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GLA 1

6. INTEGRATED SKILLS
Set reading

READ, C. (1985). "Integrating the skills" in Matthews, A. et al. (eds.) 1985): 72-74.

6.1. Definition

The integration of skills can be defined as the combination of two or more skills within a communicative task.

6.2. Justification

By integrating skills we make classroom work closer to real life, where more often than not we integrate more
than one skill. In addition, some concrete reasons are given by Read (1985):

- Continuity
- Realism
- Appropriateness
- Variety
- Recycling
- Confidence.

6.3. "Input" before "output"

Most of the combinations of skills exemplify the usefulness of presenting a receptive-interpretative skill
before asking students to produce something, that is to say, providing "comprehensible input" before asking
students for any "output". In this sense, it is advisable for listening to precede speaking or reading to precede
writing.

6.4. Practical suggestions

Throughout the term we have suggested some useful combinations of two skills, which we summarise here:

- Listening and speaking


- Listening and reading
- Reading and writing
- Speaking and writing
- Listening and writing.

If we want to combine more than two skills, some useful sequences are the following (cf. Read
1985:73):

- Speaking → Reading →Writing →Speaking ( →Writing)


- Listening → Writing → Speaking → Writing
- Reading → Writing → Listening →Speaking (→ Writing)
- Listening →Speaking → Reading → Writing

We can notice that more often than not we begin with a receptive-interpretative skill to continue with a
productive one. Likewise, writing seems to be always a recommendable "rounding-off".

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GLA 2

BIBLIOGRAPHY
BYRNE, D. (1988a). Focus on the Classroom. Oxford: Modern English Publications. Artículo nº 22 "Desert Island
Revisited", pp. 96-100.
DANGERFIELD, L. (1985a). "Island: an integrated skills activity" en MATTHEWS, A. et al. (eds.) (1985), pp. 126-
131.
DANGERFIELD, L. (1985b). "Graphs and charts for integrated skills practice" en MATTHEWS, A. et al. (eds.)
(1985), pp. 131-140.
READ, C. (1985). "Integrating the skills" en MATTHEWS, A. et al. (eds.) (1985), pp. 72-74.

SERIES PARA LA PRÁCTICA DE LAS DESTREZAS A DISTINTOS NIVELES


CAMBRIDGE SKILLS FOR FLUENCY (ed. by A. DOFF). Cambridge: C.U.P.

Listening 1 (Pre-intermediate). A. DOFF & C. BECKET (1991)


Listening 2 (Intermediate). A. DOFF & C. BECKET (1991)
Listening 3 (Upper-Intermediate). J. COLLIE & S. SLATER (1992)

Speaking 1 (Pre-intermediate). J. COLLIE & S. SLATER (1991)


Speaking 2 (Intermediate). J. COLLIE & S. SLATER (1991)
Speaking 3 (Upper-Intermediate). J. COLLIE & S. SLATER (1992)

Reading 1 (Pre-intermediate). S. GREENALL, & D. PYE (1991)


Reading 2 (Intermediate). S. GREENALL, & D. PYE (1991)
Reading 3 (Upper-Intermediate). S. GREENALL, & D. PYE (1992)

Writing 1 (Pre-intermediate). A. LITTLEJOHN (1991)


Writing 2 (Intermediate). A. LITTLEJOHN (1991)
Writing 3 (Upper-Intermediate). A. LITTLEJOHN (1992)

HEINEMANN INTEGRATED SKILLS SERIES (ed. by P. PROWSE). Oxford: Heinemann.

Integrated Skills (Elementary). M. CALLOW (1990)


Integrated Skills (Intermediate). B. MILNE (1990)
Integrated Skills (Upper-Intermediate). J. BELL (1990)
Integrated Skills (Advanced). T. HOPWOOD & L. RUSHTON (1990)

LONGMAN SKILLS SERIES London: Longman.

Tuning In (Listening / Elementary). M. SPRATT (1989)


Listening in Action (Listening / Pre-Intermediate). S. KEELER (1988)
Soundings (Listening / Intermediate). J. BELL (1989)

Plenty to Say (Speaking / Elementary). G. RAMSEY (1989)


Well Spoken (Speaking / Pre-Intermediate). G. RAMSEY (1989)
Images (Speaking / Intermediate). G. RAMSEY (1987)

First Impressions (Reading / Elementary). S. ECKSTUT et al. (1989)


Beneath the Surface (Reading / Pre-Intermediate). S. ECKSTUT & D. LUBELSKA (1989)
Widely Read (Reading / Intermediate). S. ECKSTUT & D. LUBELSKA (1989)

Word for Word (Writing / Elementary). C. TRIBBLE (1989)


Outlines (Writing / Pre-Intermediate). A. HOPKINS & C. TRIBBLE (1989)
Perspectives (Writing / Intermediate). A. HOPKINS (1989)
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Gloria Luque Agulló
DIDACTICA DE LAS DESTREZAS

NELSON SKILLS PROGRAMME Surrey: Nelson.

Making Sense (Listening / Elementary). R. AITKEN (1983)


Loud and Clear (Listening / Early Intermediate). R. AITKEN (1983)
Overtones (Listening / Pre-Intermediate). R. AITKEN (1985)
Play it by Ear (Listening / Intermediate). R. AITKEN (1986)

Say the Word (Speaking / Elementary). D. HALL & M. FOLEY (1987)


Speaking Out (Speaking / Early Intermediate). D. HALL & M. FOLEY (1987)
Now You're Talking (Speaking / Pre-Intermediate). D. HALL & M. FOLEY (1988)
The Last Word (Speaking / Intermediate). D. HALL & M. FOLEY (1988)

At First Sight (Reading / Elementary). M. ELLIS & P. ELLIS (1984)


Between the Lines (Reading / Early Intermediate). M. ELLIS & P. ELLIS (1982)
Shades of Meaning (Reading / Pre-Intermediate). M. ELLIS & P. ELLIS (1983)
Take It as Read (Reading / Intermediate). M. ELLIS & P. ELLIS (1983)

Pen to Paper (Writing / Elementary). T. HEDGE (1983)


In a Word (Writing / Early Intermediate). T. HEDGE (1983)
In the Picture (Writing / Pre-Intermediate). T. HEDGE (1985)
Free Style (Writing / Intermediate). T. HEDGE (1985)

OXFORD SUPPLEMENTARY SKILLS (ed. by A. MALEY). Oxford: O.U.P.

Listening (Elementary). R. NOLASCO (1987)


Listening (Intermediate). V. DUNN & D. GRUBER (1987)
Listening (Upper-Intermediate). S. RIXON (1987)
Listening (Advanced). J. REVELL & B. BREARY (1987)

Speaking (Elementary). R. NOLASCO (1987)


Speaking (Intermediate). R. ELLIS & B. TOMLINSON (1987)
Speaking (Upper-Intermediate). R. GOWER (1987)
Speaking (Advanced). V. BLACK et al. (1987)

Reading (Elementary). R. SCOTT (1987)


Reading (Intermediate). G. PORTER-LADOUSSE (1987)
Reading (Upper-Intermediate). B. TOMLINSON & R. ELLIS (1987)
Reading (Advanced). B. TOMLINSON & R. ELLIS (1987)

Writing (Elementary). D. GRUBER & V. DUNN (1987)


Writing (Intermediate). M.C. BOUTIN, S. BRINAND & F. GRELLET (1987)
Writing (Upper-Intermediate). R. NOLASCO (1987)
Writing (Advanced). R.V. WHITE (1987).