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Synopsis

of
(Image Restoration using Type-2 Fuzzy Logic)

Under guidance of : Mrs Anita sahoo(Astt.Professor)

Submitted by
Gaurav Maheshwari 0509113141
Kokil Sahai 0509113056
Kapil Kumar Gupta 0509113053
Department of Information Technology
JSS Academy Of Technical Education, Noida

INTRODUCTION:

D IGITAL images are often contaminated by impulse noise


during image acquisition and/or transmission due to a
number of imperfections encountered in image sensors and
communication channels. In most image processing
applications, it is very important to remove the impulse
noise from the image because the performances of
subsequent image processing tasks, such as edge detection,
image segmentation, object recognition,etc., are severely
degraded by noise.
In our project we will restore the image by removing the noise using type-2
fuzzy logic technique. In type-2 fuzzy logic technique, firstly we will fuzzify
the image using some rules based on sugeno based type-2 fuzzy ,then we
will defuzzify and using postprocessor we get the output which will be equal
to the restored value of center pixel.
Objective

Digital signals are often corrupted by noise during signal acquisition /or
transmission due to a number of imperfections caused by signal sensors /or
communication channels.In most signal processing operations it is of vital
importance to remove noise from the signal because the performances of
subsequent signal processing tasks are severely degraded by the noise.
A good noise filter is required to satisfy two conflicting criterions of
1) to suppressing the noise while at the same time
2) preserving the useful information
Unfortunately the great majority of currently available noise filters cannot
simultaneously satisy the both criterions.they either suppress the noise at the
cost of distorting the useful information in the signal or preserve useful
information at the cost of noise suppression performance.
Hardware and Software Requirements

• Operating System: Windows XP


• Software Tools:-MATLAB and SMART DRAW

Matlab

MATLAB is a high-level technical computing language and interactive


environment for algorithm development, data visualization, data analysis,
and numeric computation. Using the MATLAB product, you can solve
technical computing problems faster than with traditional programming
languages, such as C, C++, and Fortran.

You can use MATLAB in a wide range of applications, including


signal and image processing, communications, control design, test and
measurement, financial modeling and analysis, and computational
biology. Add-on toolboxes (collections of special-purpose MATLAB
functions, available separately) extend the MATLAB environment to
solve particular classes of problems in these application areas.

MATLAB provides a number of features for documenting and


sharing your work. You can integrate your MATLAB code with
other languages and applications, and distribute your MATLAB
algorithms and applications.
SmartDraw – It is a UML modeling tool. SmartDraw is used to
create business graphics such as flowcharts, organization charts,
Gantt charts, timelines, mind maps, floor plans, and other
diagrams.

Developed by SmartDraw.com
Latest release 2008 / September 2007
OS Windows 2000, XP and Vista
Type Business Graphics
License Proprietary
Website www.smartdraw.com
Scope of the Solution

A image filter based on type-2 fuzzy logic techniques is


proposed for detail-preserving restoration of digital images
corrupted by impulse noise. The
performance of the proposed filter is evaluated for different
test images corrupted at various noise densities and also
compared with representative conventional as well as state-
of-the-art impulse noise filters from the literature. The
proposed filter exhibits superior performance over the
competing operators and is capable of efficiently
suppressing the noise in the image while at the same time
effectively preserving thin lines, edges, texture, and other
useful information within the image.

If the noise density is high (>50%) then we cannot


conclude whether the noise is due to the individual pixel or
due to the edge. So to get the better result we will use the
adaptive method in which we will take 5*5 pixel instead of
using 3*3 pixel and we will get a better result .
OVERALL DESCRIPTION

Operator
Fig. 1(a) shows the general structure of the proposed
impulse noise removal operator. The operator is constructed
by combining a desired number of type-2 fuzzy filters,
defuzzifiers, and a postprocessor. The operator processes
the pixels contained in its filtering window, shown in Fig.
1(b),and outputs the restored value of the center pixel. Each
filter in the structure processes a different neighborhood
relationship between the center pixel of the filtering window
and two neighboring pixels. Possible neighbourhood
topologies are shown in Fig. 1(c). As is seen from this figure,
there is a maximum of 28 possible neighborhood topologies
corresponding to a filtering operator with 28 filters.
However, it should be emphasized that one does not have to
use all of these neighborhood topologies in practice. For
most filtering applications, a filtering operator with only a
few filters will yield satisfactory performance. In this case,
the neighborhood topologies fed to the filters included in
the structure of the operator should be chosen to be as
diverse as possible to obtain the best performance. The
filtering performance of the operator may further be
increased as desired by including more filter processing
different neighborhood relationships. However, this will also
increase the computational complexity. Hence, the choice of
the number of filters needed for a particular filtering
application is, in general, an application-dependent issue,
which should be determined heuristically and verified
experimentally.
All filters employed in the structure of the operator are
identical to each other and function as subfilters. However, it
should be observed that the values of the internal
parameters of each of the filters will be different from the
other filters even though all filters have the same internal
structure and the same number of internal parameters. This
is because each filter is trained for its particular
neighborhood individually and independently of the others
during training

WORKING

Each filter accepts the center pixel and two of its


appropriate neighboring pixels as input and produces an
output, which is a type-1 interval fuzzy set representing the
uncertainty interval (i.e., lower and upper bounds) for the
restored value of the center pixel. The output fuzzy sets
coming from the filters are then fed to the corresponding
defuzzifier blocks. The defuzzifier defuzzifies the input fuzzy
set and converts it into a single scalar value. The scalar
values obtained at the outputs of the defuzzifiers represent
candidates for the restored value of the center pixel of the
filtering window.The candidate values are finally evaluated
by the postprocessor and converted into a single output
value. The output of the postprocessor is also the output of
the proposed filtering operator and represents the restored
value of the center pixel of the filtering window.
B. Type-2 fuzzy Filters

Each filter employed in the structure of the proposed


impulse noise removal operator is a Sugeno-type first-order
type-2 interval fuzzy inference system with three inputs and
one output (fuzzy set uncertainty interval). The internal
structures of the filters are identical to each other.

1. INPUTS:
CENTER PIXEL
TWO NEIGHBOURING PIXELS

2. MEAN OF THE THREE INPUTS: (m)

3. UNCERTAIN MEAN: (u)

4. USING SOME CONSTRAINTS WE CALCULATE THE


LOWER AND UPPER BOUND OF THE MEMBERSHIP
FUNCTION.: (M)
5.WE CALCULATE WEIGHTED FACTOR(w)

6. WE CALCULATE OUTPUT OF RULES(R)

7.WE CALCULATE Y WHICH IS THE OUTPUT OF FILTER.


8. WE CALCULATE D WHICH IS THE OUTPUT OF
DEFUZZIFIER BY TAKING Y AS INPUT.

Defuzzifier

The defuzzifier block takes the type-1 interval fuzzy set


obtained at the output of the corresponding NF filter as input
and converts it into a scalar value by performing centroid
defuzzification.Since the input set is a type-1 interval fuzzy
set.
Fig. 3. Setup for training the type-2 NF filters in the structure
of the proposed operator.

Yk = [Y k1 , Y k2 ]
Dk = (Y k1 + Y k2)/2

9.TAKING AVERAGE OF D FOR ALL THE FILTERS WHICH


WILL BE THE RESTORED VALUE OF THE CENTER PIXEL.

Postprocessor

The postprocessor generates the final output of the


proposed operator. It processes the scalar values obtained at
the outputs of the defuzzifiers and produces a single scalar
output, which represents the output of the proposed filter.
The postprocessor actually calculates the average value of
the defuzzifier outputs and then suitably truncates this value
to an 8-bit integer number. The input–output relationship of
the postprocessor may be explained as follows.
The output of the postprocessor is calculated in two steps. In
the first step, the average value of the individual type-2 NF
filter
outputs is calculated:
In the second step, this value is suitably truncated to an 8-bit
integer value so that the luminance value obtained at the
output
of the postprocessor ranges between 0 and 255:
Overall Network Architecture

ACTIVITY DIAGRAM FOR INTRODUCTION


ACTIVITY DIAGRAM FOR DEFUZZIFIER
ACTIVITY DIAGRAM FOR POSTPROCESSOR
ACTIVITY DIAGRAM TO SHOW WORKING

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Future Scope and Further enhancements
1. This project can be enhanced with following feature in future based on business
needs:
2. Ability to remove at different levels in the image, this can lead to more
revenue for a business.
3. This Project will be in future help for image recognition also.

Bibliography
1. www.mathworks.com
2. IEEE search papers
3. Stephen J chapman for Matlab
4. George J. klir/ Bo yuan for fuzzy logic