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Chapter 1: Introduction to Business

Communication

Why is communication important?


• If you can’t express you good ideas, than you are at the same level as someone
who doesn’t even have good ideas.
• Communication is crucial for a kind of success in business not just getting
promoted but accomplishing results with and through people, and meeting
corporate objectives.
• Communication is crucial at a very basic level; it is vital to any human encounter.
• It allows us to develop a civilized society and to transmit knowledge from one
generation to another.
• It dramatically distinguishes humans from other forms of life.
• It allows us to organize and work together in groups. In fact, without
communication, there can be no social organization.
• In business context, communication can be understood as explained by
communication expert Harold Janis:

“The world of business is a world of action. Products are designed made and sold. People
are hired. Services are rendered. Policies are devised and implemented. Jobs are learned
and performed. Yet there is no practical way in which any of these events can take place
without communication.”

• Besides being important in today’s fast changing business environment, effective


communication will be important for your personal satisfaction and success.

What is Communication?
• To come up with a definition, let’s look at three important theories of
communication:

1. Electronic Theory
2. Social Environment Theory
3. Rhetorical Theory

1. Electronic Theory of Communication


This theory is also known as mathematical theory of communication.
Message
Communicator Audience
as “Sender” as “receiver”

• The electronic theory is useful because it introduces the ideas of senders and
receivers, and of possible interference. It emphasis one important aspect of
communication: accuracy.

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Business
Communication

2. Social Environment Theory of Communication


i. Instead of looking only to the electronic theory, business communicators must
also consider the social context.
ii. Because when we work together we all participate in a social situation.
iii. When we talk of social situation we mean taking culture, social status, rules
and regulation, norms and so forth into.

Communicators Audience

Environment

• Including social environment is helpful because it adds the important dimension


of the specific social situation.
• Too often experienced business people neglect to take into account role, status
and rules when they attempt to communicate.

3. Rhetorical Theory of Communication


• This theory adds more dimension to our understanding of the communication
process.

“Communication is not linear, but circular; not just sending a message to be received, but
producing a response; not static, but dynamic. These qualities of communication are
emphasized by rhetorical theory.”

• Rhetorical theorists provide an important addition to a communication model


for business communicators.

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Business
Communication

• Many people in business get caught up in the accuracy of their message and
appropriateness of the situation that they forget the third crucial variable:
producing the desired response form their audience.

Message

Communicators Audience

Response

Environment

Environment
• In fact the most important difference between business communication and other
forms of communication is this circular quality: your business communication
effectiveness depends on the result you achieve.

Definition of communication
• People is business must incorporate ideas from the electronic, social,
environment, and rhetorical theories. By incorporating all three theories, we come
up with a definition of communication:

The process of sharing by which message produce responses.


• Let’s look, closely at this definition, and examine its implications.
• First, note the use of the word process. Communication is not merely an end-
product, such as report itself, but ever-changing flow, such as the process in
which you write the report and someone reads it.
• The phrase of sharing implies that communication transcends the act of sending
messages. Effective communication is not a one-way monologue aimed at a
receiver. Peter Drucker stated it as:

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Business
Communication

“It is recipient who communicates. The so-called communicator, the person who emits
the communication, does not communicate. Unless there is someone who hears, there is
no communication, there is only noise. The communicator speaks or writes or sings – but
he does not communicate. Indeed, he can not communicate. He can only make it possible,
or impossible, for a recipient – or rather ‘percipient’ – to perceive.”

• The idea of a message connotes much more than what is contained in an envelope
or shown on a flip chart.
• The term “message encompasses ideas, emotions, attitudes, and experiences.
• First, it includes the message in the communicator’s mind – the information
source.
• Then there are two symbolic methods for transporting those ideas from
communicator’s mind to another person:
i. The word which may have different meanings to different people at different
times, and
ii. The non-verbal component – from the appearance of your paper to the tone
of your voice – which many experts claim constitutes the majority of the
message.
• Finally, there are the ideas, emotions, attitudes, and experiences that receivers add
when they interpret the message.
• The last part of the definition is produce responses.
• A responses may include more than what we deliberately hope for – more than
just an answer to a letter or participation in a staff meeting.
• For one thing, we may produce responses even though we do not receive a direct,
overt answer; a reader may appreciate a congratulatory memo, but not write back
to tell you; someone at a staff meeting may understand an agree to you point, but
not speak aloud.
• All kinds of responses are going on every time people act or react – talking,
seeing, feeling, listening, thinking, observing, etc.

What is Communication imperfect?


• Communication is an extremely complex process.
• There is no surety that the meaning of a message has been received exactly.
• The loss of meaning is often called noise (distortion or interference)
• The barriers over which a sender has no control and can make communication
imperfect.

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Business
Communication

Barriers of Communication
• Psychological barriers
1. Emotional
2. Perceptual
3. Selectivity

• Semantic and Physical barriers


1. Semantic blocks
2. Physical barriers

Psychological barriers

Emotional Block
• The emotional blocks can affect both sender and receiver in communicating their
ideas.
• Both can feel indifferent, hostile or biased towards their subject of communication
perhaps because of:
1. Age
2. Gender
3. Race
4. Relative
5. Friends
6. Religion or sect
7. Personality or even cloths or personal belonging.
Perceptual Block
• Even if there are no emotional blocks every person perceives things differently.
• Although we all live in the same objective world, we all live in different
subjective worlds.
• Communication involves perception, and perception is never precise.
• A second psychological block, than is perceptual.
• One perceptual problem is that people see things differently. Given precisely the
same data, people see, interpret, or respond to them differently.

Selectivity Block
• A final set of selectivity barrier exists because of competition for people’s time
and attention – selectivity block.
• We are bombarded information sources, such as newspapers, magazines,
technical journals, reports, memos, letters, meeting, radios etc.
• We cannot simply absorb all this so we screen it selectivity.

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Business
Communication

Semantic & Physical Barriers


• Words are symbols, and therefore limited because they cannot have precisely the
same meaning for everyone.
• Since words can mean different things, their difference may block
communications.
• The study of word choice is called Semantics.
• Semantics problem occurs due to the difference of meaning between words.
• This difference is called impression or aura associated with words its connotation,
as distinguished from its denotation or explicit formal definition.

Consider the following examples:


1. The difference between inexpensive and cheap ( Cheap is negative
connotation)
2. Heavy and weighty
3. Soiled and Filthy
4. Divide and sever
5. Hold and accommodate (Accommodate more positive)
6. Chronic and inveterate
7. Stately and majestic
8. Command and direct
9. Compute and calculate
• Another set of problem may occur even if you have considered the connotation.
• A word may be misunderstood because it has one meaning for you and another
for someone else.
• For example consider the possible connotation of these words to the following
pair of people:

- The word “pig” to farmer and a police officer.


- The word “profit” for a shareholder and consumer activities.
- The word “credit” to an accountant and a university registrar.
- The word “bear” to a stock broker and a camper.

Problems with people perceiving the same word in different ways are especially likely
any time you use:
1) Abstract words such as: honesty, liberal, conservative, immoral, democracy,
or discrimination.
2) Indefinite terms such as: As soon as possible,. In a timely manner, effectively,
when you have a chance, moderate, or several.

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Business
Communication

Physical Barriers of Communication


• Communication does not consist of words alone. Another set of barriers is caused
by your own physical appearance, your audience, or the context of the document
or the presentation.
• You ideas however good are at mercy of various potential physical barriers such
as:
• Illegible or poor documents due to various reasons.
1) Fingerprints or smudges
2) Unclear photocopies
3) Unreadable word processing printout
4) A poor quality of stationary

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Chapter 2: The Environment

Analyzing your organization


• How people work together
• What goals people work together

Analyze changes in the Business Environment


• Electronic Communication
• International Communication
• Nondiscriminatory Communication

Analyze the Channels of Communication


• Directional flow
• Communication Channels

Message

Communicators Audience

Response

Environment
Analyze Your Organization
• All business organization depends on communication.

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Chapter 2: The Environment

• There are certain written and un written rules of communication that


guide you as to how and with whom you are supposed to
communicate in the organization.
• In order to understand them it is important to understand how people
work together and what goals they work towards.

How People Work Together


• The first thing to answer this question is to see the formal structure of
the organization i.e. to see Organization chart.

Formal Structure

Manager

Sales Production R&D

• Functional organizations tend to be stable, are typical of companies


where technology doesn’t change fast, and allow people to specialize.
• There are at least two communication problems in such organizations:
1. The may be bureaucratic and resistant to change, and
2. They don’t allow many people to see the “big picture” so that
rivalries between groups may be high, decision may pile up the
higher levels.

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Chapter 2: The Environment

A Product or Project organization looks like this:

Manager

Product A Product B Product C

• These kinds of organizations work better in fast – changing


environments because people integrate many tasks around one project.
• The main communication draw back is competing for pooled resource
such as computers or purchasing by the various people.

Informal Structures
• Informal structures are the reality of organization member’s
interaction.
• These structures are sometimes called networks or political coalitions.
They are never shown in the organization charts.
• For example a formal chart may be seen like this:

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Chapter 2: The Environment

BOSS

You Colleague

Secretary Secretary Secretary

• If you analyze formal structure, you would conclude that the


secretaries are subordinate to you and equal to one another.
• If you analyzed this informal structure, however, it might look like
this.

Boss

Secretary

You Colleague

Secretary Secretary`

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Chapter 2: The Environment

• In this case, Your boss’s secretary has the power to deny you
the access to the boss, to screen your boss’s mail, or to decide
whether or not to interrupt him or her.
• Here is another example of informal structure. See the following
formal structure first:

Boss

You Colleague A Colleague B Colleague C Colleague D

• Again, the informal structure, here suggests that A & B are


opinion leaders.

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Chapter 2: The Environment

Boss

Colleague A Colleague B

Colleague C Colleague D You

• On the other hand with the same formal structure of you and four
others reporting to the same boss informal structure might look
like this:

Boss

You Colleague A Colleague B Colleague C Colleague D

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Chapter 2: The Environment

• Here C and D from political coalition. They tend to stick together


and agree. Knowing political coalition is as important as
knowing formal division.
• Finally still with that same formal structure of you and four
others reporting to the same boss the informal structure might
look just like the formal structure, as shown in next slide.
Boss

You Colleague A Colleague B Colleague C Colleague D

• In this case you and your colleagues work in isolation from one
another. In this kind of informal structure, the boss has a great
deal of control over information and decision making.

What Goals People Work Together


• In order to understand what goals people work together, we need
to understand the formal and informal goals of an organization.

Formal Goals:
• Finding formal goals of an organization is relatively easy.
• These goals are set by the organization’s management and are
available in the form of company philosophy sometimes called
mission statement or credo.
• These goals are mentioned in company brochures, annual reports,
websites and other documents.

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Chapter 2: The Environment

• You can think about the kind of image the company project in its
official documents.

Informal Goals:
• These goals are often called the culture of an organization that is
the values, expectation, and beliefs the group members share.
• These unstated cultural goals of an organization may not show up
among official published policies and procedure.
• They tend to surface in what people say and in atmosphere of the
organization.
• Figuring our informal goals or culture is less straight forward
than reading the formal goals.
• First listen what people tell about the company.
• Often, these stories are called myths. These myths serve the
purpose of a “clue” to understand the informal goals of the
organization.
• A second clue to these unwritten informal goals is the company’s
atmosphere.

Analyze the Channel of Communication


• There are two channels of communication:
1. Directional flow, and
2. Communication channels

Directional Flow
• The directional flow of sending the message (upward, downward
and lateral) also affects the communication.
• Therefore it is important to consider how to avoid pitfalls
inherent in directional flow of communication.

Downward Communication:
• In this, information flows from higher level to lower levels. For
example: staff meetings, manuals, policy statements, instructions,
job descriptions, newsletter, telephone conversation etc.
• It is typically used for four purposes;

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Chapter 2: The Environment

1. To explain standards, such as informing employees about


specific job instructions.
2. To provide feedback to the employees, such as giving
performance appraisals.
3. To encourage participation, such as giving new ideas or
upward feedback on current policies, and
4. To motivate or inspire, such as showing how an
employee’s job fit into big picture or company’s general
mission.
• There are four important things to be kept in mind to avoid
pitfalls in downward communication:
• First, information may be garbled on the way.
• Second your tone is very important. Avoid an overbearing or
patronizing insulting, sarcastic tone as well as the one having
artificial warmth or friendship.
• Third downward communication must be clear in a way that your
desires, wishes, or required actions must be understood.
• Finally the downward communication must be based on mutual
trust. If either side doesn’t trust the other, its prejudice will stand
in the way of true communication.

Upward Communication:
• One of the noticeable changes in business communication
environment in the past few years has been the increase emphasis
on upward communication.
• This means the flow of communication from subordinates to
their supervisors.
• The most typical forms of upward communication a report,
memos, meeting, and interviews.
• It typically accomplishes three purposes:
1. To report on activities or accomplishments of a person or a
division.
2. To offer suggestions and opinions, and
3. To increase participation in management functions such as
planning or controlling.

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Chapter 2: The Environment

Lateral Communication
• Communication between people at the same hierarchical rank,
but in different areas, is called horizontal or lateral
communication.
• This flow of communication is becoming increasingly important
as business become more large, complex, and specialized.
• Even in small companies, lateral communication is important in
order to coordinate various functions by encouraging team work
among peers.
• Major blocks to lateral communication include: departmental
isolation, lack of time and communication opportunities, and
jealously or rivalry between groups.
• The main thing to keep in mind is that it is in you best interest
and the best interest of your company to keep this flow of
communication open.

Outward (External Communication)


• The external audiences of your communication include suppliers,
dealers, vendors, manufacturers, current customers, former
customers, government agencies and community groups.
• The most common external writing is usually in the form of
letters to answer questions, deal with complaints, request
information, or sell products to your customers.

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Chapter 3: The Communicator

Chapter Outline

What Do You Want to Accomplish?

• Your objective
• Your Style
• Your tone

How Does Your Audience Perceive You?


• What is credibility?
• How can you enhance it?

Message

Communicators Audience

Response

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Chapter 3: The Communicator

WHAT DO YOU WANT TO ACCOMPLISH?

Your objective as a communicator


• The first setup to establish what you want to accomplish is to set an
objective.
• To be an effective communicator you need to specify:
1. The response a communicator desire from the audience
2. Specific means to achieve the desired response.

Style of Communication
• In business communication, style does not mean fashion or
personality.
• There are four basic communication styles:

Tell Sell Confer Join

Tell Style: This style is used to inform something to your superior (upward
communication) or to your external customers. For example:
• A report to your boss on your department activities
• A letter explaining a policy to a customer

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Chapter 3: The Communicator

Some sample objectives for TELL style of communication:


• As a result of this memo, the employee will understand the benefits
program available in his company.
• As a result of reading this report, my boss will learn what this
department has accomplished this month.
• As a result of reading this letter, my customer will understand why we
turned down his request.

SELL Style: This style is used to get the audience to do something


differently not just to learn but to change their actions.

In this style of communication, you know the “answers” and you want them
to act differently because of these “answers.”

Sample objectives for this SELL style might be:


• As a result of reading this letter, my client will sign the enclosed
contract by next Tuesday.
• As a result of reading this presentation, the committee will approve
my plan.
• As a result of reading this memo, my boss will approve my travel
budget.

CONFER Style: This style is appropriate when you are trying to consult or
interact with your audience to gather information or opinions.

Because, you don’t know the “answer” you want to learn the “answer” from
them.

Sample objectives for the CONFER style might be:


• As a result of reading this survey at least 50 percent of employees in
this organization will respond by answering the questionnaire.
• As a result of this telephone call, my customer will list precisely what
products she wants us to send her.
• As a result of this question and answer session my audience will voice
their concern about the policy.

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Chapter 3: The Communicator

JOIN Style: When there is a need of high audience involvement, the style is
JOIN.

In these situation, both you and you audience act together; you collaborate or
brainstorm to discover the “answer”
Sample objectives for this JOIN style might be:
• As a result of reading this agenda memo, my audience will come to
meeting prepared to offer their thoughts.
• As a result of this presentation, my audience will come up with
solution to this particular problem we are encountering.

RULES FOR USING DIFFERENT COMMUNICATION STYLES


Use TELL or SELL style when you:
1. Have all the information you need
2. Can understand that information without any help from others, and
3. Are concerned primarily with a logical, orderly quick decision.

Generally use CONFER or JOIN style when you:


1. Need more information
2. Need critical evaluation, opinion, and ideas from other people, and
3. Are concerned about people feeling involved and carrying out
decisions effectively.

TONE OF COMMUNICATION
Tone is the way you speaking or writing sound, the feeling it conveys the
mood you set.

Like mood your tone can very indefinitely:


• From Placid to agitated
• From playful to somber
• From modest to proud
• From thankful to bitter
• From Whimsical to factual
• From pleading to ordering
• From fanciful to factual
In business communication, however you will rule out rapture and rage.

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Chapter 3: The Communicator

What is Right Tone in Business Communication?


• There are no heard and fast rule regarding TONE
• Tone is based on various variables (Your personality, your audience,
and your topic and objective).
• Example: Imagine you are trying to communicate the necessity for
keeping certain work area clean. You can adopt a:
1. Light Tone : “Let’s all pitch in and get rid of the garbage
we have all been wading through in the work area”
2. Formal Tone: “This is to inform you that anyone found
leaving garbage in the area will be docked one hour’s pay.”
3. Middle Tone: “To increase productivity, we must work
together to clean up the work area”
• Again, none of these tones is the right or wrong one in absolute sense.
Their appropriate is based on analysis of situation.

HOW DOES YOUR AUDIENCE PERCEIVE YOU?


• Once you have formulated what you want to accomplish, consider
your audience’s perception about you.
• Audience’s perception means your own credibility: their belief,
confidence, and faith in your power reliability or trustworthiness.

What is the basis of credibility?


What this book calls Is similar to what social Is based on your
Power theorist call: audience perception
about you
RANK Perceived dependence Position, Power, status
OR in organization
Coercive/reward power
GOODWILL Personal Obligation Personal relationship
EXPERTISE Expertise Competence,
OR Achievement
Expert Power
IMAGE Identification Attractiveness,
OR Dynamism
Referent Power
Morality and Fairness Legitimate Power Values, Objectivity

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Chapter 3: The Communicator

HOW CAN YOU ENHANCE YOUR CREDIBILITY?


INITIAL CREDIBILITY:
Initial credibility refers to your audience’s perception of you before
communication itself ever take place, before they ever read or hear what you
have to say.

Your initial credibility, than may stem from their perception who you are,
what you represent, or your previous relations.

Acquired Credibility:
Acquired credibility refers to your audience perception of you after your
communication take place, after they have read or heard you.

Even if your audience knows nothing about you in advance, your good ideas
and your persuasive writing or speaking will help you earn or derive your
credibility.

HOW TO ENHANCE CREDIBILITY?


Factor Initial Credibility stressed Acquired credibility
by: increased by
RANK Emphasizing your title or Associating yourself with
rank (e.g. including your high ranked person (e.g. by
full title) counter signature or
introduction)
GOODWILL Referring to personal Citing benefits or ideas
relationships match your audience’s goals
and needs
EXPERTISE Including a biography, Associating yourself with or
resume, or list of quoting from someone your
experiences audience sees as expert
IMAGE Emphasizing attributes that Identifying yourself with the
your audience finds benefits or ideas that match
attractive your audience’s goals and
needs
Fairness Mentioning values you
share with your audience

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Chapter 4: The AUDIENCE: MOTIVATION

Chapter Outline

Analyze Your Audience


• Who are they?
• What do they know and feel?

Motivate Your Audience


• Punish or reward them
• Appeal to their growth needs
• Use people’s need for balance
• Perform a cost/benefit analysis
• Be sensitive to character traits

Message

Communicators Audience

Response

No matter what your communication objective may be, involves motivating


someone to respond in the way you desire.
To accomplish this objective, therefore, you must center on your audience,
not on yourself.

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Chapter 4: The AUDIENCE: MOTIVATION

Rhetorical theorists refer to this ability as becoming reader – or listener


based, audience centered, or using the you approach.

The first step towards motivating your audience is to analyze them. Ask
yourself:
1. Who they are and,
2. What they already know and feel

Who are they?


• Someone who receive your message, a reader of your letter, a person
you are speaking with in meeting etc.
• These people are your PRIMARY AUDIENCE.
• Visualize and think about them.
• Besides your primary audience, in business communication you may
have a SECONDARY AUDIENCE, sometime calls HIDDEN
AUDIENCE.
• Secondary audience could be someone who:
1. Receives a copy of your memo.
2. Will be affected by decisions made at your meeting.
3. May have to approve or sign the letter you write.
• In the above cases you need to write or speak carefully.

Who are they?


• Finally especially, if you’re primary and secondary Audience is in
conflict-think about the KEY DECISION MAKER in your audience.
• You know about Primary, Secondary and Key Audience based your
personal knowledge of them as INDIVIDUALS.
• You can analyze their specific background, including their ages,
educational levels, training, opinions, interest and attitudes.
• In many business situations, you must communicate with the people
you do not know personally.
• In the above situations you can analyze what you know about them as
a GROUP. This includes:
1. Their group characteristics
2. Norms
3. Traditions

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Chapter 4: The AUDIENCE: MOTIVATION

4. Standards
5. Rules, and
6. Values

What do they know and feel?


• Once you have analyzed as best you can who your listeners or readers
are, the next step is to think about both their knowledge and their
attitudes.
• First, think about the knowledge of the topic. Talk their languages and
provide them with jus the appropriate amount of details.
• You need to understand what they feel, their, inclinations,
dispositions, opinions, attitudes, etc
• These include not only their perception of you (Credibility), but also
their attitudes toward what you are about telling them.
o Do they want to hear what you have to say?
o Are they in favor of, against, or indifferent to your message?
o Will it either benefit or threaten them in any way?

Motivate Your Audience


• Once you have analyzed your audience, you need to figure out how
best you can motivate people you have just analyzed.
• Motivation is directly related to persuasion. Therefore here involves
the psychological aspects and it related techniques to motivate your
audience.
• Understand psychological theories of motivation is just as important
for your success in business as understand internal combustion
theories is for car mechanic.
• There are five psychological techniques for motivating people:
1. Punish or reward them
2. Appeal to their growth needs
3. Use people need for balance
4. Perform a cost / benefit analysis
5. Be sensitive to character traits

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Chapter 4: The AUDIENCE: MOTIVATION

1. Punish or Reward them


Threats and punishments:
• Many people think that they will be able to influence people in
business – especially their subordinates by using Threats and
Punishments.
• But this method is not as effective as you might think.
• Although sometimes threats and punishments are clearly necessary,
but use it with caution.

Rewards/Positive Reinforcement:
• Many psychologists would argue that rewards or positive
reinforcement is sometime extremely powerful way to get response
you want.
• You are likely to be successful if your reward include these following
four characteristics:
1. They must be important to the person who is being rewarded by
you.
2. Rewards must be appropriate and sincere
3. Effective rewards must be immediate
4. Reward don’t have to be elegant

2. Appeal to their growth needs:


• This part explain how to reward people effectively
• What should be offered as a reward? Something tangible such as
“more money” or “a bigger office.”
• Obviously, however you simply won’t be able to rewards your
audience with tangible prizes.
• You cannot for example offer your boss money for accepting your
proposal, or offer your subordinates free vacations.
• So how can you motivate people by rewarding them?
• One helpful set of theories in search of rewards is Maslow’s needs
hierarchy and Herzberg’s related research.
• Both Maslow and Herzberg have identified two sets of needs that
motivate people: Deficiency needs and growth needs.
o Deficiency needs are needs without which we cannot survive –
such as food, water, sleep, and shelter.

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Chapter 4: The AUDIENCE: MOTIVATION

o Growth needs, on the other hand, are needs that enhance our
lives – such as affiliation, esteem, accomplishment, and
advancements.
Maslow’s Need Hertzberg’s Research
Hierarchy
Personal growth Growth Needs Work itself
(Achievements)
Self – Esteem Growth Needs Advancement
(recognition)
Group affiliation Growth Needs Working relationships
Safety Deficiency Needs Working conditions
Survival Deficiency Needs Safety
Note: Maslow’s and Hersberg’s sets of needs are roughly parallel to
each other.

3. Use People’s need for balance


• Using growth needs can be even more effective if you couple
the ideas underlying them with balance theory.
• According to the proponents of this theory:
1. People prefer to a state of psychological balance (called
consistency, or equilibrium, or freedom from anxiety)
2. When they hear new ideas or information conflicting with what
they already believe, people lose that state of balance and feel
anxiety; and
3. When they feel anxiety, people attempt to restore their sense of
balance by:
• Resisting or denying the new information
• Or devalue it by giving false color to the information
If you are successful in communicating your idea, your audience will neither
will neither resist nor devalue the new idea instead they will accept it and
establish equilibrium.

How can you use people’s need for balance to get them to accept your idea?
• You can emphasize an anxiety or a problem they have that causing
“imbalance” then offer solution that we will make them feel balanced.

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Chapter 4: The AUDIENCE: MOTIVATION

4. Perform a Cost / Benefit Analysis


• Another way of thinking about what motivates people is to apply
economic idea to psychology
• Just like money, goods, and services, behavior can be offered for
exchange.
• They communicator (like a seller) and the audience (like a buyer) take
into account both cost and benefit of the behavior.
• Therefore, strong benefit will motivate your audience, and a high cost
may have the opposite effects.
• You should not assume everyone act according to your cost/benefit
analysis. People will perceive costs differently:
o Some people are more likely to take risks; loyalty, timing, fear,
etc.
o Some people are influenced by tradition to act against what
might seem to be in their best interest.

5. Be Sensitive to character traits


• We infer character traits of other people through behavior we
perceive, and we may either perceive or infer incorrectly.
• Effective communicators analyze what will motivate the people whom
they are communicating.
• There are many theories to analyze this aspect, however, character
traits model is considered to be the most appropriate personality
theory.
• This model is called Four C’s Model – one way to analyze the
character traits of the people whom you will be working in business.

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Chapter 4: The AUDIENCE: MOTIVATION

Through Procedures TENDS TO To Accomplish


WORK ALONE result
(Either carefully or competitively)

Comptroller Commander
Maintains Changes
Status Status Quo
Quo Collaborator Crusader

Through affiliation TEND TO To Accomplish


WORK WITH “Dreams”
A GROUP
(either towards change or toward maintaining status quo)

The Four Cs model for business personality traits


Comptroller Commander Crusader Collaborator
Like Facts & Systems Action & Ideas &
People &
results information
group
affiliation
Wants Status quo based Changes based Changes based Status quo
on procedures on result on ideas based on
affiliation
Strengths Consistency Due Decisiveness Creative Teamwork
Procedure Efficiency Inspiration Loyalty
Weaknesses Bureaucratic Domineering Indecisive High need for
Territorial Power- hungry Prejudiced approval
Avoids conflict
and risk
Work Style Alone & Careful Alone & With group With group
Competitive and dominated and passive
Use this Accurate & Efficient & Enthusiastic & Trusting &
tone factual result oriented informative non-
threatening
Stress Organizational Their Their ideals People they
tradition Process achievement information respect
and system task Results for value of ideas organizational
well done company goals.
power

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CHAPTER 5: THE MESSAGE: STRUCTURE

Thinking Versus Structuring

Thinking

• Be Aware of your assumptions


• Draw valid conclusions
• Avoid logical defects

Structuring

• Provide a hierarchy for your ideas


• Put your ideas in order

Message

Communicators Audience

Response

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CHAPTER 5: THE MESSAGE: STRUCTURE

Thinking Vs Structuring
• Thinking and Structuring communication are two different things
• When you think, all different kinds of ideas occur to you some good,
some bad some complete some fragmented.
• The result of thinking process is your conclusion.

Bad Ideas

Assumptions
Draw valid Stress Clear Order
Conclusion Conclusion

Facts Data

Details

Thinking Process
1. Be Aware of your Assumptions:
• Assumptions are basis for all the rest of your thinking.
• In business communication you make assumptions. Here are three
case:
Case 1: “This program will increase our profits.”
Case 2: “I better finish this report tonight or I will get fired”
Case 3: “In this letter, I am going to try to calm down this, irate
customer”

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CHAPTER 5: THE MESSAGE: STRUCTURE

2. Draw Valid Conclusion:


• Assumptions and facts are what you start out with when you are
thinking; conclusion is what you end up with.
• There are two valid method to draw conclusion:
1. Deduction
2. Induction
Deduction: Starting with a main principle or assumption, applying it to a
specific case, and drawing a conclusion.

Example: Start with a main principle, such as “Business Communication is


important”

Apply a specific case, such as “writing is a part of communication”; and


come up with a conclusion, “Therefore, writing is important”

Induction: This only other valid way to draw conclusion is by induction.


Induction means starting with specifics and generalizing to the main
principle.

Example: Start with a series of specific such as,


“I will be spending a lot of time in business meetings”
“I will be spending a lot of time writing business letters”
“I will be spending a lot of time writing memos to the people within the
organization”

Then Draw a generalization:


“Therefore, I will be spending a lot of time communicating”

Note: n induction, it’s crucial that your specifics be reliable relevant and
representative.

3. Avoid Logical Defects


You can avoid these defects sometimes called logical fallacies by
remembering three main rules:

Rule No.1: Hasty Generalization (or jumping to the conclusion based on too
little evidence)

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CHAPTER 5: THE MESSAGE: STRUCTURE

Example: “The woman we hired in the Engineering department quit, so let’s


stick to hiring men”
Rule No.2: Do not Hide (Do not hide your ideas themselves and do not hide
behind illogical false ideas)
Example 1: “We are marketing product X in trade journals because we
marketed product Y in trade Journals.”
Example 2: “The overseas workers allege that the managers require them to
work in unsafe weather conditions. Perhaps we should increase their pay to
mollify them. (Skirting the issue)
Example 3: “The more floors in the skyscraper, the more likely is to be hit
by the lightening.” (False analogy).
Rule No.3: Don’t oversimplify:
1) Avoid either/or defect: this occurs when you setup two alternatives
and do not allow any other.
Example: “if you don’t like your boss, than quit!”(ignores other alternatives
such as changing the situation)
2) Avoid the catchall explanation: This oversimplification occurs when
you isolate one factor and treat it as if it were the sole cause.
Example: “The Edsel failed because consumers weren’t ready for push –
button gear shift.” (This idea ignores other possible reasons or combination
of reasons for the Edsel’s failure)

Structuring of Ideas
When you think, naturally, all different kinds of ideas occur to you some
good, some bad, some complete, and some fragmented.

The result of thinking process is your conclusion.

When you communicate you don’t want your audience to wade through;
instead, you want to structure your ideas, to make your conclusion clear.

An effective structure is based on:


1) Providing a hierarchy for your ideas
2) Choosing the appropriate order for those ideas.

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CHAPTER 5: THE MESSAGE: STRUCTURE

Provide a hierarchy for your ideas.


An effective structure is based on your providing the hierarchy of ideas for
your audience dividing ideas into groups and differentiating among these
groups as follow:

1) Stress your conclusion (for first level idea)


2) Divide you writing or speaking into main points (or second level
ideas)
3) Subdivide into supporting points.

1. Stress your Conclusion (first level idea)


• You conclusion is the most important idea of your communication.
• It is the result of all your time, effort analysis, and thinking.
• Since your conclusion is the top level idea, you need to stress it in
your message structure at the beginning.

• Never bury your conclusion in the middle m your audience is likely to


miss it, skip it, or – at best – have to work hard to find it.

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CHAPTER 5: THE MESSAGE: STRUCTURE

2. Divide into Second Level Points (Second Level idea)


• If you think of your conclusion as the top level idea, then next level
down is made up of your second level idea.
• In two or three sentences in a nutshell try to lay out the whole
substance of your communication.
• The purpose of nutshelling is to help you get your points to the
listeners.

3. Subdivide into Lower Level Points (Third level idea)


• Your second level idea is, in turn, supported by your lower level
points.

Put Your Idea in Order


• Putting ideas in order depend on objective of communication. There
are two possible objectives:
1. Explain your idea to your audience
2. Persuade your audience for action

For Explanatory Ideas:


Once your top level idea is placed first, you can chose to order your ideas in
any of the three ways:

a) Ordering idea by TIME: This is an effective ordering to use for


historical background or for steps in a process.
b) Ordering idea by COMPONENTS: This order is most useful if you
are describing existing classification.
For example if you were explaining the layout of your office building
you might order by describing what they would find on the (1) first
floor, (2) second floor, (3) third floor, and so on,
c) Ordering by IMPORTANCE: Ordering by importance is more
difficult than ordering by time or components.

When you order importance, however, you must make a value judgment.

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CHAPTER 5: THE MESSAGE: STRUCTURE

For example you might analyze the cause of problem in your current
inventory system: 1) the most important cause; 2) the second most
important cause; 3) the third most important cause and so for

For action ideas:


• Action ideas are trickier to put in order
• If you recommending a change, you need to consider not only the
topic, but also your own credibility, and your audience attitude.
• Basically you make your decision based on your audience likely hood
to agree or to disagree,

Direct Approach: If your audience is likely to agree with your proposed


action, you should structure your message.
1. With your top level idea first, where they can see it easily and
2. With your strongest evidence first, where they are more likely to see
to hear or see it.

Advantages of Direct Approach


• People can take your ideas and understand you more easily when they
know the top level idea first.
• The direct approach saves the time of your audience since business
readers do not want to waste time with mysterious ending and
suspense.

Indirect Approach: If you audience is likely to disagree with your proposed


action, you need to structure you message to convince them. There are three
ways to convince them:
1) State you’re least controversial points first. If people agree with the
first thing read or hear, they are more likely to agree with the rest.
2) Present rejected alternatives first; state your recommendation last.
You may be perceived more fair minded if you state all options first.
3) Use your strongest evidence last. Use the beginning to arouse
audience interest. Get them “buy in “on ideas you know they believe
or problems you know they need to solve.
• Use indirect approach sparingly, since it waste audience time.
• Use it only if your audience is likely to disagree with your ideas
or if your audience is interested in your analytic process.

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CHAPTER 6: THE RESPONSE: FEEDBACK

Listening Skills

How You Look


Hoy You Feel and Think
What to say

Reading Skills

Reading Comprehension

Reading Speed

Feedback Skills

Giving Feedback
Receiving Feedback
Peer Feedback in this Class

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CHAPTER 6: THE RESPONSE: FEEDBACK

LISTING SKILLS
• Listening is an extremely important and surprisingly the difficult
communication skill in business.
• Some studies show that business people spend from 45 to 60 percent
of their time in listening.
• Effective listening is required during:
1) Brainstorming ideas with others
2) Interviewing or being interviewed
3) Appraising or being appraised for reviews
4) Collecting data
5) Talking on the telephone
6) Resolving conflicts
7) Attending meetings.

• The benefits you can have as result of effective listening are:


1) Gather more detailed information when you need it for
decision making or problem solving.
2) Learn new ideas or concepts you may have never
thought of by yourself
3) Understand people better so you can react to employee
or client needs.

• The main difficult in listening is due to :


1. Internal Blocks
2. External Blocks

1. Internal Books:
• Thinking faster than speaker.
1. Your brain can process information at the rate of 600
words per minute.
2. The person you are listening to may talk in less than
above rate per minute.

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CHAPTER 6: THE RESPONSE: FEEDBACK

3. The extra time you have can divert your attention to


some entirely unrelated topic.

• Habit of “Tuning out” of Noise.


1. You may automatically turnoff noise (such as radio
or television noise) in your head even when you have
no need to.

• Emotional Block.
• Jumping to the conclusion in order to :
o Defend you position
o Contesting new ideas
o Judging concepts with which you disagree

2. External Blocks
• Listening may be difficult due to variety of external
blocks such as:
1. Ringing of telephone.
2. Clattering type writers or computer printers.
3. Conversation you can hear in the hall
4. Change of weather you see through the windows.
5. Glance on your desk reminding you of other work.
6. Of the entire external block, time is probably the
most importance distracter.

How External blocks can affect you


• These blocks make take people away from you:
1. They can take their ideas or problems to somewhere
else
2. Your subordinates may complain to others if they
feel that you are not hearing them

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CHAPTER 6: THE RESPONSE: FEEDBACK

3. Colleagues may stop sharing their ideas.


4. Customers may take their business to someone who
seems more responsive.

How to Overcome Blocks to Good Listening ability by


improving:
1. How You Look
2. How You Feel and Think
3. What You Say

1. How You Look:


• As a good listener you can show your interest in a
variety of ways.
A. Consider Your Posture:
i) Open Posture: Facing other person and looking alert.
ii) Closed Posture: Slumping, keeping your arms crossed,
turned away, or bowing your shoulders.
iii) Aggressive Posture: Avoid aggressive posture such as
thrusting out your chin or keeping hands on you hips.
B. Analyze Your Gestures:
• Research shows that open, expressive gestures will make the
talker feel comfortable.
• Avoid Signs of nervousness such as:
i) Cleaning your finger nails
ii) Drumming your fingers
iii) Keeping your hands on or near your face
iv) Get rid of any physical objects that might distract
you: pencils for doodling or tapping, papers for
shuffling, objects or jewelry for examining.
C) Facial Expression:

• Avoid a deadpan, stony face, Instead look interested by:

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CHAPTER 6: THE RESPONSE: FEEDBACK

i) Raising and lowering your eyebrows.


ii) Occasionally smiling.
iii) Or, nodding can help establish rapport.

• Eye contact signals your attentiveness.


i) Don’t share constantly, which reflect aggressiveness
ii) Don’t constantly look away, down, up, or out the
window, which could be interpreted as uninterested.

D) The Proximity:
i) The distance between you and the person talking
communicates your interest and involvement.
ii) Get close to the person to show indicates your concern and
attention.
iii) At the same time be sensitive enough to avoid moving in
too close.

2. How You Feel and Think


• You cannot fake the good listening by merely mechanically
nodding and maintaining eye contact.
• Good listening in other words must be sincere.
• You need to control your own feelings and thoughts as well.
• Controlling feeling is difficult. Here are some
recommendations to control feelings during a conversation.
i) Don’t interrupt or disagree with speaker before the
person speaking is finished.
ii) One way to control your feelings is to empathize
with the talker. Put your self in his or her shoes.
iii) Don’t be overly affected by the initial impression
they make on you such as:
1. The way they look
2. The way they dress

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CHAPTER 6: THE RESPONSE: FEEDBACK

3. The color of their skin


4. Their sex etc.

• Beside your feelings, try to think objectively and analytically


hear the speaker out before you judge.

3. What to Say
• A Key to good listening is learning to tolerate silence.
• Besides silence, you might say a few things to encourage the
other person to talk.
• Ask for clarification or detail to make sure you understand.
• Restate or rephrase idea so that you and speaker know that
you heard and comprehended.
• Finally, use brief phrases, such as, “I see”: huh-huh,” and
“Go on.”

READING SKILLS
Reading is to writing what listening is to speaking
• By improving reading skills, you will
1) Acquire information
2) Learn new ideas
3) And, increase your understand.

The Process of Reading


1) Reading Comprehension
• In reading you do not have in human contact with the
writer.
• The physical absence of writer demands you to engage
yourself in a mental dialogue with him or her instead.
• The type of dialogue is often called active reading.
• This activity is key to :

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CHAPTER 6: THE RESPONSE: FEEDBACK

1) Increase comprehension
2) Improving concentration
3) Overcoming boredom, and
4) Stimulating creativity.
• Two methods of active reading are:
1) Asking Questions and
2) Using Recall Techniques.

Active Reading Methods


a) Ask Question:
• Ask questions as you read. Ask yourself and also
imagine, as if your writer is listening to you.
• Questions can range from simple memory quizzes to
complex evaluations and decisions.
• Start asking questions before, during and after the
reading.
• Before your start reading ask yourself what your
purpose is for reading.
• Develop questions based on the title, subtitle and
introductions.
• Questioning before you start reading will increase both
your anticipation and your interest.
• As you are reading turn heading and topic sentences
into questions.
• This process is especially useful when you are reading
something that is uninteresting or difficult for you.
• Finally question when you are through reading.
• Raise the questions about the validity of the written
communication.
• Questions asked after you read will help you evaluate
you understanding of and further your reflection on the
topic.

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CHAPTER 6: THE RESPONSE: FEEDBACK

b) Use Recall Techniques:


• These techniques can be either mental summary you make to
yourself) or written (such as notes or underlining) and
summarizing (mental/written)
Structuring (Mental Techniques)
• To recall any thing you must Structure it in some way.
• To locate main point, look for subheadings and paragraphs
that introduce new topics.
• Structuring is the quickest method, but you will have the least
recall.
Annotation (Written Techniques)
• When you annotate, you make the structure visible by using
symbols.
• Many readers underline points in their readings with a pencil
or highlighter pen.
• To be an effective reader, annotate the text by the levels
(usually three) of importance.
• If you differentiate levels, it will force you to analyze
constantly instead of underlining everything in sight.
• For Example:
o Read the text thoroughly and circle the conclusion or
objective.
o Underline the main points, and
o Bracket the important supporting details.
Summarize (Metal, Oral, Written, or a Combination)
• An ideal summary is written in your own words, and includes
the conclusion and main idea.
• Some research shows that retention overtime is almost
impossible without periodic summarization.
• Summaries may be mental, oral, written or a combination,
depending on how important the material is…

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CHAPTER 6: THE RESPONSE: FEEDBACK

If you use these techniques of asking question and recalling


information, you should be able to increase your reading and
comprehension.

READING SPEED
Think about the amount if reading you will be doing each week
when you start working.
Approximate
Number of Words
Memos, Letter, reports………………………………...120, 000
30, percent of two daily papers………………………...435,000
(New York Times,Wall Street Journal)
80 percent of three trade journals………………………150,000
(Specific to Your Business)
50 percent of two news magazines……………………...45,000
(Time, Newsweek, Business Week)
25 percent of one book………………………………….35,000
(Fiction or nonfiction)
50 percent of one pleasure magazine……………………30,000
(Sports illustrated, New Yorker)
• The average reading rate is 250 words per minute.
• If you read week’s worth of reading (815,000) at 250 words per
minute, it would take you fifty six hours each week or eight
hours each day
• Obviously you cannot spend this amount of time reading. You
need to develop new approaches to reading.
• The key to effective reading is FLEXIBILITY that is; you
should read different kinds of material at different speeds.
• One method of developing this flexibility is SARS Method.

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CHAPTER 6: THE RESPONSE: FEEDBACK

1. Survey

2. Analysis

3. Read at Appropriate Speed

4. Speed-Reading 5. General Reading 6. Careful Reading


Skimming Accelerating Phrase-Reading

1.SURVEY:
• First step in the SARAS Method is to survey.
• Survey does not mean speed reading
• Survey does mean previewing the material by reading certain
items very carefully and completely skipping all the rest.
• Surveying allows you to understand quickly the overall or
organization and major points before you read the material
thoroughly.

2. ANALYZE:
• Based on your survey, you will be able to decide if it is worth
your time to:
a) Read the entire selection
b) Read only certain parts of the selection
c) Note read it at all.

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CHAPTER 6: THE RESPONSE: FEEDBACK

3. READ AT THE APPROPRIATE SPEED:


• There are three basic reading speeds.
a) Speed reading (or Skimming)
b) General reading (or Accelerating)
c) Careful reading (or Phrase reading)

1. Survey

2. Analysis

3. Read at Appropriate Speed

4. Speed-Reading 5. General Reading 6. Careful Reading


Skimming Accelerating Phrase-Reading

Read for: Main Ideas Main and subordinate ideas Main and subordinate ideas
and details.
Reading: Page or Column Line Phrases
Units:

Examples: Some magazines or Some text or cases Some text or reports


Newspaper articles

Skills 1.Finger Patterns 1. Acceleration devices Efficient use of eye


Used 2.Externally imposed 2. Internally imposed fixations

Possible 1.Skimming from 1. Reading general Reading difficult material


Uses main idea. Material
2. Previewing 2. Increasing
3. Warming up. Concentration

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CHAPTER 6: THE RESPONSE: FEEDBACK

Speed reading is the purported ability to read as many as 10,000 to 25,000


words a minute. For example Howard berg claims to be able to read 25,000
words a minute by reading “15” lines at a time backwards and forwards.
“That’s about 80-90 pages a minute to read.

George Stancliffe claims he has taught a woman with a reading disability to


read 18,000 words a minute. Such a feat he says is common in children, but
rare in adults.

Anne Cunningham a University of California at Berkeley education


professor and an expert on reading, reports that tests measuring saccades
(small rapid jerky movement of the eye as it jumps from fixation on one
points to another) while reading have determined that the maximum number
of words a person can accurately read is about 300 a minute. “People who
purport to read 10,000 words a minute are doing what we call skimming”.
She said. Speed in reading is mainly determined by how fast a reader can
understand the words and expression is on is reading. The fastest readers are
those with excellent recognition vocabularies. Faster reader can see words
and understand them faster than slower readers. To improve one’s speed at
reading she says one should work on comprehension and study strategies
(Robertson).

Others claim that the average college student reads between 250 and 350
words per minute on fiction and non technical materials and that a good
reading speed is 500-700 words per minute. It does seem intuitively true that
one could speed up one’s reading by a) spending less time between eye
movements b) taking in more words with each fixation and c) always
moving forward rather than skipping back to re-read something. Having a
good recognition vocabulary would certainly speed these processes up.
Conscious practice at improving one’s speed should also help.

Move straight down the center of the page

Created by Zakir Mughal Page 49


CHAPTER 6: THE RESPONSE: FEEDBACK

Speed reading is the purported ability to read as many as 10,000 to 25,000


words a minute. For example Howard berg claims to be able to read 25,000
words a minute by reading “15” lines at a time backwards and forwards.
“That’s about 80-90 pages a minute to read.

George Stancliffe claims he has taught a woman with a reading disability to


read 18,000 words a minute. Such a feat he says is common in children, but
rare in adults.

Anne Cunningham a University of California at Berkeley education


professor and an expert on reading, reports that tests measuring saccades
(small rapid jerky movement of the eye as it jumps from fixation on one
points to another) while reading have determined that the maximum number
of words a person can accurately read is about 300 a minute. “People who
purport to read 10,000 words a minute are doing what we call skimming”.
She said. Speed in reading is mainly determined by how fast a reader can
understand the words and expression is on is reading. The fastest readers are
those with excellent recognition vocabularies. Faster reader can see words
and understand them faster than slower readers. To improve one’s speed at
reading she says one should work on comprehension and study strategies
(Robertson).

Others claim that the average college student reads between 250 and 350
words per minute on fiction and non technical materials and that a good
reading speed is 500-700 words per minute. It does seem intuitively true that
one could speed up one’s reading by a) spending less time between eye
movements b) taking in more words with each fixation and c) always
moving forward rather than skipping back to re-read something. Having a
good recognition vocabulary would certainly speed these processes up.
Conscious practice at improving one’s speed should also help.

Move from side to side down the page

Created by Zakir Mughal Page 50


CHAPTER 6: THE RESPONSE: FEEDBACK

Speed reading is the purported ability to read as many as 10,000 to 25,000


words a minute. For example Howard berg claims to be able to read 25,000
words a minute by reading “15” lines at a time backwards and forwards.
“That’s about 80-90 pages a minute to read.

George Stancliffe claims he has taught a woman with a reading disability to


read 18,000 words a minute. Such a feat he says is common in children, but
rare in adults.

Anne Cunningham a University of California at Berkeley education


professor and an expert on reading, reports that tests measuring saccades
(small rapid jerky movement of the eye as it jumps from fixation on one
points to another) while reading have determined that the maximum number
of words a person can accurately read is about 300 a minute. “People who
purport to read 10,000 words a minute are doing what we call skimming”.
She said. Speed in reading is mainly determined by how fast a reader can
understand the words and expression is on is reading. The fastest readers are
those with excellent recognition vocabularies. Faster reader can see words
and understand them faster than slower readers. To improve one’s speed at
reading she says one should work on comprehension and study strategies
(Robertson).

Others claim that the average college student reads between 250 and 350
words per minute on fiction and non technical materials and that a good
reading speed is 500-700 words per minute. It does seem intuitively true that
one could speed up one’s reading by a) spending less time between eye
movements b) taking in more words with each fixation and c) always
moving forward rather than skipping back to re-read something. Having a
good recognition vocabulary would certainly speed these processes up.
Conscious practice at improving one’s speed should also help.

Hesitate briefly over about ¼ to 1/3 of the page at a block”

Created by Zakir Mughal Page 51


CHAPTER 6: THE RESPONSE: FEEDBACK

Speed reading is the purported ability to read as many as 10,000 to 25,000


words a minute. For example Howard berg claims to be able to read 25,000
words a minute by reading “15” lines at a time backwards and forwards.
“That’s about 80-90 pages a minute to read.

George Stancliffe claims he has taught a woman with a reading disability to


read 18,000 words a minute. Such a feat he says is common in children, but
rare in adults.

Anne Cunningham a University of California at Berkeley education


professor and an expert on reading, reports that tests measuring saccades
(small rapid jerky movement of the eye as it jumps from fixation on one
points to another) while reading have determined that the maximum number
of words a person can accurately read is about 300 a minute. “People who
purport to read 10,000 words a minute are doing what we call skimming”.
She said. Speed in reading is mainly determined by how fast a reader can
understand the words and expression is on is reading. The fastest readers are
those with excellent recognition vocabularies. Faster reader can see words
and understand them faster than slower readers. To improve one’s speed at
reading she says one should work on comprehension and study strategies
(Robertson).

Others claim that the average college student reads between 250 and 350
words per minute on fiction and non technical materials and that a good
reading speed is 500-700 words per minute. It does seem intuitively true that
one could speed up one’s reading by a) spending less time between eye
movements b) taking in more words with each fixation and c) always
moving forward rather than skipping back to re-read something. Having a
good recognition vocabulary would certainly speed these processes up.
Conscious practice at improving one’s speed should also help.

Move from the upper left hand corner directly to the lower right hand
corner.

Created by Zakir Mughal Page 52


CHAPTER 6: THE RESPONSE: FEEDBACK

Speed reading is the purported ability to read as many as 10,000 to 25,000


words a minute. For example Howard berg claims to be able to read 25,000
words a minute by reading “15” lines at a time backwards and forwards.
“That’s about 80-90 pages a minute to read.

George Stancliffe claims he has taught a woman with a reading disability to


read 18,000 words a minute. Such a feat he says is common in children, but
rare in adults.

Anne Cunningham a University of California at Berkeley education


professor and an expert on reading, reports that tests measuring saccades
(small rapid jerky movement of the eye as it jumps from fixation on one
points to another) while reading have determined that the maximum number
of words a person can accurately read is about 300 a minute. “People who
purport to read 10,000 words a minute are doing what we call skimming”.
She said. Speed in reading is mainly determined by how fast a reader can
understand the words and expression is on is reading. The fastest readers are
those with excellent recognition vocabularies. Faster reader can see words
and understand them faster than slower readers. To improve one’s speed at
reading she says one should work on comprehension and study strategies
(Robertson).

Others claim that the average college student reads between 250 and 350
words per minute on fiction and non technical materials and that a good
reading speed is 500-700 words per minute. It does seem intuitively true that
one could speed up one’s reading by a) spending less time between eye
movements b) taking in more words with each fixation and c) always
moving forward rather than skipping back to re-read something. Having a
good recognition vocabulary would certainly speed these processes up.
Conscious practice at improving one’s speed should also help.

Sweep across several lines at once.

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CHAPTER 6: THE RESPONSE: FEEDBACK

Speed reading is the purported ability to read as many as 10,000 to 25,000


words a minute. For example Howard berg claims to be able to read 25,000
words a minute by reading “15” lines at a time backwards and forwards.
“That’s about 80-90 pages a minute to read.

George Stancliffe claims he has taught a woman with a reading disability to


read 18,000 words a minute. Such a feat he says is common in children, but
rare in adults.

Anne Cunningham a University of California at Berkeley education


professor and an expert on reading, reports that tests measuring saccades
(small rapid jerky movement of the eye as it jumps from fixation on one
points to another) while reading have determined that the maximum number
of words a person can accurately read is about 300 a minute. “People who
purport to read 10,000 words a minute are doing what we call skimming”.
She said. Speed in reading is mainly determined by how fast a reader can
understand the words and expression is on is reading. The fastest readers are
those with excellent recognition vocabularies. Faster reader can see words
and understand them faster than slower readers. To improve one’s speed at
reading she says one should work on comprehension and study strategies
(Robertson).

Others claim that the average college student reads between 250 and 350
words per minute on fiction and non technical materials and that a good
reading speed is 500-700 words per minute. It does seem intuitively true that
one could speed up one’s reading by a) spending less time between eye
movements b) taking in more words with each fixation and c) always
moving forward rather than skipping back to re-read something. Having a
good recognition vocabulary would certainly speed these processes up.
Conscious practice at improving one’s speed should also help.

Move down the page in a spiral motion

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CHAPTER 6: THE RESPONSE: FEEDBACK

GIVING FEEDBACK
• Although essential for success, giving feedback is quite delicate and
difficult.
• The best feedback involves both oral and written comments
• Writing and speaking have different advantages and disadvantages.
• The advantage of speaking with the people instead of just writing
includes the following:
1. You can ask them open question
2. You can “read” their non verbal behavior when they don’t
understand and don’t agree.
3. You can clarify right on the spot any question they might have;
and
4. You can end on a positive note.

• Written Feedback has it own advantages:


1. You can take more time to use precise wording
2. You can be more detailed
3. You can give someone a permanent record.
4. You can give someone the opportunity to consider your
comments at his or her leisure.

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CHAPTER 12: STRUCTURING PRESENTATION

Oral Presentation:
• Oral Communication traces it roots back to ancient world
• Aristotle, Cierro, Qunitilian were some Greek and Roman
practitioners of the art of rhetoric or

Type of Oral Communication


There are three situations when you speak to your (group) audience:
1) When you are doing most of the speaking yourself, either to inform or
persuade.
2) When you have more give and take with your audience, to answer
questions.
3) When you audience is doing most of the talking, to solve problem as a
group.

Oral Communication in Modern Times


(Business World)

Modes of Communication Selected US Executives and Asian and


Chinese Managers.
Modes US Executives Asia Managers Chinese Manager
Face to Face 81.4% 77.5% 94.4%
Telephone 81.4% 90.0% 87.6%
Written 69.9 55.0% 87.1%
Mail NA NA 69.0
Teleconference 12.9% 5.0% 11.5%
Telex NA NA 15.6%
Fax NA NA 9.5%
Computers 10.7 30.0% 20.5%

Communication through foreign languages: An economic force in Chinese enterprises, Journal of Asian Pacific
Communication 2(1) 45-67

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CHAPTER 12: STRUCTURING PRESENTATION

Steps for preparing Effective Oral Presentations


1. Determine the purpose
• We communicate to produce result.
• We wish something to occur as a result of our words.
• One macro level these overall goals are to inform, to persuade, to
entertain.
2.Analyze the audience
• The message whether written or oral must be adapted to the audience.
• You will have an idea if you are talking with your organization.
• You will have less idea if speaking the outside groups.
• Get the idea from the person who invited you to speak to the outside
group
• If audience members have the same occupation, you can form an idea
about your audience.
3.Select the main idea for message
• Selecting the main theme or your core idea should be done first.
• Gather additional information for supporting your core idea.
• Initially, core ideas or supporting information may be haphazard,
which is quite normal.
• Do not rush this stage of preparation.
• Do not presume this initial structure will be your final version.
4.Reserach the topic
• It is obvious that you would not possess complete information about
your central theme.
• Collect facts, data and information.
• Your research may cause you to drop some initial ideas and add new
ones.
• New facts, new views are constantly appearing.
5.Organize data and write the draft
• In this step initial outline is structured into deliverable presentation.
• A good oral presentation has three part: Introduction, a body (Text,
discussion), and a conclusion or summary)
1. Introduction: Introduction seeks to do several things: Getting
attention, include an aim or purpose, and layout the direction of
speech.

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CHAPTER 12: STRUCTURING PRESENTATION

2. Body (Text, discussion): This is the heart of the presentation, Here


you include data and evidence in support of your central theme.
3. Summary or Conclusion: It reminds the audience of the main ideas
covered in the body of the talk, whereas conclusion draws inference
from the data.

6. Create Visual Aids


• Some presentations do not require visuals , for some visuals are
indispensable part.
• But the most important is answering the question: Would visual ass to
understanding and support of your message?

7. Rehearse the talk


• By rehearsing you will become more comfortable with your material.
• When rehearsing stand and deliver your talk out loud.
• Rehearsing three times is enough to have confidence.
• If rehearsed too much, the statement sounds.

KINDS OF ORAL PRESENTATIONS


• Basically all oral communication lies between informative speaking
on one end of a continuum and persuasion at the other end.
• There are two kinds of oral presentation:
o Short Talks
o Longer Statements

Short Talks:
• It may range from 1 to 10 minutes in length. You may:
o Introduce someone
o Present an award to a retiree
o Give a briefing to visitors to your company.
o Offer an opening statement in a group meeting.
• You can also represent your company outside your office:
o Accepting an award
o Showing your support for local cause.
o Offering greetings at a community banquet, etc

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CHAPTER 12: STRUCTURING PRESENTATION

Longer Statements:
• It may vary from 10 minutes to 1 hour.
• With the increasing emphasis on brevity, some corporations limit
statements to 20 to 30 minutes.

WAYS TO DELIVERING ORAL MESSAGES


There are four options for speaking:
1. Extemporaneous
2. Manuscript Speech (Reading)
3. Memorization
4. Impromptu Delivery.

1. Extemporaneous
• This method is most preferred by audience and speakers allow speaker
to use notes or an outlines.
• Speakers may use 3 X 5 inches cards or a full sheet of paper as notes
for the remarks
• Use this method wherever possible
• It allows more eye contact with audience
• Permits you to establish rapport and enables you to move with eases.

2. Manuscript speech (Reading):


• It is the most formal kind of business speaking through it is relatively
infrequent in business.
• Major political figures and other who do not want to make a mistake
read manuscript.
• A speech manuscript looks different from a regular page as follows.
1. It leaves 1/3 of the page blank on left side for notes.
2. And leaves about 1/3 of the page blank at the bottom so the
speech reader’s head will not drop down too low.

3. Memorization
• Few speakers today memorize complete speeches. Nor should they.
• Often the first few words of statement can be memorized.
• Time needed to recall long speech is prohibitive.

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CHAPTER 12: STRUCTURING PRESENTATION

4. Impromptu Speaking
• Impromptu speaking is talking on the “spur of the moment “or “off
the cuff without advance preparation.
• Here are suggestions to help you this situation:
1. Anticipate: Try to avoid truly impromptu situation. Guess at the
topic you might be asked to discuss.
2. Keep it short: Say what you have to say and stop. You need t
deliver a long lecture.
3. Organize as well as you can: If you have few seconds, jot down
your main points and stick to them.
4. Relate to experience: You will be confident if you relate it to
your experience and topics you know best.

STRATEGIES FOR AN EFFECTIVE ORAL DELIVERY


• One of your personal signature or trade mark is your voice, varying
pitch, rate, and volume gives more interest and appeal.
• Your voice is that part of yourself that adds the human element to
your words.
• Since words are static on a page, you can give extra life to your
delivery in five traditional ways:
1. Pitch
2. Rate
3. Volume
4. Vocal Quality
5. Pronunciation

1. Pitch:
• I can best be defined as highness and lowness of your voice.
• Traditional problems in using pitch are monotone, high or low voice,
and same word value.
• Monotone: when voice of the speaker has little or no variation in
pitch.
• High or Low Voice: Often the monotones are voices that rarely rise
out of a lower register. On the other hand, excited people frequent the
upper ranges.

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CHAPTER 12: STRUCTURING PRESENTATION

2. Rate:
• Variation in rate is better than speaking at the same speed.
• An unvarying or slow rate of speaking makes the presentation dull,
• Conversely, fast speakers are also cause discomfort.
• Learn to give a Pause while giving a presentation.
• A pause lets you collect your thoughts, take time to move to visual, or
rest your voice.

3. Volume:
• Volume is the softness or loudness of your voice.
• Keeping in mind the number of audience while speaking to the group.
• Confirm people sitting on the back seats if they can hear you clearly
or not.
• Adept your volume level to the size of audience and room.
4. Vocal Quality:
• When one’s voice is heard to describe; we often turn to metaphors to
describe voice quality such as;
o Husky throaty, deep, loud, vibrant, dynamic, mellow, weak,
strong, harsh, shrill, squeaky, clear, serene etc.

5. Pronunciation:
• Poor pronunciation mars your presentation.
• Suggestions for improving pronunciation are:
o Listen to Educated and Cultured People of Your Community.
o Consult a Recent Dictionary.

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CHAPTER 13: VISUAL AIDS

Why Using Visual Aids?


• Preparing an effective presentation involves more than structure and
delivery.
• People in your audience have limited attention span.
• Audience may fall into day dreaming.
• Visuals aids increase your audience comprehension and attention.
• Visuals add interest, variety and impact and remain in memory longer
than words.

What is the most appropriate Visual Aid?


• It depends on your group’s choice
• You audience may request you not to use, or use the particular Visual
Aid.
• Once you have met your audience need follow three steps:
1. Compose Your Content
2. choose your Equipment
3. Use Your Visuals Effectively.
1. Compose Your Visual Aid Content
• Think about what you are trying to communicate before you think
about the artwork computer graphics you might use to say.
• Set your tone (Formal, Semiformal or Informal)
• If occasion is formal, prepare your slides, overhead transparencies,
ppts or flip chart in advance.
• A semiformal tone comes from creating your aids. Partially in
advance and partially during presentation.
• In informal tone, you create your aids during the presentation by
choosing to write on:
o Black or White boards
o A Flip chart
o Overhead transparency during the presentation.
• Avoid using word charts in your presentations (except for agendas and
main conclusion only)
• Word charts cause the problem of allowing your audience to read
ahead.
• Use GRAPHS to show ideas visually.

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CHAPTER 13: VISUAL AIDS

• Graphs are true visual aids because they convey ideas visually rather
than just words.
• How do you decide that graph is necessary?
o Use graphs as illustrations: maps, assembly lines, pictures or
diagrams.
o Graphs are used to elaborate quantitative information.
o Here are six main uses of various types of graphs:
1. Use a PIE CHART to show parts of one item.
2. Use a BAR CHART to show rank or contrast.
3. Use a COLUME CHART or LINE CHART to show variation
Overtime.
4. Use a FLOW CHART to show sequence of operation or
activity.
4. Use a SCATTER or PAIRED BAR CHART to show.

• Easy Readability:
1. Do not over design your graphs
2. Over design means “Cluttered” Charts with too much graphs.
3. Overly designed charts are called “CHART JUNKS” which
over decoration that does not add to your meaning.

20%

% of market share

10%

1984 1985 1986 1987


Effective Chart: Includes clear message title and supporting details.

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CHAPTER 13: VISUAL AIDS

Figure 13.3 Graph

Effective charts includes message title and supporting detail

Figure 13.4 Graph


Ineffective chart: lots of “chatjunk” no message title

13.5 Graph
Efective charts no chartsjunk clear message title

Visual Aids
• Clear Words and Letters:
1. Make sure that your words are easy to read.
2. Para down your words to key words or phrases only.
3. Never give complete sentences.
4. Lettering (Point size and font) should also be clear and precise.

Figure 13.6

Figure 13.7

2. Chose Your Visual Aid Equipment:

• Different types of equipments are appropriate for different occasions.


• Your communication objective, style, audience and content should
dictate the type of equipment.
• Make your choice based on your strategy, not on the technological
“bells” and whistles”
• There are three types of equipment used as visual aid:
1. Animated Projection visuals
2. Still Projection visuals
3. Non Projection visuals

1. Animated Projection Visuals:

• This type includes Films, Videos

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CHAPTER 13: VISUAL AIDS

• Animated projection is useful to show motion such as:


i. An assembly line procedure
ii. A skill demonstration
iii. Research test results at high speed etc.

2. Still Projection Visuals:

• If you do not need to show motion, you can use three kinds of still
projections.
• These projections range from he very formal and prepared to very
informal and spontaneous.
• Slides (35mm projection) and Overhead. Transparencies are used
for Still Projection.

3. Non Projection Visuals:


• Other visual aids such as Charts (flips charts, Cardboard charts,
and desktop charts) BOARDS, and HANDOUTS do not need
projections.
• They are far less complex and do not need wire or electricity for
use.

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CHAPTER 14: HOLDING MEETING &
ANSWERING QUESTION

Introduction
• Meetings are an extremely common from of business communication.
• They range from large and formal to small and formal.
• The include:
o Regular staff meetings.
o Project team meetings.
o Special or ongoing committee meetings.
• Therefore meeting can be defined as a chance primarily to confer
with, that is, to work with audience as opposed to speeches or
presentations, Where you primary speak to your audience.

How Do Decide Whether You Want to Impart Information Or to Hold a


Meeting?
• In general you should make presentations when you:
1. When you should make presentations when you:
2. You have the power authority, and credibility to implement your
ideas or decision.
3. You are pressed for time.

• On the other hand call a meeting when:


1. You need more information from other people.
o You lack the power, authority, or credibility to implement your ideas
and decision yourself and need your audience to buy in and
o You want to increase your audience sense of moral or participation in
the decision making process.

What Should You Consider Before Holding a Meeting?


o Analyze your audience before a meeting
o Analyze the personalities of individuals attending the meetings as well
as the personality of group itself.
o Here are some questions you might ask:
1. What kind of atmosphere or relationships do you sense? Are
people close or distant? Friendly or unfriendly?
2. How much do the people participate in meetings?
3. How are disagreements handled in their meetings?
4. How much feelings are shared? Openly and directly? Not
expressed?

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CHAPTER 14: HOLDING MEETING &
ANSWERING QUESTION

5. What are the group norms-or unstated rules for meeting? Do the
start on time? Are people prepared? Are they polite?

Communicating Effectively in the Meetings


As a participating:
1. Explain your ideas
2. Relate to the other participants ideas.
3. Help facilitate the group process.

As a Chair:
1. Perform task functions.
a) Prepare an agenda
b) Decide on discussion procedure.
c) Decide on decision making procedure.
2. Perform process functions.
a) Encourage support, diversity, and listening.
b) Avoid one person dominating.
c) Avoid hostile conflict.

As a Participant:
• Explain Your Ideas
o First when you explain your ideas in a meeting, you usually do
so in a quicker and less formal manner than you would in a
presentation.
o You make no more than one or two points.
o Deliver in a less formal manner, don’t stand, and give more
pauses because you are to give the others the best chance to
react.
o Speak only when appropriate.
o Stick to agenda and don’t and don’t bring up extraneous ideas.
o Also, don’t bring up ideas at wrong time during meeting.
Keeping in mind to what experts call the four phases of the
meeting:
1. Orientation to the problem or issues at hand
2. Conflict over various possibilities or solution.
3. Emergence of the group solution.
4. Reinforcement or implementation plan for solution.

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CHAPTER 14: HOLDING MEETING &
ANSWERING QUESTION

• Relate Your Ideas.


o As a meeting participant, you should not only explain your
ideas, but also relate to the other participants ideas.
o In fact, most of your time at a meeting should be devoted
interacting with others, not to presenting with your own views.

• Use listening skills to make sure you understand what other


participants say.
• If you disagree, state your disagreements carefully. Save the people
from being humiliated by disagreeing with their idea not with them as
people.
Example: Say “That project is very time consuming” instead of
George’s suggested project will take too long”

• Help Facilitate the Group Process.


o A participant should help the chairperson facilities the group
process.
o It doesn’t mean you start running the meeting. Instead, you
might help the chairperson stay on the agenda.
o You could say, for example “It seems to me we’ve covered
topic fairly well now. If the rest of you agree, perhaps we can
wrap this item up the decision now”

• As a Chair:
o Chairing meeting involves two different kinds of skills.
o One set of skill has to do with task that is the goal at hand.
o The other set of skills is usually referred to as running the
process that is getting people to participate.
• Perform Task Function:
o To decide what task will be covered in the meeting the chair
must prepare an agenda.
o Agenda is written plan for what want to accomplish in the
meeting.
o Here are some considerations to keep in mind as you prepare
agenda.
1. Meeting should not run over two hours.

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CHAPTER 15: JOB SEARCH COMMUNICATION

Plan Your Career


• Set realistic objective about yourself
• In order set objective you need to do self assessment, which
includes knowing your:
1. Major strengths and weaknesses
2. Goals
3. Major achievements
4. Life Style
5. Needs

Narrow down the field when you complete your self assessment.
Fields can be narrowed down based on the functional areas of
business and their activities, such as:
1. Finance
2. Accountant
3. Marketing and Sales
4. Human Resource / Personnel
5. Operations Management
6. Communication
7. Information Technology

Write Your Resumes and Cover Letters


• Your resume and cover letter are the first pitches you make
into real world of business.
• The most important point to remember about writing a
resume is to describe only what is more relevant for getting a
job.
• You can do it by writing your resume that is concise,
logically organized, easy to read, and at the same time,
interesting.
• The only subject areas you include in your resume are:
1. A Career Objective

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CHAPTER 15: JOB SEARCH COMMUNICATION

2. An Education Section
3. A Work Experience Section
4. Personal Information

• The Career Objective is not necessary; although it is often


including such as “a sales position in consumer product firm”
you should probably not include an objective.
• Do not cover all bases with an objective thus end up
accomplishing nothing, For Example:
“A Challenging position in business”
• If you have done good self assessment, you may very well be
ready to put down a specific career objective.
• Some guidelines to writes down objectives in resume:
o Keep the statement short a maximum of on sentence.
o Be sure the objective is very specific rather than long
term.
o Remember to focus on near term objectives rather than
long term goals
• The Education Section should include the name of your
college of University, the degree you received and the date,
your major, course work related to your career you have
chosen, any honors, and carefully selected extra curricular
activities.
• Example of an education section:

Education
1988- University OF DENVER
DENVER, COLORADO

Candidate for the Bachelor of Science degree in


Business Administration, May 1992. Emphasis in
sales management and marketing. Dean’s List, three

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CHAPTER 15: JOB SEARCH COMMUNICATION

terms, Vice President, marketing club. Co-Chair


business career day committee.
• The Work Experience section should include for each job:
Employer’s name, location of company, dates of
employment, your title, your responsibilities, you major
accomplishments, and any significant skill you developed on
the job.

• As with other aspects of the resume, every job description


should be geared to your primary objective.
• That is, to sure to pick out the most important points for each
job posts that relates to the position you seek.
• If you have had little or no experience, put down volunteer
work, jobs you held in school, or even work related to club
activities.
• Because employers look for pattern of experience rather than
just specific amounts of experience.
• Personal Information Section, like job objective, is not
absolutely necessary, but most people include it.
• Often a conversation starter, personal information can also
augment various skills and experiences you have listed in the
education and work experience sections.
• Personal information may include your business related
hobbies or achievements, specific activities such as cooking
Italian food, foreign films and science fiction.

Cover Letters
• The primary role of cover letter is to motivate the person
who receive it to read your resume and than ask for an
interview.

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• You also may want to elaborate an example from the


resume, mention any person contacts, or show an interest
in a particular aspect of the company you are writing to.
• Here some guidelines regarding composing of cover letter.
1. First, letter to people to whom you have been
referred are move potent than those sent out to someone with
whom you have no connection at all.
Letter sent to specific persona are better than those sent
blindly to a title as “Personal Director:
2. Type each letter individually, trying not to fall into a
form letter pattern. You need to be original for each
one you write.
3. Finally, be sure to follow up each letter. If you write
in your cover letter that you will call on certain date,
be sure to do so.
Interviews
• The cover letter and resume may open the door for you but
what you say when you appear before an interviewer
matter more than any thing else.
• Interview is a process where you present yourself to your
potential employers and try to convince them that you are
the most suitable candidate for the vacancy in their
organization.
• Giving interview is however not an easy task to do.
• You need to prepare yourself both physically and mentally
for this task.
• In many ways Physical Preparation is easier of the two.
• The most important thing to remember is that you should
dress appropriately for an interview.
• Even the best dressed people can fail in interview because
they have not given themselves sufficient Mental
Preparation.
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• It is important to anticipate specific question that


interviewer. May ask such as:

1. Tell me about yourself


2. What are your strength and weakness?
3. Why should our company hire you?
4. What are your long term goals?
5. Why did you select your college major?
6. Why did you decide to go to that college?
7. What interest you about this position?
8. Do you like working alone in groups?
9. Do was your greatest accomplishment?
Disappointment?
10. How would your best friend describe you?
11. Do your grades adequately reflect your ability?
12. Why do you want to work in this industry?
13. What have you done to prepare for work in this
industry?
14. How do you measure success?
15. What else can you tell me about yourself that relates
to this job?
16. What book have you read lately?
17. Would you accept a position with this company if I
offered it to your right now?
18. Why is a manhole cover round?
19. What will you do if we do not hire you?
20. What if……….?

Follow-ups
• After interview is over, you need to continue working on
wrapping up the sales pitch that began during the self
assessment process.

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• Follow up begins when you write a Thank you letter to


person or people whom you spoke.
• This courtesy keeps you on the interviewers mind
• You can mention certain aspect in you thank you letter that
you did not discuss during the interview. This can go in your
favor.
• If you have firm offer of job think through how the job fits in
with your self assessment goals and other positions you have
applied for.
• Finally write to other firms you spoke with and let them
know that you have accepted the offer.
2. Include only those items in agenda that are consistent with
the task or task you are trying to accomplish.
• If you solicit and include agenda items from other
people in advance, you will not only increase their
sense of participation, but will also avoid having
them entered in the meeting with hidden agenda.
3. Consider how the agenda might be used in advance.
• As a general rule, distribute agendas two or three
days in advance so that participants have enough
time to prepare.
• If needed, include references to source materials
or reports so that participants can read them
before the meeting and perhaps bring them along.

• Decide on Discussion procedure

• Beside coming up with the agenda of tasks, the


chair decide how the group will discuss each issue
to reach a decision.

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• One discussion procedure is called the Reflective


Thinking Model or the Problem Solving Model.

• In this process the group:

1. Defines the problem specifically.


2. Analyzes the problem look at the information,
policies, the organizational schemes and the data.
3. Determines standards or criteria by which it
will measure any solution.
4. List possible solution.
5. Selects the best solution and
6. Decide how to implement the solution.
• Another procedure Nominal Group Model.
• In this model each participant lists his/her idea
independently.
• The group them compiles a separate list recording one
item from each person’s list until all are included.
• Finally, as a group they collate these ordering.
• A third decision making process is called Brainstorming.
• In this process the discussion is divided into two stages.
• During stage one, you simply record idea. No one is
allowed to criticize or evaluate the idea.
• During stage two, group reviews the list of ideas, grouping
related ideas and striking irrelevant ones, hence reaching
the decision.
• Decide on Decision making Procedure.
o This is related to how you will decide what to do,
after the decision is over.
o One option is decision made by one person either the
chairperson or the person “in charge”.

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o A second and most familiar option is decision by


majority rule.
o The third option is decision by consensus, which
develops when the group reaches a decision that may
not be every body’s first choice but everybody is
willing to agree to implement it.
o The final option Unanimity is very rarely use in
business meeting. Unanimity means that decision is
first choice of everyone present unlike compromise
implied by consensus.
o After a group decision the chair should see to it that
how decision will be implemented.
o The group should list very specifically what has to
be done, who will do it and when it is to be done.

• Perform Process Function.


o This process functions are concerned only with making
sure everyone participates.
o To facilitate the group process, encourage support
diversity and listening.
o Supporting others does not mean you agree with them.
Instead it means you respect them, accept them, and
allow them to express their opinions.
o A second process function is to avoid dominance by
any one person you or someone else.
o To control yourself, avoid interrupting; don’t talk for
more than a couple of minutes; keep asking other
people to contribute and hold opinions until the end.
o To control other – especially those with high status or
authority who tend to talk too much and interrupt more
often – avoid direct confrontation in front of the group.

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o The final process function is to avoid hostile conflict


among group members.
o Conflict of idea is healthy in groups. Conflict of
personalities is not.
o In case of conflict, summarize or paraphrase different
viewpoints emphasizing the place where people agree.
o Also ensure to keep discussion centered on idea, not on
attacking people.
o Instead of asking other participants to choose sides try
to work toward a solution that allow all sides to win and
maintain there pride.

ANSWERING QUESTIONS

Question and Answer Session:

• Sometimes speech or presentations include some give and


take between speakers and theirs and their audience by means
of question and answer session.
• There are three issues that need to be considered in dealing
with question of the participants of your speech or
presentation:

1. When to take question.


2. How to take questions and
3. How to deal with difficult questions.

Panel Discussions:
• Panel discussions consist of questions and answers only, and
a symposium consists of series of prepared speeches,
followed by question and answers.
• The purpose of panel discussion is to present different views.

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• Some times, the business situations demand the speakers to


answering question in panel discussion.

Media Interviews

1. This is an example of business situation when you as a


business are answering question while dealing with the press.
2. Media interviews are not aimed at just one person they are
also aimed at the reporters, listeners or readers.
3. The public is interested in topics such as:

I. Environment
II. Consumerism
III. Economy
4. Media interview skills include.
I. Anticipating questions
II. Planning responses
III. Analyzing your two audiences
IV. Stating points emphatically.

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