in the pautlge

'1"l You <Ire asked W taka care of

the fragile .J\ustra~.ia:nenvironmeae,

can always change money at the h otels, ·only swimlf thereere Ufegua1:ds on the beach,
11 bicycle

19 YOll! run the gTea~e:s~risk of stllnbllJrn at '~e beach. 2;0 YOu C~ 21 Many J1JClJwv.eanimals are tiUed n'l:l th e road s at niitht. 2:2 lr ~sillegal to ride ~thou~ we~r.in~; a helmet.

W'elcom'e t.O Australlila!


E'95entiall Informati,ot1 far Tmvelrer.5

The G,reat QutdDo.rs


A~stra Iia isthe wt'ldd '5 old'sst [onti nent an d im:lig;e;rnm~,.iL~. AustrEilian!i haw one of '~e wor~d'!i old~t cu~t\irei. In AliJIstraHa~ou wi II s,ee un ique pJIi;l!nts and ani Fl'Hlllsand some of the rnest bi!:au~irfl,ill !i[~f1ery ii'll 'the· we rid. M any parks. have rnrormath::m centres offering advtce 'CII'II wtitere to go. what to see snd how to see' it - for both your personal safety and [0 proted.cur sen~ii[]\I'e,li'Iinur~1environment. Banks aId I1lDle~ mnatters Banl!ls .are generally open b:Mweeli'! '9.30 and 4.00,pm on Monday to Thul'5day iilnd 9.lD and 5JJQpm on frilJia.y. Fon~tgn curml1lq,' crtravelh2u's ch~ue5C:an be {hal1lg~d at aU ba nks and some 00 'the 1.11 rgerr hotels. There in:e curr@ncy E!1C:C1hang@fadnlli~ alt all inte~na~1()n'ala.irpo rts. The Sun fa I'e care I Olllr sunUtght ~'svery strong and ~ou c:a n
'Qe~ nbumt S!.J!

Swimming Wli.l haw so many beautiful platElS b)· sWim beach@$, h~b!s. rivers .and Cflli!i'l!l(s. "' !Many ofollr waters i\lwe safe for swim mill g. but if y~ u hillil'E!iI~)f dOld bu, lIDSk befQtE!
E!nU!l'il1lgtne
Wi!l~er~

• Mos.t O'f our .pe,pu~ar ocean beaooes

patrDis wi'(ih llesaving ~!Nic.e. Red and ye !low

ha~li!

flag!i' im'~rkthe a rea tl1atyou are· adviSfdto swim within. • ~fthere are AD flags and no ~~f'eguards on the· beadl, tall!:. to, leeal pfOp~!e aoout. tile IJMt iii rea!i kI 5;w~m.

5tayi ng ~fe

the roads • Au~tranan!l dri\l~ on thE! LEIT ~and sidleo~


011'1

the rgad.

• •

(hi~d,eni m~t w@aroil '§eatb~~.


tOI

For safety, e~ryone' in the car.indudi 11'19 Moklr Icyd ~5ts and bicydsts are r·!2'tI~ ired

wear a he.lmet

• Watch eut 'for native. animafs uo5sing' the


fOOds. es:;pec:ialIy at night. Ro·a.dsigns al'E! eH!!~edl in ,plac:es where ilQ.ima'ls are wmmonlv soon.

• !broad brimmed hat sh irt with collar iii nd s'lleeves • !Um sereen Wfth h~9h protection

For best sun pmternon, rl is .advisable

'K!

wear::

*'

faaor

54

Readinq
UINIT 9 The Gene'ral Training module, Section 2

iflM t~~II! i!il~'it: s e e t. ion ~


tJ-:iifi~llll~lJtSoction
2~1IB!1~~.!ijSeclion

.2

l~"rClo lftr~x"fZ~UM~t!H~, Ui~1t

~ fJ}!t&R:;HJl}~~~ld.Qit9~Ul'.~

]I.
!!

1,i~ ~:iII~

a~.~~~~~~~~.n~~A(~ ••~~«.~~~)~M

~*

*1 M"
u

~Jt

k 3! ~ ~ Jt il

Read through the passage to, get a.generali d ea 'of the topic. '. Then read Ilhe headings below and ma teh r:1:u;lrn the paragraphs, te '. There wnl aJ.ways, be one Of two more headings than you need. lIII~lTS IFilndl ng (GlI")

Ques,titJ"r,s 1-1 I E!) WJ I


HIll

re.ading passage IlaS stx pamgrnphs A-.F•


T~10Stsultnble:

.From the lbt oflu2;adi.ngs h,e,low chom"#! th«

heatJ.i,'i.g!or each paragr.a.pll.

Ust of Headings
:i lii .iU
ill' Culmml activi'ties

Exchange prowams

f'orma1lmc;m~of assessment Getring around me GilIlIpUS


Finannlal asstsrance 5peciaJ consfdernt~olll

v 'vii vii vlii, liN:

University by-hlws
Identlficarkm Sludy sldlll.swork!ih pps Hs,~y 'I\~ddng

Insight inlo IELTS Extra with Answers

,/!mm,ple

1ES,.np
'"11.

Paragraph I ParagraphS

w~ •• ~,

;;j'i

Ii i 4HIUf ~ ~.& ~t,

ii!UH'

2 Paragr,~ph C 3 PU3gr,;;tph D

4 Paragraph ,8
5, Paragraph
f

6 Paragraph G

UN.V'ERS.'TV
• For m,any courses in

S,ERVICES
your degree at this uoWer,sID/. This oH'ers an 11i!')(Citin91and chaUenging walt of brm.nlefling your horiznns and enrichin!} your B,cademic ,Ei)(1le ria n cle in iii diffi:! rs nt envi ronme nt iillnd

the Unfv8:rs'ity. the

-majo.ri'ty clf 'your marks will be based 01"1 VDl!Jlr written work. It is ess'li!ntia,1tha't you IrnevollDIl yo u r ski'lls as a wrihl'rfor the d,iff,fljrll!l'fIIt discipHnes in which VOU study. M,ost d'epaln:ments offer advlic~ and guidelines (Jin hlJlw to pre'se m yom writte n :a ss ~gnm ants but VOU should be' aware :thet the requiraments may varv from ,one de'pallrtment to another. There a l['Ie two fa rma I ellt!:i:mfn al~j(Dn pa riod s eB1ch v,ear; firs,t semester p'eriod beginning in June and the second semester period be Oinni rig in N ovem nero .Add ition a~IV~ individual departments may 'eKamine at other times and bV various methods such as 'takehame" exams, ,assignments. ,owall'y.pr,~u:tic,a]1 work: and snen, If yOIJ 'reel yOlJlr perrcrrnance in all1l n a,ti0 III h as be en adve riBIII IV illffected by Illness or misadventure, 'IOU should tal1kto the COUtS'S Co-ordinator in your d'el:l'artment and 't: (I mp leteiul ill pp ra pr~ate fo rrn. ElM::to C:iJ SO is CO nsi d srsd on its own merits,
8l1!.B mi

oe

c,hJllture.

Ylouth AII'llw8l'1ce may be availab"B te fullti m sNde nts.. fI oi m h uesernsnt of trava I c'IJ'sts may alls,o be allail~blB in ~ome eases, P'o,stg:nll:luate Ir'esearch fLilrnls are ,offered 'for fuU~t~me'study 'tow,ards Miillsbmi by Research

or IP,nl[) ds'grees. These are c,ompetit~!;ie and the closing date tar ap'p,lfcations is 31 October lin th e ye air p ri 0 rto the one' f(l r wh i,e h file'
fund's are sought.

G Ylour s:rudent card,

e

The iUnivers'ity has amll'lgemeflts wlith univ'enitie s th rD'U g heut tt1 G! Un ~edSta,'tes, stu d'l!llits a nd a'llow yo IJ to c,om1pl~~e a so m es'telr cor a a r lof yo u r dB g fee C1\1e'rS'aas. The results you galin ,are cr',edited towards

obtained on completion a,f e r1ll'1ol s nt, is Ilrmlfthe,t ya u ,are' e nlrDl1 ed. m Pleas'8i take sp,ec~a~care of it and carry it with VOY whe'n VOIJ're at thl' ul'liv,el,'rsity. You ma,y be ask,ed 10 show it to staJf 1lI1~ 'EHilV~ime. Thls card is alse vo~r disc 0 urll1: card and lJi,ccess card for tile Studen'Es' Union as wli!'I'1 as allowing you access to the library.
Tiltle' Uni'IUl provides oP:lJ!ortunitlies f,or a

Canada, Eumpe arn.d As;ia. The schemes: SlII"i!l! open to l.mdergradUBf1B and postgraduate

ve

wid'e range Illf 'ilctivities. fram the pradulction of 'fi'lms III nd p~ay!i. to C,OI11 eerts and m:agalzines. and even a,r!: and phom e.xhjbi~ions. If V'DI!!hav'l! 8 ,!:ulativlB idea in m~n ali Pljc k UI P a farm hom ACe,ESS '011 Level 3.
Buildingl.

Wjijjlll1ldsworth

66

Reading UN lIT '9


V'DC3bulary builder

• Read the ~ext again and find words which h~v,e the same rn,eanwng as the ~OI'Wo'Mng efinltions, These are all words which YOIl!. are lJikely to meet al d or u:D.iV'ersi'ty.
WOld

iii.

college
in text

Uled

a subj ect yo u can study at

UfijW

rsivy reGuJa,tiul{]s, about something

"/' ,
B

,..
,.

a su~temem which givas rulesand with


,'I,

a P]13-ee of woruik,r!'@lrmaUy wr:i rten, set by your teacher, onen


:8

deadline

9 ... ".........••....... .1<11 ••• , .

divls10n of the acadern le year

oOe of the sectie ns IOfIi school, conege or university


ft

11, 12 l3

. "",.,...• ..

P er6iJ [i who organises a cou.rsf!


l

a qu;difh::<lrion you study fbr at a university men ey \il,fhichis given back 'Dlii,ginaID work done by
III you

U
15
Hi

"'

.
..

i.I1 srucent

as part 01 hi:s or her smdles

to m:-egis"er a university for a course' at


a display of artwork

11

1'1

• Usms words

(t:om the \rO'C3 bulary IJlWJdeli'mis~,complete m~spassage whlc hi offers advice 'to new s,'rrudents. U5e one word vrdy for each s.paoe.

Advice for

:D8W

studtmts

Wh.en you first arrive at a coHege or umversity. you will need 'to ... (18) •.. in the' !Nbjectstha1: you, have' chosen t:o study. '1tis proress can take the best pan Of 8 day. so be prepared to watt armlntU

each course there is a. •.• (19) ..... wbo m re_~onsib]e'for lorganising the program BIlldyou s:hou.l.Cl make sure WI you, mb:oduC'8 ~U!O him OI heI' sml,' in the ... (20) •••• '1';0 fhat 'Way, it YOll need to m.ake any chanps to your J)l'Og:rimL you will know who ~ospeak to,
FOJ

The fonn, of assessment for eaCll C01ll5€l varies mom ,de,anm,ent (2] J' , •• but 'DlGst WID use a combination of examinations and ... (22.) .... U yoo are studying fot 8, higher ." {23) .••• a lot of your wnIkmay involve personal ... (24} .... Most universities lUlllifestl'iot •.• 1(251 'governing the amount. 'of time dia,wed te ...

'0 '"

tilmpJete such a program.

• Now writa five sentences using M least two of the wolids in eseh sentenee to show YOUI understand how they function.

I nsigihl into IE LTS Extra with Answers

Qlt6StiO.ns ,~84

IE91~ ]

Look at the fo~'l(J'wing statements abou, books (QuesliotJs 26-34) tma tbe iRJbrmallou about ,w:nnenew ,b.o()tsA-,f' ou Cl baoksh'op web$i~e.
Mrucfl
€tIell

statemem to c,~~e correct boo'le.

FThis book

,.Es" 11p'
J:1-il"'~~!'6-{!iJ ;r. .c. -1".

2,6 \I'/.riU helpyou


27

20 29'
301 a,1

32 38 34

keep OLand feel good. Is fuJi" the urban history student, is Ifor the reader wtth an lmerest m marItime history. is a llght-hearted look at suecessfut roDney mmilagem~nt is by a ,"'eU published authnr. explores human rnuttvatien and character. is the author's first publication. p ruvides practicsl advice on how to pres emyourself is recommended as a present,

Around tile World i'n IiIO'weeks


Ell'
{},;flmJ

Ie

(:'woitllrt

Fr<l ,kln 's JI.:bul b90k IS a 'itO!]' 01 (iourdgl;' and pef!iOnill athle~eme[l1 Ba~d on tus ei(pe I nC~5 s!lIlmg single nanced ..round '1'11:> v,'orlel, a voy g Thai took hirn o~er <I ~ea, and a half to c.omplete II alter'> the raoJder an Ul!.lghl I1'1 to what comp~1:$ some ndivrduals to set sail alone. In sear h of :I: .Iemen. ;md Ih~;.eI'il'e5. An ~tra.ofdlna,v account trorn iii rJli!\I'\' ~thDr with a great ulure ahead,

811 Claff>e RlbeifO Th ~s IS a rn list for .ellery

On;;! Shoe :Stri n e:

E Dres....
~(lU

n~ person

By Mavis E Ma>,lls Mafquick

lryHlg to i'Ila1<.e enos l'Il€!et Shoe Strm~ IS packed with helpful htn s ,mel pr[l~ti~1 id'ei'l5 on I'\ow to mo;rke vam uudget stretch whilest~11 ITlillh'lglng to enlOY Ille. RlOeiro's ean sense of humour shines lhmugtl en e~e r Y p.lge'

about fashion 8Pt something new Marqulck takes the clnthes ate what -_ •. ,-,....,., _ ap[]ut you and f@lTlfII'I'IlftIIP

make

a bad im

8.·

....

D Post where

.JID~'molilern il)! ~U1 Iilut?

!:lQrn M{!e to spend a good - ~ou lust need an ......, """', colcur tlnd O[;Ca5lOn. Buy

By Karl Kllpslad Elullbln,gs, art. lash Ic.m, design.

ben'!fll from Ma...s' yeats of i In thE! cut and tbrust ""or I d of 'f:'Jsh1i;m!
E!l(pe'iE!I"IOC

the tatl of the Sydney Cove. a


.~IfI$'leO.~lp which

November 1]96 tor


wmds and he lIy hUge damage

deparlCi!d

Kapstad takes a long IQok at no,,", form hils changed over tile last 40 ~e,lIr:. and comes up with same fas.cma!ling pr.ed;~'!i,t;m!i. for the f1Jture

IF V'OIl are' what you By t». SlJsan LO~t


3nEi

eat

A~ounE ~l!rSDn'sI!.U~i! tQl hnUBV ""_I

mine,

~t'atU!lll!d

IH~lPlltinto beach the

Tms little bpak 1:$

i1rf~WMIr Cove em an f.-T:iSrruiltlla. Bloom's c:l@tall makes

and one you

keepmg your om:!"" In good s!)ape. Students note ljllll Pri~~ I1Ii1kes a gr at ~I I.

redpe~f e~llrrise!\ and ~leld id~as lor . making 1he mos] or ~Q'or lartler, wl'uie' . :

;atur cd

lull of

'::

Writing
UNIT 1 Descrlhinq facts and figures

Ii!$~~~l

~~------------------~---

Acads

IGIEl T[ME. f,ACTS RIGHTI!

$I Ii91~I:

WDdd~s,top llangu,a,gles
Mi111iJ!!IS or spHB.kef~ ~!lSfirst In second Illn !lua gle ~

Chrnese
Enyli1i1l

Hindi

~~==~~~::::=======:--~
4U
470

],123

Tt.Sl' UP
fitfu!; r l").

Sp,sl1ish I Rllssi.lli'l IBunglllli __

-----

31~

Arlllil~ POll'luguE!&e Japanese


Fl1lllch

--........
~
'121'

Z8B

rr5iliJit~ II~IL.O,* .• ~ '7-;1 ;l iii ~ .Q., ;61:1. {$ .G-i ,. t4i.m J ff~!1 1 ,~ it io '9" :9

18t US

124

'l:il:lrmlln

] Wn,an is wrong with this statementt C/dm~$e l.sthe umrld's most widely~StlQken Imlg,[W;ge. u,Wz 1,123 !~·IJ(!llke"s.
things are wrong \!vWh.this statement? Only 121 pfl,ap,le speak G.enn.all, ivhir,h is the rt'Orlds leas~-.sptjbm I.a,-;rguage, 3 Cumplete this descnpnon wUh lnfurmarion from the ch.nL and words from me bnx, You may use the words more than once.
,IWQ

2 W:!1<J;l

widely

higher

Icu,t

Ru,ssian

seeend

smallest

most

The ehart snows the world's top ten languages. These incLud.e the main European
and lndian langua.ges as, well as .... ,. a " ... , and MMl~C.According 10 the graph, Chinese is the ..... b.... widely used Language in the' world wRh " ... e .. ,,.. speakers. English is the .... , d " .. " mos t popular Language 'WIthe, total of .. , .. , e ." ... speakers. Hllidt is also very .. , .. , r ,.... , spoken. and .in fourth place we find SpaOJ.!lb. which IS the .... g ",," most popu]af E'tu'o'pean language" ,t:lo\S(1Ily follQwed ,by Russian.. Bengali EmI1Arab;C The rru'Iil!bsr of Japanese spe·akefs c'un:e,n.lly stands at
.. ,," h ......

wmen, we can se~. is s!jghUy ..... i ...... the ]2;4 million French than

speakers. The .. , which has

to

j ,.....ffidely

spoMn Imngu1ige mennoned In UlEl:ch~ k ".,. small number of 121 m.illion speakers.

i!l (]e:rm.an

69

I'nsight into IELlS Ex~ra whh Answers

BE P'RECIISE

~~O~.7m~.~~~••~a~l. $.~~~~~. ~~
f!~J;; ~
c

II."~:

• Readtt:le title of thls table and the Ust ofsulbjects...C3n you say what Ullormation 'dle chart ,contains'? U'rlli'wersity Blond menils in tirat d,eg re e co IIIrses for

~11 your O'\'\1Jl

w,oros

SCI

selected a,ubjects 2002


and '% Ichang'e tram z001

Biological sciences
s'c I 8:r1(:'fi's

P'~V~ic!il1
fi I

IMathematic _Fu'll-timo P!ln-1Jjm!3

~ci'9nc'es

Coryrpllter
$,CienC,es

EI'III~I1'11·eri[llg & tech

Admin

IBUS[1l8SS,

5tudi8S

&

+ 11%

Lallguage

I-Ium~nflie.s:

"*~~i:{"

9:1t~'*~ ~ £'~~~~f6 $.~~-t#r,


0

~.m~~~1iJ

;fg~-i~

*~~,~~.~'--

,4, Add m ore words to dds rabh~' whtch \vould help' you dl;!sc]'[be 'the chart on enrolments,

Nouns
enro:lment

'._'

AtQettIves
high(et)

Verbs
Illrol
I

Adverbs
slightly

Phrases
j,lJIst under

~-

--

10

Wrinlng lUI il 1 N • Look at the c11 cuefully, therrumake me loUowIDng sentences. more ace urate an and I or precise, adding more detailwhere you feel necessary.
Eli Enmlmenr.s

went do,wn for a

~O~of

subjects,

n Mlb,ers increased. 6 1W'eflJfy'~ffi1ou:sandtudents enrolled in Mathern attcal selsnees in tlile yl1!<1.Ii.'l' 2001. s "I Sixty run~time students em-dIed In Langua,g,ecoUIS'es in the year 2002. I '(h,e l1Iutmb er of students \,111":10 enrolled in P.h:ysi.cat sciences went up by one percent 9 In ,2I]Oil. twetve pain -tlme students dropp ed OMI of Educ3.tion 'IXIUl"'SJes. llm~H]Oli there wem no p;,ul-Ume studears Oill En:gi:neeri.ug courses. II 'fhe]"ewas a six per cent increase in enrnlments on ComputeII:' scleaees courses
in 20~2 .

Full-Q.Jui p:ar,t·,~ime enMlments ~en:lcait~ed same 0' went down iN mos: subjects. t~~e lap,(jr,~Iromblo,,'ogiMI,'7'ucuhema tckal and ccmtputer scienoes C()u.r"$eg~vheretude» r s

.DfS C'lfU BE T'H ED AlA - D [II NaT EX.IPllA n~1 It

I ~, D Ii" ·;r;:1M Q Iii

• 1:mu~' 'fo'loMog t~jtde atlld 'pic' c:har~ p rneide ~fifbrmatlnn en the :ages of p eople in an imervlewon te1evision. v:ilfwing hablts, sald tbey watched a welt-known
SQ~P
(I

\V1.10,!

pera,

u.\Nhy are both. the table aadthe pie charr useru~1 13, VVb words, phlrQses or expressions migllu. be~p you describe this data preciseJy1l i'll
A§e1roup
-

No.
1-

~
• Blelrrw2D

TV Vti:ewing Habits
'2.1-25

Below 20 21-25,
2&-:301

225

756
258 190
1',fiI 43

.2.6--3[1
~t1

31-35
3tI-4D

.31-35

4<1+
Tata~

.~l~
7'1

mo

~ns~ght into IELlS EJ<tra wi1h An swers 14, Re~d t!he samp]e ~aragraph beiowau"ld ,idendfy the puts which are IIlI)de'vant to descripUon. ofthe [ableMd pie chart. 15 Correct !!he sample answer. foIlowmng the notes givenl1,llmd .1e~WlrH.e the nrelervant seetlons,

me

~,u,
~ ~ ~a a.u. 2.1-1'!1~h
~ ~
Ut'I'f

! !';,,<\00Ar4,i,e

~~ ~
II'It -t1"'Ic.If" ~
1't'"At' ~ 1'nt~J!!,.

bj
!to

IOQ1,. N.~

i of
~
I=>

pe.opIe.

Ht.,tf ~

~
b. ~

L__~

"total

of ~

~~.
~
~

"to WII.."tch -rh!..

~~.
U!!l"t a, -----i
..

M-t!!.t
of
if'ICAiJd\ed,

ge..'t
Me

m(I,<ned ~nc1 ha.1Ie. TO £Am ~. In "f'frlo.. ~

111' ~ ~

g':c;lIiJf'

cCM~4,tive

a~ ~

f2.W-'~.
of ~~
~

a.rI!d,1'fI"U'e.

a. ~

~(

~ ~ tll. Af.ter it-. age. of \O~ 1"n!. ~ of ~f,:l m~., Q:.. !:tt'-!ll-~ ~ ~ ,~ ~, pe..r eerrr Qf ~ 1oI"iI!.It.lU~ "ttlete a.re,. 1,", ~ in ii'Ie; '~-40 ~-g"~. lhue aren '1'" ~ ~.:5 t:ftiU 4r; ~~ ~ pt:.OpIe dCn '+ IlIU:. ~-tc.fii'Ig
ft,~ a..5

~r'id

ltil'l!£h

1'10., ...... ~ i,t"f

~re

r... ;••• i:MI\

til"

"". ""II' biH

L
ShOli;V"S

IYtf.... "'"
~,i\

~F

filJ\,a.,,1 poi",t

tho ""'''''''1"
1

IPprRD,ACHIING litE

T'ASK-1

IIIi q:

~••~oo~~.••-~.~a~~~1~~~~.~. ~ ~~=
This graph the runnber till cam on the road
to f\Tery

day.

The lntormation in this chart relates drinks,

worldwide sales of oof1

a
Pop uI'aitio n fOlr~C'@ IIt-i
bn --------------------------------------------------

50

Writing UNIT 1

11 What is the tuple of chan b'? Wri~ea sentence that begins: 'The graph shows ... • 18 VVhOilL the lOpic 0'£chart c? 'I\frit!e a sentence 10 describe chart. c including the' is words 'sel ec Led coun [des
I.

Sel~lIirn 'feWD ';. mak in OJ g


Wmld 'II',elilicle sal~IIS;
i'll'

IiIlIlrB

WhB~e,'slie Doc?
lJ.i:lctors liIef 1,ooD population, 198!!

.1
• • •

:I
Itlll\,

SDUItl, America

Ollier
Pa e inc rim Japan

Fr:a!lce
GElJmlllflV

W8~tilirI'I Eur'IlJHl NaHa

UrnitiilO Stille's BritaiJ1

athJeu~'s dter I censist I Wargc I carbohydrate 60% I dafly diet I carbohydrate second I im,onam I food group I fat I aecount 125% I diet smallest I pro tein
PlIopotticm "food group I 15% I total

1,3

Writing
••• '1. ..

,.,
41.

_ _

;~~N iiI!

Describing trends
It!:'

ntI ~ ~

'.,I:.

Ml ~,.,

-~----~~~

'YiJ

~ 1fJm:frlU: Jralil illiJj;·m *m~}j;;~Jttt!1;..f.~~~ I ~lifi.~tfJj~~~'~ ~ .i:~'~ ~ 18 ENDIS

~*jf ~ it,.~ifiI. m.£ tt

1)(;

IINCREASI rUl [UI DECRE,ASliNG


• Look at this bar chart The in formailio.n It presents, shows a

J:. It: ~~m

We"re tal ki nglle le'ph one nu mbs,1'S

conslstent overall trend,

-~~--------:=:-:BQ

.. First ask yourself these queetlons:

What is the chart about? 1Alh.a[do es the horizon'wJ axis shoW?


What do es the vertical axis shO\v?

'I

\'Vhat overall trend(s] does the graph shovv7 Look at the chart carefuJ Iy~ en eoenplete these h.tvodescdp lion s of the th overall trend.
and " '.•.•...... !.he gmo number bal nhsxt messages

I Between sent rose' s~eadUy,

2 There' was

in the global numberof text messages sent • Re'rer to page '69 of lns,ight into JEI:IS ~OI rno re JM!uage that can he used 'to deserlbe trends,

• Now complete this sentence vi/hi h describes the overall trend and ~ndudes, marefigures. 3, The number of fext messages, sent worldwide rose from
'in
+~"''''~~~~ .........
~g ••••••

..

eo

1i ••••••

·i,~ lii.i.ioil,.I,;I;t, ...

in

1! ••

o!;'!

.. ,~

•••••••

~IIII ••••

74

Writ] r1Q 1IINIT :2

4f ~!I ~ t' '6~iti}jf ~Millf r~ ~ oft ~ t~!.. J\$ f.1tk·j~~, 1n It -'f\


.i:;kJ
~IUl

"~~."

ok at the elliamples, of 's~abiUtY ShOM1 ill gFaphs, b iilnd c.

Hoop dreams:
!hS:kefila II ,ltlImdia!'lU

c
fullv"peidl 2CO

Jia,'s

.S:POII1Si IClub Membershliip [pfiewlD illS yea r~

--=~~=:====:;-17

1'895-97 Hr!JHoIl 1gang ·~9SJ.2IJOO 2(loun NBA "' Nation a IIBa:sketi!lall A$$oeiatiol1

§O-JF

M AM

JJ

A SON

4,Wfffit~ two seln1!te'nc~s which descrlbe the overall trends shewn in Rraph b, 5Wr~te[\N·o (')'1' more sentences taferm a shnrtparagraph which desc rihes graph c..

F l UI CTUIATUl IN

&: C
is Ai*".1il1t 9]iJ ~ !~$

lt1I Bt ~ • .~~ #.~ 1t- .:t_J:_ ft, T ~ Jl:t ~;t, U1 jJ~ :t 1t.Q

jmAt~*9~.m~~#AT~~. Ama~~~~.~~ ~
+-tt jjJ~

16 Re.,:wri~etb1s, se.n~e'flC:e8!dding an. adjecti.ve or adj ec~:i1I;a]. phrase commonly used Wlith .e' noum 'Olu.::um ..i:ion':. There m.ay be several p o8s~bilities,. ' Dtle.r IdealdeS r:he-,e has been fi'Uc,(l,latimzin !'l'ie ormmb.e.r of people lu110 m:u:e in eJec!-io.ns i:n .fh~'UK.

mf?

"1

took atthms gwaph.


In ord~r ·to,avoh:il ".v1f~tingr wha~is anomer way of say:il1.g 'demand
foil:' elecl~iI"[c tty'?

d
U,nirts

r~petition in your

DSl1I1ond for IEdec'lriCi1y dUlrilllg {II lei evised WomJd Cup ·footbaU matchl

I Write a ene- senaenee d!escrip~~C!n'Ilf the grn.pbt:ha~ p.mvide,s


an CI'Io'I1:TaU ~be kelld.
pi!I::il:UJ[~ of

~IOOO I----------~~--~--+-~~-+-------261000
1--------------------''''''"'----------------

15

Insig,ht into IELTS Exll'a with Answers


91 WrUe five more sentences

about graph d, using the prompts


during the /ir$f " .. to.west p'Oint ."" "" " . bItt

below:

At the start "

".

There is a

eben
". , r;es:urrw normal " ..

Demcmd falls ag(~U:l 111il'lIe ta.'l~ fDrry rnintlte.!l~ Ifowevllr.«d the beginning

plateau ,

* ~o.~~m-~*~~~ ••"~~.ff~~M'~.~n
~ it ~4
_i_Jl(, fiij,

lfi.tt'tl tfi:,~ f,.,£;. ~~~

~lt fll ~

It t_

M~

~i

• Select one ot the graphs ~n Unit 1l or 2 and write an opening rome before your detailed descripdo,n alit

pa.f<l_gniph that could

1"ESTTIr
'Ill .ft ... ~""6 ~'flt. ~, oJ ~ffli-'''' '~fA'~bi f! ·iil:ti ~ '; I§l 'it ~. '$" I'! fi ,f~iii~. (t -.»~ 11 ~ it 1fj,j; U ~~t. ~. ~":E-.ifi "j Ii~. ~,ij.t m :i!'; iriliJ ~~~.-,:.}.

• Look at the graph and the sample description of wrbe~ow. UJ What is wrongwlth tlhe '\liI'n.h~r·sapprnaeh so Itlilis task? Wr~t€ the par t th at %

A degree

of progress

JapllflBSf! s1yd!lJilts to ul1iver:Si1V !l0ing -----!ill

ls missing.

11'1

' "II

ILH

,.IbL",--'=,--i

19OO

',,,

00

I ..

I.". II;•, .I

00

(I

11 Now comp~e~e the :gaps, in the answer by wdn,g an ap prop rjare word to describe rhe pattern s shown.

1Me ... 11..•• 111 tile. ~ CJ" w~ ~1I91 to lIffi~ii"'i ~ t>eeil filJI,f'ly b .. , QIT~P; the t~Jt ~ -l'iflr-e6 c .." more ... d ... CriTrertt Iy, It ~ e5tiMQrtea ti1.rt~ cettt or J"~ WOil'\erl rfl&~li'e D !M1~~~1"y .ek.utiCti 1hs ]$S1111 ~ ..•.• e ...

SMlpia ~

,,,§t

""vie' ...

••

In
2.5

percettt~ ~o.d ~
..• k ...

tIw'i thiil: m." Ie


~!O

t~,
I'I1Gi'r'e •••
.I'l' •••

llie MI.le f'o"ft.en1

... g.,. ~ t 6 ,~; ~


I~

tl(J
1i~

Over~ II, ~ever.


1iwt

o:~.

f ••. ~:"t!rul~Pr'I'I' bei'll~ ~ "10 QtId I Wf&l WI~ +0 pllr tertt Ih5 ~ttf"s ·tM ~tru>t iFf' WP5 roll~ .boy ~ ••• ii ... Itl rv,il'i'lbtrs be~' IH6 mt.l, r,l'I. f"!ol!iO '" j ,..i¢'e ~1il11 illt" ~ 1i<le ~ rtl"te ~ tor- ,met1 leaJi"9 t~ f), ~~., or pst (J..ter" +D per G&tf
'itO

h ,.. ~

R".

j~

~I~

Ui

Writli'ng
UNliT 3 Summarris:rng data A ~--~~--~--------~-m~.~.~ 1JlrJ'·. . 1M r~ ,IX ..
;..,to; .-~ -.
• ~; •

..
I'~':'

---1', I •

----

.. " l i :

'~~tf.;~· . :. .1,,'~:::.

.~:

~jfr·tm;l£OO:fiU'~±J.I. .~l1*~?»fll~tH:~~ JtomfhiJH~&lIl~~\r!UJlij~D_;t\~ ,. :t:fl.~1j ~ mtiMJlt i~1l§ f~ ~ ilEm.iP. tff-1$~ffli i£ ~g1J.1". jj ITif ~ l!.~

]
~ Lcmkat thesetwn gl'aphs and alnsw'er '(p.llles;tio~s m -c5 ~ bout thefirst :graph. I \lVha~is another ~Hiieful term for 'Fe:rtlity tha:t),ollt 'could use in your an:swew1 2: Vllhat do theflgures on the v-ertical ,Dis '0:£ this grapih repre'sent~· 3 \lVhichtTend m lhrus. g[aph do youthIDJ:: Is most signmcan t1 4 V'Jhich ohhe statistics do you find most 5ur:pr~s>mg~ 5 Hmv do youmowilh.flt you will needto use a variety of tcel'llses? 11J!t!grap.h 'e~w give l.n/9rmalitm; on the wol1hl POpUlaUOR~ ,and ~he·a:rmm:ge n,undU!r 0lciiliJrc/n pel' !tlJntly ,c/,el!el'Oped Ilruldevewpfng countries~

"I;

• [Jle'l!'e!Qllin~ ----------_____" 6
cOLl"trriE!~

'-----

~ll..._"-- up gw~ng 0

-----~3
2
_____ ~~c;._~----------____I

I g~1

Pres-end

til r~je.;:tln~I

20.50

~-~~~-------~IIDI
ll!iD 1i800 1'000 2000

:mJll

2200
~!I .. •.

"UN !irll:lIiilJlilc'OI"e'riUliit

rme[:,ilst rfiQrnI.2GOOI ~.............

'. Now ~ook :a!t ~he second g:raph. Arrows ,6--91 po.~:!l!t h:nporlan~riea.~ures of this to gr~ph..Sta~e briefly whatthese features He.

Insig ht imo IEllTS Exl rcawith An swem

s*a~. ~~C.~~~.d~+M~ .•A~ ••*~OO~+-§

~tijill!1-f..lst.

1.~ t.li it ~:Ift _i)( ~ i~.{*",t! " -kd 1t~ ~.if •

+!1J .l.

-.~~.~~ ~~~.~~-+~*. •• •• ~~~.~~ ij$h


~ 11.~ (tel Ul.:t.J:. ~
Q

would. you choose to deserih e fint? 1.l Ho,w \lI,'ould you relate the n'liOgraph:s? 12 M1LCh f,eawre or'LIle first graph wo ul d you b:igh1~gh[' :6nU 13 HOtw mIDght y·ou and your answlfff
UtVillich of the graphs abo~

~ Unit

2 Nri!. ~ .fllt.+r.tlfi i!Jt ~t,t{~ Jf~ 11<3. 1~! -4- ft t ~ ll I{~ It-#I'

T~~' .$.-!t~~"f:t.*1k,~.~i! ~~. ~


l4 Read ~hes~mplle answer of each paragraph inthe
lie)

the ~asto~pag;e 71lllld. cemplete rig1:H-hand columa,

the summary

~.t_g~1 btTth ttl.t~5 ,o.nti fl()p!uJGl T(.rI +haJf¥"IG9Iabo.~ po?lla. +~ gGl.!JTh tade lIJU ~in '. JI '.'. ", ... "'''' _,.,..1 .1'1 __ ,~! ,.1' 10' (,I,m"""""""" 4,'lJ.l.I1.r ,..5 -4 ..m ¥'I'll'" AI... VF Inc:;,- Q;ln"h .n" ~" , .... I'nt:; .. l.!\.l.I\!l'" ~c~..u_· __ ....... 'f W!~ eW'ln~' UlJ:JLY st$lltl5ti: a.to.pprCXirrt'l.t~y 11 blHQrl,
i!i~

_gr~

~t~

~"

'lhey jW€dd

mll1 ,:?oth 00itu.ry ~ W ~Id is ~Io. TII)'l ho.s tlS4l1 draJ!'i6rrlCilllyJ ftCWI ::t. b111iar1o ,. bin~(in- ~~J t ~~Id socn ~jf1 to ~ o.faJi in 11nc f'GPi.l~TtDr! g~ t~ til tlnat Will ~ rra£ mru'kM M lOf!. ~ Inte ~ ;::t;:tM~tury.
~IZW
~.

I~tre..

«t,~ Illl}¥!ly &.wi! TO ~C!llir9 bM'h t{lt,~ rn d~~Iap1r:9 l.n 1 ~ 'i'f....z o..\.'W'~ triJ.i~ '150 af cWk.l$0'I ptm" fdrni~ in ~ Wlffnle5 ~ G.;t. ~ iq.~kJ cm1, m pr~ My~ this -Fg.u-t ~ ftlJl.tn ~rj&a.ilt~y fa 33 GJrd. lit is pre.dct,~ to MuM5€. fu:r~ t1:J ,00l.1. ~ildiFSl'l per' furr!lly InaQ5C. ~~

clY1d.ar61pe fD.milyto1.6. ft~ft1 f!g#!Zsfa 2050 ~ .GI,. 51!g.l,t In::t~ in ~. blrtln r(l+~ in ~ a.r'M!j t'l..rrd pt'MlCt ~ il"It~~~ly~ tM. 5(l;~ b~ ra..+~ fa roth ~,pi~ .ClJ"tGI.
50
~5]

Bn'h

t~m

h!l.~.

ru~ feJlln

~ d~l~

mltltru:s ·fMI ~

~-t

.froon:t.S

d.evclcp.td t.aJ.ntrl€S. • Undermine all the ve rbs


~11~e

answer, VVhy bi3!¥e·dUJe:r-enl

te~lS~S

been u.s~d'?

• Collect semegraphsand cil:'i!aJrts pr~(.ti5e talking ab ou~ them vllith your aDd study partner or friend ...Look at leach one for two min f)~tes~h~;[l name thetopic:
desc:l'~be what the grapbllchart

any signifi,cant feannes, and discuss how you wmJlild.organise the· infurmaUon.

fs about; descrjbe any overall fl'end!i~ deserlbe 3. de&C[~p"lionof

78

• Lcokaft ~he barchart below and add suitable words which could be used ~na descripticl[,,! of it.
!ipend '~me most. popul iilr
U "!iU

unlike'
rprisi ng

pursuits

15 Ar,e there anys:igJ]itL1ca.n t de~ai ls

chart? l6 In wbich Drder do ylou think the Information should be presented in


~r.! 'me

a descripti.D8?

Pl!ni~iJ!ltiDn illl s.el'elited leisure aCillvhlRs

'Wh,Bilth,D'S'B' kids are lilt oi ng


I I PllfCal'lt

1'E5:T TIP
.

r---------l --:-------1160

aD

,I ...

1-

lilT

Sk:ate !loom:!'1 flg wile rbhn;lin~

Bike, riding,

Wa'liI:hfng 'IV '@r v[dell's

EIecmm ir: m c PIillPuter 'gJ!ilme:s

Arrtll!'ld

craft

17 look 81 sample answer below and unde rlliinli:: all and phrases ..
Tit'.

me

me (lompamt~ve structures
01 Au.s:tmli/Zt. e.Jr)I.:t.~fl A9~d.
s~tGt"y p.(JY!5ull-&

t}:rI{pA ShrmS "~PP#ftl;,.6d,

MitVi"6

ildlyifill~

.!J-'-'. As ~!9hf po: ,~~~f~al II' i5

tWtI>P;P' lam

1M d4f4 flu;r
d# f~~6oy5

fir" lP'r Ilt(),.,{l ~Jmlar :N.iW1l,ll..,gy~ fk1!fl t1t:lit'.# ~5. 01 fbe l~pOO &Jultt71dlt tMf ~.e!I'W ;pfN"lri~~tJti
Pdft!l,a.. fAQf fkJy 'tI>f,ljoye-Jt '11f14h.,;.Amg1)1
;;,.

Il:fl;1t

9'1;/5

lfiM(}5

I~ fJa~Ji"

~p4r&

ril!J:8. 11'1
GO"

A_d,ifioJ!~

fit~

S860~,4

11l~1 pop.u/f2r adiltily,

(Jff,.tJ!d'lIJ'~ 60,"

of ilay:t!. Md.

at

iJirlti ~ w;4!5 plllylfl1 tl-kPd)"f}fjitf, or tUJJJtptff'fJ/I'"9Al1ttJ6. W/fJ/6 9i~/s r~/e~ ;2c.ffYn-i6S: '5fJeb il:Sarl' liNt '61"4# ili:tjAly - JiJs,f ,(!!1d61'" 5tilf~it fiiti! flilJy' ~t:I.loy""i!l filfl5~

GO'"

I" fll't1 i'l' spAr4 iiffl.e. ';diIf9'


(Nf

(}.»Iy uti t# ~DY,'5 .opf~it fa,

e,Y'64fw(6

fa$ft~s. 'J~$

flikt«
d!e"n(j5T

I'M

of'/uJY Aa~a~ .... 5 a/~osf

as fl'Ol'lIlay dlS Mae/lIMit;

boys

lind., p6,ybtJp~

stJPpriSjfl~/'f' iJlmmtl' GCI~ w4~

01 'Prill said.
.IS"

r~t

:limy ~'!ioy:"'iI'f, r;';s


keys dltffl. 9,1"1$,

f:oo,,5k4neJJidJrd-itz9

Yl)Jafwg,iy ;IPS-S pjp.t)/ar


3Jli'l

dJ'iW.JJ<j$T hl'lI

aUHop9iJ

-- .--...

If

sfill affrdd~~.
-~~-

01

1;(1'(5

(Jnd.

aI

ijidti.
--__,....

-..__

Insight into IIIELTS Extra with Answers ,_ Refer to pag~ 74 of Insight inm fELTS for more language that can be used comparisn ns,
In

make

,ii

US Wri~e a. fuU des:crlpdon of me chart on studell'u enrelmerus Q,npage 701. The graph below ghres ifljormsJ'tion 'Or} ~heimpnni!llion or producfs in Mexico. !Beforeyou read the sample answer bdow~ think about a CDUettiveterm thaa could be used for these prod UClS.

!itJ~.rc.~>1'c!3Il!l#fl .I

:t II P1.! ~M M Ai ffi"* r4#~ •• b:I~ (iof.t

TEST TIP

------------------12,500 • dll~~DI
--------~---------".

'i!,It~DII

t..~.

92

96

II 211001

19 The sample answer includes the relevant lnfurmatlon, but the pnims could be b etter IirlklE!d and the student ICOUJd. get a higher m ark ['Orit R.eIid. []le te~u::ber:s comment's and see if you can lmprove the' answer;

a YJfu.d_ tJ~?

ls

tit! araph

Akuh

all

rllirodudo'f~ ~dLnU ~t. - stru wr~ th15


pl.JftAl?r

sample
!here bas beer'!
o!iI.

ihe nv±
dI!:swer
~rl

CotrlX.rrt. th[~ se nie:J1t1!. w!tI1


tlUO.

VL(

'_hru uu,cr~

ph.

{)J{} c.odX.rtf..

b~ ~e~

lwipts-.
11'1

the ~

to'tt1 LI'l1ports of e...er':3l-b~d P'~t~ z. ba!iotI-do" ~ HIIark. ~ the. yet:U' '.(:10..


W~

1'1" () ,

jot;!J

o!1t ~S:O

J?dd a ftroJ -----stJIWtct to his pOJ'llllraC-A ~tch


(OIfJ~r€'::, fJi.pJ'tliti6e.

'-rhe ~ diP£, ~,~e:s, fa- d!.e5e j i ~~i.ne ~ ~uraJ :3;d's. Ino'Ip:i'ts of ~~ h.rute "fQWi'!. l'he, e has bee", SOI'rle f.lUCi'ua.flo1. JI'I t"OOO th_f? €>I'pendl f,li'"e W io1cr.e~d to a.~~tl.t€Jy $J1ZS0..vl~ ~rend1"ute .C'1 diesel .Abtt :f11t'T w~ ~t
r'bre d~se' ~.
~
on

'"3~i.tIe

i.s 'e5S~ In\lpcf't;,,~ e~h i.n

..,._---~

~e.5j

iAoJl

199'0.

w:~at7 HblJl)

on gdsoli)1,! !AI.ttl!. tAl!: CiUttr p-otLd!l.

bee,n ln1~ted

rP6JI's. r4i,\1,.fer ~

praduc+. Nd1\".aJ expe"&'fUli"e .~ 4,

1fq.OOIll'1 Sll5 ~ 5~,jar,.


51< .'

"If.,e ff~tJ.., d.f'f,e.re,ff p.aHe ...,_ ,

=>~ w~spen't

~9"S;-. Fi.~6l ~ t!"i.t;,


4.I'l

/i';Uch k..s;s?

P•. i'.tL d
W
1~_jl(.'1J.5

para~r;o.ph

..

e.

Lf)lnk~.!'It_ fu~ t;.;o


~J'Ib:_IIC.e
.!

al1Li

rt. -p}[('{u.~.

Wr~til'lg UNIT 3:

.. t snt t

~~

n,

lE, £h\ Task 1lt1~ i!2_ frr. flllifdt40l!llJ i;; JJ_~ -it*, a=!~, fitjl) E{If" ;fp ...~ ~ A:AF1"Z~ ft.I, ;'~.G:jlf -it 1$ -#t:I fiT til ~ ,ih --~
"

*"

tt f~.fp it If] ~

Jj:;1~ ~

I ars 'WIIIUIII gl (Acade mile)

'Task 1

Pre-task questions
20 What is meant by £/w and £/year? :n Wha[ is meant by the term j2bed' ? 2:2 \IW1at Isanother word for 'area' in this eontextt
:23 HDW Catl,you describe

a house' lNith threehedrncens

U!';jng a compound

adjective?

24 Wh at is the purpose d at,ilI wgeth,e:rf

in this table of sho,.vln:R both the rental prices and th e salaries

I-e') 'lDI

Tolle tabk below provides i'~/orn.Jat1Dn retutd marge'S mui salaries a,PI
oj,l.onlltm.
Write a report /oJ'
ftl

[PI

"hree

u,u,ver.dty ,"tum,. ilfiNcrihing the illfomwoon

s_hfmmbelOlfJ.

Area Hotting

I bed

:2 :bed
485

3 bed

J bed
9B.500

I I,

.2 bed 127.500

,3 bed

Hill

375 325
215

138 650 600

194.000 170,500 151,500

Regentls Park

450
390

85.500
56,500

UB.OOO
)02.500

,f;'

Writing
~

"

UN;I~n?l Describing a process =:..t'


-

"

"

-\.II

--~-

Aca,demii(~ Task 1

'I,~M:,'~
1]n·Jrf~. !ffli,t!1.:!;i f,!=:i(rm£-w~oo1ffii1£~~ l1tl. rr!ffi .f';~ I!I~ ~111i~,~tm ftilJ~!~.}~:~~*ijJWirfm~f~.Q.Q
I

m ~f:J~U5~H Hi

s r iii IIIY lHI E IDIlit;


II

IRA!M ItA H,IE FUl L'

"ii,M,i; 'F;rlll

Look 31 the ~oUowing mini ..rask about acid Jain.


CompDlllnds of su I j;lhli r Pre"lailiflll wimil _
,B!'Id l1itJrllgelil

.. first ask yowse1f: '\Nba~ is Ilbe d:iagram abouU,,_vhat does it shmv? What type of diagram is it? In answering these questions. you may need to ask yourself other questions about details on lIte diagram, such as: I What do (he' arrows. shoWl 2 What is a ,clJllectl\teterm for trees and pllants? 3 What buiIJdjngs are shm...m,'? Before you be;gin writing yourdescnptloa, you will also need to decide'
!!Ii
!!Ii

-rEST TIP
.[~; 4~ffl :j;'IJ't1t~

f>i f~ tUJ is ~ t'o!:! ~

f* tH" J.( ft ~ ~
'"

'tifJ Il- iJ ~ (I; {~, f!Aer!:£


[oil

mn
+' jI
-t:

-'" i.l.

&tJ. •

1:' It liJ'

Iw,wto write it

4 WJlat tensewill

Y'08

uS:Iil'?\lVby~'

5 How wUJ you organise the d@scdption?


'.' Before you

gC) 0:9,

lry "V'I'tHnga de5criptiol'l. of the dliCligrIDll In a few

sentences,

B2

Writing UN.IT G,

USE AIPPIRI[]IPAIIIAT'E IUIN'KER,S


" Now [lead this description.

if 11

*~

Iat! ~

Ii'~

6 1r\fhich link rs show the steps in the proce!)s?

n H,G:ANIUI E, ,tU:
• Here Is another

liN IF10 R 1M,Al II0 N L D G I C AILIL Y'

5: I,*_ ,~Jtm'~

i§ It M

I~

diagram ofa precess, ba c180


[] Id!e~ voh::all 0 datos
lin

years

Magma spume

Dire ction

01 the Pact!icteclDlllic
p~I!I~!I7~9 c fliJ pAr VEnJf~ (

ilr shift

Eru pliic n pro C!ISS bIlgins here.

originatill{J12883 km .:JIllWI'!

it.~ I; II £. i}r11f ,)w " It.- T 1!!1 tt J:- Jf ~ IUJ -R!,,~ ~~ .it~ IE~ 4;- i'lli ft ;];;: It4t11arJf.{t .~ m!?~ 6Jl m U -,ff ,ir. ~-ii ft 4iit IT .t~,.i£,

., Study dle dmagram for 2-3 minutes and then answer the i~ilElQwing quesneas. 7 Vllhaf is the tople of the diagram? 8 '!\!hat vocabulary will be useful for your answer? 91 \lVha~infoml~tiol~ from me diagram could you include in a :genernJi ,first
pHagraph a bou t the lJupic or su biec l martert 1'0 \i\'bat is a ~ogical starting point fur a descrlptlnn

o.f the process U.e. the second

p811'a,grnph)?
11 Is I[ pnss ihle to split the description in lhe third and final paragraph?

into two parts? If so. what could YOM, describe

83

Insig ht in lo IEILTS ExIra witlh Answers


• Now read this sample descnpdon of tile wagram on page 83.

1;

(5

~r~V«.d kat tht cAa;n

~Il

tt;<

fOr'M

,Xllr'~

10
tl

A1fi'm
L

p5 (~ £m
#IGl.~

[sJo.rd ~d

«l-lt~... 0 n e.ruptIon r.;m-Uti!. ~ 1loCir kd, whldt IfiL wt a ,l.1J.1f'£ of' Mh,.ca~ c.a.U~
ta
(Iji~IJt.

f tr 5t
M9M

h.cJt ~.W1t:.t ~Io~d

"n ill'! oce1tJl


Il.5

J]it5 ~IM

ort"rj-"rat,_

dtq ru

') I ~fII klgw t


~III.uAU~
(t

e c-ce.A~

6eI1 ~

f~rthtr eruph.'DII5 to.ok ji.act, wAlch 6ut1t u.p t.ht_ lJolcallO


i'XW,1)

t~rgul ~

the ~rlV.r;t._ of thL"..

l1i.~
~lj

;/fJwalto.lI

l.slOJ.1d dto,cl1 Ls ~

rong dw.l~ tli ik.

DCf.M,

1t l~ ~r~

~Jj

wd P'--t)p.t.. rud th~ ~dllJt

!,~ 'W rJt~~ttMs well. a.~ at iA~ ~

fqr wlr of ~

ha!tW~r:. It 1'3 torh.d


~tn.

ot ~~
0.5

O\IIU

-uut ·up of the !l."',htpd"~,


hi!.
3p.dr1!.

lialliiti (tMJf r.!l I~.

~
it10i1~ fit. u;

tJurt
in a

t16rt._

htU ~mo1f1!_d litt:ttlc.


rl.

IlGlrlh -~
a H tAo!.

dirv;:b."cIt acro.SJ li: orl.

3puJ

cl-

th.-t. Pw;tftc 1u-w.ic _FdllU.. .:r-Ml p!.t" ~r ffit. lid spdt Il'ld!.~

~lctlIIoU

iii

Find the fQUQwi.ng:

iES'T 'TI.P
mit'
(4 'r.i "

12 one error in organisation.


.13 two areas of LnaCCUI.iicy. 14 two sentences that are lmprecise, 15 CD ne example o,f bndevance. is Rewrite the answer, tlunectin;g all the errors {bat have been made. • Vrlhenyou havefinishedl, underline a'll 'the ltnkers 'that indicate me steps in the precess,

l' {if.t•

.,

t" ,a.fqo ~ .

• Com,plelJi":!lhefiQlilo~ng which Sum.mariSiCS the rDJga.nt!lallJon efthe answer:


(il -:I

~ ft~~·PJ, i§l ~8'''"

~l!Stt~".

w..ct ~;tR,

TE!;:T'TIP

1st par-agraph

""

j it it iii

F+II~ ••••••

~ ~"'" .,."""

••

it ~'I1"';t

it II!

~~~

'11'11 11.""""""."

-*3" e es.Mf1.G
ij.

....

znd paragraph

" -.,." .

". .

3rd paragraph ..•............ ,

84

Writin-g UNIT 4 Task 1

diagmms VellQ'.fv gipe I:N/onl1alion aboiltt ,fll££l/1el !!),~tUne pNj'ecl W' ,extend it unde,grou:rul.

n~e

7blil'e\r

i"f, ,~'ri..J

(fJm

an

Wnw a wpo,.' for

til

itlnit!e<rsity

lecturer tJes.crlb.iNg tlte in}bntiQ tum ShOlVR.

You shenld V!.rriteat least 150 words,

ViJEloWlngp~atfmm$ 11.61l5ste!psl

fi15~levell licksl,lIflic'EI lliml access

tatower
Set;lll!d l'l~tfl Shops and rasla uramil WlIight m'
OIl:tidl stJ"'!!C~!!~ lliJ,l00

tonnes

'Thin:! 'Ieve~ Cine FIlel lIrl'd


museum
fllUAhi Ilevel Plll'ikillllg

'Rrs.1 plBtfonn: 51m


I

Second plal'lo

' 115m

FifthInsl

Parking

Writing
--

~- ~~. ,,~,

~"'j~~~ .

,,I' ~':·I.J!IU , ':1 ,.,l

N 1m

General Training, Task 1

~l!~~III : mijiit
~(MMM~.~~~~~,

Task

~~.~~E~mT~~~~~~~m~. ~ w••• ~~m~MTm ~nm.~.,~~.~.~~~ ••


• Read this example ofa GTWriting task.
)IOu recently toot IIpart -timeJob wor'dJI.,{fj'l' ,Q ,fomloompaD.}'. After ,a/OIW fweb, )'Ou realised rhere [llere some' VliPb,lBms willI tllf:'job.

Write a llil'tmr ,w the' m~uagel' 0f~'lte t'l'O'wpany. ,1u,YDI.ir letter


• 16Xp'lilin u/hY'yQU t(lOk rhejob
• S-U,a'atl

'. lecnbe ,the ,pmWems.lhal,Dl_'

exp,eriem:m
thell,l',

what oouW be dnne aim'ut

I GDmp lete these no tes ah Dm !.N'tlat you will need m Include in the letter.

'1E-s i 11.r4
(Y. ;~ .. '

:t ,5'0'''i''
~)t

Decide 'on a type of .,•..,


Gille rea<SOml fDr
- "'•• ~.- ··.n •.,

,
-n.n

and

•~

."'.... ~.~~.n ......~~

~i II•• ..,

~Il

J!t$rlJJ

IH!UHh!.

1!-"',Ii1~fft

;r.,1
i) 'M.

Give d.etalls oj Offer

" ..

to pmb]ems

• Here are some possible jobs, Can Y,I;I1!1iden lify them1

Writmg UINJrI 5,
.. Com;p~e'h'~ ~ab]ebelow ~o:rob!!: a-c. the j

Try to think of lwomain polnss for each

column. • Then think (If twO' mare possibmejobs, d and e, and complete the [able.

JDb
91 • ..1'8165/1/66 ...

I~·

_ltuIIlt

"__ I'"

5ulgtltiolll

iii
C

OIRGANIS(

YOIDIA POINTS ILOlfUCALLV


;~ ~

ANIDI CLEARLY

'dl~li&m~Jt~
~~;6

f,t~ ~:ctte.a! ~I \if ~ ;$i 11 f!lJJt,-,".fl


Q

ft.J~.e.. ..
''0' a

61J~+1;:: 1:J ,'t it i¥J: :f.. i;...(l. ~ tt ~.

H: :it~

!Ii

Read this examp,le of a GT Wriung "task. lIut t'w.ei


Write
ytl:[l llmnl

mu.dcal

CO'IKt!'r&I:8U D'JeN os,.,.,. lrnpress.eil witl,

t',e

pedonlwI,"'.

a feUer-in o.frienil about the ,corwert. II.I YOUT letter • say lV,,,,"t tJw,mncert ,was aftd rol'Y,)'DD urent • tWscrlbe the pcr!tJnnIUlfJe'
• suggest llJhy he/she' slwuid IJD 'to the coneen'

Look at these notes. Pm theremainirtg points tn the order in which you th ink they sh nuld be des.:::rihed in a letter, Mc1W:r~5 b Ida: . a ."' t.Y..lit ~~ ..~
IIII iI ••

G-ocd fa" oJl ~


wd!-kt<t'U1 ~

. .
.

vay~l
F~

c ..~

..~

..~

Mt.n.'L1y
~5

SGui'h Awa'n
No nru5'1COJ ~s
Mu.m15~y

~ d ..."........................•.•

''The ~'!l !drtl' O-r'ltZ-4rru1 P.""famo.nc:g


~-""'-__"

!II

'i.~."IIII!I!;'I"+!liI.·IIII

..~·iI··III!·

Inrsig'ht into I ELI S Exlm w,i't:h An swers

'I . ' ti, l' It JIii, IUfJJfl4 .£~(!' 11 f!. 3~ fj ~ Ii ti-t'lit t.Ha ~.
;jt

G.

"*

Tt;.S"t' UP

'* _

.s,

,.Mi

L(J.sT ~

I ~- 1-0 see a
wd-11 fi.,e
kw br,+IdGf wt1S •~

M.l51wJ

Ifill P',P_'i,<;ed.

perrCl!l"ffUl/'If.f~ r 1- wo5
SWt~

~r

aAl r wos Itety a yw p From Swh

IIFrI~

rr waS

1Jie.ir ~~

8wd'
.---...

nr, ~of:t,er

'

...

4 T~e paragraph contalns all tile eontent pOlints ,md 'there am no &r,a:.mmatical nln>lakies,. !owever, there' are twoO reasons why ilL would stiU lose marks. \Nhat are t'hey'?
5 Can you rewrite the paragraph ,6 'IIereis a different answer tn Camp lete the netesbelew .
.v~tl,r .Kalc~

so 'that you would not lose marks?

the same task, VVhat notes did the' writer WDlIk\'I{Ub~

1~
II~

!U- it:l5l. M,o.w ' 1- ltDd,i~ (r.'.eill W ~o M Brtto?il~j\IJJ f£,"w.!dCJrI 601).1 cal~d • Hot Jill!. n 3i ~ Jw.e! lId.itil1Q p{tiN/€JJ r{)l" -tA:': ~1I.!ri~. i ~ru:d to r;p. . A.:l (1 !.op€-- tlc.t. iht. Ii-JtQI~ !«l~ ~ tJ,,f1{HiA3 lJi.",. ~r~ WI?'I",!': tk ~st. beau!1fu.1 "'ghtl~cr1ou1'til dotJt~.JI o.hithf.. ~~ ~ Q.,:; fu tvU~S f"OBn! 5.wJ toG! lWri~. W. ik. .5WI; to .!:UJ'lsd. m ·iht:. ad "f till. Jc9,w. ill te r~ r1- 'Lite. ~·c, i.lie. A'Ost ~~l"C~t. ~ ~ ~ ~-I'l'·lt.it!. ~F e~I~.J'J~~ ~h~uiIl!>\ JJttdt, /l.:; th~ ~ ~quts, tl~~c:r~d loh af Oll'·~ ~rd~ thai I.<Itr~ .rot&:. ~ drums Dnl 1I1tt11~ othU' ~d ad! wr.duful (~£:I'J"U"It'J1'b, L J.tnr..>j!.l -h-pl11 "~he fX'at;fo.ttl~ thed ~ f.,c.:~oh tkr-ffig ili ~riJ£.I!r tho.t tlLi!..~ !1••..1[ k .~Il!f~ i'~ !f=r .~ I1f.I.i m-I11.it (lrxJ i Fdl.1I~ ru;D~;;J tht:t !fN ~. r'~ p;ltJ.9 th.tl~· ttlJlIb OJ"t. fo~ llril ~.1l3 6u. r.&1t !til !fDU k~..ar -t:ltU..f

r;_;tj~,. dfirtJf

k~!fo'..wJUt !

fu c~

tiu!t 1. i!LIIi.

tflt. 0. ~.rt.

&k.e.i.

far' . hls

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1.1

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"" •••••••••

Task 1

l(9wj
You ~e.'ft'ty ,rtisired a place dud itRd a slmlJllg i'1~p;tlCton IOU!, fii:i~ tl Jj ,r bt:lL1. . .cf?,;r.ij
~ ~ij .

.u..wtJe·

s.

Write ,Rletter to a /i'if/lld a:bo,rd ttle' ,pwe. In. ya,r",,'etmr • explaiu where the p~ was .t:mdltow YU,1l gUI th,em
• describe wlwt,ytJ'U:s:aw • oJ1er take yeur frie,ut tllere

-il\.

.'9

YOll should write at 1!easll50 words, 88

Writing
UN IT

Genera,11 Training, Task 1 continued

~~
'. t ~

-: IJL~~tL'

'r .•

~ l:!f Jml IE' ~II'~ mil" ij ~ ~~!J


!U£ ~i!il ~

"~ '];i~::

'T a s. k·· 'II~ (... ~~ I -'

rij¥it1t ~ H ~tB~it M~~ fttott;fiiI'J.~ iAtt,~t-!!~-1lf.J";J1: {LfiJ!f¥·tlli m Ilfl' . , ~1Nr:;lfI'lili1a1ig:'ffr;1:jfa-lr.;I~ 1Y:J;f[lf~;*m~fll1ljrrtJ imto l

J~'~* ftr~

• Read Dds task.


,1-'011'"' the pas! SU: UJO'Il£ll$ ~f'l 1~Jl.e',p'ffll1ided ,ooluntnr-ily ,Iulp al R ltlCal' ... um' d for' 5-7 yea r-o Ids. U"lJ.Jb,mnl~tf!ly }!\m~ lCd',) 110' tonge'¥" ,do itRl$ U/fJtrlC.

'Write R 'elter to' th.e p.riRcilHd ,of the sclwol. In }!Our lel'ler Ii aplain Wlldl yOIl'Ji hgy,e been .,in:g ai ,the'sdloDI
• give ,~mUJ:llyYO',u:
,Ii

i!:il''I'1'':

00 100~.geJF•

rile UIO,rk

apo1o.giseIn'rlmy p.-o'blems this tnay caus-e

I Which WON,S, wn the '[askindicate the purpose of the lettert 2 Willieh part of the (ask dues this sample extract addressr Ho.w is this parr different
[rom ~,~
(I

ther parts?

,3 Read the foUowing extracts from letters and underline [he ~yords ~neach letter that indicate the wriu~r~[i purpose. b I (armor Ulldersti3r:Jd why
I
M'4',i!. -t!h"ee:.

~r~'

experlen[e than myselt has


been appointed to rhis post.

someone wl th less

afIO

1 fuJ

f.;a"'I~1'

po..~

e:.~r~ II't _1e.~ I~ ~~ ",. 1'0 IjC« ~.

--_...
89

Illsighl' into IIELTS Extra with Answers


c d

We greally appreciate ihe ~tlp • that you gave cur son dunng his

mus~c:exams.
e

We wonder whether it wou'ld be pmsible to visit your company on Septembe,r6'th as au r class Is very in terested 111 the whole area af 50f1\lV'arn pu bHcations,

~9"

r«, T: did

A.~

fhp~'e.

were

plenry

cF ~

«I- tie swtmffll'13


LiIf"..re

fl:'Jr r8t:lJ sure

hat- -f1e1

pap.'9

r
Dcspjtc: rhe fuet that [ have!
wri.l feb a lener and .ITl3de several call tu ),ol.!Jr rec't.'ption desk,

affrvrhOl'l fb wNff was ~~

O<l

Mike played the guitar bealrtifully at the concert and we wers all very impflssseo by the gene~1 standard of the' sch,ool's orchestra.

IsdU find r

am. bein8 senr a mo'hthJ~f l1.iU fur mem bt·r~h:l fe~s. p

4 Malich the extracts to these possible reasons fer 'i ttl make a poliLe enquiry vi U to show gratitude torsupport m liIi to raq uesrfln anclal help vrn I'll'to shaw dlssetlsfactlun with a decision [x v to ltaxprnarnn hysome'thing happened w x:

wrlting a letter. to IDIpr:e cS pleasure <:u an event to supporL a job appltcauon to ask fur an apology to express, l:oncem about safety to complain about a service

5, Wr!te a short p aragrap,h tha [ J1espo nds to each of these sltuatlcns, J nvent information to support. yom: reason for v.rciting', a You hear your neighbour's car ~tert::u t:very niglil&,Give him/her a good reason (ill turn wt down. e.g. your baby. b Remlnd your Aunt Helen about ynur Craduadon next month - you veally wanl[ her to come. e 'feU Mrs Fry '01 company you enjoyed raee li nc 11 and ~hat: YO!I:D lv:i 1I be er working t'Ogetiler a 1m next year. d Apo~ogise to Sue about forgeUing her birthday.. Sl:!ndher some theatre tickets, e You Me fed up wim your employees: they must lo ck th egarage door, or there will bel burg~ary. 'f hank Alex for the loan .of his video camera - y,ou gol some great shows"

mC

S\fIo1,ap paragraphs with. )'OUf' study parmer eommunteared I:lu~message successfully.

and say whether the Structures used

:SEl' THE FUGHT n:UtE


• Ynu need
[Q

1fMIEI,~ii'~

use appropriate language In your letter to giv,e i.L .he right lone-

formam.neutral or intormal,
'BRead the messages you wrote in 5 and say what [One you used.

90

Writing UNIT6
i Read this GT Task) and the three pos wb[e ope'nine paragraphs which of them is the most apprnprlate and why. below. Decide

rep(dab,1e c:Q"fI'puterswm 'fhe store "gmed to deUver tlw' oomplI,rel'Id.M 561 if IZP for you in YDur ho'rtW bft! ~'V/J;(utIt I[ViIS tIeliuemd, lite: .11.'06" flltZlI clAimed that tit is rval nof ,." tJl'll'~joll..
n?Ce'llfl,r' 4

trent

bought a 1ClJ.,np,uMr froR!

IVrite a letter ra' the ",anal!?,"


'.' say
l .... hen

of tlfe gtoTe'.

In YOUT lett4!r

you: Inmgl'Jt the ,r;,omputer mul ,(vhat the ,"Erie Included

,abortt wlUff lIaS IO£lCIlnT!d .' fl.m .u~t'Vhat 'hey igtend to ,dDl abo'ut ,il.
• expreas d'lss8tkfoctirJn

~ 15'~ -1",'tJ. sa. 1JHl ~


• fIJ,

"~m" •

11~)'iH'·''''~

I~
:!Ioiore. ~

wnt11"'9
pr~

-to ~xpt"t.=; ~
-to

~ ~'

df.:5gl!!ot ~
:rti!lli"e., ~

-the. st-f'1I'U. pi'"D'lidPL! 0.1' ~

na'F oc::.c'AJi'Yied &t"I1:1

'P

=-e.1" I.f' !'I'IIj ~ ftor me. bot #Ii:s ~


h&ve r.t:rt

f1.i~

Oc:;r!tro.c.-t,

Ol\lVhat~ If anything.

is

1WmDg

wim, the two op tlans that you did, net ch oo'se1

9 Na'W enmplere the letter by writing two morl(: paragraph.~ plus a closin,g sentence.

[ IEl TS Wrltllllg I(GI)I

lc;mJ

Fb.rthe',pastyeaJ",.¥Ou been dis't.:UlIUnue ]'6"1' "'~"nbe"ship.

'mue

Ai

membHrufalOadduh.

NOlql'O"

UltJll'

IN'rite a leuer ,tothe drIb setreln:ry."J: YOfU" Idter ,I! stare ,(",hat~ o!me.lobenhi'p J'Ou IfmJe' ~nd ''ow yo.n 11d~ ,pald lor this .. give ,dBtaib o/lw._w y,ol_;l "-aile ,fMueJitm from ",e dub

.' expltdn why ,}l!Ou

Wllllr

10 leave

You should write at least 150 words.

'in

Writing
---~-

-.r '-I' ":,:1: • . :!l.ll.I1ol '


t'

, : ~:'::I~f'1 I!
.. t.,

--

Academic and Generall Training. Task 2

~ *,I~n Iii
'J~

t!~IU~ jI it: T II S k 2
Jii)fj;J. ti: idJ1JS.~ f1S

f't-$1} (/n'ask 2£ilWi fm~lmrtl ~~jJl!~~1t]itJ~* Lf5tiN.

z lijrffl ~ &5~}t1Jl7.Hffm ~. :If;J&llA~\~n~.m,i~ilH1ft1-!4Hllm:~f:r!I ..

AIN,IL,Y ISE 1'H E 'T AlHC:*

:m Ii, Ii]

• Read this G fisk 2.


ThskA

It~ fJchielfJ'l.ncper-so"ull hdppirross.~ Of II' re'lBtitJnship& ,(uit'II. otJl,e,l" rJe01Jk r!a"n u:" friends" aJUOOgNes) (I..fe ,moore t'Jlp-o.ytant '#i.lJR arly,tldllg else. Issues suell as' work' and .'~ltll ''ake seooomiplace.
DO',ul'le

a:~

,ordis~?

it~ ~If~ ~ir


Jil~.i! +~,li., ~.i.!

;tr' oN! ll, ~

att-~*

00.lrt..~~6~M N-&t~~ 1.~"i'if~:t 9 rill,! +Jt,~~.~,~ Jo':,{ 'Ifli:l!Ht-i~.. T l1i1!g (6)~*~I,Mi~~ lt1piq"~

'. ,Uo YOoU agree 'whh the sta ternen t? Vllh~'?


11.

2
,3 4,

\!\1:hichof the words in the' task Mll! help you develop your main ,idea.s? How useful ~sthe informanon in 'htackms? Are there any important' issues' rha~you mint have been left out uf ntis qUt:sw'lon1 15this U plrilcsephlcal questlcn or a pracecai question? l5 there nne correct answer? Can }'OU turn [he whole task into a questlont
TMiJj' SPllle people a'l,,,,B tlmt tl.'ere are 110fi",uIn,lIw,ntal ,dlJlerenres bctn'eel~ lhe way "Ie1:. an:d ,r,tlomen atJ1Jr.oR('h amaende sfiU'ly., Olhe,rs ,imis:f: tlu", tlwm am

• Here is ,adilfferem task that presents beth sides of an ,argument

b,ig IiUJferenr::esin. If'fens ~uch as ,or:~'~iS'Rtiort~ attihule


d,e..Ye differ:rm.€Jr!S ,mev/lably have tlr, iuq;mcf

,a"d an'l~ifi-OJ'JttilEd ,~'m'

O!l'~'stf,d.eflllliJe,

M,af an' y'Ol~r fJ,piluo,ns or. tlJIs?

92

Writing UNIT.,
'. Do 'you~g.r,ee wid"l one' of ,Hle v,iinvs presented in the task or do you ddnk there

are argm:neu[s for bmh?

6 \N'hiell of the words 1111 the LlISk will hel p you develop your main ideas?

7 Is thls a. general question about the djffe'rence~ between DWWl and women? 8 Hm'll"mi,g'ht mt\i' wording; ,ofthe question he~p yo IJ organ! se your ,answer? : 9 Do you have to organise your answer in this way!?

i!J 1 :f; tl: ;r:; 1" 1"25 O'i,J] ~

1;-j:_ •

11~~ .j:.;1IJ ~ JL 1'-.!.~ l1ll..~.. 1tJ4:. f! if • 't)'

m.t.f.fltt~.ab-l1'J-i" IP ~1 .. &'i&.
'. Read thls

paragraph from a samp~e essay on Task A.lp.age 90).

U. What is the' main idea, of the paragraph?

] I What are the supporting points?


12: What do you notice about the bmb'Ua:ge that is used? t 9:

How ,co'lJJd this paragraph be-imp,roved?

"t~5,-r TI.:P
!If ft (.f. Q ~~ iI. ii, f'l i1J ,-~ t.A(tl~~ftB~,~ ~ fJ e,~4i .. ,f 'l ~

Insight into lElTS Exira with Answers

~ UsinG [he structure diagram below, ext:nll('~the maln ideas and the supporting poh'l!t.s from Para,Srapb b. Topic of Paragraph Main Ideas 15
14 /"' -----...._
..-

,"'
~--

. 16
17

"

".
_ ...•.•.

..

~._/.

..

18

~+... ~ iI ~

ill

Fof

F"'++"'a.~....

1,19 ••• ~;,;.~~.....~~__ ~

!!

~ ~ ~ ~'I'

!!O .•.. '


...

,..,

'1.1'\~
~

'. Now rewrite PaJagnllph a on p,~ge 93. MalQea small. phm t:i.rsl, then take no InOJ1C than 15 mlnures tnwrire your paragraph.
ii'

Exchange your par3gfatph with yom: ~mdy partner and see whether ynu can id<entlfyeacb other's main mdeils and supporting points,

• Refer to Ins igln f III 0 ,"iLl'S pages 8 -84, for more guidance on forming idemi.

94

Writing
IUN~T8 Planning a structure, Task 2

~_I

JIi~Task 2ffif~. ~7Jhl'8*!lt. t~inirmliiSt'j[(;/Jp~Hft:'hEittUl~U!.JlH~~~i!J! j} ~,{ti III ;"3:~~ :lHJJ ~~ ~ t1i~~nJII~ r(-li1\I~fh-; 11., I¥J~
9 e

UNIDIER:,S,TANDI THE DllfFERENCE

IR,ETWIEIEN M!AIN AIND SUPPORTING

IDE,A,S

,iii

Read the foU(fl,-vj,ngtask and the sample arrswerrhen

answer the qut:Sijons below.

,Poop,is,fitfUl 'laue ort.'gI,ud was are ~In-uJdi tp'f!tder mlue t'O society lIum those who, tuli' 5irJI;PIy able 10 Cf1:pythe ideas 6/'QtiJeTS well.
10

w,hat exteQ:t do ]~tj' tl,gme or d~gree

with this s:'laleme,nlf

1 ~"1'f.liliy "91"66 I'Mr p«)p18 1ttI./w ,..:;.0'" tJ] Klifll MW i#4IlS; i(l olMr WQ;wt.6 fk>5LJ. wlio 11fIf411f' (;J" • d-tu~r' tNfI95 ,j(}'~ tH"dlJy ;","pW'f.d fGsot=f.ty {J$ II wM~. (iIJ.W6.'r' __'-, 1 ,"'5'(;) I'Jtllr/c fkrlf ,5 ;l yaJ. 1/1 S(J&''#/y 10,. 'JOOd",l1ftlfQr5.

/'If,) ~ WQIIM .fl,6P1/ I'MI' ko!Jy ill&i~'&wll$ IftJsf J~ tlvl"it:fl4. fa, pyQyliVnq o~ "VItI. parlalfj f4.t;IIrti.*!i liul! w4l' I!S~ ~,~,6;Y~lJ'I. ;'iifI!>Yt!< ~/.:t

w. II••
tl1/(~ U6<UN

'01'" _U1I11P~.

"",tfJrouf
nft/J

/;os/e, if.~Hl!j
tlJit1rl!;iDIf

£.. t,_'-~

If'~" riJ.~i!'I'''t<
tll'#iIt

..... P~M{f9

wiJe}fIM, 50

s{J~A Ott"'.

,1Ir# "ow lJ'5#tt

lit Iold. tit8 ~~f'f


iftM'ttlZr; tlfijly

loy

9'''''''''&'

rl1'tfl ,&().iJlfWt.§-y'! T/lt6r.~ f,f~n~' I"'91J!tJ;''Y .,"aT wgt T'tJllift r('J .... ik~
(fI

ro~

itf1s
aI'#JJpdAtll

'M,,;t,

tiOIf~lIl,tltJl'-6Yli!JilftJA,

Ir lil«y fN,., pa6iStN~ ftJ "msfdfJTIt iiiI'd- ultpj!'t;.Vtl UHrSlliWtU' 9(')!}t;it$ ~ mtf /I.'r'iJryfmlJ whIJ,.. 1 lir~ ~" Alford,. t~ p"ftM~ 01
JMWllfrflM,

FllrfM('~~

tWf'

l't'i!I';ytJ1'l6

"'~~fJl
ImJ~

in

1 How does !he writer respond to the task In lhe tnrroduenent How does dIe writer use paragraphing to develop thE: answer? Underline the malin mdea wnparu.grnphs 2. :I and 4.. Underline a supporting point in each paragraph .. Do ynu dunk thswrfter's an swer has a clear line of develop L'l1elU? I low us,efuJ is the conch~s,ion?

95

Insig ht into IEllS Exira witih Answer~

THE BODY

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Main idea Compare educatlon with other areas of life


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11: Read this [Ilk and the sample lntmductioDs, and IconiClu.siom. Say whether a, b, c and d are introducdons Dr conclusions. Discuss the reasons for yQur cholce wuh you;m:study partner, 'he ,e'Rmmll',nen' in fl;l:1Iid, I't ~",rs:. FOr'tili.s .-eMOil;' i,tternatwuallaws;tlNtI. uI'erntllW.fml law Mf"nsRm u,-It'edistk and wtll nal sl:ta:eea ili reduct'!g crbt,e leuels i.i dijferent (;Qunt~les. Crime

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• Practise wridnC so me introductory sentences. Look at the task on tJ:JiI~prevlous paB,a and writ~ one Oli' two sentences that
12 gel'lleraiill:y agree wiit1~ the statement, 13 exp:J1ess SO'IDe doubt about the !ila~eme~U. 14 lrutpress a m,:ili!ed Viiew on the sratement. 15 question the deflninen of Psl'udy welt
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Pre-,task questions
., Ask younelf some questions about the task ~n 0 rder to understand wt fully and deetda bow you.would like tu address i~.
• M,atpout some ideas on ~he task

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• Write an answer to the ~askand. time yourself. Yuu sbould airn to take Iessilian ,40 minutes to lNrite it as you have a1re-ady spent somle tim,c pr-eparing your answer. You shou.ld spend about 40 minutes on this task. Presens awrirten ru-gurllem or case tc an educated reader 'with no specialist
blo\'""I~edge of the following topic.

In some c-orl.Htries".fllarrl~ges ore'RI'fIIJI1fce4 '. people choose rl1Je'ir.own. mfUTiage ptIt:tner.,

the parel't:s ,Iml in ot.her MS'~

D,isalSS. bol'. ¥WIlIS. You should u ieyour own. ideas. knowledge and experience arguments w~LIl eXiamples ,andre[evar1 t evidenC€.

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Introducing topics and main ideas

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II .on the wlwle, IJenp'Jetend ,to feel tlMt human nature is fund.1!l.m~ntaUy good. :2 While 1 QPpredate the lmportanee of ,oomputers, .1srill e/l,ink we rely tOil heavily on them nowadays. g, Do rum stars need to be paid such nifil~salariest 4: It is inevUable that human cloning will n ne day beceene ,8. lreaUty. ,5, fin this context it is ap'pfflIJr,tare' 1'0 assume auu 'prnf sslonal expertise' refers to the skU.]with wbidlpeople de their jobs, G. 1 am not convlnced that goal setting is ,I crnleal aspect (Iof personal fulllllnlent. "l There is ,e"tlery reason tv predict th'aitbe quality of healthcare tUm cO'lJ\dru..we to declline in this oomury. i8 .R,egardle.ss afthe co I:S involved, i,f is' atzuays UJiJrth hiring the be-Sf peoph:!'. '9 fJv:eralt people ha rlf!: a !;flruJe'lCY ro resist changt'l. 10 CbUdr,en are simUllF UJ' animals in 'their n-eed [(;I' be eared for ,and lov,ed .. a b c d
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b:y m~id.ng, a.coucession by gen,'nuis:ing by making a predietian/speculattng

e by refudng an argument f by giivinga definitlun i dar ifi!cation g by e:1l.]lressing: doubt b by ,as.kjng a rhetnrieal qrueslLjon

Decide bow the writee might eermnue the argument in each statement.

'98:

Writing UNIT 9

Where would we be, for example, without bask items such as the washlng machine, the I.clevish:m and" mere rooolltly the computer? it"t ·bill'~ 6J ~ ff: 1iiJ fF MJ.It*%' ~, iL1t.!] ~ ''t; fn jt m G

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14
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There is no crime' more sh,ocldl.lR than eold-blnoded murder. {\lVhat?) ~ ca~,'tunderstand why anyone wouldwant roge 1-0 prison, f\i\l'hy~) 8'ig cities bave highest crime rates, (VV'helie?) [tis impossible to compaI~ a crime in.one eoumry with the same crime' in another. (HoW?) It is tmposslble ~o say how long someone should spend in prison.I(VIJ~ho?)

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advertlsements? would we buy


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Without advertising

many products?

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