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Selection Of The New 4 MW S1 GTG Generator Neutral Earthing & Sizing Of Its Neutral Earthing Transformer & Its

Secondary Loaded Earthing Resistor

1 Basis Of Design
In order to protect stator core from damage during internal stator earth fault, it is necessary to limit stator earth fault to
as low a value that is practicable.

Generators/Motors connected to the 11 kV system, through 33/11.5 kV transformer unit, can be treated as an isolated
system which is not influenced by the earthing requirements of the distribution system

The industry wide practice for such generators/motors is to use a 11 kV neutral earthing transformer suitably rated with
secondary winding designed for 240 V/ 110 V or so and loaded with a resistor of a value which when referred to the
primary will pass a low earth fault current of say 5 to 10 A.

The Neutral earthing resistor connected shall be of low ohmic value of rugged construction while still presenting a high
equivalent value in the generator 11 kV neutral circuit

The Neutral resistor shall be incorporated to prevent the production of high transient over voltages (TOVs) in the event
of an arcing earth fault which it does by discharging the bound charge in the circuit capacitance.

To prevent transient over voltages, it is necessary to ensure the equivalent resistance in the stator circuit should not
exceed the impedance at system frequency of the total summated capacitances of the three phases of the
generator/motor circuit.

In this respect the resistive component of stator EF current should not be less than (not < than) the residual capacitance
current ( 3.Ico ) in the generator/motor 11 kV circuit upto tranformer.

For Selecting Earthing Transformer, it is necessary to ensure it never becomes saturated otherwise a very undesirable
condition of ferro-resonance may occur. In this respect it is usual to select transformer having a primary winding with
knee-point voltage (Vk) = to 1.3 x generator/motor rated line voltage of 11000 V (11 kV)

2.0 Sizing Calculation

2.1 Selection Of EF Current Limit


2.1.1 Generator Data
Generator Rating = 52.5 MW
Rated Gen kV 11 kV
Maximum Overvoltage 14.3 kV

2.1.2 Transformer Data


Ratio 33/11.5

2.1.3 Total Capcitance Per Phase


Generator 0.22 Micro-Farad Typical
Generator Connections 0 Micro-Farad Typical
Generator-Transformer 11 kV 0.01 Micro-Farad Typical
11 kV Cable 100 m 0 Micro-Farad Typical
Surge Suppressor Capicatance 0.25 Micro-Farad Typical

Total 0.48 Micro-Farad Typical

TOTAL RESIDUAL CAPACITANCE 1.43 (3.C) Micro-Farad

2.1.4 TOTAL RESIDUAL CAPACITIVE IMPEDANCE 2222.99 Ohm


(10^6 ) / (3.w.C)

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Selection Of The New 4 MW S1 GTG Generator Neutral Earthing & Sizing Of Its Neutral Earthing Transformer & Its
Secondary Loaded Earthing Resistor

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Selection Of The New 4 MW S1 GTG Generator Neutral Earthing & Sizing Of Its Neutral Earthing Transformer & Its
Secondary Loaded Earthing Resistor

2.2 Neutral Earthing Resistor


The Effective Resistance Should Be Made Equal To Residual Capacitive Impedance (2222.99 Ohm
calculated above) To Ensure TOV Is Controlled

Then Resistive Component Of EF 3.39 A (11000/Sqrt(3)/ 2222.99 2.86

The Actual Fault Current Will Contain Equal Resistive & Capacitive Components & The Net EF
Current Will Be Sqrt (Ir^2+Ic^2)
4.43 A SQRT(2.856^2+2.856^2)

2.3 Neutral Earthing Distribution Transformer (Neutral ET or N ET) & NER Sizing
2.3.1 N ET
Transfo Primary Vk (Knee Point Voltage) 15.000 kV ( > 1.3*11 kV)
Applied kV On N ET During EF 6.351 kV (11 / sqrt(3) )

Applied kV On N ET During EF With Field Forcing 8.256 kV 1.3 x

Increase in Neutral EF Current 3.714 A ( 8.26/6.35)*2.86 A

Maximum N ET Loading Under Above Condition 55.709 kVA (15*3.714)

Considering 30 sec duty, the N ET Can Have 6 Times 9.285 kVA (55.709/6)
Short Term 30 Sec Overload Withstand With kVA
Considered Based On Maximun EF Amp & Knee Point
kV
10.000 kVA 30 sec rated

2.3.2 N ET Secondary Rating


Consider Secondary Knee Point Of 240.000 V
Maximum Secondary Current 232.12 A (3.714*15000/240)

2.3.3 N ET Secondary Loading Resistor

Equivalent Neutral Primary Resistor 2222.99 Ohm (= EF Capacitance Impedance


Calculated In 2.14 Clause Above)

Actual Secondary Loading Resisor Based on 15 kV / 0.57 Ohm At 240 V Side


250 V N ET

N ET Secondary Amp 41.67 A (10000/240)

Type N ET Cu Loss 310 Watt Typical For Such Rating


Type N ET Resistance Due Cu Loss 0.18 Ohm Watt / I ^2 = 310/(40)^2

Therefore N ET Secondary Loading Resistor


0.39 Ohm (0.569085-0.17856)
Rated N ET Secondary Resistor Ampere For 30 232.12 A (For 30 Sec)
Seconds
,(1.3*2.857*11000/240)

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Selection Of The New 4 MW S1 GTG Generator Neutral Earthing & Sizing Of Its Neutral Earthing Transformer & Its
Secondary Loaded Earthing Resistor

2.3.4 Neutral Earthing Transformer Reactance

Typical % X Of N ET 4 %
Typical X pu Of N ET 0.04 PU
N ET Rating (Base kVA) 10 kVA
N ET Rating (Base MVA) 0.01 MVA
Base kV 0.25 kV
X Base 6.25 Ohm ( kV^2/MVA)
N ET X in Ohm 0.25 Ohm X pu x X Base
N ET R in Ohm AS Calculated Above 0.18 Ohm
X/R Ratio Of N ET 1.4 (This Should Not Exceed 2)

3 Summary Of Requirements
N ET Rating 10 kVA 30 sec rating
N ET Ratio 15000V/240V
N ET Secondary Loaded Resistor 0.39 Ohm
N ET Secondary Loaded Resistor 30 Second Current Rating
232.12 A For 30 Second
N ET X/R Ratio 1.4 (Not > 2.)