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SPICE CROPS

ONIONS
SITE FOR PLANTING ONIONS:
1) Accessibility to good roads, transportation facilities, and market
A good farm-to-market road is practically essential. Bad roads limit the size of loads, increase
wear and tear, and cause crops to be bruise.

2) Well-drained areas
A gently sloping land is a good site because it allows for efficient water drainage. The site
should not have any depression where water may accumulate.

3) Soil fertility
Spice crops can be grown in almost all types of soil. However, they thrive best in loose, friable,
sandy loam soil rich in organic matter.

4) Climatic conditions
Most spice crops grow best under warm humid climates but some grow in dry environments.
Determining what kind of spice crop to grow in a particular area should be done beforehand.

5) Rainfall
The amount of rainfall is important because spice crops do not grow well in areas with
excessive rainfall. Instead, they grow faster in places with direct exposure to sunlight.

Preparing the Onions


There are several varieties of onion grow here in the Philippines. Among them are Red
Globe, Excel, Granex, Red Creoles, Crystal Wax, Japanese Bunching, Baguio green,and
Beltsville Bunching.
The onion plot should be plowed, harrowed, and left in good tilth. The surface should be
well worked and smooth. For every kilogram, prepare a 1x10 meter plot. Prepare five plots and
five kilograms of seeds for every hectare of planting area.
Sow the seeds thinly and evenly then water the plot. Cover them with a thin layer of
pulverized soil to avoid exposure to sunlight. Keep the soil moist by watering it every week
with ammonium sulfate. Seedlings are grown for 30-40days. As the onion matures, gradually
decrease water supply to promote proper bulb ripening. Stop watering when the tops of onion
start falling over as they are almost ready for harvesting. Onion’s keeping quality is longer
when it is fully ripe when harvested.
PLANTING AND CARING FOR ONIONS:
Planting and Transplanting
Onions can be planted either by clean culture or mulch culture method. If clean culture
is used, the field should be plowed and harrowed to remove the weeds and pulverized the soil.
One or double rows are then made, and complete fertilizer and processed fertilizer at the rate of
4-6 kg. per 100sq. m of land are thoroughly mixed and applied. The plots should be sufficiently
irrigated to wet the soil.
In the mulch method, the field is not plowed. Instead, the remaining stalks are cut
nearest to the ground. Then, the field is allowed to dry while the weeds are removed. The field
should be irrigated three days before transplanting. Fertilizer should be applied a week before
transplanting. The amount of fertilizer to apply may depend on the native soil fertility, thus soil
analysis is necessary.
After 30-40 days, irrigate the field to loosen the soil. Uproot the seedlings carefully,
and plant them in the plot in columns with a distance of 8-10cm. Make sure that the soil has
enough moisture while the plants are growing.

Irrigation
In the plot method, the first watering is done after one week from the date of planting.
Irrigate the field just enough to water the soil. Apply the fertilizer consisting of five bags of
ammonium sulfate and five bags of urea per hectare are then applied. The field is then irrigated
every 10days. On the third irrigation, a combination of five bags of urea and five bags of
muriate of potash are applied. On the fourth irrigation, 20 bags of complete fertilizer per
hectare are then applied
In the mulched method, less irrigation is done because the rice straws can retain the
moisture of the soil longer. In both methods of planting, irrigation is no longer done one month
before harvesting the crops.

Pest and Diseases


The common Pest that attack onions are thrips and nocturnal leaf-eating worms. You
have learned that thrips are winged insects that eat parts of onion’s leaves, which then become
yellow and dried from tip to base. To control these pests, spray the infested plant with
Malathion or any appropriate insecticide.
Purple blotch and onion pink rot are the common diseases caused by fungi that usually
attack onions. Practicing crop rotation, planting of resistant varieties, and applying appropriate
pesticides are some of the measures that farmers may use to control these diseases.
HARVEST AND POST-HARVEST OF ONIONS
Harvesting and Post-harvesting Operations
The bending of the onion leaves is a sign that the onions are ready for harvesting. The
maturity period of the crop differs according to the variety, just make sure that only the fully
ripe ones are harvested to enhance their keeping quality. Red Globe, for example, matures in
100 days or more; Excel matures in 90-100 days; Red Creole matures in 110-120 days; and
Granex matures in 130-135 days.
Onions are harvested by uprooting the plants carefully. The bulbs should be properly
sorted from the thick necks (will not store so long); injured or damaged bulbs should be
cleaned. The plants are then placed in nylon sacks, bamboo crates or baskets.
Onions should be carefully handled and properly cured, so that they will retain their
freshness and quality. Onions should be placed in cold storage room with a dry atmosphere and
adequate ventilation

Marketing of Onions
Fresh market onions are distributed through broker-shippers, grower-shippers, and chain
store buyers. Many growers disposed of their crops soon after harvest. Dealers, shoppers,
supermarket buyers, and others are usually on hand at harvest time to buy the products on cash
basis, some on consignment basis. In some areas, onions are commonly sold under marketing
contracts between growers and shippers.

Profit

Crops Production Cost Gross income Net income


(Pesos) (Pesos) (Pesos)

Onions P50.00 P100.00 P50.00

The remaining P50.00 profit will be the total profit for my plant production of onions.
FIAT LUX ACADEME
Cavite

In partial fulfillment
of the requirement
in T.L.E. II

“A Project Plant for my


Plant Production”

Submitted by:
Rotsen R. Manaois
II – Germanium

Submitted to:
Miss Hirlen E. Pico
T.L.E. Teacher