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Report on the Textiles & Wet Processing Industry of India


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Report on the Textiles & Wet Processing Industry of India

Textile Industry in India – An Overview

Indian textiles, renowned for their fine quality and captivating colours for ages, have attracted
connoisseurs from parts of the world. Textiles from India bear the imprint of the fine craftsmanship
of Indian weavers. The skill of weaving with deft fingers, drawing patterns and creating designs, is
an art which has been handed down through generations. These finest gossamer fabrics woven
from yarns of superior finish are now being manufactured in India.

The exquisite quality of Indian textiles has been hailed since ancient times. The sheer mystique of
their textures have captured the imagination of royalty and commoners. It an appreciation and
acceptance that it has met with the world over that makes the Indian Textile Industry what it is
today – an industry having a strong socioeconomic significance in India’s national economy. It
contributes around 5% GDP & accounts for over one-third of India’s total exports. It is also the
largest foreign exchange earner.

India has the largest variations in woven textiles, techniques, use of materials in the art of dyeing
and designs expressing the cultural heritage of India. Every region has a distinct style of weaving
which a connoisseur can distinguish. The textile production set-up in India today is the culmination
of the tradition that has shown a remarkable ability to develop a grow.

The Indian textile industry has a fairly complex structure. At one end of the spectrum is the hand
spinning and hand weaving operations and on the other, a highly sophisticated, capital intensive
and high speed manufacturing activity. Between the two extremes, the industry manufactures a
staggering range of fabrics, furnishing, dress materials & floor covering, made-ups and garments.

The process of economic liberalization which began in the last decade has seen the industry
become globally competitive not only in terms of price but also quality. Modernization, has not
been restricted to the installation of sophisticated processing machinery, wide width looms,
autoconers, electronic clearers, splicers, etc, but also to the adaptation of quality systems
conforming to ISO 9000 standards. The recent developments in the European markets on Eco-
friendly textiles has sent the Indian industry into a flurry of activity to adapt itself to market

Over the last 20 years or so there has been an all round growth in various sectors of textile industry
with enormous capacity creation in the polyester, manmade fibre and production of raw material.

India’s Textile industry has more or less kept pace with the world’s growth in this sector both in
quantitative and qualitative terms. It has an abundant supply of quality raw material. Also, it has
made considerable technological progress. In addition, a well established infrastructure for
production, technically qualified manpower and skilled labour available at a considerable lower
costs, material competence and marketing expertise are other favourable factors to meet the
demand of the one billion strong home markets as well as a huge and growing volume of exports.

The Indian textile industry is pre-dominantly cotton based with 70 per cent of the raw material
consumed being cotton. It is composed of four major sectors, namely

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Report on the Textiles & Wet Processing Industry of India

• The mill made, also called the organized sector.

• The handloom and power loom sector both being classified as decentralized sector and
• The hosiery and garment sector.
According to recent data, the total production of fabrics in all these sectors combined was of the
order of 38,434 million sq.mtrs. With 59 percent of the total fabric production being contributed by
the power loom sector followed by 18 percent by the handloom sector, 17 percent by the hosiery
sector and the rest by the organized mill sector. India also produces a fabulous range of man-
made fibres, polyester cotton and polyester- viscose blended fabrics. India offers and alluring
range of made-ups items like scarves and stoles in exotic shades, intricate patterns and magical
finishes. Renowned for achieving high quality standards in the art of weaving through centuries of
experience, production on fabrics in different sectors is given below:

Production of Textiles in Different Sectors

Million Sq. Metres
1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-2000 2000-01
Mill Sector
Cotton 1159 1222 1238 1111 1105 1185
Blended 602 488 466 444 379 361
100%non-cotton 258 247 244 230 230 238
Total 2019 1957 1948 1785 1714 1784

Handloom Sector
Cotton 62391 6441 6699 5861 6376 6710
Blended 18 52 69 111 119 165
100%non-cotton 945 963 835 820 857 850
Total 7202 7456 7603 6792 7352 7725

Power loom Sector

Cotton 7014 7238 6652 5856 6291 6632
Blended 3137 3948 4481 4356 4613 5066
100%non-cotton 7050 8166 9818 10478 12283 12632
Total 17201 19352 20951 20690 23187 24331

Hosiery Sector
Cotton 4488 4940 5403 5121 5217 5653
Blended 268 400 735 788 802 867
100%non-cotton 282 193 256 367 355 389

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Total 5038 5533 6394 6276 6374 6909

All Sectors
Cotton 18900 19841 19992 17949 18989 20180
Blended 4025 4888 5751 5699 5915 6459
100% non cotton 8535 9569 11153 11895 13725 14110
Khadi 431 515 545 559 575 575
Grand Total 31891 34813 37441 36102 39202 41324


The textile industry occupies a position of prime national importance accounting for over one third
of India’s total merchandise export making Indian textiles the largest single net foreign exchange
earner for the country. India produces and exports textiles of diverse of kinds from a wide variety
of fibres- natural fibres, regenerated cellulosic fibres and synthetic fibres.

Indian exports for all textiles were of the order of US$ 11134.88 million in 1999-2000 as against
against US$ 10536.35 million in 1998-1999 which represented an increase of about 5.7%. The
major chunk in exports has taken place in the field of apparel and cotton textiles. Sector wise
breakup of export performance for the last four years in given below :

Sectors 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-2000

Cotton textiles ( Cotton Yarns, 3834.38 3997.85 3892.35 4076.79
Fabrics, made-ups)

Silk textiles ( including RMG) 249.49 241.50 245.85 293.60

Wool & Woollen Textiles 156.67 179.28 161.37 146.68

(excluding knitwear & RMG)

Man Made Fibre Textiles 911.47 1013.17 968.38 1093.31

(excluding knitwear & RMT)

Apparel ( all fibre RMG & Knitwear 4762.10 4910.70 5268.40 5524.50
except silk )
Grand Total 9914.11 10342.50 10536.35 11134.88

Source : o/o the Textile commissioner

Indian textiles known for captivating designs and colours are exported world over. However, main
destinations for Indian textile based items have traditionally been USA, UK, Germany, Italy, Hong
Kong, South Africa, Bangladesh, Japan, Belgium, France, Mauritius, Spain, Canada and Australia,
& South America.

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Report on the Textiles & Wet Processing Industry of India

India and Its Textile

Although the structure of the Indian economy has undergone a sea of change during the last five
years, the industrial sectors including automobiles and consumer durables have registered
impressive growth, the textile and apparel industries continue to be India’s largest industry
segment, accounting for nearly a sixth of industrial output and a third of India’s total exports.

Besides being the largest foreign exchange earner and the largest provider of employment (next to
agriculture), the textile and apparel industries also contribute heavily to the government’s budget by
way of taxes and tariffs. Exports of textiles and apparel together are now close to US$ 10 billion,
and are growing at a steady rate of about 10-15% per annum. The organized part or the industry,
comprising of large composite mills and spinning mills, alone provide employment to an estimated
one million persons directly, while the weaving and processing sectors employ another 2-3 million.
Including apparel and other business related to clothing, the employment potential of the industry is
estimated at close to 10 million persons.

Indian Cotton Textile Industry

India’s exports of textiles and apparel have grown at a steady pace throughout the nineties. The
same holds true for domestic consumption as well. The textile industry is one of the largest
segments of the Indian economy accounting for over one fifth of total industrial production, and
provides employment to approximately 15 million people.

With over 9 million hectares under cotton cultivation and an annual crop of approximately 2771
million kg, India is one of the world’s largest reservoirs of this popular fibre. In addition the 80-odd
cotton varieties of different descriptions being grown in India enables the industry to manufacture
almost every conceivable count and construction of fabrics.

With over 1543 spinning units, over 281 composite mills and approximately 1.72 million
registered looms, the Indian cotton textile industry is a force to reckon with.

Yarn Spinning Industry

The spinning industry has an installed capacity of over 36.67 million spindles and approximately
434000 open end rotors. Such a large capacity Coupled with wide varieties of locally available
cotton enables the industry to produce yarns to match any specification and count range.
Extensive modernization throughout the industry has resulted in widespread installation of
automatic winders, auto slavers, electronic clearers, splicers, two-for-one twisters, gas
singeing, mercerizing and sophisticated testing equipment. This process has enabled the
industry to gain a reputation globally resulting in continuously increasing demand for Indian cotton
yarn in overseas markets.

Perhaps, the strongest part of the industry is spinning. Spinners of cotton and blended yarns made
substantial investments through the nineties, and the Indian spinning industry is perhaps the

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Report on the Textiles & Wet Processing Industry of India

strongest in the world. India continues to be the largest buyer of spinning machine in the world.
Even in 1999, India purchased over one million spindles.

India is currently the largest exporter of cotton yarn. In calendar 2000, exports were well over 500
million kg, representing about 45% of the cotton yarn produced in India. The Indian spinning
industry produces yarn of global standards, and there are no weavers or knitters complaining about
quality or even the prices of cotton or blended yarn.

Nevertheless, the domestic availability of cotton is a big strength, and equally important is the fact
that India produces the coarsest, as well as the finest cotton. The DCH-32 variety, which has a
micronnaire value of as low as 2.8, has no competition when it comes to counts of 100s/ 12s Ne.

Exports of cotton Yarn

India exports all kinds of cotton yarn from the coarsest to the finest counts. The various kinds of
yarn exported include auto-coned, electronically cleared, spliced, mercerized, gassed/singed,
mélange, fancy yarn, singles or piled, greige, dyed and bleached, etc.

In 1999-2000, India exported 554,95 million kg. Of yarn and sewing thread at a value of US$
1542.94 million compared to 262.78 million kg. Worth US$ 1005.99 million in 1995-96. in 1999-
2000, exports of cotton yarn and sewing thread constituted about 42% of the total exports of cotton
textiles excluding handloom and garments). The major markets for Indian cotton yarn in 1999-
2000 were Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Korea, Italy, Mauritius, Japan, Israel, Taiwan, Russia and

Fabric Manufacturing Industry

Renowned for achieving high quality standards in the art of weaving through centuries of
experience, the industry’s production of piece goods was estimated at 36,102 million square
meters in 16998-99; of which 100% cotton accounted for about 49%. The installed capacity
includes over 1,700,000 looms. This coupled with the extensive production facilities for yarn and
the availability of cotton enables the industry to produce fabrics of almost every conceivable count
and construction.

Modernization has led to the installation of rapier, air-jet and water-jet looms, sophisticated
knitting machines and state-of-the art processing machinery, which have all enabled the
industry to offer fabrics in the variety of sophisticated finishes, in addition, the emphasis on
good manufacturing practices and growing environmental consciousness has made the
industry globally competitive.

Exports of Fabrics
The Indian industry has combined the virtuosity and skill of traditional craftsmen of yore with
sophisticated machinery to produce exotic fabric for those who value the benefits of aesthetic
appeal and superior apparel. Exports range from loom state to processed fabrics in various
counts and constructions, from simple to sophisticated finishes in a variety of widths. The

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Report on the Textiles & Wet Processing Industry of India

industry’s produce is truly a treasure chest, for both the designer and the merchandiser. India also
exports various kinds of fabrics for non-apparel use such as gauze cloth, canvas and parachute
fabrics. In addition, India exports various kinds of knitted fabrics.

In 1999-2000, India exported approximately 2.2 billion square meters of cotton fabrics worth
approximately US$ 1,094.28 million as compared to 1.5 billion square meters valued at US$
1,022.61 million in 1995-96. in 1999-2000, cotton fabrics constituted around 32% of India’s exports
of cotton textiles (excluding handloom and apparel). The major global markets for Indian cotton
fabrics were the U.S., U.K., Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Germany, Belgium, Dubai, Italy and Hong

Exports of Cotton Made Ups

India also manufactures and exports a wide variety of made-ups goods. The made ups articles
exported from India range from the very simple to the most exquisite varieties of bed linen, toilet
linen, table linen, kitchen linen and home furnishings. In 1999-2000, India exported cotton made-
ups worth US$ 1009.64 million compared to us$ 631.26 million in 1995-96. The major markets for
Indian cotton make-ups are the U.S., Germany, U.K., France, Belgium, Italy, Holland, Japan and

Home furnishing and floor covering industry turn out an array of exquisite products which enjoy
worldwide reputation for their beauty, workmanship and individuality. Furnishings and floor
covering including carpets constitute one of the important segments of India’s decentralized
industrial sector

Made Ups & Apparel

The performance of made-ups items including bed sheets & quilts has been good on the global
markets. Interestingly, the bulk of exports of made-ups are accounted for by reasonably well-
integrated firms – they are either composite mills (spinning, weaving and processing) or they are
firms having their own processing facilities. Thus, most of the bed sheets and related products
exported by India are fabricated by those who also process the fabric.

The strength lies not only in integration but also in the ability of offer very small lots in different
designs and color ways. In the case of apparel, the domestic market has perhaps grown, to some
extent, because of exports. Apparel firms that ventured out in global markets have expanded don
the traditional custom tailors in most of large cities.

Geographical Dispersion

India’s textile and apparel industries are now quite dispersed throughout the country. Earlier,
Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay), Ahmedabad and Coimbatore used to be large centers,
but now there are several clusters. Cotton spinning is still largely concentrated in the
Coimbatore district of the southern state of Tamil Nadu and its adjoining areas, which account
for nearly a third of the installed spindles and about 40% of India’s cotton yarn production.
However, cotton spinning is getting dispersed at a slow and steady pace. Sizeable investments in

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Report on the Textiles & Wet Processing Industry of India

cotton spinning have been made in the states of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, where a
large number of ultra-modern spinning units, mainly catering to export markets, have come up in
the last few years. These include well-known names like Amit Spinning, Maral Overseas, Soma
Textiles, Arvind Cotspin and others.

The northern state of Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan have also taken impressive strides in the
spinning sector. Capacities of well-established groups like Vardhman and Nahar have risen
substantially. Besides, a large number of small open-end spinning units have been set up in the
cotton rich areas of Punjab and Haryana, mainly for catering to the rising demand from the big
handloom center of Panipat, near New Delhi, which is famous for its cotton rugs and dhurries in
Indian, as well as global markets. Some new units have com up in Gujarat (Gujarat Ambuja
Cotspin) and Andhra Pradesh (Sanghi Spinners) also.

The cotton weaving industry too has migrated to a considerable extent, and the output of power
looms in the unorganized sector has risen handsomely in southern areas, mainly Coimbatore,
Salem and Erode. In Maharashtra, Bhiwandi, Malegaon and Icchalkaranji are the major
powerloom areas, Several modern weaving factories have come up in areas around New Delhi

The processing industry has dispersed more rapidly than spinning and weaving in the last five
years. Areas around New Delhi, now known as the National Capital Region, boost of nearly
100 modern textile-processing units. Several processing houses have been set up in Tamil
Nadu also. Hyderabad, the capital of Andhra Pradesh, has become a large producer of
processed fabrics and even a remote town in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh now has
about half –a-dozen processing unit.

Rajasthan has a large capacity for the production of polyester / viscose blended yarn,
manufactured on the short staple system. Among major manufacturers having units in
Rajasthan are Rajasthan Spinning, Banswara Syntex, Modern Syntex, Jaipur Polyspin and
Shree Rajasthan Syntex. Most of these mills came up in the late seventies and early eighties,
and have steadily expanded their capacities in the last 10-15 year.

Surat continues to be the center for filament fabrics, mainly saris and dress materials,
consuming about three-fourths of all polyester and nylon filament, estimates of the number
of looms in Surat vary from 300,000 to 400,000 and there are at least 200 mid-sized
processing units, most of which are engaged in the manufacture of dyed and /or printed
filament fabrics. Surat units generally use fine-denier filament yarn- 48 denier is perhaps the
average count. Most of the processing units have two to four flat –bed-printing machines of
four to six colors, and some have rotary screen printing machines also. Surat is slowly
emerging as an important exporter of filament fabrics.

In apparel, Tirupur and Ludhiana are the major knitwear producing centers, while Mumbai
and New Delhi continue to be the largest manufacturers and exporters of woven garments.
New Delhi specializes in more up market and specialized products like women’s dresses,
while Mumbai is stronger in mass-produced items like men’s shirts. Bangladesh is growing
fast in woven garments, but the rising share of knitted apparel in India’s total apparel
exports has put Tirupur, near Coimbatore, in the first position.

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Industrial Structure
The organized part of the textile industry is comprised of 1,569 mills of which 1,294 are
spinning mills and 275 are composite mills having spinning, as well as weaving facilities.
India’s installed spinning capacity is currently estimated at over 31.75 million spindles,
which is second only to China. In addition, there is an open end spinning capacity equivalent to
about 226,000 rotors. The weaving capacity in the organized sector is estimated at 5,700 shuttle
less looms and about 126,000 shuttle looms. In weaving and processing, however, the
unorganized sector dominates the scenario with an estimated capacity of 1.2 million looms
and a matching processing capacity. Number of processing units in the small and medium
sectors is estimated at well above 5,000 units.

In the case of processing, there have always been medium and large processors producing
from 10,000 to 100,000 meter/day of fabrics.

Machinery with Indian Textile Processors

Name of Processing Machines Name of the Manufacturer s

Preprocessing machine
Singeing • Benninger
• Sanjay
• Calico
• Dornier
• Swastik (Ahmedabad)

Desizing & washing • Harish JT-10

• T. Maneklal
Bleaching System • Benninger’s continuous bleaching
range-Dimensa Merceriser
• Scholl (Switzerland)
• Bruckner
• Dornior

Dyeing machine
Jiggers • Henriksen Vacuum jiggers
• Bruckner – (Germany)
• Shakti
• Bharat
• Jupiter
Winches • Shakti
• Jupiter
Jet Dyeing • Tong Geng (Taiwan)
• Devrekher
• Star

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• Shakti
• Mancklal
• Hitex
• Shivangi
• Maneklal
Softflow Dyeing Machines • Then
• Krsna
• Brazzoli
• Thies
• Scalvos
• Staff
• Scholl
• MCS (Italy)
• Texfab (Mumbai)
Pad Batch Dyeing Machine • Kuster
• Hitech
• Alea Padder
• Bhatt Brothers
• Kalico, India
• Thakur, India
• Dhall, India
Pad Steam Range • Sando, Japan

Yarn Dyeing Machine • Staffi

• Loris
• Bellini
• Thies
• Dalal
• Fongs
• Then ( Germany)
Package Yarn dyeing machine • Joginder Industries (Delhi)
Yarn Steamers • ELGI Electric & Industries (Coimbatore)
Beam Dyeing Machine • Dalal, India
Printing Machine
Rotary Printing machine • Stormac
• Stork
• Harish, India
• Texprint, India
• Lakshmi, India
Transfer Printing Machine • Screen Art, Skyline Enterprises
• Tap-Tex Pvt. Ltd.
• Texcon Prints
• Mod Prints
• Pushpanjali

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• Blue Maro
• United Commercial Agencies
• AK.Enterprises

Flock printing Machine • Wet Processing Machine Ltd. (UK)

• Electro Spray
• Lemaire
• Casati
• Transprints
• Bergers
• Prochimir
Garment Processing Machine
Garment Washing Machine • Milmore (Germany)
• Tonello (Italy)
• Stefab (Indian)
• Ramsons (Indian)
• Hyatt (Indian)
• Fabcare (Indian)
Finishing Machines
Shearing & cropping • Brauma
• Kuang (Knits)
• Lafer
• Lamperti
• Comnit
• Vollenweider (Knits)
• Chien Lun (Taiwan)
Pad Dry thermosol • Pad Dry thermosol ( by Bruckner )
• Thermofixing Range from : Monforts,
R.F.Dryer • Strayfield
• Fongs
• Texfab (India)
• Bruckner
Stenter • Monforts, Germany
• Primatex
• SM
• Artose
• Manaklal
• Harish
• Sperotto Rimar
• Hitech Stenmech
• Dommisse Vaporam
• IL-sung(k)

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Report on the Textiles & Wet Processing Industry of India

• Krantz
Sanforizing Machine OR Compressive • Monforts, Germany
shrinking • Morrison
• Thakore Engineering
• Dhall
• Ramson
Decatising Machine • Staffi
• Dalal
• Sanjay
• Gayatri

Peaching Machine • Sperotto Rimar, Italy
• Caru machine
• Gematex
• Bhatt Brothers
• Embee (Ahmedabad)

Mercerising Machines • Jaeggli Meccalotessile – Italy

• Thies
• Lindaver Dornier
• Mather & Platt
• Indian Calico
• Brazzoli.
• MCS/Sperotto Rimer
Drying Range • Map
• Santex Ltd
• Il Sung
• Tubetex
• Shakti
• Ruckh
• Alliya

Calendaring Machine • Mather & Platt
• Weiss
• Nova
• Heliot
• Longia
• Bitexma
• Santex
• Febraro
• Il-sunk(k)
Relaxed continuous dryer • Santex
• Tubetex (Knits)

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• Ruckh (Germany)
Compactor • Santex
• Tubetex (Knits)
• Ferraro
• Longia
• Sperotto Rimar
• Ruckh
• Monti (Italy)
• Heliot
• Fabcon
Hydro extractor • Santax
• Heliot
Teflon Coating • Kranz
• Il-sung
Steamer • H.T. steamer from Arioli, Italy
• Texfab
Ager or Curing Range • Monforts, Germany
• Steel Fabricator
Laboratory Dispensing & Solution making • Data colour International ,USA
Colour Matching software • Data Colour International, USA
Inspection Machines • EVS I-Tex system offering customers I-
Physical Laboratory • James H. Heal
• Atlas, Germany
• Paramount Scientific Instruments Ltd.,
• Innovative Engitech, India
• Prolific, India
• Mega Tech, India
Pilot Sample Dyeing & Finishing plant • Mathis, Switzerland

The Processing Sector

• Mills in India are composite units, which have all the process right from yarn manufacturing to
fabrics to finishing of the fabrics. Quite a number of fabric manufacturers have in house processing
units, which includes garment washing, printing & dyeing units. This is the general trend in the
northern & southern India. Big companies like Maral Overseas ( Indore ), Vardhaman Group
( Ludhiana ), Nahar Group ( Ludhiana ), Malwa ( Ludhiana), Trident Group, Bhilwara Group,
Century Mills ( Bombay ), Paragan Textiles, Siya Ram Silk Mills ( Bombay ), Hindustan
Spinning & Weaving Mills ( Mumbai ), Ashima Group ( Ahemedabad), Morarjee Spg. & Weav.
Mills ( Mumbai ), Arvind Mills ( Ahmedabad ), Rajasthan Spg. & Wea. Mills, Oswal Cotton
Mills ( Nahar Group ), Grasim & Reliance have the state of the art dyeing & finishing units
housing all the latest machinery

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• A survey conducted revealed that most of the big processors as well as small process houses have
a combination of Indian as well as imported machinery. There are a number for processors in &
around Delhi who do job work for exporters & also for the domestic market. The processing
capacity ranges between 2 - 50 tones/day depending on the capacity of the plant. A major chunk of
the machinery operating in the Indian Industry is Italian, followed by Korean, German, Taiwan &
Japanese, and England machinery.

• Consequently, yarn dyeing has started growing in a big way, perhaps yarn-
dyeing machines are one part of the textile machinery industry, which has not really
suffered because of the slump in demand for textile machinery in general. Most of
the large firms have set up their captive yarn dyeing facilities. Many of the
spinners have also started setting up yarn processing facilities (bleaching,
mercerizing, singeing and dyeing), examples being GTN Textiles and the ATL group.
Even in the case of exports, companies like Salem Textiles have stared pushing
processed yarn.

• Yarn dyeing has also received a big boost from the rising share of knits in
the overall production of textiles or domestic consumption, as well as exports. In
fact, the share of knits in apparel exports has risen to a level of about 45%, through
knits’ total share in production is perhaps still at a level of about 18-20% only.
However, exports of products like knitted bed sheets and socks are also rising,
resulting in an increasing demand for dyed yarn. In the domestic market, cotton
socks have come back in a big way and nylon is generally viewed as a cheaper

• CAD systems are being installed routinely by textile manufacturers. Color matching
systems too are growing in numbers.

• The EPCG scheme has attracted several denim projects like Arvind, Mafatlal,
Raymond and KG Denim, besides integrated spinning, weaving and processing
projects like Morarjee Brembana and Pasupati Fabrics. At least a dozen units have
been set up under the EPCG scheme for processed knitted fabrics, some of which
also produce knitwear. Examples in this category include names like Maral
Overseas (which originally started as a cotton spinning EOU), Sunanda Industries
of the Mafatlal Group, Asian Alloys and Royal Industries. Incidentally, exports of
cotton yarn by spinning mills importing machines under the EPCG scheme are also
outside the purview of quantitative restraints and a large number of spinning mills
have taken advantage of this for circumventing restraints on exports.

• The feedback given by the industry is that the right combination of technology & fibre
choice for manufacturing fabric will hold the success of any finishing unit. Any kind of
compromise on the quality parameters would result in substantial amount of losses with
defective dyeing. The industry says that today the profit margins are so thing that in knits
defectively processed fabrics are less than 1% & in wovens less than 1%. There is no
margin of any errors occurring at any stage of wet processing.

• There are no mills in Delhi but around Delhi there are a few like Pasupati Spinners. Some of them
are 100% EOU units. Some of the leading processors are, Shivalik Group (NOIDA & Faridabad),

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Indotex (Faridabad), AY PRINTS, Creative Dyeing (Faridabad ), Palm Prints (Faridabad ), Luthra
Dyeing & Printing Mills, Colorplus Dyeing Ltd. ( NOIDA ), Orphic Dyeing & Printing ( Faridabad ),
Hindustan Dyeing, KK Kohli ( Faridabad ), M. Ratish ( Faridabad ), GD International ( Delhi ),
Friends Dyes & Processors (Delhi), Shiv Enterprises ( Faridabad ), Bee-Tex Dyeing ( Okhla ), Dyes
India Mfg. Co., ( Lajpat Nagar ), Diana Organisers ( Faridabad ), Sonia Textiles ( Faridabad ), Attar
Filte (Panipat). Export units like SHAHI Exports also have imported machinery for finishing of
wovens as well as knit fabrics. Big brands like Benetton get the job work done from small

• High –quality dyed cotton yarn is simply not available to small and mid-sized weavers and
processors. Most of the producers of cotton shirting are having their captive yarn dyeing
facilities. Perhaps eventually a mid-range segment would emerge but it is likely to take
quite some time, largely because the marketing of dyed yarn involves enormous
inventories and managerial skills.

• With a denim capacity of over 200 million meters built from scratch in just about a decade.
India has made impressive progress in this segment. Since the advent of Arvind Mills into
the denim market in the mid-eighties, several other players have entered the field – KG
Denim, Ashima Syntex, Gujarat Ambuja, Amtex industries, Blue Blend, Bhwani Synthetics
and others. The relatively new players are Raymond Calitri, Century Textiles, Mafatlal
Industries and Suryalakshmi cotton, of which Century is export oriented. Arvind Mills is the
third largest manufacturer of denim in the world. Until now, Indian denim has concentrated
on the European and South & East Asia markets. Today, Indian denim is according
increasing attention to the U.S. market as is evidenced by the usage of rope – dyeing
technology by Modern Denim, Arvind Mills and the yet to be commissioned Malwa
Industries. Out of a total capacity of 110 million meters, Arvind Mills has a rope dyeing
capacity of 40 million meters.

State of the art technology in India

The Arvind Mills Limited , India

The Arvind Mills Limited is the flagship company of the Rs 20 billion (US$ 550
million) Lalbhai Group. Arvind Mills has technology from Germany and
Switzerland. Manufacture in India and Mauritius.

Shirting Division
Shirting fabric can be defined by fibre (100% cotton, CVC, PC, 100% polyester, viscose
blends, linen blends, etc.) value addition ( coarse v/s fine, single yarn v/s doubled yarn,
piece dyed v/s yarn dyed, plain v/s stripes/checks/dobby, normal v/s special surface
finish) and by wearing habit (formal v/s casual, classical v/s fashion, dress vs leisure).

The bulk of the world market is concentrated in USA, Europe and Japan. The largest
segments of the market internationally are cotton - (by fabric) which have a world market
share of 44%, and dress shirts - (by wearing habit) that have a market share of 47%.
Since international customers are highly demanding, the technology required is

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There product range covers fabric for both dress and casual shirts. They make Poplins,
Chambrays, Pinpoint Oxfords, Twills, Classical Oxfords, Dobbys, Cords, Herringbones,
Piques, Cottons, Chief Value Cottons, Stripes, Checks, Indigo Oxfords, Indigo Twills, Fil
a Fils, Whites and Solid Colours. These are used by almost every leading shirt maker in
the world, to make branded shirts, dress shirts, casual wear shirts ... you name it.

All the premium brands - Allen Solly, Arrow, Benetton, Color Plus, Louis Philippe, Mexx,
Park Avenue, Van Heusen, Weekender and Zodiac - make their shirts from Arvind
shirtings. Domestic sales account for 60% of Arvind's shirting turnover.

FIBRE: 100% Cotton

COUNTS: 30s, 40s, 50s, 2/30s, 2/50s, 2/80s, 2/100s

WEAVES: Plain, Twill, Oxford, and Dobby

PRODUCTS: Solids, Yarn-Dyed Stripes, Checks, Fil-a-Fils and Chambrays

Denim Division
Arvin manufactures denim with state-of-the-art mills in India and Mauritius, and
have the largest number of O.E. Rotors in India and the largest installation of
Hacoba Warper, S+M Dyeing & sizing range, Monfort shrinking range and
Tsudakoma airjet looms in the world. Our latest Morrison Rope dyeing range
corroborates our technology leadership in denim manufacturing.

They make over 150 varieties of speciality denim - stretch, coloured, faded,
streaked, mercerized, striped, checked, ring, brushed, soft, speedwash, silver
streak and overdyed. From small pieces to large 300 metre rolls, from 4.0 oz to 16.0
oz, from good old classic to ever-popular indigo blue 14 1/2 oz. open end - we can
offer you denim in just about any weight, weave and wash.

In India, they command a market share of approximately 72% - 5 times that of the next
largest player. Our denim is used to make India's leading jeans brands - Flying Machine,
Killer, Levi's, Numero Uno, Pepe, Texas Jeans, UFO and Wrangler. "Made from original
Arvind denim" is used by all the leading local jeans manufacturers as an indicator of high
quality and authenticity.

Knits Division
They have entered into a technical collaboration with Alamac, USA, a subsidiary of the
$1.6 billion textile giant West Point Stevens, USA, to manufacture high value and high
fashion knits. Alamac has an outstanding reputation for design leadership.

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The collaboration is to set up an fully integrated knit fabric plant near Ahmedabad in
Gujarat.The plant will cover an area of 125,000 sq. metres, and employ about 500
people. As with Alamac's own facilities, all operations - spinning, knitting, dyeing,
finishing - will be under one roof.
A high-capacity, fully-integrated plant

As a direct outcome of the collaboration, a fully integrated knit fabric plant is being set up
near Ahmedabad in Gujarat. With an investment of US $ 50 million, the plant will produce
mercerised fabric in both tubular and open widths.

The plant is expected to have a capacity of 16 tonnes per day of cotton knits, 11 tonnes
per day of piece dyed fabric and 5 tonnes per day of yarn-dyed fabric. All operations -
spinning, knitting, dyeing and finishing - will be fully integrated. This will result in shorter
lead times even for large orders and better co-ordination of the entire process, from
design to production.
Dyeing Technologies

THEN -- Comat Yarn Dyeing Machines, Sclavos Fabric Dyeing Machine, Data
Colour Matching System, Processing Lab, Standardised Recipes and Process
Finishing Machines

Dornier Circular Singeing Machine, Dornier Mercerising Machine, Santex Fabric

Finishing Machines, Tubetex Fabric Finishing Machines, Open Width and Tubular
Finishing. Dornier Circular Singeing Machine, Dornier Mercerising Machine,
Santex Fabric Finishing Machines, Tubetex Fabric Finishing Machines, Open
Width and Tubular Finishing.

The Vardhman Group

The Vardhman Group has many firsts to its credit in India :

It has India's first textile company to be awarded ISO 9002/IS 14002

certification.The largest producer and exporter of yarns and grey
woven fabrics from India.
The largest producer of cotton tyre cords and second largest producer
of Sewing Threads in India..

Vardhman's leading position in India is reflected in an equally strong

international presence with total exports crossing the $ 76 million
mark in 1997-98.

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Vardhmans' products have found acceptance in both domestic and

international markets for
• wide range of yarns in cotton, acrylic and polyester.

• an incredible count range from 10s to 100s in singles and

• technical tie-ups with specialists world wide.

• state-of-the-art machinery from Switzerland, Germany, Japan

and Korea.

Vardhman is the largest producer of dyed yarns in India today.

Vardhman has a wide range of specialised Azo-free dyed and gassed
mercerised yarns in cotton, polyester and acrylic. Available in pure as
well as blended form, they come in a wide variety of shades and lots,
justifying Vardhman's label.
Technical tie-ups with specialists worldwide and state-of-the-art
machinery from Switzerland, Germany, Japan and Korea ensure high
standards of quality.
Cone DyedYarn High quality carded & combed autoconed
yarns on cone with tail end.
Rangoli 100% cotton melange yarns on cone with tail
Gassed Mercerised
100% cotton gassed, mercerised yarns in
and dyed cotton
grey, white and dyed forms.
Rainbow 100% Fibre dyed cotton yarn
Paragon Fibre-dyed polyester cotton blended yarn
Harmony Fibre-dyed polyester cotton melange yarn
Turbo Fibre dyed acrylic cotton blended yarn
Galaxy 100% top dyed acrylic wool yarn
Hank Dyed Acrylic Dyed, bulked acrylic yarn.
Daffodil Tow dyed acrylic bulked yarn.
Vardhman Knitting Hand-Knitting Yarns available in
Yarn Hank/Lachhi/Ball form.

Preparatory Rieter- Switzerland.
Trutzschler from Germany
Pre - Spinning Rieter - Switzerland

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Hava shoki- Japan

Toyoda - Japan
Rieter - Switzerland
Tyoda - Japan
Schlafhorst-Germany and Murata-
Post spinning
Doubling Volkman-Germany, Leewha-Korea
Mercerising Jaeggli Meccalotessile – Italy

Dyeing Hisoka - Japan

Worsted (Gilling & Preparatory
Schlumberger - France
Worsted Spinning

FibreAnalysis AFIS,HVI-USTER
YarnEvenness UsterUT-3,UT-4
YarnStrength UsterTensorapidUTR
YarnAppearance ASTMBoards
Yarn Faults : Uster Classimat
Sewing Thread:
Spinning Rieter - Switzerland
Dry/wet Doubling and Gassing Swiss Technology
Mercerising/Dyeing Italian Technology
Finishing/Packaging United Kingdom

Industrial Threads:
Pre-twisting Untwisting Hamel (Switzerland)
Dyeing Finishing United Kingdom/Italy
Weaving Preparatory Benninger (Switzerland)
Air jet weaving Machine Tsudakoma (Japan)
Picanol (Belgium)
Rapier Weaving Machine Picanol (Belgium)

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Future Plans

A state-of-the-art fabric process house is expected to be comissioned

by end 1999 with a production capacity of 50,000 metres per day. The
know how is being provided by Tokai-Senko of Japan.
The product range will include :
Products Finishes
Piece Dyed Cotton range for • Bio-
shirting and bottom weights Enzyme
Coloured Woven fabrics
• Wrinkle

• Peach
Full Bleached fabrics finish

• Water

The Group started exploring export markets in 1986-87 and has

since crossed the $ 76 million mark.
Fabric Processing

Continuous Open Width Pre treatment Range from : Sando, Japan

Mercerising Range from : Sando, Japan

Continuous Dyeing Range from : Monforts, Germany with Padder from

Kusters, Germany

Pad Steam Range from : Sando, Japan

H.T. steamer from Arioli, Italy

Thermofixing Range from : Monforts, Germany

Stenters from : Monforts, Germany

Curing Range from : Monforts, Germany

Shrinking Range from : Monforts, Germany

Sueding Range from Sperotto Rimar, Italy

Computer Colour matching from Data Color USA

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Complete Range of Testing Equipments manufactured by Atlas, Geermany

& James Heal, UK

Single End Sizing Machine from Yamada, Japan

Pilot Sample Dyeing & Finishing plant from Mathis, Switzerland

Bombay Dyeing
Bombay Dyeing has two main streams of business. Textile is a dominant activity
for which the company has advanced facilities. Each of Bombay Dyeing's five
manufacturing facilities is of International standards. Weaving facilities include
technology from world leaders such as Sulzer.Bombay Dyeing has 519 Sulzer
Projectile Machines in widths of 130", 142", 153" and 169".

In addition the company has 123 Sulzer Airjet Machines in widths of 110"( with
tucked in selvedge) and 75" (with fringe selvedge). The Ruti Automatic Looms
ranging in widths of 40" to 110" totaling 1,260 are gradually being phased out
and substituted by the latest in weaving technology.

The Spinning and Winding facilities are equipped with Schlafhorst Autocore
Rotors, Auto Corner Winding Spindles and Schweiter CA - 11 Spindles with an
installed capacity of 135,336 Ring Spindles.

Today the daily production at Bombay Dyeing exceeds 300,000 meters of

fabrics. Facilities are available to produce bleached fabric upto 120",dyed and
printed fabric upto 98" and grey fabric upto 124". In processing we have also
modernized with state of the art technology such as Kusters open width
Bleaching ranges, Kusters Twin Jigger Dyeing machines & Babcock Soaping
range. Also we are equipped with fabrics upto 120’’.

Sales turnover of the Textile division is nearly equally divided between National
and International markets. Bombay Dyeing, exports to advanced countries such
as USA, countries in European Union, Australia and New Zealand. The company
has won the SRTEPC and TEXPROCIL Gold Trophies for its outstanding export
performance for poly cotton blended fabrics and made-ups for the year 1998-99.

A unique strength of Bombay Dyeing in India is a Distribution Chain consisting of

600 plus exclusive shops spread all over the country.

Dobby & Fine Count made up :
Bombay Dyeing is Indias leading producer of dobby & fine counts fabrics
ultimately stitched as made ups such as sheets sets, top of bed items like duvey

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covers & shams. In yarn counts ranging from 40’s to 80’s & thread counts from
250 to 400 in plain, dobby & satin weaves.

Flannel Sheetings & Made Ups

Bombay Dyeing India’s largest producer of bleached, dyed & printed flannelette
sheeting in widths upto 94’’ ( 240cm ) & made ups.

Downproof Shells & Comforters

Made from yarn counts from 40’s to 80’s, thread count 230 to 350 in plain, dobby
& satin weaves, meeting international standards, of quality ( OKOTEX )& air
permeability. Our speciallity besides making finest Downproof fabrics, lies in
stitching products in various styles as per our customers requirement. We make
fillers & distributors who finally sell through large departmental stores.

Yarn Dyes & Made ups

Polyester Cotton Sheeting

Poly cotton Drills

Satin Bed Sheets

Manufactured from superior combed & spliced 40’s, 50’s & 60’s yarns with facility
to print upto 240 cms wide & 10 collors.

Cotton Sheetings

Bull Denims/Drills/Twills/ & Chinos

Shoe Linings & Duck Fabrics

Satin Furnishings

Soft superabsorbent towels produced in weights of 360 gms to 510gms/sgmtr.
Huckaback towels & toelling with name weaving facility.

Table tops & Napkins

Manufactured in 14s Momie cloth. In finished widths upto 90’’( 229cm )

Garment Processing Sector

• Nahar Spinning Mills (Ludhiana ) has the state of the art technology for garment washing. There
are some units which have in-house Garment washing units like, TCNS (NOIDA), Orient Fashions (
Gurgaon ), KK Kohli ( Faridabad), Gupta Exim ( Faridabad ), Anish India Exports ( Gurgaon ),
Mahajan Overseas ( Panipat ), Exotique Exports. Some processors in Ludhiana are Sunshine

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Dyeing, Om Processors, Anoor Processors, & Nageshwar Printers. The biggest in India are Color
Club(Delhi ), Color Impex,( Delhi ), Cotex Dyeing. These garment processors also work for the
domestic brands. Shivam exports (Delhi ) has its own garment washing units & dyeing units.
Companies like TCNS have garment washing unit, which is totally controlled by fully computerised

The Natural Dyes in India

• India also specialises in dyeing and printing with vegetable dyes. There are many processing
centers in Rajasthan & Gujrat Weave N Print, Poornima Handicrafts, Sohanya Hand Printers.
There are two villages in the state of Rajasthan called Bagru & Sanghaner where each & every
household is involved in dyeing & printing with vegetable dyes. Printing of dress materials, saris,
scarves, bed covers, & table linen is done for the domestic as well as the export. India also
produces a lot of Indigo dyed & printed fabric. A lot of fabric is exported from India with traditional
block prints in hand painted & printed stuff. Haute Couture designers here get their fabrics printed
from traditional crafts men & combine it with traditional Indian embroideries to give a very rich look.

The Traditional Resist Dyeing Techniques prevalent in India

• The tie & dye technique of resist printing has been practiced here for ages. There are traditional
craftsmen, & the craft is handed over from generation to generation. Some of the techniques have
such intricate patterns that it is difficult for any one to understand the te chnique with which these
intricate patterns are produced. States such as Orissa, Gujrat & Andhra Pradesh have there own
traditional patterns which can be distinguished from each other. Mostly indigenous developed
receipes & dyes are used to dye the fabric . The fastness properties may not be so good but the
patterning & colors achieved are exclusive to the region in which they are produced. These are
some of the traditional crafts prevalent in India since centuries.

Block Printing in India

• Thirty five kilometers towards west from Jaipur is Bagru, and 15 km towards
south in Sanganer, the prominent traditional centers of dyeing and printing.

• The use of chemical colours and the new and odd dimensions to textile printing. Sanganer
has also remained a prominent center for textile printing. However the main distinguishing
feature in Sanganer and Bagru prints is that the Sanganerwork is done on white ground
mainly. Sanganer printing is done on with wax resist dabu (mein) while in Bagru the earth
dabu is used and prints on indigo, red, blue or yellow coloured ground with hrda work is
usually done.

• Its traditional processes of hand block printing on textiles with rich natural colours have
been known for many centuries. With the attraction of foreign buyers for the traditional
hand block printed textiles, this village hums with much activity today, supplying exquisite
printed materials for exports.

• The prints are essentially in two colours viz red and black, the dyers and printers of Bagru
adopt their own traditional methods in preparing, printing, dyeing and printing cloth. Dyeing
is done to impart a colour to the ground fabric, as also to bring out different colouring effect
in the printed motifs, formerly natural dyes, madder, indigo, pomengrante rind, tumeric etc.

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were being used as colouring materials. For the past years alizarine has been introduced
in place of madder. Natural indigo has been replaced by synthetic indigo. Direct colour like
congo red is used for brightening the red colours and pink shades, also direct yellow is
employed to give yellow imprints.

• Bagru is situated on the banks of the Sanjaria river which has a perennial water stream
and stretches of sand banks which was aptly suitable for the purpose of printing and
dyeing. The production technique and the traditional motif have undergone a change over
the years. The entire population of the chippas who were engaged in the production of the
local varieties of printed fabrics mostly used for fadats, lugdis, angochhas, bichaunis,
rezais etc. is now engaged in the sophisticated production of yardage for dress materials,
sarongs, carves etc. used by consumers in India and abroad.

• All the same the basic technique and colors and to a large extent motifs remain unchanged
and unaffected through all these centuries and theses make the bagru prints spectacularly
different distinctive and individual and a highly specialized craft.

• Several modes of printing are to be seen in Rajasthan today, direct block printing, resist
(daboo) printing. Khari printing and the modern method of screen printing. In block printing
an extensive variety of butas and colours are displayed. Gold and Silver printing is
centuries old. Every caste and religious has its own varieties of butas. Colours were
obtained from vegetables and metals as per their local availability. In daboo printing, the
material used are largely wax, lcay an resins. The daboo is used in order to resist parts of
fabric with mud paste which can be removed after dyeing by washing. The daboo method
or ‘jha’ is an art by itself, which is said to open the food gates of printing development.

• Red and Black are two main colours used all over the state. Both these colours are given
multiple shades through dyeing. AS the dyeing is from vegetables colours, delight is both
visual and sensorial, appeals as it does to sight touch and smell.

• The block printed cottons of Sanganer near Jaipur have been renowned for their precious
pattern and colouring for at least two hundred and fifty years although he industry is of
obscure origin it may owe its expertise to the ancient printing tradition of Gujarat or Malwa.
Very little of earlier work survives and what does, cannot be dated any earlier than the
second half of the 18th century. During the colonial period Sanganer appears to have
assumed a pre-eminent position among block printing centers of India, a status it
commands even today.

• In contrast to the courtly sensibility of the Sanganer work of Bagru prints are deeply rooted
in the local folk tastes and culture. Their limited designs and colours range is associated
with traditional caste and custom bound and uses of the area.

Man Made Fibre Industry

Surat Industry, Gujrat

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• There are around 400 process houses in Surat alone. Surat specializes in processing of
man made fibre fabrics like rayons & polyesters.
Surat is very famous for producing variety of viscose & polyester fabrics. In Surat there
are not many large mills where yarns are processed weaves & finished. The weaving
industry is mainly a component industry like a cottage industry where power looms are
installed & controlled by a group of families. These families are very rich monetary wise
& have the capacity to install machinery fore the industry. These groups do not produce
in large quantities max. they weave between 3000-5000 mtrs. These families do not
have direct contact with the exporters as the middlemen or contractors control & play a
vital role for this industry. These middlemen take the initiative to book orders from the
exporters & distribute them to different families for production. Whatever monetary
transactions occur is controlled by this middlemen & exporters have no say. They are
responsible for timely deliveries of export orders.

The fabric produced in Surat are :

Fabric Yarn Count Reed Pick

Rayon 2/40s*2/40s 56*60 Dyeing Quality
Rayon 2/40s*2/40s 48*52 Printing Quality
Poly Georgette 6 ½ - 10 ½ Kg Dyeing Quality
Poly Georgette 6 ½ - 8 Kg Poonam Printing Quality
Viscose Georgette 6 - 12 Kg Dyeing Quality & Printing Quality
Moss Crepe 9 Kg Dyeing Quality & Printing Quality
TEXO Linining 7 - 8 Kg (Tex*Tex, Roto*Tex) Dyeing Quality
Micro Poly 8, 10, 14 Kg Dyeing Quality & Printing Quality
Poly Viscose 10Kg

In Surat one will find the best processing houses for dyeing & printing. The main reason
is that the water is very fertile. There are many processing houses under the small scale
sector & the quality is good for polyester fabrics. These are some of the popular dyeing
& printing mills of Surat :

Zenith Mills for Dyeing & Printing

Luthra Dyeing & Printing Mills
Prafulla Dyeing & Printing Mills
Parag Dyeing & Printing Mills
Parag Sarees

Commercial use of Natural Dyes

• Alps Industries (Gaziabad), specializes in dyeing & printing with vegetable dyes. The
speciality of this unit is that it dyes naturally colored cotton in different mordants to produce
shades on naturally colored cotton. Alps has an R&D cell continuously researching
vegetable dyes. They have been successfully able to produce these colors on synthetic

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Hand Screen Printing

• There are a number of hand screen printing units having printing tables of 16- 40 meters.
This kind of printing is used for printings small yardage’s like silk, wool fabric & cotton. The
mill sector will only take an order if it is more than 2000 meters. This is one reason why
there are a number of units which specialise in hand screen printing at small scale level &
also it has the freedom of printing many colors. Also sampling & strike offs are generally
done on hand screens. Almost all kinds of dyes are used by the industry but the most
popular like in any part of the world is reactive dyes, vat dyes, pigment dyes, disperse etc.
Ahmedabad specializes printing with Procion Dyes, Pigments & Discharge Printing & the
results obtained are comparable with any part of the world. Ahmedabad has composite
units like Arvind Mills, Bharat Vijay Mills, Chiripal & also has the Cottage industry for
Processing. Like Surat Ahmedabad also has the job workers.

• There is one company who is doing research & development in collaboration with
International companies called TEXCO (Gurgaon ), which helps the industry in digital
printing with pigments, acids & reactives etc. All the details of which are not disclosed by
the company.

• There are Auto labs-Laboratory Dispensing & Solution Making Systems by Data color
International, to meet the demand by automating the testing recipes at a fraction of a second & it
does this with great precision. The Data match Textile Color Matching Software by Data color
International is for color formulation & correction, which is fast effective & accurate. This is used by
textile printers to do matching & batch correction. Data Colors premier color measurement
instrument, The Spectraflash 600 quickly established itself as the industry benchmark for
consistent high-resolution color measurement. Today, its pulsed Xenon light source provides
excellent precision measuring even dark or highly saturated colors.

• The processing & finishing technologies required for Tencel are also being imparted to the
companies interested in this fibre fabric. Tencel has its office in Mumbai, helping to impart technical
know-how to processors.

• A lot of Denim washing takes place in India also which includes mechanical & chemical finishes.

• The industry has a few plants of wrinkle resistant finishes. Wrinkle resistant trousers are becoming
popular in the Indian market.

Mahajan Overseas, Panipat

Color Plus, India
Nahar Group
Arvind Mills
Siyaram Silk Mills etc.l

• Antimicrobial finishes, Ultra Violet Finishes, flame retardant & other finishes like water repellency
are a part of the finishing industry.

A study of Technical capacity of Processing Houses in India

1. Ambica Tex Print (P) Limited

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Ahmedabad ,Gujarat

Company Profile : Ambica Tex Print (P) Limited, promoted by Mr. Dipak J. Sheth, was
established in 1994 as a process house for woven and knit fabrics. The process house, located
at Ahmedabad, Gujarat, has a dyeing capacity of 10 million metres and a printing capacity of 6
million metres per annum. The unit is equipped with dyeing, bleaching, printing, mercerising,
decatising and rolling facility for processing 100% cotton, viscose, polyester and blended fabrics.
The unit is capable of processing fabrics in a variety of finishes including mercerised, wrinkle
free, sanforised, washed, decatised, polished etc. The dye house is equipped with the latest soft
folw dyeing machines, jigger, winches and jet dyeing while the printing machine capable of
printing fabric upto 10 colours. Ambica, besides undertaking job work on behalf of garment and
home textile exporters also exports nearly 30% of its production in the international market
through merchant exporters and agents.

Capital Employed : Rs. 20 million (US$ 0.46 million)

Installed Capacity :
Dyeing : 10 million metres/annum
Printing : 6 million metres/annum
Employees : 150

Machine Profile : Jigger Indigenous -

Pad Batch Dyeing Indigenous -
Jet Dyeing Indigenous -
Soft Overflow Dyeing Indigenous -
Winches Indigenous -
Stenter Indigenous -
Decatising Gayatri 01
Flat Bed Screen Printing Indigenous 02

Fabric Composition : 100% Cotton, 100% Viscose, 100% Polyester, Polyester

Viscose, 100% Acrylic, Polyester Cotton, Polyester/Wool .

MACHINE DETAILS: Desizing & Washing, Continuous Bleaching /Dyeing,

Mercerising, Jigger, Pad-Batch, Jet Dyeing, Winches, Sanforizing, Stenter,
Decatising, Flat Bed Printing

2.Diamond Textile Mills (P) Limited


Company Profile : Diamond Textile Mills (P) Limited was established in 1981 by Mr. Narendra
Bhai Patel, as a process house for dyeing and printing of woven, non-woven and knitted fabrics.
The promoters, after taking over a sick unit D.T. Textiles (name changed to Diamond Textile
Mills (P) Limited) have established themselves as one of the quality process houses to meet the
requirement of both domestic and international market. The process house, located at
Ahmedabad, Gujarat is equipped with imported and indigenous machines comprising of Mather
& Platt merceriser, Staffi soft overflow, Devrekha Jet dyeing, Dhall sanforising, Stormac rotary
(upto a maximum of 8 colours), Texprint flatbed screen printing machines etc. The unit has a
dyeing and printing capacity of 60 million metres per annum for processing 100% cotton,

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viscose, polyester and blended fabrics. The fabric processed by the unit is available in a variety
of finishes like mercerised, wrinkle free, sanforised, washed, decatised and polished. At present,
Diamond is exporting 50 % of its fabrics through merchant exporters and agents to Dubai,
Turkey, Mauritius and African countries. The company is planning to diversify into garment
manufacturing as well as promote its own direct exports of fabrics.

Annual Sales Turnover : Rs. 750 million (US$ 17.44 million)

Installed Capacity :
Dyeing : 30 million metres/annum
Printing : 30 million metres/annum
Employees : 500

Machine Profile : Singeing Calico 01

Desizing & Washing Range Harish 01
Mercerising Mather & Platt 01
Jet Dyeing Devrekha 09
H.P. Dryer Indigenous 01
Stenter Harish 02
Decatising Indigenous 01
Rotary & Flatbed PrintingStormac/Texprint 07

Fabric Composition : 100% Cotton, 100% Viscose, 100% Polyester, Polyester Viscose,
100% Acrylic, Polyester/Cotton

3.Omkar Group
Ahmedabad, Gujarat

Company Profile : Omkar Group was promoted by Mr. Champalal Agarwal, having long
standing experience in the textile industry. The group was formally established in 1980 with the
incorporation of Omkar Textile Mills Limited, a process house located at Ahmedabad, in the state
of Gujarat. The group diversified into processing to capitalise on the growing demand for high
quality processed fabrics. Other group companies include Gopi Synthetics Limited, established
in 1984 and Alok Synthetics Limited, established in 1990. The second unit of Omkar Textile Mills
Limited was established in 1993 and is one of the few units in India with the capacity to produce
finished fabric upto 280cms width. In 1992, the group established Omkar Exports (a unit of
Omkar Overseas Limited, a government recognised trading house), a fully integrated and
automated processing unit capable of processing fabrics as per the customer specifications and
a state-of-the-art stitching unit to manufacture and export madeups. The group's process house
has an annual dyeing capacity of 45 million metres and a printing capacity of 45 million metres
for woven, non woven and knit fabrics in 100% cotton, polyester and synthetic. The process
house is equipped with state- of-the-art imported and indigenous machines offering a wide range
of processing facilities. At present, Omkar Group exports nearly 25% of its production capacity
to USA, UK, Switzerland, Finland, Africa, EEC and the Middle East.

Annual Sales Turnover : Rs. 1500 million (US$ 34.88 million)

Installed Capacity :
Processing : 90 million metres/annum
(Dyeing and Printing)

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Employees : 2000
Export Quantity : 25%
Export Direction : EEC, African countries,Middle East & USA

Machine Profile : Singeing Calico 01

Desizing & Washing T.Maneklal 04
Jigger Indigenous 15
Pad Batch/Jet Dyeing Devrekha/Star 14
Calendering Imported 06
Stenter Primatex/Artose 08
Decatising Sanjay 03
Rotary Printing Lakshmi/Stormac 05

Fabric Composition : 100% Cotton, 100% Viscose, 100% Polyester, Polyester Viscose,
100% Acrylic, Polyester/Cotton , .

MACHINE DETAILS: Singeing, Desizing & Washing, Continuous Bleaching /Dyeing,

Mercerising, Jigger, Pad-Batch, Jet Dyeing, Winches, Sanforizing, Stenter, Raising,
Shearing & Cropping, Decatising, Calendering, Steamer, Table Printing, Flat Bed
Printing, Rotary Printing, Roller Printing, Colour Fixing (Ager)

4.Mukesh Industries Limited

Ahmedabad, Gujarat
Tel : 91 79 2162789, 5892550-54
Fax : 91 79 5830572
Email : mukfab@wilnetonline.net

Company Profile : Mukesh Industries Limited (MIL) was established in 1990 by Mr. D.N.
Aggarwal, as a process house for dyeing, processing and finishing of woven fabrics. The
promoter, Mr. D.N. Aggarwal has a long standing experience in trading of finished fabrics.
Mukesh Industries' processing unit, located at Isanpur, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, is one of the
leading process house with a dyeing capacity of 7.5 million metres and a printing capacity of 20
million metres for woven and knit fabrics. The processing unit is equipped with desizing,
washing, mercerising, jet dyeing, jigger, 4 chamber stenter, rotary screen printing, flatbed screen
printing, colour fixing machines etc. MIL is also the only processing unit to have a fully integrated
embossing machine. The unit is capable of processing fabrics in 100% cotton viscose, polyester,
acrylic and polyester cotton and offers variety of finishes including wrinkle free, embossed,
sanforised, mercerised, decatised and calendered. MIL primarily undertake job work on behalf
of garment exporters based in Delhi and Mumbai. The unit also exports nearly 35% of its
processed fabric through merchant exporters and agents and is currently looking into the
possibility of establishing its direct export of processed fabrics. As a diversification plan, MIL is
also in the process of establishing a spinning unit in Ahmedabad in the near future.

Annual Sales Turnover : Rs. 240 million (US$ 5.58 million)

Capital Employed : Rs. 80 million (US$ 1.86 million)

Installed Capacity :
Dyeing : 7.5 million metres/annum

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Printing : 20 million metres/annum

Employees : 500

Machine Profile : Jigger Shakti 16

Pad Batch Dyeing Dhall 01
Jet Dyeing Shakti 04
Stenter Dhall/Artos 02
Calendering Mather & Platt 01
Steamer Gayatri 02
Decatising Shakti 01
Rotary/Flat Bed Printing Texprint/Lakshmi 07

Fabric Composition : 100% Cotton, 100% Viscose, 100% Polyester, 100% Acrylic,

MACHINE DETAILS : Desizing & Washing, Soft Overflow Dyeing, Mercerising,

Jigger, Pad-Batch, Jet Dyeing, Winches, Sanforizing, Stenter, Decatising, Peaching,
Steamer, Flat Bed Printing, Rotary Printing, Colour Fixing (Ager)

5. Dalmia Exports
Surat, Gujarat

Company Profile : Dalmia Exports, established in 1996, is a part of Dalmia Group having over
thirty five years of experience in the business of manufacturing and processing of synthetic
textiles. Dalmia Group comprising of Dalmia Textiles, Dalmia Silk Mills and Dalmia Enterprises is
well known for manufactueing, trading and export of 100% polyester fashion fabrics The group
specialises in processing and finishing of synthetic fabrics. The group established in 1989, its
first process house M/s Pryagraj Dyeing and Printing Mills (P) Ltd at Surat, Gujarat. This unit is
engaged dyeing, bleaching and finishing of synthetic sarees and dress material fabrics. The
company's fabric product range includes georgette, chiffon, samoo satin, crepe etc. The unit is
equipped with state-of-the- art dyeing and printing machines comprising of rotary printing from
Stormac, flat bed screen printing and finishing machines. The unit also has a separate
computerised designing department to keep abreast with the latest designs and fashions trends.
Dalmia group believes in ultimate customer satisfaction in terms of quality, design and pattern
Dalmia Exports, as a part of the group company is involved in distribution of sarees, fabrics and
garments in the domestic and export market.

Annual Sales Turnover : Rs. 550 million (US$ 12.79 million)

Capital Employed : Rs. 40 million (US$ 0.93 million)

Installed Capacity :
Dyeing : 10 million metres/annum
Printing : 10 million metres/annum
Production : 14 million metres/annum
Employees : 550
Export Quantity : 5 million metres/annum
Export Direction : UAE, U.K., Singapore,
Malaysia, Kuwait, Saudi

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Machine Profile :
Jigger Shakti 04
Winches Shakti 02
Jet Dyeing Devrekha 15
Stenter Harish 03
Colour Fixing (Ager) Steel Fabricators 02
Steamer Texfab 01
Flat Bed Screen Printing Texprint 06
Rotary Screen Printing Stormac 01

Fabric Composition : 100% Polyester

Continuous Bleaching /Dyeing, Jigger, Pad-Batch, Jet Dyeing, Winches, Sanforizing,
Stenter, Steamer, Table Printing, Flat Bed Printing, Rotary Printing, Colour Fixing (Ager)

Desizing & Washing, Mercerising, Jigger, Jet Dyeing, Winches, Sanforizing,
Decatising, H.P.Dryer, Flat Bed Printing, Rotary Printing, Colour Fixing (Ager)

6.Gaurav Dyeing & Printing Mills (P) Limited

New Mumbai, Maharashtra

Company Profile : Gaurav Dyeing & Printing Mills was established in 1992 by Gala Group, a
leading textile company. The group started with a retail outlet in 1970 and made its foray in the
wholesale fabric market in 1976. Today, the Group is dealing mainly in sarees, dress materials
and scarves which is marketed directly to the retail stores all over India. This strategy of direct
marketing has enabled the company to know the taste of the ultimate consumers and also to
manufacture and introduce new varities, designs and styles. The group believes that the
"Quality Always Wins", has resulted in establishing its own process house with a dyeing capacity
of 7.2 million metres. At Gaurav, the processing is done on state-of-the-art facility for bleaching,
dyeing and printing. The unit is capable of processing fabrics in polyester, cotton, nylon and
blends in varied count and construction in the range of 40gsm to 600 gsm, upto 62" (157cms)
width. The company has developed exclusive varities in brasso prints and provides special
finishes like water repellent, stain proof and flame retardant fabrics as per AS & BS standards
The company is primarily engaged in processing fabrics for exports including supplying to 100%
EOUS Gaurav is also engaged in direct export of fabrics to Gulf market, USA and European

Annual Sales Turnover : Rs. 250 million (US$ 5.81 million)

Installed Capacity :
Dyeing : 7.2 million metres/annum
Printing : 4.8 million metres/annum
Employees : 150
Export Direction : Gulf market, USA and
European Union

Machine Profile : Desizing & Washing Range Indigenous 01

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Pad Batch Dyeing Hi-tech 01

Jet Dyeing Indigenous 03
H.P. Dryer Indigenous 01
Stenter Hi-tech 01
Steamer Texfab 01
Flat Bed Printing Texprint 02
Table/Block Printing Indigenous 06

Fabric Composition : 100% Cotton, 100% Viscose, 100% Polyester, Polyester Viscose,
Polyprolyene, Polyester/Cotton, Nylon .

MACHINE DETAILS :Singeing, Desizing & Washing, Mercerising, Jigger, Pad-Batch,

Jet Dyeing, Winches, Carbonising, Stenter, H.P.Dryer, Dryer Float, Table Printing, Flat
Bed Printing

7.Olympian Textile Processors Limited

Ludhiana, Punjab

Company Profile : Olympian Textile Processors Limited, promoted by Mr. Jasvir Singh, was
established in 1997 as a dyeing house for yarn and knitted fabrics. The company's dyeing unit,
located at Ludhiana, Punjab, is equipped with state-of-the-art machines including Peas Mettler
winder, Brazzoli soft overflow dyeing, Staffi cone yarn dyeing and Strayfield R.F. dryer. The unit
has a dyeing capacity of around 2 tonnes per day each for yarn and fabrics. The unit is capable
of processing fabric in 100% cotton and polyester cotton in varying count range and
construction. Olympian, at present caters primarily to the knit garment manufacyurers and
exporters. Under the guidance of its Managing Director, Mr. Jasvir Singh, the company's focus is
to service the Indian garment exporters and also look into the possibility of direct fabric exports.

Annual Sales Turnover : Rs. 40 million (US$ 0.93 million)

Installed Capacity :
Yarn Dyeing : 700 tonnes/annum
Fabric Dyeing : 700 tonnes/annum

Machine Profile : Winding Peas Mettler 01

Soft Overflow Dyeing Brazzoli -
Yarn Dyeing (Cone) Staffi -
R.F. Dryer Strayfield 01

Fabric Composition : 100% Cotton, Polyester/Cotton

MACHINE DETAILS: Winding, Soft Overflow Bleaching & Dyeing, R.F.Dryer, Yarn

8.Shiroga International (P) Limited

Ludhiana, Punjab

Company Profile : Shiroga International (P) Limited, promoted by Mr. Kuldip Murgai, was
established in 1983 as a dyeing and processing house for knit fabric with specialisation in velour

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and polar fleece fabrics in 100% cotton and cotton blends. The company, a family run
establishment, have been involved in the textile industry since 1972. Shiroga's process house
is located at Ludhiana, Punjab, with a dyeing capacity of 5 tonnes per day. The unit is equipped
with indigenous and imported dyeing machines which includes winch dyeing, soft overflow
dyeing, singeing, relax dryer, stenter, decatising, jigger, H.P. jet dyeing and hydro extractor
machines. The dye house is capable of processing knit fabrics in 100% cotton, cotton viscose,
polyester cotton, 100% viscose, poly- viscose, polyester, acrylic, melange and lycra. The
company is planning to install state-of-the-art fabric finishing facility in the near future. At
present, Shiroga is processing fabrics for all the major knit garment exporters in Ludhiana. The
company's client profile includes Superfine Knitters, Mayfair, Lasso Fabrics etc.

Annual Sales Turnover : Rs. 70 million (US$ 1.62 million)

Capital Employed : Rs. 0.5 million (US$ 0.01 million)

Installed Capacity :
Dyeing : 1750 tonnes/annum

Machine Profile : Singeing Indigenous -

Winch Dyeing Indigenous 18
Soft Overflow Dyeing Krsna 02
Jigger Indigenous 07
Relax Dryer Indigenous 02
Stenter Artos/Maneklal 02
Decatising Sanjay 01
H.P. Jet Dyeing Maneklal 04

Fabric Composition : 100% Cotton, 100% Viscose, 100% Polyester, Polyester Viscose,
100% Acrylic, Polyester Cotton, Cotton Viscose, Melange/Lycra , .

Singeing, Soft Overflow Bleaching & Dyeing, Jigger, H.P.Jet Dyeing, Winches, Stenter,
Decatising, Relax Dryer, Hydro Extractor

9.Sunshine Dyeing (P) Limited

Ludhiana, Punjab

Company Profile : Sunshine Dyeing (P) Limited was promoted by Mr. P.D. Sood in 1977 for
dyeing and processing of knit fabrics. The company, as a part of a larger group, has been in the
textile industry since 1935 and is rated as the pioneer for fabric dyeing in Ludhiana. Sunshine's
sister concern, Sagar Apparels, is engaged in the business of garment manufacturing with an
installed capacity of 1500 pieces per day, producing knit garments for exports for leading
international brand names like Sears. The Bay, JJ Max, Club Price, Costo of USA and Canada.
Sunshine Dyeing located at Ludhiana, Punjab, is engaged in dyeing of knit fabrics with an
installed capacity of 10 tonnes per day on state-of-the-art machines comprising of merceriser,
soft overflow dyeing (300-600 kgs dyeing capacity), continuous relax dryer, Hydro-extractor,
compactor and calendering machines supplied by world leading manufacturers. Nearly 70% of
its processing capacity is utilise by the leading knit garment exporters and the balance by the
domestic apparel manufacturers.

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Annual Sales Turnover : Rs. 80 million (US$ 1.86 milion)

Capital Employed : Rs. 2.2 million (US$ 0.05 million)

Installed Capacity :
Dyeing & Finishing : 3500 tonnes/annum

Machine Profile : Winches Indigenous 50

Mercerising Thies 01
Soft Overflow Dyeing Erong 05
Relax Continuous Dryer Santex 01
Compactor Santex 01
Calendering Indigenous 02
Hydroextractor Santex 03

Fabric Composition : 100% Cotton, Cotton Viscose, Polyester Viscose, Polyester

Cotton, Melange/Lycra.

Soft Overflow Dyeing, Mercerising, Relax Dryer, Winches, Calendering, Compactor
Tubular, Hydro Extractor

10. Creative Dyeing & Printing Mills (P) Limited

Faridabad , Haryana

Company Profile : Creative Dyeing & Printing Mills (P) Limited was established in 1989, as a
part of Creative Group having business interest in fabric embroidery and garment export. Other
group companies include Pee Empro, India Fshion, Gurucharan Sons and Hemla Embroidery.
Creative Dyeing & Printing, located at Faridabad, Haryana, has a dyeing capacity of 15.6 million
metre and a printing capacity of 7.2 million metres of fabric per annum. The unit is equipped with
state- of-the-art Laxmi rotary screen printing. Texprint flatbed screen printing, Devrekha jet
dyeing, soft overflow dyeing, a five chamber stenter with 3 bowl mangle, Dhall sanforising (zero-
zero) shrinking range, calendering, hydro-extractor and colour fixing machines. The unit is
capable of processing and finishing cotton, viscose, polyester and blended fabrics. At present
the company is planning to install two additional jet dyeing machines. Creative Dyeing and
Printing primarily undertakes jobwork on behalf of garment manufacturers and exporters. The
company's client profile includes Chunnu International, Shivam Exports, Handicraft, Superior
Craft etc.

Annual Sales Turnover : Rs. 160 million (US$ 3.72 million)

Capital Employed : Rs. 75 million (US$ 1.74 million)

Installed Capacity :
Dyeing : 15.6 million metres/annum
Printing : 7.2 million metres/annum
Employees : 250

Machine Profile : Continuous Bleaching Shakti 02

Soft Overflow Krsna 04
Pad Batch Dyeing Kalico 01

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Jigger Shakti/Jupiter 17
Jet Dyeing Devrekha 03
Drying Range Shakti 02
Stenter Harish 01
Rotary/Flat Printing Texprint/Laxmi 02

Fabric Composition : 100% Cotton, 100% Viscose, 100% Polyester, Polyester Viscose,
100% Acrylic, Polyester/Cotton

Continuous Bleaching /Dyeing, Soft Overflow Dyeing, Jigger, Pad-Batch, Jet Dyeing,
Winches, Calendering, Stenter, Hydro Extractor, Shrinking Range, Steamer, Table
Printing, Flat Bed Printing, Rotary Printing, Colour Fixing (Ager)

11.Luthra Textiles Limited

Faridabad, (Haryana)

Company Profile : Luthra Textiles Limited (Luthra) popularly known for its brand "Anupam
Prints" was established in 1982 as a process house for dyeing, printing and finishing of
polyester, georgette, chiffon, satin, crepe and other fabrics in 100% polyester, micro polyester
and blends of poly-cotton and poly-viscose. As a part of its group activity, Luthra's Plant No. II is
also engaged in fabric embroidery and have installed four computerised Schiffli embroidery
machines of Saurer (4040HP) with an in-house design arrangement on the latest computer
software. Processing unit has an installed capacity of 40,000 metres of dyeing per day and
30,000 metres of printed fabrics per day at its plant at Faridabad, Haryana. The plant has a
complete infrastructure for dyeing and printing of fabrics in disperse, reactive discharge and
pigment using "Azo-free" dyes and chemicals. The unit has a computerised design and
development centre for printing and an R&D laboratory for stringent quality control measures.
The process house is equipped with desizing, washing continuous range dyeing, jet dyeing,
flatbed printing, sanforising, shearing & cropping machines. The process house offers special
"finishes" like water repellent, peach finish, crushing, water proofing, P.U. coating, flame
retardant on hot air stenter and decatising which meets the international quality standards. The
company has established itself in the international market for its consistent quality and exported
last year nearly half a million metres of fabric to Europe. At Luthra's, nearly half of the production
is meant for exports. The company's research division is involved in developing new quality and
designs in polyester base fabrics according to the fashion trends and the specific requirement of
the exporters.

Annual Sales Turnover : Rs. 200 million (US$ 4.65 million)

Installed Capacity :
Dyeing : 18 million metres/annum
Printing : 10 million metres/annum
Employees : 150
Export Quantity : 50%
Export Direction : Europe, USA, U.K., etc.

Machine Profile : Desizing & Washing - 01

Continuous Range Dyeing Dhall -
Jet Dyeing Devrekha 07

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Shearing & Cropping Brauma 01

Dryer Float Swastik 01
Stenter Indigenous 02
Rotary Screen Printing Harish 01
Flat Bed Screen Printing Texprint 01

Fabric Composition 100%: Viscose, 100% Polyester, Polyester Viscose,

Polyester/Cotton, Acetate Rayon

Shearing & Cropping, Singeing, Desizing & Washing, Continuous Bleaching /Dyeing,
Mercerising, Jumbo Jigger, Pad-Batch, Jet Dyeing, Winches, Sanforizing, Stenter,
Decatising, Peaching, Steamer, Flat Bed Printing, Rotary Printing, Dryer Float, Colour
Fixing (Ager)

12. K.K. Kohli & Brothers (P) Limited

Faridabad, (Haryana)

Company Profile : K.K. Kohli & Brothers (P) Limited (K.K.K.), established in 1983, is the
flagship company of the K.K.K. Group and is engaged in the manufacture and processing of
suiting, shirting, dress material and industrial fabrics. K.K.K. Textiles Limited the group's
production unit is engaged in the manufacture of embroidered fabrics while K.K. Kohli &
Brothers (P) Limited (K.K.K.) is engaged in the business of process house. The Group's parent
company B.S. Kohli Synthetics Limited at Ludhiana has been in the textile industry for the past
fifty years. K.K.K.'s process house, located at Faridabad, Haryana, has a fabric dyeing capacity
of 20 million metres per annum. The unit is equipped with dyeing, bleaching, singeing,
mercerising, brushing, sanforizing and decatising, as well as provides special finishes like, omre
dyeing and tie and dye for shirting, suitings, dress materials and industrial fabrics. The unit has
installed Mather & Platt mercerising machines of 63" width and Primatex stenters of 60" and 48"
width combined with other state-of-the-art indigenous machines which includes Devrekha jet
dyeing machines of 10kg to 300kgs dyeing capacity. As part of its expansion plan, K.K.K. is
planning to concentrate on the creation of its own brand in suiting, shirting and dress material
fabrics which will enable the company to utilise 20% of the unit's present capacity for in-house
consumption and the balance for job work processing. The process house is currently catering to
some of the leading International customers like Otto, Quelle and Target.

Annual Sales Turnover : Rs. 150 million (US$ 3.48 million)

Installed Capacity :
Dyeing : 20 million metres/annum
Employees : 300 (Group)

Machine Profile : Desizing & Washing Harish JT-10 02

Pad Batch Dyeing Bhatt Brothers 01
Jet Dyeing Devrekha/Star/Shakti 09
Jigger Shakti/Bharat 35
Sanforising Thakore Engg. 02
Stenter Primatex/SM 03
Decatising Dalal 01
Peaching Machine Bhatt Brothers 01

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Fabric Composition : 100% Cotton, 100% Viscose, 100% Polyester, Polyester Viscose,
Polyester Cotton, Linen & Blends, Polyamide

Singeing, Desizing & Washing, Continuous Bleaching /Dyeing, Mercerising, Jigger, Pad-
Batch, Jet Dyeing, Winches, Sanforizing, Stenter, Decatising, Peaching

12.ESI Limited
Noida,1 (U.P.)

Product Range :Silk Fabrics

Company Profile : ESI, part of the Calcutta based Eastern Group of Companies, is a 100%
export oriented unit (E.O.U.) which was established in 1946, as Eastern Silk Industries Limited
(converted to its present name in 1998), with the sole purpose of manufacturing and exporting
silk yarn, fabric, made ups, scarves, knitted garments and leather goods. From a small factory
at Bhagalpur, Bihar, the company has grown into a large scale silk manufacturing unit using
modern technology and latest management techniques. ESI is the only company in India which
is involved in the entire process of silk making, right from the collection of cocoons from the tribal
community of cocoon farmers upto the final finishing and export of silk. The company has
received numerous awards from export promotion councils such as Handloom Export Promotion
Council, Indian Silk Export Promotion Council, Ministry of Commerce, Central Silk Board, etc.
for it's meritorious export performance over the years. In the domain of silk exports, ESI as a
group remains the single largest exporter where the company and its associates account for the
highest share of the present market in India and abroad. ESI has a large overseas buyers profile
in USA, Canada, EEC countries, France, Scandinavia, EFFTA countries, Japan, Australia and
New Zealand. ESI group has manufacturing and production centres in Orissa, Madhya Pradesh,
Surat, Bangalore and Coimbatore, all of them being completely decentralized and equipped with
the latest technology and management practices. The company's unit at Noida is a modern
processing plant with state of the art dyeing/bleaching, singeing, brushing, decatising and
finishing facility. At present, the company is in the process of establishing a printing unit at
Gurgaon near Delhi for which land has already been acquired.

Annual Sales Turnover : Rs. 1150 million (US$ 26.74 million)

Capital Employed : Rs. 611 million (US$ 14.20 million)

Installed Capacity : Processing : 6 million metres/annum

Production : 4.2 million metres/annum
Employees : 350
Export Quantity : 100%
Export Direction : Australia, Europe, China
Columbia, Japan,
Mauritius, USA,Singapore
Saui Arabia etc.

Machine Profile : Singeing Sanjay 01

Jigger Shakti/Jupiter 10

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Jet Dyeing Star/Devrekha 03

Winches Sanjay/Shakti 05
Yarn Dyeing Swastik 01
Calendering Mather & Platt 01
Stenter Harish/Primatex 02
Decatising Dalal 01

Fabric Composition : 100% Silk

Singeing, Desizing & Washing, Jigger, Jet Dyeing, Winches, Yarn Dyeing, Calendering,
Stenter, Decatising, Stenter

Global Outlook

• The large number of joint ventures and strategic alliances formed in the last 3-4 years is a
testimony to the growing consciousness of the need for improving quality. Besides, the
industry is generally taking a more outward looking attitude, perhaps because of its
growing dependence upon exports for growth. In textiles, important joint ventures and
alliances include tie-ups of Burlington with Mafatlal for denim, alamac and Arvind
for an integrated knitwear facility, dormeuil. Freres with Birla VXL for worsted
fabrics, Melba industries with the LNJ Bhilwara Group for automobile upholsteries,
Reid & Taylor with the S.Kumars Group for worsted suiting and Ostertag Hausmann
with J.J.Exports for silk fabrics, besides the successful partnership between the
leading yarn exporter GTN Textile and Itochu Corp. of Japan and Marubeni’s deep
involvement in investments by companies like Indo Rama Synthetics and Prerna

Indian Textiles entrepreneurs are moving towards global competitiveness, and they do not want to
depend upon the advantage of lower cotton prices available to them.

• Mafatlal Industries, is the largest exporter of processed fabrics (other than denim) in
India, Sanjay Lalbhai of Arvind Mills makes no bones while declaring his intention to
become the world’s largest producer of denim, Ajay Lohia of Woolworth is already
operating a world-scale worsted facility, and several Indian apparel manufacturers
have started promoting their own brand names not only in the Middle East but even in

• Specialization and niche markets are the buzz worlds now, and textile giants of India
are trying to work out strategies that will help them acquire leading positions in
global markets. The world-renowned consulting firm, McKinsey & Co. has already
prepared strategy plans for several Indian companies, including Arvind, Mafatlal and
Morarjee, besides having conceptualized the large US$ 100 million integrated textile
facility being set up by the Chennai based Chemplast Sanmar Group.

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Era of Specialization
The structure of India’s cotton textiles industry is under going a sea change, through things have
been at a standstill for about a year now because of investments in new plant and machinery
having slowed down. However, even the slowdown is contributing to change – smaller units with
old machines are finding it increasingly difficult to survive.

As is well known, individual units have become larger and technology levels have risen significantly
in the last few years. Automation is being adopted with growing fervor by the industry. Mainly for
attaining global quality standards.

Perhaps the most important change that the taken place and is still continuing is polariszation of
the industry into two distinct segments – one catering to exports, and up market demand
domestically and the other catering to lower quality stuff. There used to be a huge intermediate
sector but that has shrunk considerably in the last few years, particularly in the case of spinning.
The availability of reasonably good quality is shrinking – one buys either first- class spliced yarn or
one gets poor quality stuff. However, this needs to be viewed in conjunction with the fact that
investment in new spinning machinery have been ot o high in the current decade. Now that
investment has slowed down, the middle rung will emerge once again in the next few years.

The single biggest reason why large composite mills in India have performed poorly in the last
three decades is the fact that there has been no focus on specific products. Mills having 500 to
1000 looms have been producing as many as 40 to 50 varieties at the same time. Poplin (shirting ),
treasuring, dress material, blouse material, sarees. You name it and every mill has it.

The concept of specialization in specified products came into India in the denim. All denim
plants were dedicated to denim. Once denim was well entrenched as a segment of the
cotton textile industry by the early nineties, companies started thinking it terms of
dedicated plants for other products also. For example, Morarjee Mills does not say it has
set up a mill with so many spindles and so many looms. It says it has set up a plant for
high value shirting. Cotton spinning EOUs were dedicated to supplying cotton yarn to
global markets. Terry towels units were designed for producing only terry towels. Thus,
now the industry has started thinking in terms of plants designed for specified products –
bottom weights, knitted fabrics, shirting and furnishing fabrics, etc. The growing demand
for branded products in all product categories has also boosted this line of thinking.


• Units set up under the Export Oriented Unit (EOU) scheme are eligible for several
incentives and facilities in India. They are allowed to import, free of duty, all their
requirements of capital goods and raw materials and even items like office equipment and
steel for construction. In addition, they are exempted from payment of income tax for a
period of five years form the date of commencement of operators. They are also allowed

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to sell one fourth of their production in the domestic market, which is subject to levy of
normal customs, excise and other taxes.

• Textiles and clothing industries have been the biggest users of the scheme. However, the
reason for the popularity of the scheme has not been the incentives offered but other
policy restraints. For example, cotton yarn exports have been subject to restraint, but
EOUs have been outside the purview of quantitative restraints on exports. As global
demand for cotton yarn started rising in the early nineties, a large number of entrepreneurs
set up cotton spinning units under the EOU scheme.

• Long deliveries quoted by Indian manufacturers of spinning machines also contributed to

the growth of the EOU sector since the EOUs were not subject to customs duty on
machinery and this resulted in a substantial narrowing of price difference between Indian
and imported machines.

• The EOU scheme implies certain operational restraints for companies, the most imports of
which is the fact that they have to export at least 75% of their production. Though the
scheme allows some flexibility in the initial years, many a times companies find it difficult to
fulfill the conditions. For such cases, there is an allied scheme called the Export
Promotion Capital Goods Scheme (EPCG), under this scheme, manufacturers can import
capital goods at a concessional rate of duty, which is only ten percent at present. If the
value of imported machines exceed Rs. 200 million (about US$ 5 million), the duty is nil.
In turn, the company importing the equipment at concessional or nil duty has to undertake
to export goods worth four to six times the c.i.f. value of the machines within a given period
of time.

• Cotton Spinning EOUs have been so successful in India that the sector has attracted
investments from almost all kinds of companies. Large existing textile group like Arvind,
Century and Hindon River Mills have set up separate spinning EOUs, Besides, old and
established spinners like GTN Textiles, Vardhman and Forbes Gokak have also set up
spinning EOUs. The Vardhman Group now has an EOU capacity of over 125,000 spindles.
There have even been cases of existing spinning mills converting themselves into EOUs,
in spite of the fact that they receive significantly lower fiscal benefits because duty paid on
machines already purchased is not refunded. Spinning EOUs have even attracted firms
from such diverse fields as mining and quarrying (Prerna Syntex), auto components.

Indian Textile Machinery Sector

• There are at least 20 domestic companies offering textile machinery for spinning, weaving,
texturizing and finishing. The Lakshmi Group of Coimbatore has been the most successful
of these companies. Lakshmi's success is attributable to its longevity in the sector and its
ability to offer a range of textile machinery directly or through its sister companies.
Consequently, Lakshmi can meet the needs of a variety of end users.

• The U.S. market share of imported textile machinery is only approximately 3 percent.
Competitors from European countries such as Germany, Switzerland and the United

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Kingdom have taken the lead and are concentrating on equipment for cotton spinning,
weaving, carding, winding and finishing.

Significant suppliers of critical textile machinery are:

A comprehensive list of foreign companies servicing the Indian market include:
Third Country Suppliers Country

Automatik Apparate Maschinenbau GmbH Germany

Bruno Amsler Ag Switzerland
Camber Int'l Ltd. UK
Giudici Davide & Figli SNC Italy
Int'l Textile Services Zurich
Kyang Yhe Delicate Machine Co Ltd. Taiwan,
ROC Novotex Bulgaria
Metrimpex Hungatian Trading Co. Hungary,
Oscar Dilo Machinen fabrik KG Germany
Parker Hannifan Corpn, West Germany
SKF Textilmaschinen-Komponenten GmbH West Germany
Strojimport Foreign Trade Corpn Czechoslovakia
Teijin Seiki Co. Ltd. Japan
Terrot Strickmaschinen GmbH West Germany
Textima Export-Import East Germany
Val Lesina SPA Italy
Trutzschler GmbH & Co. Germany
Tsudokama Corpn Japan
(Air-Jet looms)Nuovopignone Italy
Bonas Machine Co. Ltd. UK
Hans Affuppur West Germany
Liba Machinenfabrik GmbH West Germany
Bentley Engineering Co Ltd. UK
RHN Grieve Ltd. UK
Comez, Spain
S. A. Serracant Spain
Murao Bookl Kaisha Ltd. Japan
Gebruder Luscher AG Switzerland
Bates Textile Machine Co. Ltd. UK
Roblon Engineering Denmark
PEGG Whiteley & Sons Ltd. UK
Mesdan Italy
Bruckner Trockentechnik K.G. West Germany
Friedrichsfeld, Mannheim West Germany
Scalfhorsdt Germany
Mitsubishi Japan
Marubeni Japan
Rieter Switzerland

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Oerlikon Switzerland
Kohap Korea

Source: U. S. Department of Commerce - National Trade Data Bank, November 3, 2000

High Value Shirting

Cotton shirting is being viewed as an emerging market in the Indian cotton textiles industry. Until
the eighties, the shirting scene was largely dominated by fabrics made of polyester/viscose blends,
frequently in combination with textured filament yarn. However, the scenario has changed
completely in the nineties, when the market for branded shirts grew manifold and cotton became
high fashion. Leading brands like Van Heusen, Louis Philippe, Arrow Trendz, Zodiac and others
are now more cotton based than synthetics and blends.

Through some nationally known brands did emerge in case of blended shirting also during the
eighties, the examples being Vimal, Raymond and Beekalene, etc., the composition of the market
is now undergoing a sea change. While blended shirting of all hues appears to be doing
reasonably well a whole new market is emerging for what the cotton textile industry call High Value
Shirting. Produced in counts finer than 50s, of fully combed yarn and a fairly high dyed yarn
content, this shirting is selling at prices hitherto unthinkable – in the range of about Rs. 100 to 150
meter in wholesale. Retail prices often exceed Rs. 200 for 58/60inch width fabrics and real high
class pinstripes can and do command even higher prices.

Volume growth has perhaps slowed down in consonance with the general economic slowdown in
India. However, this is one part of the industry which does not appear to be in any kind of distress.

Most except ‘some ‘ growth to continue even through the lead period. Perhaps the industry is
waiting for the Greenfield facilities of Morarjee or Arvind to register convincing success. Once that
happens, changes are that more Greenfield projects dedicated to shirring will come up.

Unlike in the case of polyester and blended shirtings, a middle rung of medium to small
manufacturers is yet to emerge in cotton shirtings. Though one reason is that the market itself is
quite small in absolute terms, perhaps more important is the fact that quality expectations of users
are so high that they can be met only by plants of a certain minimum size. For one thing, the
conventional shuttle weaving is simply not acceptable to the up market clientele. Besides, the
finesse required in processing is simply not possible for mid-sized commission dyeing houses to
achieve. Sophisticated mechanical finishing and equipment for precise control in chemical
finishing are absolutely necessary for achieving the desired quality standards.

The market size, including direct exports of shirting’s, is estimated at about 50 million meter/year
only, but it has to grow manifold in coming years not only because of growth in domestic demand
but also because apparel exporters too are trying to move up market in order to improve their value
addition and profits.

Terry Towels

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Though apparently the industry appears to have sort of stopped in its tracks after setting up two
large plants in the first half of the nineties (Modern Terry Towels and We spun India), the output of
terry towels is growing at a slow, but steady pace.

Small and mid-sized projects have been set up in recent years, which have remained low profile
but appear to be performing reasonably well. Most of the units are largely looking at exports.

Publicly owned Anglo French Textiles has 36 looms running terry towels. Bombay Dyeing has
been in the field for ages. New projects having capacities in the range of 800 to 1500 ton/year
include Terry fab India, which has 12 Hiraiwa rapier looms. POY producer Parasrampuria
Synthetics of the KG group of Coimbatore has a terry towel unit. Riba Textiles has set up a project
having 15 Nuovo Pignone looms, of which 10 are equipped with jacquards and 5 with dobbies.
Abhishek Spinfab of Ludhiana has a terry towel unit having a capacity of about 3000 ton/year.
Thus, the industry has shown steady growth.

In the domestic market also, the demand for branded towels is growing. Until the last decade, the
consumer used to go either to Bombay Dyeing shops or a handloom emporium for towels. That is
no more the case. Multibrand stores are now offering high-quality toweling at reasonable prices
and the choice in terms of weight density, designs and prints is quite varied. Sales of branded
towels are still estimated at about Rs. 1 billion only, but the general belief is that it has to grow at
least five fold within the next five to ten years or so. The overall demand for terry towels is at least
ten times larger than the branded segment.


The rather quick growth in capacity has, not surprisingly, resulted in a glut in the domestic market,
which is estimated at about 50 million meters. Exports are running at around 75 million meters, but
the capacity is over 200 million metes and is still growing to some extent. Companies like Rashika
Synthetics and Jaipur Syntex have dropped their plans to enter the industry.

The existing players are waiting for the market to pick up. A number of denim manufacturers have
entered the jeans segment also, perhaps, this is a rather unique phenomenon to India. Most of the
denim producers area so into jeans. Arvind has several brands, KG denim has Trigger jeans, the
Raymond group has the Park Avenue brand (which has been expanded to include jeans), Gujarat
Ambuja has 4th Rock and others like Ashima are planning to get into the fray.

The pre-capita consumption of denim in India is less than 0.10 meters or about one tenth of the
global average. Thus, domestic consumption is expected to pick up significantly in the medium to
long term. As regards exports, India is still a small player in the international market and has a
long way to go. As has been stated in one of the earlier issues of JTN, India produces about a fifth
of the global cotton output and can reasonably look forward to a 20% share in global production of
denim, which means an annual output of the order of about 500 million meters. The present output
is about 200 million meters or so. Besides, Indian textile giants have started examining the
feasibility of offshore manufacturing, one example being the fact that Arvind Mills has
commissioned a denim plant in Mauritus.

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Notwithstanding the current glut, India’s denim industry is set to grow handsomely in coming years.
The growth is likely to come from domestic, as well as international markets. Denim has the added
advantage of the fact that the share of raw cotton in total cost is much higher than other textile
products, and even the quality of cotton is less important than is the case with lighter fabrics. Once
the demand-supply equilibrium in the domestic market is restored in a year or two, the denim
industry is expected to start growing again. In the immediate term, it is doubtful whether any new
project will be taken up for implementation.

Synthetic Industry

Reliance Industries and Indo Rama Synthetics are the two industry leaders in polyester. However,
Indo Ram has to buy its raw material (PTA/MEG) from others whereas Reliance is a fully integrated
plant, though it has some gap at the paraxylene stage. In the case of POY, there is a middle rung
consisting of Raymond Synthetics, DCL Polyester and Snaghi Polyester, but all of them have
capacities of less than 80000 ton/year and suffer from location disadvantages also. Several
smaller plants like Haryana Petrochemicals, Parasrampuria Synthetics, Petrofils and Baroda
Rayon have either stopped production or are running at nominal levels. There are some very small
plants also, such as Mahendra Suitings and Nova Petrochemicals, besides Jindal Polyester.
These plants appear to be performing better than the middle rung because they use polyester
chips and a large part of the intensity of competition in polyester gets take care of by the chips
stage. Besides, these plants of 10,000 to 20,000 ton/year capacity have very low overheads.

In case of polyester staple fibres, the only producers other than Reliance and Indo Rama are JCT,
which is in the process of being taken very by Polysindo of Indonesia and JK Corp., besides Indian
Origanic and Swadeshi Polytex. India polyfibres and Bongaigaon are reportedly running at much
below their capacities. The overall capacity is over 500,000 tons, whereas the output in the first
half of 1997-98 was 206,433 tons. Even if the levels is maintained through the year, it is barely
enough for Reliance and Indo Rama, which together have a capacity of about 400,000 tons.
Other Man-Made Fibres

In the case of nylon filament yarn, there was a small growth in 1996-97, but consumption appears
to be declining this year. POY has become simply too cheap and nylon is finding it increasingly
difficult to compete. In fact, nylon consumption has been steady at around 50,000 tons for several
years now. The main reason is that its applications are extremely limited. In socks it has lost
ground to cotton while in saris only some niche products are being made with nylon content.
Umbrella cloth and coated fabrics for outerwear offer scope for growth in nylon but these are still
not being produced in India in a big way.

Bulks of these requirements are being met from imports. Viscose filament yarn too has been static
at around 60,000 tons or so. This too is explained by limited applications. It is being used mainly
as a replacement for Jari consumption of which too is declining steadily.

Viscose staple fibre has suffered because of the high growth in polyester staple fibre. The
increase in output of blended yarns has not been as handsome as is suggested by growth in
polyester staple fibre. What has happened is that polyester staple fibre content in P/V yarn has
increased enormously – from about 40-45% to over 70% in the last 2-3 year or so. The production
of VSF declined in 1996-97, however not that polyester staple fibre can not replace VSF in P/V

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yarn in percentage terms, VSF demand may start growing once again, though the immediate term
outlook does not appear to be very promising.

Growth in man-made fibre naturally implies that domestic usage of synthetic and blended textiles
has risen significantly. Several areas have been captured by synthetics almost completely, such
as furnishing fabrics. Saris made of polyester filament continue to be popular among masses and
the same goes for dress materials for women’s dresses and even bed sheets. Even in men’s
shirting’s, the traditional varieties made out of P/V blended yarn with or without some filament
content have maintained their share, in spite of the fact that the upper ends of the society have
taken to cotton in a big way.

Filament fabrics are also gaining popularity because of their long-lasting strength, air permeability
and superior color fastness. Until five years ago, the initial cost of synthetic and blended textiles
was higher than cotton because of the tax structure, but now taxes are reasonable and prices of
man made fibres have declined and consequently, even the initial cost of synthetic and blended
fabrics is lower than cotton fabrics in most cases.

At what level the share of synthetics and blends will stablise in the overall domestic consumption
of textiles is anybody’s guess. No detailed figures are available but it is clear that the share of
synthetics has already crossed the fifty percent mark in India, compared to a global average of
somewhat less than fifty percent. Besides, an important point to be noted is that non-textile usage
of fibres in India are still low. In clothing alone, cotton probably still has a share of about sixty
percent or thereabout whereas in India, the share of cotton in clothing is now less than fifty percent.
Whether the saturation point has arrived or not, will be clear only after the current slowdown is over
and consumption starts rising again.

Polyester /cotton blended yarn has started growing well in the last few months. Knitwear
manufacturers have started using P/C yarn, though the price of P/C yarn for knitting purposes is
still about the same as cotton yarn or even slightly higher. The northern town of Ludhiana, which
was hitherto concentration upon woolen hosiery, has reportedly started consuming about 30 million
kg. A year of P/C yarn. Southern cotton spinners are also increasingly adopting polyester blends
because of a variety of reasons, including the lower working capital requirements.


Within the blended textile sector, it is almost impossible to ascertain the share of suitings. So far,
no detailed study has been made of the end use pattern of various kinds of yarn produced and
consumed in India. However, suitings have been a growth area and continues to grow. Besides
the increasing urbanization, the female population is also consuming increasingly large quantities
of suitings for products like skirts. Even trousers are finding acceptance among women in

In recent years, cotton trousering has come back with a bang. Major textile firms like Arvind,
Bombay Dyeing, Mafatlal, Morarjee and Ashima are already paying a great deal of attention to
exploiting the potential offered by this new trend. Arvind is even setting up a dedicated plant for
cotton trousering. JCT has always been a big player in this field and may grow further now that it
has decided to sell its polyester unit and concentrate upon textiles.

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Worsted suitings too have growth, though there is some overcapacity in worsted now. Reliance
and Birla VXL have increased their capacities in the last 3-4 year and newer players like the LNJ
Bhilwara Group have intensified their efforts to compete with established brands that include
Graviera and Dinesh suitings. The overall demand for worsted suitings is perhaps still below 200
million meters, and there is a temporary lull in the market because of the general sluggishness, but
the product has a long way to go.

In India, the market for pure wool suitings is very small. Over ninety percent of the output is
accounted for by polyester/wool suitings, in which the polyester content is often as high as 75%.
The primary function of wool is to add fall and drape to the fabric.

The overall outlook for synthetic and blended textiles, including blends of wool, is bright in the
medium and long-term, but there are apprehensions about the immediate term. Consumer
spending on clothing is running low and much would depend upon how the economy at large
performs in 1998 and 1999. on the whole, few expect any significant pick up in the next two years
but after that, growth should resume ink right earnest. By that time, the demand –supply balance
is also likely to be restored in basic man-made fibre, as well as niche products like worsted suitings
and branded synthetic fabrics because there are no signs of any pick up in investments as yet.

Perhaps the most important factor that needs to be noted by overseas analysts and investors is
that India is now read to receive more branded products but the consumer is not about to splurge
on labels. It has been proved beyond doubt globally that a label can at best fetch an extra
realization of about 15% to 20% or so. That apples to India also. Thus, what the Indian market is
looking for is not labels that invite envy at parties but labels that assure a certain level of quality in
a consistent manner. The consumer is willing to pay 10% to 15% or even 20% higher if he knows
that the label completely eliminates the possibility of deformation or color fading or loose threads
coming out of the fabric after a couple of washes. This segment is wide open to new investments
in practically all product categories, whether it is cotton or synthetics or blends.

Wool Sector

The domestic market is expected to double in size, while the export market will probably y the year
2005. The outstanding quality of Indian wool products has improved greatly, and is now
comparable to international standards.

India depends on overseas sources for its finer apparel wool and wool textile machinery. By and
large, the machinery imported from Germany, France, Italy, Switzerland and Japan. The country is
the eighth largest importer of Australian wool and by the year 2005, the consumption of apparel
wool by Indian mills is expected to increase by 129%. Worsted spindles will likely touch 1 million
in 2005, while looms are to number 10000. naturally, the industry must improve the quality of their
products and services in order to achieve this target.

The Indian wool industry can be roughly divided into three major production segments; i.e.
knitwear, worsted fabrics and shawls. Meanwhile, the industry operates on three levels; the
organized mill sector, decentralized sector and apparel and household textile sectors.

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The organized mill sector consists of large mills producing most of the wool yarn and fabrics. In
fact, nearly all of country’s apparel wool imports are processed into fabrics or knitwear by the
organized sector. There are an estimated 150 large mills in this sector. Indicative of the potential
for growth is the steady increase in capacity. Worsted spindles installed in the sector increase
from 221,000 in 1980 to 566,000 in 194 are projected to reach 1 million in 2005. Meanwhile,
woolen spindles rose from 178,000 to 317,000 and are expected to touch 350,000 in 2005.
Looms are also to increase from 7,200 in 1994 to 10,000.

Silk Sector

India is a producer of all of the four main commercial varieties of silk, i.e. mulberry, tassar, eri and

Its mulberry silk production is the second largest after China holding a 14% share of the world’s
raw silk production (approx 14,400 tons), and the country also ranks next to China in the
production of tassar silk, while dominating the production of muga silk as well. India is estimated to
have 200,000 twisting spindles, which are mostly located at small mills. The weaving machines
for silk fabric production number 227,000 handlooms and 34,500 power looms.

The production a wide range of silk products for both the domestic market and export, such as
saris, scarves, stoles, dress material, mixed and blended fabrics, bedspreads, cushion covers,
carpets and apparel.

Value addition has become essential for today’s Indian silk exporters. Being well aware of China’s
dominance on the international market, silk exporters are increasingly focusing on the higher end
of the market centering around Europe. Exports to the U.S. and Japan are also being emphasized.
In order to make Indian Silk more popular on the global market, the Indian Silk Export Promotion
Council is now asking international designers to create their works in Indian Silk.

The future
Conclusion :
India has emerged as a major force in global markets for textiles and apparel in the last decade or
so. In sheer volume, it is now behind only China, if all textiles related exports are taken into
account, except for staple fibres and filaments. In the case of synthetics and blends, exports of
downstream products (yarn fabrics and made-ups items) have grown, but the man-made fibre
industry itself has not yet become a major exporter. However, there is significant excess capacity
in polyester filament yarn, and exports of PFY in general and textured yarn in particular have
started frowning.

India has generally viewed as a low cost producer of run-of-the mill products by developed world
importers, but exports of high value items are growing at a fast clip. These include denim, high
value yarn-dyed cotton shirting, terry towels, trousers, shirts, etc.

In fact the Indian industry is now concentrating on moving up the value chain, intense competitive
pressure resulting from the currency crisis that shook the Asian countries including Indonesia and

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Korea in 1997 and the effects of which are still visible ( these currencies are still way below their
pre 1997 values), has forced Indian firms to look for higher value added content, beside volume.

On the whole, imports have not really hurt the industry so far, but the growth in imports is rapid and
many are apprehensive about the future. The market is too large about 30,000 million square
meters. India’s exports are substantial at over US$ 10 billion (including apparel), but the industry is
facing problems of frequent changes in global trends, volatility in currencies and intense internal
competition, besides high energy costs and rising wages. Which facto has hurt how much is well
nigh impossible to quantify.

Domestic consumption, as well as exports, is quite likely to register some growth in the current
fiscal year (to March 2001) also. Apparently, the industry as a whole is not losing money, though
financial weakness is there investments are picking up at a very slow pace. Growth in real
domestic consumption of polyester filament products has slumped to nominal levels, while
consumption of cotton textiles has started experiencing some growth hitherto it had been declining.

Volatility in export markets is high. It is routine to see faces switching from smiles to gloom every
alternate month. When the euro goes up, exporters look relieved. Then NASDAQ goes up, euro
declines and exporters mood becomes gloomy again.

There is yet another angle to imports, India has a treaty with its neighbours (Nepal, Bangladesh
and Sri Lanka), under which preferential, lower rates of customs are applicable to imports from
these countries. Some of these facilities are allegedly being misused also.

India’s real strength lies in the fact that perhaps it has the largest pool of human resources in the
world, kin terms of the number of trained technicians and workers. Besides, most of the senior
managers in the textile and apparel industries, handling commercial and management functions,
are also fully familiar with the broad technical aspects of the industry. Moving from production to
finance and from quality control to general management is routine. This flexible managerial cadre
has thus resulted in a lot of entrepreneurship and low costs. The ability of Indian executives to
understand all of the aspects of the industry have resulted in so many small and medium units
having been set up by professional. These multi-faceted elements have brought costs down to
unimaginable levels throughout the vast industry – beginning from machine building, right up to
apparel fabrication and retailing.

India’s textile and apparel industries have grown at a steady pace in the last decade, but there is
some apprehension about the immediate term outlook. The economy at large has been
experiencing slightly slower growth rates in the last couple of years. Demand for textile products is
growing at a very slow pace now. On the other hand, global markets have started behaving in a
somewhat erratic manner. Month to month variations in shipments and others received fluctuate
quite heavily.

India has removed most of the quantitative restraints on imports although customs duties on many
products have been specified in absolute terms. For example, most varieties of fabrics, have to
pay the higher of the ad valorem rate and a rate specified in quantitative terms. Nevertheless, the
level of protection provided to the domestic industry has declined steeply and the government has

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reiterated its commitment to bring customs down to south & East Asian levels within three years or

As imports grown, there is likely to be some re-adjustment in and re-structuring of the industry.
Some will go under and some will become more competitive.

On the whole, the Indian textile and apparel industries present a picture of growing confidence and
continued growth. The industry is working hard to cut lead-time in tune with the growing
preference for Quick Response in global markets, and is constantly upgrading its technology in
order to meet the required quality standards and maintain competitiveness.

Refrences :

• India Textiles & Apparel,1998

• Asian Textile Businees, April,2001
• JTN Monthly, March 2001
• JTN Monthly, Jan.2001
• http://www.ril.com/petm.htm
• http://www.malwaoswal.com/group.htm
• http://www.jctltdl.com/profile.htm

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