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In this chapter, the two parenting style typologies will be discussed - Baumrind͛s Parenting Style
Typologies, and Maccoby and Martin͛s Parenting Style Typologies. The previous studies conducted
on the relationship between parenting style and academic achievement will be reviewed.
Maternal and paternal parenting style on students͛ academic achievement which is the main focus
of this study will be discussed in detail.


       

According to Spera (2005) the dimensions of parenting styles that were examined by early
researchers include: acceptance/rejection (Symonds, 1939), dominance/submission (Symonds,
1939), emotionally involved/uninvolved (Baldwin, 1948), democratic/autocratic (Baldwin, 1948),
responsiveness/unresponsiveness (Baldwin, 1948; Schaefer, 1959), control/noncontrol (Schaefer,
1959), and restrictiveness/permissiveness (Becker, 1964). A theory of parenting style developed by
Baumrind in the late 1960s and early 1970s is one of the most popular and important approaches
(Jackson, 2002).

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Baumrind (1967, 1971, 1989, 1991a) conducted extensive interviews and observations with
parents and children, and proposed three qualitatively different patterns of parenting styles:
authoritarianism, authoritativeness, and permissiveness. Baumrind͛s parenting style was
developed from analyzing parenting in largely middle class, white families. The three parenting
styles have different consequences on children cognitive and social competence development
(Dornbusch, Ritter, Leiderman, Roberts, & Fraleigh, 1987). These three parenting styles differ in
behaviours, values, and standards which parents expect their children to adopt.

Baumrind͛s basic parenting style typologies were obtained by studying separate samples of
children and their families (Baumrind, 1967). Thirty-two families were selected after prolonged
observations of the preschool children͛s patterns of behaviour in the nursery school setting. The
three prototypic patterns of parental authority ʹ authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive ʹ
emerged from the study.

A longitudinal study was conducted by Baumrind (1971) where 134 middle-class Caucasian aged
four to five participated in the study. Children were born in the year 1964 and were first studied in
the year 1968 to 1969. This is the most comprehensive study on preschool children and was also
the first wave ongoing longitudinal study. This longitudinal study was different from the previous
study conducted by Baumrind (1967) where in the previous study, families were selected on the
basis of their children͛s patterns of behaviour and their parents were then compared, but in this
longitudinal study families were classified on the basis of the parents͛ patterns of behaviour and
their children were then compared. Families were classified into authoritative, authoritarian, and
permissive prototypes. From this longitudinal study using preschool sample, Baumrind (1971)
obtained a classification of parenting style.

Baumrind (1971) suggested that authoritarian parents often try to shape, control, and evaluate
their children͛s behaviour based on the absolute set of standards. They have high maturity
demands on their children because they are unable to tolerate children͛s inappropriate
behaviours. They discouraged verbal give-and-take and believe that children should just follow the
commands of parents. They emphasize absolute obedience and respect for authority among their
children. They are strict and often assert power on the children when children misbehave. When
socializing with their children, authoritarian parents expect children to follow their rules and
regulations without interacting with their children on the rationale behind the rules. Authoritarian
parents are high on firm enforcement and maturity demands and less responsive and
psychologically differentiated.

Baumrind (1971) suggested that permissive parents are less controlling than they are warm and
autonomy granting. Permissive parents make little mature demands on their children compared to
other parents. They avoid the use of punishment on their children. They are often noncontrolling
of their children behaviour and activities and allow children to self-regulate as much as possible.
They are high in tolerating their children misbehaviour. They attempt to behave in nonpunitive,
accepting and affirmative manner toward their children desires, actions, and impulses. They
present themselves as resources to be used by their children instead of being responsible in
shaping and altering their children͛s behaviour. When socializing with their children, permissive
parents often show less concern to their children. Children of permissive parents did not differ
significantly from children of authoritarian parents. However, compared with children of
authoritative parents, they were less achievement oriented. Children of permissive parents were
less cognitively competent compared to children of authoritative parents.

In contrast to authoritarian and permissive parents, Baumrind (1971) suggested that authoritative
parenting style is considered to fall between the two extremes - authoritarian and permissive
parenting style. Authoritative parents recognize the rights of both parents and child. They attempt
to guide their children activities in a rational and oriented manner. They expect high mature
demands on their children through encouraging verbal give-and-take and supportive. They provide
firm and clear rules to children and use commands when is necessary. They encourage children to
be independent and confront their children in order to obtain conformity and expect their children
to respect their norms. They control children behaviour as needed but were responsive and
interact frequently and effectively with children. Authoritative parents are responsive in which
they are supportive, loving, and committed and cognitively responsive to the needs of their
children by providing challenging and stimulating environment. When socializing with their
children, authoritative parents often provide their children with the rationale for their rules or
actions. Authoritative parents are high on firm enforcement and maturity demands. In contrast to
authoritarian parents, authoritative parents are also responsive and psychologically differentiated.
Children of authoritative parents are significantly more competent and achievement oriented than
other children.
In the study, Baumrind (1971) found that authoritative parents had children who appeared most
competent or highly socialized in the school. Children whose parents were authoritarian and
permissive had children who were less competent in the school. Baumrind (1971) pointed out that
both authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles are high in controlling children͛s behaviours,
but only authoritative parenting provide rationale on their demands and provide support for their
child autonomy. Thus, authoritative parents encourage academic and social competence of their
children by balancing the need of autonomy.

The second wave longitudinal study data was collected when the children were at the age of nine
(Baumrind, 1989). The sample consisted of 164 children and their parents where 104 were studied
in the first wave longitudinal study and 60 were new added subjects. The parents parenting style
and children level of competence was identified. The classification of parenting style was based on
both mother͛s and father͛s profile on specific parent behaviour rating composites measuring
͞demandingness͟ and ͞responsiveness͟. The parenting style identified include: authoritarian,
authoritative, permissive, traditional and rejecting-neglecting. Authoritarian parents were highly
demanding but not responsive. Authoritative parents were both demanding and responsive.
Permissive parents were highly responsive but not demanding. Traditional parents exhibited
different parenting style in which fathers were highly demanding but nonresponsive while
mothers were highly responsive but nondemanding. Rejecting-neglecting parents are low in
demanding and responsiveness. Children level of competence include: optimal competent (high
scores on both socially assertive and socially responsible), incompetent (low scores on both
socially assertive and socially responsible), and partially competent (average scores on both
socially assertive and socially responsible).

The results revealed that children raised by authoritative parents, girl raised by authoritarian
parents, boys raised by traditional parents were competent. Children raised by rejecting-
neglecting parents and girls raised by permissive parents were incompetent. In contrast, 67
percent of boys raised by rejecting-neglecting parents were incompetent and 85 percent of
children raised by authoritative parents were optimally competent. Compared to each other, more
children from demanding families (authoritative, traditional, and authoritarian) were optimally
competenet and more children from nondemanding families (permissive and rejecting-neglecting)
were incompetent.

The third wave longitudinal study data was collected when the children were at the age of fifteen
(Baumrind, 1991a). The sample consisted of 139 adolescents and their parents. Three parent
behaviour scales: directive/conventional control (D/C C), assertive control (AC), and supportive
control (SC) were used to define the six parenting types. The parenting type identified in this study
include: authoritative (high on AC and SC), democratic (medium on AC, high on SC, not-high on
D/C C), directive (medium-high or high on D/C C and AC and medium-low or low on SC), good-
enough (medium-low to medium-high on D/C C, AC, and SC), nondirective (low D/C C and AC;
medium-high or high SC), and unengaged (low or medium-low on SC and AC).
The results indicated that adolescents of authoritative and democratic parents were more
competent than other adolescents. They were more achievement oriented, cognitively motivated,
and had the highest scores on verbal and mathematics achievement tests. Adolescents of directive
parents performed poorly on verbal and mathematics achievement tests and showed more
internalizing problem behaviour. Adolescents of good enough parents as the name indicated were
adequately but not outstandingly competent. Adolescents of nondirective parents were less
achievement-oriented and nonconforming when compared to adolescents of democratic and
authoritative parents. Adolescents of unengaged parents also known as rejecting-neglecting were
more antisocial, lack of social responsibility, cognitive competence, and self-regulation (Baumrind,
1991a).

The findings of the three wave longitudinal study by Baumrind were consistently stable from
preschool sample to adolescent sample. The linkages between aspects of parenting and children͛s
functioning was found to persist into adolescence. Authoritative parenting style is often associated
with the highest competence while permissive and authoritarian parenting style is often
associated with lower competence.

According to Gfroerer, Kern, and Curlette (2004) Baumrind͛s conceptualization of parenting styles
(authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) parallels with Adlerian theory on parenting. The
positive effects of authoritative parenting on children support Adlerian theory which has
emphasized the importance of cooperative, warm parent-child relationship and clear boundaries
between parents and children. Baumrind͛s description of ͞authoritative͟ parenting overlapped
with what Adlerians normally define as ͞democratic͟.

The different parenting style helps predict students͛ ability in learning (Lamborn, Mounts,
Steinberg, & Dornbusch, 1991). Authoritative parenting seems to be the most appropriate
parenting style. Authoritative parenting was most strongly related with school performance
(Dornbusch, Ritter, Leiderman, Roberts, & Fraleigh, 1987; Steinberg, Mounts, Lamborn, &
Dornbusch, 1991; Chao, 1994). Baumrind (1996) was aware and pointed out that people need to
be caution that authoritative parenting style may not be beneficial in some culture and for
children from dangerous and low income areas.

      


       

In an influential review published in the Handbook of Child Psychology, Maccoby and Martin
(1983) updated Baumrind͛s parenting style by defining parenting style using two dimensions:
parental demandingness (control, supervision, maturity demands) and parental responsiveness
(warmth, acceptance, involvement). The interaction between the two dimensions produced four
distinct parenting styles. A primary difference between Baumrind͛s parenting style typologies and
Maccoby and Martin͛s parenting style typologies is that Baumrind discussed on ͞permissive͟
parenting while Maccoby and Martin differentiates between two types of permissive parenting.

Authoritarian parents are characterized by high in demandingness but low in responsiveness.


Authoritative parents are characterized by high on both demandingness and responsiveness. The
two types of permissive parenting as discussed by Maccoby and Martin (1983) are indulgent
parents and neglecting parents. Indulgent parents are characterized by low on demandingness but
high on responsiveness while neglecting parents are characterized by low on both demandingness
and responsiveness.

Indulgent parents are warm, accepting, and tolerant but make few demands for mature
behaviours, exercise little authority, and allow children to self-regulate as much as possible.
Neglecting parents do not care much of their children͛s behaviour and parents are often too
preoccupied by their own problems and thus neglect their children. Neglecting parents often
neglect their parental responsibilities.

In the later work, Baumrind (1991b) also used the concepts of demandingness and responsiveness
in explaining parenting style. Baumrind (1991b, p.748) defined

ß andingn  refers to the claims parents make on the child to become integrated into the
family whole by their maturity demands, supervision, disciplinary efforts and willingness to
confront the child who disobeys. R oniv n  refers to actions which intentionally foster
individuality, self-regulation and self-assertion by being attuned, supportive and acquiescent to
the child͛s special needs and demands.

Baumrind (1991b) used the two dimensions to derived four prototypes ʹ authoritative (high on
both demandingness and responsiveness), authoritarian (high on demandingness and low on
responsiveness), permissive (low on demandingness and high on responsiveness), and rejecting-
neglecting (low on both demandingness and responsiveness). The dimensions reflect two types of
demands: those demands made by children on society and those demands made by society on
children (Baumrind, 1991). According to Baumrind (1991b) that relying on the measurement of
demandingness and responsiveness in explaining the differences in the quality of control in
authoritarian and authoritative parents is insufficient. This is because the measurement of
demandingness and responsiveness do not include the assessment of other important criteria
such as restrictiveness, coerciveness and warmth. Baumrind (1991b) differentiated the two
aspects of demandingness: restrictiveness and firm control. Authoritative and authoritarian
parents are both high in firm control but authoritarian parents are highly restrictive.


            

Although the proposed study will be looking at both maternal and paternal parenting style
separately, it is important for us to review on the past studies which look at parenting style of
mother and father in a general categorization by averaging the parenting scores of mothers and
fathers or without having separate analyses for mothers and fathers style of parenting. By
reviewing the studies, a general idea on the relationship between parenting style and children
academic achievement can be obtained.

Following the research conducted by Baumrind (1967, 1971, 1989, 1991a) on parenting style,
Dornbusch, Steinberg, and their colleague went on to conduct studies that examined on parenting
styles and students͛ academic achievement by using a larger and more heterogeneous sample
(Spera, 2005). Dornbusch Ritter, Liederman, Roberts, and Fraleigh (1987) examined parenting
styles based on Baumrind͛s typology - authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive and school
performance among 7,836 high school adolescents in San Francisco. Student͛s school performance
was based on the measure of self-reported grade-point averages. Dornbusch et al. (1987) used a
large-scale questionnaire study of adolescents in high schools to obtain indirect measures of the
parenting style. The questionnaire measuring parenting style was developed by Dornbusch et al.
(1987). The results revealed that authoritative parenting style was positively correlated with
students͛ school grades while authoritarian and permissive parenting style was negatively
correlated with students͛ school grades. The relationship found was consistent across ethnic,
parental education, gender, and age.

Even though, the findings by Dornbusch et al. (1987) were interesting, there were some limitations
in the instrument used in examining the parenting style. One of the limitations is that there were a
number of academic-related content in the questionnaire (Buri, 1991). The instrument that was
used did not allow for separate measurement of the parenting style exercised by mothers and
fathers. In addition, the Cronbach alpha coefficients of the scales were .60 for permissiveness, .70
for authoritarianism, and .66 for authoritativeness and was considered as moderate in strength.

Steinberg, Lamborn, Dornbusch, and Darling (1992) conducted a longitudinal study to examine the
effects of authoritative parenting styles on student academic achievement by using a large and
heterogeneous sample from nine high schools in Wisconsin and northern California. The parenting
styles were classified into one of the four groups: authoritative, nonauthoritative, somewhat
authoritative, and somewhat nonauthoritative based on the students͛ rating of their parents on
two dimensions: acceptance/involvement and strictness/supervision. Subjects completed the
measures on parenting styles separately for mother and father. A composite score on parenting
style was obtained where the total scores on the measures of parenting styles for mother and
father were averaged. Subjects͛ academic achievement was obtained for two consecutive years -
1987 and 1988. The results revealed that subjects were more likely to characterize their parents as
authoritative. Students who perceived their parents as authoritative have higher academic
performance than students who perceived their parents as nonauthoritative parenting. This
finding was consistent across sex, age, and social class group.

Hickman, Suzanne, and McKenry (2000) examined the relationship between parenting styles and
(a) academic achievement and (b) adjustment of college students. Subjects͛ perceptions of
parenting style were assessed using the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) and students͛
academic achievement was based on students͛ self-report college grade point average (GPA). The
subscales from the PAQ were used to assess three dimensions of parenting style: authoritarian,
authoritative, and permissive. Subjects completed the measures on parenting styles separately for
mother and father. In order to obtain composite scores on each dimension of parenting style,
researchers summed the mother and father scores and taking the average of the items. The
findings revealed that authoritative parenting style was positively correlated with students͛
academic achievement while authoritarian and permissive parenting style was negatively
correlated with students͛ academic achievement.

Garg, Levin, Urajnik, and Kauppi (2005) conducted a study to examine parenting style, family
characteristics, and academic achievement using a sample of Canadian and East Indian
adolescents. A questionnaire was developed by researchers based on the previously identified
dimensions of parenting styles. The dimensions were acc anc involv  n and
icn  viion. Items were measured separately for mother and father and item ratings for
both parents were averaged. Parenting styles were classified into four dimensions: authoritative
(high on both acc anc involv  n and icn  viion), authoritarian (low on
acc anc involv  n and high on icn  viion), indulgent (high on
acc anc involv  n and low on icn  viion), and neglectful (low on both
acc anc involv  n and icn  viion). The results of the study indicated that the
percentages of self-reported authoritative parenting were similar in both Canadian and East Indian
sample. However, there were 35% of East Indian adolescents compared to only 19% of Canadian
sample perceived their parents to use authoritarian parenting styles. In the Canadian sample, it
was found that authoritative parenting styles was related to the highest academic achievement
while neglectful parenting styles was related to the lowest academic achievement. However, in
the East Indian sample, there was no relationship between parenting styles and academic
achievement.

Based on the three studies cited above, in order to obtain parenting style, researchers averaged
the parenting scores of mothers and fathers. Simons and Conger (2007) pointed out that by doing
so, little is known on whether mother and father have similar styles of parenting.

Radziszewska, Richardson, Dent, and Flay (1996) examined the relationship between parenting
style and academic achievement by using a sample of 3,993 ninth graders from Los Angeles and
San Diego countries. Parenting style was measure based on students͛ response to a question that
assessed the degree to which the adolescents perceive their parents extended control over their
lives, such as (i) whether parents made all of their decisions (authoritarian), (ii) collaborated
decisions with their adolescents where parents had the final say (authoritative), (iii) where
adolescents made more decisions that the parents (permissive), or (iv) if the adolescents made all
of their own decisions (unengaged). Authoritative parenting style was found to be correlated with
students͛ academic achievement. However, according to researchers the findings need replication
as it was only based on one single question.

Park and Bauer (2002) conducted a study to examine the relationship between parenting styles
and high school students͛ academic achievement. The sample consisted of 8,292 European
Americans, 1,176 African-Americans, 1,449 Hispanic, and 873 Asian Americans. The results
revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between authoritative parenting style
and high school students͛ academic achievement. There was a significant negative relationship
between authoritarian and permissive parenting style and high school students͛ academic
achievement.
Jackson (2002) investigated 111 ninth grade students͛ perceptions towards their parents͛ style of
parenting and academic achievement. Subjects were from one public high school in the States.
The data of parenting style was collected based on students͛ report on Steinberg et al.͛s (1994)
=hoiaiv Pa ning M a and students͛ academic achievement was assessed using their
current grade point averages. The parenting styles were classified into one of four groups:
authoritative (high on both acc anc involv  n and chological aono ganing),
authoritarian (high on acc anc involv  n and low on chological aono ganing),
permissive (low on acc anc involv  n and high on chological aono ganing), or
uninvolved (low on both acc anc involv  n and chological aono ganing) based on
the students͛ rating of their parents. The finding of the study was that there was a relationship
between parenting style and students͛ academic achievement. Authoritative parenting style was
positively associated with academic achievement while authoritarian parenting style was
negatively associated with academic achievement.

McBride-Chang and Chang (1998) conducted a study in Hong Kong on parenting style and
academic achievement using a sample of children and adolescents (ages 12 to 20) using Parental
Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). The PAQ questionnaire pertaining to mother or father was
reworded to parents so that either mother or father of the students would be able to rate
themselves on each dimension. Students academic achievement was based on school ranks (rank
1, highest achieving to rank 5, lowest achieving). It was found that Baumrind͛s parenting styles as
reported by parents do predict students͛ academic achievement. Parents with children in rank 1
schools rated themselves as significantly higher on authoritative parenting style than parents with
children in rank 5 schools. Parents with children in rank 1 schools rated themselves as significantly
lower on authoritarian parenting style than parents with children in rank 5 schools.

Using Dornbusch et al.͛s (1987) measures of parenting style, Lim (1998) conducted a study in one
of the Malaysia secondary school. Lim (1998) examined the relationship between perceived
parenting style and students͛ academic achievement. The sample consisted of 98 form 4 students.
The findings of the study indicated that more students in the sample perceived their parents as
being authoritative than authoritarian or permissive. There was a significant negative relationship
between authoritarian parenting style and academic achievement which is similar to the findings
by Dornbusch et al. (1987). However, there was no significant relationship between authoritative
and permissive parenting style and academic achievement.

Leung, Lau and Lam (1998) conducted a study on parenting style and academic achievement using
Chinese high school students in Hong Kong, Australia and European American high school
students. Dornbusch et al.͛s (1987) measure was used in measuring parenting styles. In contrast to
the findings above, authoritarian parenting was positively associated to the academic achievement
among Hong Kong Chinese high school students. There was no relationship between authoritative
parenting style and academic achievement among Hong Kong Chinese high school students.
However, authoritative parenting style was positively associated with academic achievement
among Australians and European Americans high school students.
In another study, Qing (1996) investigated the relationship of Chinese parenting style to only-
children͛s academic achievement using the Chinese version Parental Authority Questionnaire
(PAQ) in one Beijing elementary school. The analyses showed that there was no relationship
between parenting style and students͛ academic achievement.

The findings on the relationship between parenting style and students͛ academic achievement
almost showed consistent results in the Western countries however there were mixed findings in
non-western countries. Based on the findings above, the parenting studies investigating the
relationship on students͛ academic achievement did not include separate analyses for mothers
and fathers. Thus, the conclusions made without including separate analyses for mothers and
fathers are speculative (Milevsky, Schlechter, Netter, & Keehn, 2006). It is important to consider
the separate analyses of maternal as well as paternal parenting style (Milevsky, Schlechter, Netter,
& Keehn, 2006).

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Researchers are now more interested in having separate analyses for maternal and paternal
parenting style rather than just parenting style which could be referred to just mother or father
style of parenting and generalize it as parenting style or combining both mother and father style of
parenting in a general categorization (Shek, Lee, & Chan, 1998; Milevsky, Schlechter, Netter, &
Keehn, 2006). It is important to consider the separate analyses of maternal as well as paternal
parenting style (Milevsky, Schlechter, Netter, & Keehn, 2006).

Seyed Mohammad Assadi, Nayereh Zokaei, Hossein Kaviani, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi,
Padideh Ghaeli, Mahmood Reza Gohari et al. (2007) examined the relationships between maternal
parenting styles, sociocultural context and scholastic achievement among 240 Iranian adolescents.
Researchers measure the three maternal parenting styles ʹ authoritative, authoritarian, and
permissive by asking the adolescents to complete the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ)
pertaining to mother while students͛ school achievement was based on official school reports of
students͛ average grades on the final exams. Researchers hypothesized that there is a relationship
between maternal parenting styles and academic achievement where authoritative maternal
parenting style is positively correlated with school grade. The results showed that each maternal
parenting style significantly correlated with adolescents school grades. Maternal authoritative
parenting style was positively correlated with school grades while both maternal authoritarian and
permissive parenting style was negatively correlated with school grades. A multiple regression
analyses revealed that maternal authoritative parenting had a positive regression weight (ɴ = .13,
  .05) while maternal authoritarian (ɴ = .22,   .01) and maternal permissive parenting style (ɴ =
.13,   .05) had negative regression weights. Researchers concluded that the findings suggested
that maternal authoritative parenting style may be the most effective parenting styles. The
findings in this study were only based on adolescents͛ perceptions of maternal parenting.
Researchers suggested that further studies are needed to examine adolescents͛ perceptions of
paternal parenting and academic achievement.
Gadeyne, Ghesquiere, and Onghena (2004) conducted a longitudinal study in Belgium to examine
the relationship between parenting behaviour and students͛ academic achievement. The data for
352 children and their parents were gathered when the children were in kindergarten to 2nd
grade. Parenting styles was assessed using the Dutch Nijmegen Parenting Questionnaire where
both mother and father were asked to answer the questionnaire separately. The questionnaire
consisted of 50 items on specific parenting behaviours and rated based on 6-point scales. The
questionnaire consisted of 8 scales and yields two dimensions ʹ (i) parenting support and (ii)
parenting control. The parenting support dimension consisted of two scales: expression of
affection and responsiveness. The six scales of the parenting control dimension is broken into
democratic control and restrictive control concept. The scales of autonomy, conformist
childrearing, and induction belong to democratic control concepts while the scales of punishment,
ignoring, and material rewarding belong to restrictive control concepts. Children academic
achievement was based on students͛ mathematics and English test. In line with Seyed Mohammad
Assadi, Nayereh Zokaei et al. (2007) findings, the results indicated that maternal and paternal
authoritarian (low in supporting dimension while high in restrictive control dimension) was
negatively related to children͛s mathematics achievement. Maternal and paternal authoritative
(high in supporting dimension and high in democratic control dimension) was positively related to
children͛s mathematics achievement. However, no relationship was found between maternal and
paternal parenting style on children spelling test. According to researcher, this could be due to the
fact that parents value mathematics and spelling differently and deal the two subjects differently.

Tiller, Betsy Garrison, Block, Cramer, and Tiller (2003) examined the relationship between
parenting styles and young elementary U.S. school-aged children͛s cognitive ability. Pia
Ca giv  Pacic  R o (PCPR) was used to assess parents͛ parenting style based on
Baumrind͛s primary parenting style typologies: authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive.
Children͛s cognitive performance was assessed using i f In ll cal =bili (BIA) portion of the

oodcock-Johnon T  of Cogniiv =bili. Tiller et al. (2003) reported that maternal
authoritarian parenting style significantly and negatively related to children͛s cognitive ability.
Paternal and maternal permissive parenting style was significantly and negatively related to
children͛s cognitive ability. In contrast, no relationship was found on maternal authoritative
parenting style and paternal authoritarian and authoritative parenting style on children͛s cognitive
development. According to Tiller et al. (2003) there is a need to study mothers and fathers
parenting style separately in order to rule out how different parenting style influence child
outcomes.

Roopnarine, Krishnakumar, Metindogan, and Evans (2006) examined mothers and fathers
parenting style on pre-kindergarten and kindergarten-age children academic skills. Mother and
father were asked to fill out the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) separately and children͛s
academic skills were measured using the Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language skills.
Five different dimensions of academic skills were assessed: (a) expressive, (b) receptive, (c)
vocabulary, (d) numbers, and (e) composite scores. The results revealed that maternal parenting
style was not related to children academic skills. Paternal authoritarian parenting style was
negatively related to children receptive, vocabulary skills and composite scores. Researchers
concluded that fathers͛ parenting style were more influential on children academic skills than
mother͛ parenting style. According to the researchers, mother often seeks advice from father to
give guidance on children͛s development such as in educational activities and discipline. However,
this does not mean that mother play a minimal role in the early educational training of children.
Fathers have more influence on children academic arena while mothers have more influence on
children social development. Jaipul, Ambika, Aysegul, and Melanie (2006) also noted that fathers͛
parenting style were more influential on children academic skills than mother͛ parenting style.

Torres-Villa (1995) examined if parenting style can predict school achievement for high school
students. The sample consisted of 98 high school students. The measures consisted of the Parental
Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) and Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence (TONI-2). The measure of PAQ
was answered separately by mother and father. The results showed that only paternal
authoritative parenting style was a good predictor of students͛ GPA. Maternal parenting style does
not predict students͛ GPA. Similarly, Anupama, Jennifer, Amy, and Pamela (2003) also found that
there is no relationship between maternal parenting style and students͛ GPA.

Silva, Dorso, Azharm and Renk (2007) examined the relationship between maternal and paternal
parenting styles experienced in childhood, anxiety, motivation and academic success in college
students. The findings revealed that maternal and paternal authoritative parenting style, maternal
authoritarian, college students͛ anxiety and motivation were related to students͛ grade point
averages. Maternal and paternal authoritative parenting style was positively correlated with
students͛ grade point average. Maternal authoritarian parenting style was negatively correlated
with students͛ grade point average. In contrast to the findings of Roopnarine, Krishnakumar,
Metindogan, and Evans (2006), paternal authoritarian parenting style was not significantly related
to students͛ grade point average.

In another study, Kim and Rohner (2002) examined whether academic achievement varied as a
function of Baumrind͛s parenting style among Korean American adolescents. Parenting style was
assessed using the Parental Acceptance-Rejection/Control Questionnaire (PARQ/Control). This
PARQ/Control was used to examine adolescent͛s perceptions of paternal and maternal parenting
style separately. Student͛s academic achievement was based on student͛s grade point average
(GPA). The results revealed that there was no significant difference between maternal parenting
style and student͛s GPA. However, there was a significant difference between paternal parenting
styles and student͛s GPA. Adolescent of authoritative fathers achieved better GPA than adolescent
of authoritarian fathers. Similarly, adolescent of permissive fathers achieved better GPA than
adolescent of authoritarian fathers. Paternal authoritarian parenting style is associated with
poorest academic achievement. There was no significant mean difference in adolescents͛ GPA
between the adolescent of authoritative and permissive fathers. The finding that paternal
permissive parenting style is associated with positive academic achievement almost to the same
extent as paternal authoritative parenting was inconsistent with the previous findings.
The findings from the previous study on the relationship between paternal and maternal parenting
style and students͛ academic achievement were inconsistent. Kim and Rohner (2002) explained
that the differences found in the study can be attributed to the fundamental differentiation
between paternal and maternal roles in Korea. As in Korea, mother͛s role is to be a caregiver and
nurturer while the father͛s role is to be an educator, disciplinarian, and the ͞bread-winner͟ of the
family. This can help explained why only perceived paternal parenting style is significantly related
with adolescents͛ academic achievement. In addition, the differences between paternal and
maternal parenting style can be captured by the popular Chinese saying ͞Strict father, kind
mother͟ (Shek, Lee, & Chan, 1998). Mothers are often perceived as warmer, more indulgent, and
less controlling than fathers (Brendt, Cheung, Lau, & Hau, 1993). Fathers͛ parenting was perceived
to be harsher than mothers͛ parenting may be due to their disciplinary role (Shek, 2000).

Chen, Liu, and Li (2000) noted that maternal parenting style predicts children͛s emotional
adjustment while paternal parenting style predicts children͛s academic achievement. Forehand
and Nousiainen (1993) suggested that because fathers are less involved and available than
mothers, fathers parenting style may become more important in the minds of children and
adolescents. However, according to Milevsky, Schlechter, Netter, and Keehn (2006) father play a
more playful role in the lives of children. For example, a permissive father may complement the
fatherhood role and hence may not interfere with the child as much as having a permissive
mother.

Chen, Dong, and Zhou (1997) examined the relationship between authoritarian and authoritative
parenting styles and (a) social and (b) school performance in Chinese families in Beijing. The
sample consisted of children aged 7. A Chinese version of Block͛s Child Rearing Practices Report
was used to obtain the parents͛ child-rearing practices. The child-rearing practices questionnaire
was answered separately by both mother and father. Students͛ academic achievement was
assessed based on Chinese and Mathematics examination scores which were obtained from the
school records. The results indicated that mothers͛ authoritative parenting style and fathers͛
authoritative parenting style was positively associated with children͛s school achievement. In
addition, mothers authoritarian parenting style and fathers authoritarian parenting style was
negatively associated with children͛s school academic achievement. Researchers conducted a
series of regression analyses to examine the contributions of parenting variables to the prediction
of children͛s social and school performance. The regression analyses revealed that mothers͛
authoritative parenting style was significantly and positively contributed to the prediction of
academic achievement (ɴ = .13,   .05). Fathers͛ authoritative parenting style was significantly
and positively contributed to the prediction of academic achievement (ɴ = .18,   .01) while
father͛s authoritarian parenting style was significantly and negatively contributed to the prediction
of academic achievement (ɴ = - .23,   .01). Researchers concluded that authoritarian and
authoritative parenting styles in Chinese culture also serve the functions in child rearing that are
similar to those in Western culture.
Shek, Lee, and Chan (1998) found that in Hong Kong, adolescents with low academic achievement
were more likely to characterize both maternal and paternal parenting style as permissive and
neglectful.

Chao (1994) explained a paradox in the literature involving the parenting style of Asian, which is
authoritarian parenting. Authoritarian parenting has been found to link with poor academic
achievement among Western children but Chinese children of authoritarian parents has been
found to have good academic achievement (Leung, Lau, & Lam, 1998; Chao, 1994). Chao (1994)
argued that the concepts of authoritative and authoritarian parenting are somewhat ethnocentric
and do not capture the important aspects of Chinese parenting, especially in explaining the school
success of Chinese children.

Chao (1994) proposed alternative measure of parenting which is thought to be more relevant for
Chinese populations. The alternative measure of parenting ʹ ͞Chiao Shun͟in mandarin contains
the idea of ͞training͟. ͞Chiao Shun͟ as described by Chao (1994) emphasized the importance of
parental monitoring and controlling children͛s behaviours while providing supports and concern. It
also emphasizes the need of children do well in school, work hard, and be self-discipline.

According to Chao (1994; McBride-Chang & Chang, 1998) the concept of training are absent in the
Western culture. ͞Training͟ concept somewhat overlaps with Baumrind͛s authoritarian parenting
style (Ang, 2006). It was found that Chinese mothers scored high on both authoritarian and
training parenting compared to European American (Chao, 1994). This may explain as to why
Chinese and Asians score high on the authoritarian parenting style.

However, according to Chen, Dong, and Zhou (1997) that it is misleading to suggest that
authoritarian parenting leads to positive outcomes (eg. academic achievement and social
adjustment) in Chinese children. In fact, Chinese parents are often controlling but affectionate
towards their children. In Chinese society, an ideal parent is often described as kindhearted and
strict (in mandarin it is known as ci-xiang and an g )which is considered as similar to
authoritative rather than authoritarian (Chen, Dong & Zhou, 1997). Even though there are cross-
cultural differences between Chinese and Western families of authoritative and authoritarian
parenting, Chen, Dong, and Zhou (1997) argued that definition of the terms of parenting styles as
discussed by Baumrind is similar to those found in Western studies. Researchers asserted that
authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles are pertinent when used with Chinese populations
living in Chinese societies.

Authoritarian parents are strict and often assert power on children which may lead children to
have negative behavioural and emotional reactions such as fear, frustration, and anger (Chen,
Dong, & Zhou, 1997). Thus, authoritarian parenting is often related with maladaptive social and
academic development among children and adolescents. In contrast, authoritative parenting
provides explanation, affection, and guidance for children which may help boost children͛s feeling
of confidence and security in exploring the world and establish positive parent-child relationship.
Thus, authoritative parenting is often related to children͛s social and scholastic competence (Chen,
Dong, and Zhou, 1997).
Chen, Dong, and Zhou (1997) argued that the findings of Chao (1994) could be flaw due to the
sample being studied. Chao (1994) examined parenting styles using European American and
Immigrant Chinese in America while Chen, Dong, and Zhou (1997) studied parenting styles within
Chinese societies. Chen, Dong, and Zhou (1997) noted that by examining parenting styles within
Chinese societies, one can avoid the confounding factors that come into play when immigrant
populations are studied. According to Steinberg (2001) authoritative parenting is universally
associated with positive cognitive outcomes among children and adolescents.

Durkin (1995) reviewed on the reasons on why authoritative parenting styles are associated with
positive child outcomes. Based on the review, Durkin (1995) cited three reasons on why
authoritative parenting style is associated with positive child outcomes. First, authoritative parents
engaged in bidirection communication with their children. Durkin (1995) suggested that these
interpersonal skills help children to succeed in school, both academically and socially. Second,
authoritative parents provide their children with explanation for their action such as explaining on
why a rule is implemented in the house. By giving explanation, this provides children with
awareness and understanding on their parents͛ morals, values, and goals. The transmission of the
parents͛ values and goals to the children equip the children with the tools needed to perform well
in the school. Third, Durkin (1995) suggested that authoritative parents provide children with a
high level of emotional security that lead children to have a sense of independence as well as
comfort and helps them to succeed in school.

"  

The findings on the relationship between parenting style and students͛ academic achievement
from the Western countries almost consistently shown that authoritative parenting style positively
associated with students͛ academic achievement while authoritarian and permissive parenting
style negatively associated with students͛ academic achievement. However, there were mixed
findings when separate analyses were conducted on maternal and paternal parenting style and
students͛ academic achievement. Fathers and mothers often have distinctive parenting styles and
may influence children in different ways. The present study attempts to investigate both maternal
and paternal parenting style separately on students͛ academic achievement in Malaysian setting.