Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 163


easy learning

Harpercollins Publishers Acknowledgements
Wostcrl)ill lto.rd We would like to thank those authors .lnd
It i slroplrriggs publishers who kindly gave permission for William Collins' dream of knowledge
( jl,lsll()w copydght material to be used in the Collins
(;{,4 J(l l' Word Web. We would also like to thank
for all began with the publication of
(;rr,.lt llritnill Times Newspapers Ltd for providing his first book in r8r9. A self-educated
valuable data. millworker, he not only enriched
S0cond l:ditiou 2oo7
AII rights reserved. No part ofthis millions of lives, but also founded a
Rcprintro 9 8 Z 6 5 publication may be reproduced, stored in a fl ourishing publishing house. Today,
retrieval system or transmitted, in any form
o Harpercollins Publishers 20oS, zooT or by any means, electronic, mechanical, staying true to this spirit, Collins books
photocopying, recording or otherwise, are packed with inspiration, innovation,
rsBN 978-o-oo-725278-7 without the prior permission of the and practical expertise. They place you at
publisher. This book is sold subject to the
Collins@ and Bank ofEnglish@ are conditions that it shall not, by way of trade the centre of a world of possibility and give
registered trademarks of or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out or you exactly what you need to explore it.
HarperCollins Publishers Limited otherwise circulated without the publisher's
prior consent in any form ofbinding or cover
www.collinslanguage.com other than that in which it is published and Language is the key to this exploration,
without similar condition including this
A catalogue record forthis bookis available conditionbeing imposed on the subsequent and at the heart of Collins Dictionaries,
from the British Library purchaser. is language as it is reallyused. New

Entered words that we have reason to believe

words, phrases, and meanings spring
TypesetbyDavidsonPre-Press, Clasgow constitute trademarks have been designated up every day, and all ofthem are
as such. However, neither the presence nor captured and analysed by the Collins
Printed in Italyby LECO Spa, Lavis (Trento) absence ofsuch designation shouldbe
regarded as affecting the legai status of any WordWeb. Constantly updated, and
trademark. wi.th over 2.5 billion entries, this living
This book is set in Collins Fedra, a typeface
specially created for Collins dictionaries by language resource is unique to our
Peter Bil'ak When you buy a Collins dictionary or dictionaries.
thesaurus and register on
PUBLISHINC DIRECTOR www.collinslanguage.com for the free
Lorna Knight online and digital services, you wiil not be Words are tools for life. And a Collins
charged by HarperCollins for access to Dictionary makes them work for you.
MANAGINC EDITOR Collins free Online Dictionary content or
Maree Airlie Collins free onlineThesaurus content on
that website. However, your operator's Collins. Do more.
PROTECT CO-ORDINATORS charges for using the internet on your
Susie Beattie computer will apply. Costs vary from
Jeremy Butterfield
operator to operator. HarperCoIIins is not
responsible for any charges levied by online
CONTRIBUTOR service providers for accessing Collins free
Horst Kopleck Online Dictionary or Collins free online
Ttresaurus on www.collinslanguage,com
We would like to give special thanks to using these services.
Simone Conboy, Foreign Languages
Consultant, for all her advice on teaching HarperCollins does not warrant that
practice in today's classroom. Her the functions contained in
contribution has been invaluable in the www.collinslanguage.com content will
writing of this book. be uninterrupted or error free, that
defects will be corrected, or that
www.collinslanguage.com or thc scrvcr that
makes it available are frcc of viruscs ur bugs.
Harpercollins is not responsiblc lor rny
access difficulties that nr.ry bc t'xlrericnced
due to problems with notwor k, wcb, orrline
or mobile ohone connect lons.
Foreword for language teachers vii
Introduction for students vltl
Glossary of grammar terms x
Nouns I
Using nouns '|

Gender 3
The cases v
Forming plurals to
Weak nouns 22
Proper nouns 24
Articles 25

Adjectives 4o
Using adjectives 40
' Making adjectives agree 42
Adjectives used as nouns 5o
Some other points about adjectives 5'l
Comparatives of adjectives 53
Superlatives of adjectives 55
Adverbs 57
How adverbs are used 57
How adverbs are formed 57
Adverbs ofplace 5o
Comparatives and superlatives of adverbs 62
Word orderwith adverbs 55
Emphasizers 57
Pronouns 69
Personal pronouns: subject 7o
Personal pronouns: direct object 74
Personal pronouns: indi rect object 76
Personal pronouns: after prepositions 78
Possessive pronouns 8o
Indefinite pronouns 82
Reflexive pronouns 8q
Relative pronouns 86
I nterrogative pronou ns 89
Verbs 9r
Weak, strong and mixed verbs 91
The present tense 93
Reflexive verbs 'l02
The imperative lo5
Verb prefixes in the present tense lo9
The perfect tense I3
The future tense 123
The conditional
The pluperfecttense 14 The Edsy Learning Cerman Crammar is designed to be used with both young and adult
The subjunctive 129
learners, as a group reference book to complernent your course book during classes,
The infinitive 134 or as a recommended text for self-study and homework/coursework"
Modalverbs 136 The text specifically targets learners from ab initio to intermed iate or GCSE level,
lmpersonalverbs 139 and therefore its structural content and vocabularV have been matched to the
There is,rfhere are 142 relevant specifications up to and including HigherCCSE.
Use of"es" as an anticipatory object 143
Verbs followed by prepositions r45 The approach aims to develop knowledge and understanding of grammar and your
Verbs followed by the dative case 't48 learners'abilityto apply it by:
The passive '150 r defining parts of speech at the start of each major section with examples
Prepositions 153 in English to clarify concepts
Using prepositions 153 o min imizing the use of grammar terminology and provid ing clear
r68 explanations of terms both within the text and in theGlossary
Co-ordinating conjunctions r68 r illustrating all points with examples (and theirtranslations) based on
Co-ordinating conjunctions with two parts 170 toD ics and contexts wh ich are relevant to bec inner and intermed iate

Subordi nating conjunctions 172 course content

Word order 't75

The text helps you develop positive attitudes to grammar learning in your classes by:
Negatives 't79
o g iving cleal easy-to-follow explanations
Howto ask a question in German r8z . prioritizing contentaccording to relevant specifications forthe levels

Numbers 't85 . sequencing points to reflectcourse content, e.g. verb tenses

Time and date r88 o highlighting usefulTips to deal with common difficulties
Some common diffi culties 't92 . summarizing Key points at the end of sections to consolidate learning
Ceneral prolrlems 192
Specific problems r94 In addition to fostering success and building a thorough foundation in German
grammar, the optionalGrammar Extra sections will encourage and challenge your
Alphabet 198
learners to fu rther thei r stud ies to h iq her and advanced levels.
Main Index r99
VerbTables l-98
Verb Index 99-103

Note on trademarks
Entered words wh ich we have reason to believe constitute tradonr,rr kr lravr, lrr'r,rr (lr'\r(lf tdt ed
as such. However, neitherthe presence northe absence ofsuclr rlcrir;rr.rttorI',lkri:lrl trl rr,r;,rrded
as affecti ng the legal status ofany trademark.
Use Sie in more formal situations for both singular and plural
Whether you are starting to learn cerman for the very first time, brushing up on vou.
topicsyou have studied in class, or revising foryourCCSE exams, the EasV Leorning
Cerman Crammaris here to help. This easy-to-use guide takes you through all the
basics you will need to speak and understand modern, everyday German.
Key points sum up all the important facts about a particular area of grammar, to
save you time when you are revising and help you focus on the main grammatical
Newcomers can sometimes struggle with the technical terms they come across oo i nts.
when theV start to explore the g rammar of a new language. The Edsy Learning Cermon
Crammar explains how to get to g rips with all the parts of speech you will need to
Key points
know, using simple language and cutting out jargon.
t/ witnmasculine sinqular nouns in the nominative * use ein.
The text is divided into sections, each dealing with a particulararea of grammar. y' witn femini ne si ngrl"r. norns in the nominative * use eine.
Each section can be studied individuallv, as numerous cross-references in the text y' Witplural nouns, usedie,derorden, dependingon thecase.
point you to relevant points i n other sections ofthe book for further information.
y' mei ndefi nite article is not usual ly used when you say what jobs
Every major section begins with an explanation of the area of grammar covered people do.
on the following pages. For quick reference, these definitions are also collected
together on pages x-xiv in a glossary of essential grammar terms.
lf you think you would like to continue with your Cerman studies to a h igher level,
check out the Grammar Extra sections. These are i ntended for advanced students
What is a verb? who are interested in knowino a little more about the structures thev will come
A verb is a'doing'word which describes what someone or something does, across bevond CCSE.
what someone or something is, or what hapPens to them, for example, be,
Grammar Extra!
Some 6erman adjectives are used as fem i n i ne nouns. They have fem inine adjective
end ings wh ich change according to the article which comes before them.
Each grammar point in the text is followed by simple examples of real cerman,
eine Deutsche a Cerman woman
complete with English translations, helping you understand the rules. Underlining
throughout the text to highlight the grammatical point die Abgeordnete the female M P
has been used in examples
being explained. {S rsr more informotion on Adjectives which can be used as nouns and for Feminine ddjective
endings, see pages 5o and 42.

L lf you are talking about a part oFyour body, you usually use a word like
my or his in English, but in Cerman you usually use the definite article. Finally, the supplement at the end of the book contains Verb Tables, where
Er hat sich das Bein gebrochen. He's broken his leg. 97 important Cerman verbs are conjugated in full. Examples show you how to use
Sie hat sich die Hinde schon 5he's already washed her these verbs in your own work. lf you are unsure of how a verb conjugates in Cerman,
gewaschen. hands. you can look up theVerb Index on pages 99-t03 to flnd eitherthe conjugation ofthe
verb itself, or a cross-reference to a model verb, which will show you the patterns
that verb follows.
In Cerman, as with any foreign language, there are certain pitfalls which have to
be avoided. Tips and Information notes throughout the text are useful reminders We hope that you will enjoy using the Easy Learning Cermon 1rammar andfind it
ofthe thinqs that often trip learners up. useful in the course ofvour studv.

vt tl
CO-ORDINATINC CONJ UNCTION a word FEM lNlN E one of three classifications for
GLOSSARY OF GRAM MAR TERMS such as and, but or however that links two the gender ofCerman nouns which
words, phrases or clauses. determines the form of articles, pronouns
ABSTRACT NOUN a word used to refer BASE FORM the form of the verb without and adjectives used with the noun and to
cONSONANT a letter of the alphabet
to quality, idea,feeling orexperience,
a any end ings added to it, for example, wolk, refer to it. The other two classifications are
which is not a vowel, forexample, b, I m,
rather than a physical object, for example, have, be, go. Comparewith infinitive. masculine and neuter.
s, v etc. Compare with vowel.
size, reason, happiness. cAsE the grammaticalfunction ofa noun
CONSTRUCTION an arrangement of FUTURE a verb tense used to tal k about
ACCUSATIVE CASE the form of nouns, in a sentence" something thatwill happen orwill betrue.
words together i n a phrase or sentence.
adjectives, pronouns and articles used in CLAUSE a group of words containing a
DATIVE CASE the form ofnouns, adjectives, GENDER whethera noun, article, pronoun
Cerman to show the direct object ofa verb VETD.
pronouns and articles used in German to or adjective is feminine, masculine or
and after certain prepositions. compare
coMPARATIVE an adjective or adverb show the i nd i rect object ofa verb and neuter.
with direct object.
with -er on the end of it or more or less in after certa i n verbs a nd prepos itions. GENITIVE CASE the form of nouns,
ACTIVE in an active sentence, the subject frontof itthat is used to compare people, DECLENSION Cerman nouns change adjectlves, pronouns and articles used in
ofthe verb is the person or thi ng that things or actions, for example , slower, less accordi ng to thei r gender, case and Cerman to show that something belongs
carries out the action described by the verb. portant., more carefully.
i m number. This is called declension. to someone and after certain prepositions.
ADJECTIVE a'describing' word that tells COMPOUND NOUN awordfora living IMPERATIVE theform of a verb used when
you more about a person or th i ng, such
being, thing or idea, which is made up of Compare with indefinite article. giving orders and instructions, for
as thei r appearance, colou r, size or other two or more words, for example,tin-opener, example, Shut the door!; Sit down!; Don't go!
q ual ities, for example, pretty, blue, big. DEMONSTRATIVE ADJ ECTIVE one of the
railway station. IMPERFECT one ofthe verb tenses used
words this. thdt,theseandthose used with a
ADVERB a word usually used with verbs, CONDITIONAL form used to talk
a verb to talk about the past, especia ly i n
noun to poi nt out a particular person or I

adjectives or other adverbs that g ives about th ings that wou ld happen or would descriptions, and to sav what was
th i ng, for exam ple, this womon, thot dog.
more information about when. where. happen ing, for example, lt wos sunnv
be true under certain conditions, for
how or in what circumstances something DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN one of the
example, I would help you if I could.lt is also attheweekend orwhat used to happen,
words this, th at, these and those used
happens, for example,quickly, happily, now. for example, I used to wllk to school.
used to say what you would like or need, instead ofa noun to point out people or
AGREE (to) to change word endings for example, Could you give me the bill? Compare with perfect.
th i ngs, for exam ple,Thot looks fun.
according to whetheryou are referring IMPERSONALVERB one which does not
coNJUGATE (to) to give a verb different DIRECT OBJECT a noun referring to the
to masculine, feminine, neuter, singular refer to a real person or th ing and where
endings according to whether you are person or thi ng affected by the action
or plural people and things. the subject is represented by rt, for
referri ng to l, you, they and so on, and descri bed by a verb, for example, She wrote
AGREEMENT see agree (to). according to whetheryou are referring to her name.: I shut the window. Compare with example, lt's going to roin; lt's10 o'clock.
APoSTRoPHE s an ending ('s) added to past, present or future, for example, I hove, indirect object. tNDEFtNtTEAD.IEcTtvE one of a small
a noun to show who or what someone she had, thev will have. group ofadjectives used to talk about
or something belongs to, for example, CONJUGATION a group of verbs which people orthings in a general way, without
as me, him, us and them which is used
Danielle's dog, the doctols husband, the have the same end i ngs as each other or instead ofa noun to stand i n for the saying exactly who or what they are, for
book's cover. change according to the same pattern. person or thing most directly affected by exam ple, severa l, oll, every.

ARTICLE a word likethe, a and an, which CONJUNCTION a word such as Ind, because the action described by the verb. Compare f NDEFf NITE ARTICLE the words a and an.

is used in front of a noun. Compare with or but that links two words or phrases of with indirect object pronoun. Compare with definite article.
definite article and indefinite article. a similartype ortwo parts of a sentence, ENDING a form added to a verb stem, for INDEFINITE PRONOUN a smallgroup
AUXILIARY VERB a Verb such as be, for example, Diane and I hove been friends example, geh + geht, and to adjectives and of pronou ns su ch as everything, nobody
have and do when used with a main verb for years.; I left b,gcqtlsgl was bored. Compare nouns depending on whetherthey referto and something,which are used to referto
to form some tenses, negatives and with co-ordinating conjunction and masculine, feminine, neuter, singular or people orthings in a general way, without
ou esti ons. subordinating conju nction. plural things. saying exactly who or what they are.
INDIRECT OBTECT a noun or pronoun MIXED VERB a German verb whose stem ORDINAL NUMBER a number used to POSSESSIVE PRONOUN one of the words
typically used in English with verbs that changes its vowel to form the imperfect indicate where something comes in an mine, yours, hers, his, ours or theirs, used
take two objects. For example , in I gave tense and the past participle, like strong order or sequence, for example ,first, frfth, i nstead ofa noun to show that one oerson
the carrot to the rabbit. the robbit is the verbs. lts past participle is formed by sixteenth. or thing belongs to another.
i nd i rect object and cdffof is the di rect adding -tto the verb stem, like weak verbs. PART OF SPEECH one ofthe categories PREPOSf Tf ON is a word such as ot, for,
object. With some Cerman verbs, what Compare with strong verb and weak verb. to which allwords are assigned and which with, into otfrom, which is usually followed
is the direct object in English is treated
MoDALVERBS are used to modifv or describe their forms and how thev are by a noun, pronoun or, in English, a word
as an indirect object in, for example,
change otherverbs to show such things as used i n sentences, for example, noun, verb, ending in -ing. Prepositions show how
fch hef fe ihr -
l'm helping her. Compare
ability, per m i ssi o n ot nece ssity. Fo r exa m p I e, a djective, preposition, pron oun. people and things relate to the rest ofthe
with direct object.
he con swim, may I comeT and he ought to go. sentence, for example, Shes ot home; a tool
PASSIVE a form ofthe verb that is used
NEGATIVE a question or statement when the subject ofthe verb is the person fu cutti ng grass: lt's fIgm David.
verb has two objects (a direct one and an
which contains a word such as not, or th in9 that is affected by the action, for
indirect one), the indirect object pronoun PRESENT a verb form used to tal k about
never or nothing, and is used to say that example, weweretold.
what is true at the moment. what
is used instead ofa noun to show the
something is not happening, or is not PAST PARTICIPLE a verb form, for example, happens regularly, and what is happening
person orthe thing the action is intended
true, for exa m ple, I never eot meot: watched, swum which is used with an
to benefit or harm, for exam ple, nie i n now, forexample,l'm a student;l trovel to
Don't Vou love me? auxi I iary verb to form perfect and
He gove me a bookand Can Vou get me a towel? college by troin; I'm studving languages.
Compare with direct object pronoun. NEUTER one oFthree classifications for pluperfect tenses and passives. Some past
PRESENT PARTICIPLE a verb form ending
the gender of German nouns wh ich participles are also used as adjectives,
INDIRECT SPEECH the words vou use to in -ing which is used in English to form
determ ines the form of article, pronou ns for example, a broken watch.
report what someone has said when you verb tenses, and which mav be used
and adjectives used with the noun and to PERFECT one ofthe verb tenses used
aren't using their actual words, for example, as an adjective or a noun, for example,
refer to it. The other two classifi catio ns to talk about the past, especially about
He soid that he was going out. What ore you doina?', the settina sun
are masculine and feminine. actions that took olace and were
INFINITIVE the form of the verb with to in Swimmina is easy!
NOMINATIVE CASE the basic form of completed in the past. Compare with
front of it and without anyend i ngs added, PRONOUN a word which Vou use instead
nouns, pronouns, adjectives and articles imperfect.
for example, to walk, to hove, to be, to go.
ofa noun, when vou do not need orwant
Comoare with base form. used in German and the one vou find in PERSONAL PRONOUN one ofthe group
to name someone orsomething directly,
the dictionary. lt is used forthe subject of words including l, you and theywhich
I NTERROGATIVE ADJ ECTIVE a question for example, it, you, none.
of the sentence. Compare with subject. are used to refer to yoursell the people
word used with a noun to ask who?, whot?
NOUN a'naming' word for a living being, you are talki ng to, or the people or thi ngs PROPER NOUN the name of a person,
or which?for exam ple, Whot instruments do
you are talking about. place, organization orthing. Propernouns
Vou plav?;Which shoes do You like?
thing or idea, forexample, woman, desk,
happiness, Andrew. are always written with a capital letter,
PLUPERFECT one ofthe verb tenses used
I NTERROGATIVE PRONOUN one of the for example, Kwin, Clasgow, Europe,
OBJECT a noun or pronoun which refers to describe something that had happened
words who, whose, whom, whot and which London Eye.
or had been true at a point in the past, for
when they are used instead ofa noun to ask to a person or thi ng that is affected by the
example, I'd for^otten to finish my homework. QUESTION WORD a word such as why,
questions, for example, Whof s happening?; action described by theverb. Compare
who's coming? with direct object, indirect object and PLURAL the form of a word which is used where, who, which or howwh ich is used to
subject. to referto more than one person orthing. ask a question.
MASCULINE one of three classifications
Compare with singular.
forthe gender of German nouns which OBJECT PRONOUN one ofthe set of REFLEXIVE PRONOUN a word ending
determi nes the form of articles, pronouns pronou ns i nclud i ng me, him and them, POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE one of the words in -selfor -selves, such as myselflor
and adjectives used with the noun and to which are used instead ofthe noun as the mV, Vour, his, her, its, our ortheir, used with themselves,which refers back to the
refer to it. The other two classifications are object oFa verb or preposition. Compare a noun to show that one person or th i ng subject, for example,He hurt himself;
feminine and neuter. with subject pronoun. belonos to another. Take core of vourself.
REFLEXIVE VERB a verb where the subject feeling, or to show doubt about whether
and object are the same, and where the something will happen orwhether NOUNS
action 'reflects back'on the subject. something is true. lt is only used
A reflexive verb is used with a reflexive occasionally in modern English, for
What is a noun?
pronoun such as myself, yourself, herself, example, If I were you, I wouldn't bother.:
Anoun is a'naming'word for a living being, th ing or idea, for example, womon,
for example, I washed mvselfi He shlved So be it.
happiness, Andrew. Cerman nouns change, according to their qender, case and
hinself. SUBORDINATE CLAUSE a clause which number.This is called declension.
RELATIVE CLAUSE Dart ofthe sentence in begins with a subordinating conjunction
which the relative pronoun appears. such as because or while and which must
RELATIVE PRONOUN WOTd SUCh AS thdt, be used with a main clause. In Cerman, Using nouns
who or which,when it is used to lin k two the verb always goes to the end ofthe
subordinate clause.
D n German, all nouns are either masculine,
I feminine or neuter. Th is is called
parts ofa sentence together.
their qender. In English, we call all things - for example, table, car, book, opple -
SENTENCE a group of wordswhich SUBORDINATI NG CONJUNCTION a word 'it', but in German, even words for things have a gender. lt is important to know
usually has a verb and a subject. In writing, that I inks the
such as when, because or while
that the gender ofCerman nouns rarely relates to the sex ofthe person or thing
a sentence has acapital letter at the subordinate clause and the main clause in it refers to. For example, in German, the word for "man" is masculine, but the
beginning and a full stop, question mark a sentence. ComDare with subordinate
word for "g irl" is neuter and the word for"person" is feminine.
or exclamation mark at the end. clause.
der Mann man
SINGULAR the form of a word which is SUPERLATIVE an adjective or adverb with
das MHdchen g irl
used to refertoone person orthing. -est on the end of it or rnost or ledst i n front
itthat is used to compare people, things die Person person
Comparewith plural. of
or actions, for example, thinnesf, most
STEM the main part of a verb to which
quickly, I ea st interesti ng.
endings are added.
SYLLABLE consonant+vowel u n its that
STRONG VERB a German verb whose stem German nouns are alwavs written with a capital letter.
make up the sounds of a word, for
changes its vowel to form the imperfect
example, ca-the-dral Q syllables),
tense and the past participle. lts past
i m-po-ssi-ble (4 syl lalrles).
participle is not formed by add ing -t to the > Wheneveryou are using a noun, you need to knowwhether it is masculine,
verb stem.Also known as irreqularverbs. TENSE the form of a verb wh ich shows fem in ine or neuter as th is affects the form of other words used with it. such as:
Compare with weak verb. whether you are referri ng to the past,
oresent or future.
o adjectives that describe it
SUBJECT the noun or pronoun used to . articles(such asderorein)that go before it
refer to the person which.does the action VERB a'doing'word which describes
described by the verb, for example, Mv cdt what someone or something does,
. pronouns(such aserorsie)thatreplace it
doesn't drink milk. Compare with object. what someone or something is, or what * For more information on Adjedives, Artictes or Pronouns, pages and 69.
see 4c., 25
word such as l, he, happens to them, for example, be, sing, live.
sheand theywhich carries out the action VoWEL one ofthe letters d, e, i, o or u. > You can find information about gender by looking the word up in a dictionary
described by the verb. Pronouns stand in ComDare with consonant. - in the Edsy Leorning Cerman Dtctionory,for example, you willfind the definite
for nouns when it is clearwho is being article (the wordforthe) in front of the word. When you come across a new noun,
WEAK VERB a Cerman verb whose stem
talked about, for example, n/y brother isn't always learn the word forthe that goes with itto help you remember its gender.
does not change its vowel to form the
here otthe moment.He'll be backin an hour. imperfect tense and the past participle. o der before a noun tells Vou it is masculine
Compare with object pronoun. Its past participle isformed byadding . die before a noun tells you it is feminine
SUBJUNCTIVE a verb form used in certain -t to the verb stem. Also known as regular o das before a noun tells vou it is neuter
circumstances to exDress some sort of verbs" compare with strong verbs.
Q psy rnsTs information on the Definite articte, see plge 25.
2 NoUNs Nour.ts 3

) We referto something as singularwhen we are talking about just one, and Gender
as pluralwhen we are talking about more than one.The singular is the form
of the noun you will usually fi nd when you look a noun up in the dictionary.
) In German a noun can be masculine, feminine or neuter. Gender is quite
unpredictable - the best thing is simply to learn each noun with its definite
As in English, nouns in Cerman change theirform in the plural.
article, that is the word for the (der, die or das) wh ich goes with it:
die Katze cat + die Katzen cats
derTeppich carpet
) Adjectives, articles and pronouns are also affected bywhethera noun is singular die Zeit time
or plural. das Bild picture
Howevet there are some clues which can help you work out or remember
the gender ofa noun, as explained below.
Remember that you have to use the right word for the, o and so on
accord i ng to the gender and case ofthe German noun.
tr Masculine nouns
L Nouns referring to male people and animals are masculine.
der Mann man
der Ldwe (male) lion

> Seasons, months, days oftheweek, weatherand points ofthe compass are
der Sommer SUmmer
derAugust August
der Freitag Friday
derWind wind
der Norden north
l Most nouns referring to things that perform an action are also masculine.
derWecker alarm clock
der Computer computer

Grammar Extra!
cerman nouns taken from other languages and ending in -ant, -ast, -ismus, and -or are masculine:
derTrabaIIE satel I ite
der Ballast
der Kapitalismus cap ital ism
derTresor safe

) Nouns with the following endings are masculine.

Masculine Ending Example Meaning
-ich derTeppich carper
-rg der Esslg vinegar
-ling der Friihling spflng
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
4 Noutts Nourus 5

Key points
) Numbers used in counting, for example one, three, fifty are feminine.

y' Nouns referring to male people and animals are masculine. Er hat eine Drei gekriegt. He got a three
y' Seasons, months, days oftheweek, weatherand points ofthe compass D In German, there are sometimes verv different words for male and female,
are masculine. justas in English.
der Mann man
A Feminine nouns die Frau woman

> Most nouns ending in -e are feminine. der Vater father

die Mutter mother
die Falte crease, wrinkle
die Briicke bridge der Bulle bull
die Kuh cow
E Note that male people or animals ending in -e are masculine, and, nouns
lreginning with Ge- and ending in -e are normally neuter. Many masculine Cerman nouns can be made feminine by add ing -in in the
singularand -innen in the plural.
der L6,wg the lion
der Lehrer (male) teacher
das Getreide crop
die Lehrerln (female) teacher
> Nouns with the following endings are fem inine. Lehrer und Lehrerilnen (male and female) teachers

Feminine Ending Example Meaning der Leser (male) reader

-heit die schiinheit beauty die Leserin (female) reader
-keit die Sehenswiirdigkeit sight unsere Leser und Leser!nng4 our reaoers
-schaft die Gewerkschaft trade union
-un9 die Zeituno newspaper
-el die Bickerei lrakerV Grammar Ertra!
Some German adjectives are used as femin ine nouns. They have feminine adjective endings
wh ich change according to the article which comes before them.
eine Deutsche a Cerman woman
Grammar E><tra!
die Abgeordnete thefemale MP
cerman nouns taken from other languages and end ing in -anz, -enz, -ie, -ik, -ion, -tit, -ur are
feminine, with some exceptions.
r) For more information on Adjediveswhich can be used as nouns ond for Feminine adjeaive endings,
see pqges 50 ana 42.
die Distanz distance BUT: derKranz wreath
die Konkurrq4z rivalry

die Theorie theorv Knie

BUT: das knee
Key points
die Panik panlc BUT: derPazifik Pacific
y' Vostnouns ending in -e are feminine.
die Union union BUT: derspion spy y' vtanyfeminine nouns end in:-heit, -keit, -schaft, -ung, -ei.
dieElektrizitit electricity y' Masculine Cerman words referring to people can be made feminine
dieTemperatul temperature BUT dasAbitur A levels byadding-in in thesingularand-innen in the plural.
y' Numbers used in counting are Feminine.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

5 Nouns Nourus 7

tr Neuternouns ) Nouns with the following endings are neuter.

) Most nouns beginning with Ge- are neuter. Neuter Ending Example Meaning
das Geschirr crockery, dishes -nis das Ereignis evenr
das Geschtipf creatu re -tum das Eigentum property
das Getreide crop

Nouns ending in -lein or-chen are also neuter. These are called the d iminutive
form and refer to small persons or objects. Grammar Ertra!
Cerman nouns taken from other languages and ending in -at, -ett, -fon, -ma, -ment, -um are
Endings to form the Example Meaning neuter.
das Reserve! reservation
-lein das Kindlein I ittle ch i ld
das Tablett Iray
-chen das Hiuschen little house
dasTelefo4 pnone
dasThema subject, topic
E Note that if these words have one of the vowels a, o or u, an umlaut should
be added above the vowel. The final -e should also be dropped before these
das Medikament oru9
das Ultimatunl ultimatum BUT: der Reichtun0 wealth
end i ngs
das Studium studies
der Bach * Bich - das BHchlein (small) stream
die Katze - Kitz - das Kitzchen kitten
> Fractions are also neuter.
ey points
ein Drittel davon a third of it y'- vostnouns beginning with Ge- are neuter.
) Nouns which refer to young humans and animals are neuter. y' thediminutiveform of nouns is neuter.
das Baby balry y' Nouns referring toyoung humansand animalsare neuter.
das Kind child y' the"to" forms of verlrs (called infinitives) used as nouns are neuter.
das Kalb calf y' Nouns ending in -nis or-tum are neuter.
das Lamm lamb

@ ruote that the animals themselves can be any gender.

der Hund dog t1_l Compound nouns
die Schlange 5naKe
das Vieh cattle What is a compound noun?
A compound noun is a noun made up of two or more words, for example,
) Infinitives (the"to"form ofverbs) used as nouns are neuter. ti n -o pene r and railw ay stati o n.
das Schwimmen swimming
das Spielen playing
D n Cerman, these words nearly always take thei r gender from the LAST nou n
daS Radfahren cycling

of the compound word.

Q For more informotion on lnfinitives, see plge :64. die Armbanduhr (Armband + die Uhr) wristwatch
derTomatensalat Cfomaten + der Salat) tomato salad
der FuBballspieler (FuBball + der Spieler) footballer

For further explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv,

8 Nourus Nouls 9

The Cases
Grammar Ertra!
Some Cerman nouns have more than one oender.Afew nouns have two oenders and sometimes
) InCerman,therearefourgrammatical cases-nominative,accusative,qenitive
one ofthem can only be used in certain regions and dative. The case you should use depends on the grammatical function ofthe
derllag Marzipan marzipan (der Marzipan is used mostly in Austria)
noun in the sentence.
derldas Keks biscu it (dds Keks is used mostlv in Austria)

derldas Kaugummi chewing gum

tr The nominative case
Other nouns have two genders and the meaning ofthe word changes dependi ng on which D The nominative case is the basic form of the noun and is the one Vou find in the
gdnder it has.
der Band volume, book
das Band ribbon, band, tape; bond Case Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative derWagen die Dose das Lied
der See lake
ein Wagen eine Dose ein Lied
die See

der Leiter
die Leiter
leader, manager
+ For more informotion on Aftictes, see poge 25.

The nominative case is used for:

) In German, abbreviations have the same genderas the word they come from.
. the subject of the sentence, that is the person, animal or thing'doing' the
die BRD the Federal Republic of Cermany
(from die Bundesrepublik Deutschland ) Das Midchen singt. The girl is singing.
Die Katze schl5ft. The cat is sleeping.
die DB theCerman Railways
(from die Deutsche Bahn) o after the verbs sein (meaning to be) and werden (meaning to be, to become)
das ZDF Germanw channel Erist ein guter Lehrer. He is a good teacher.
(from das Zweite Deutsche Fernsehen) Das wird ein Pullover. It's going to be a jumper.

Key points e Theaccusativecase

y' Compound nouns are nouns made up of two or more words and D The articleforfeminine and neuter nouns in the accusative case has the same
usually take their gender from the last part of the compound word. form as in the nominative. Der for masculine nouns chanoes to den and ein
y' SomeCerman nouns have morethan oneqenderand thiscan affect to einen.
their meaning. Case Masculine Feminine Neuter
t abbreviations have the same gender as the words they come Nominative der Wagen die Dose das Lied
:r:r#r" ein Wagen eine Dose ein Lied
Accusative den Wagen die Dose das Lied
einen Wagen eine Dose ein Lied

Q For more information on Aftictes, see page 25.

) The accusative case is used:

o to show the d i rect ob iect of a verb. Th is is the person, an i mal or th in g affected
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. bv the action ofthe verb.
to Noutrts NouHs tr
He gave me a lrook. -What did he give me? - abook(=diys61e6itt 1
o in some set expressions
Can you get me a towel? -Wh\t cln you get me? - atowel (=liys61s6i..11 Guten Abend! Good eveningl
ch sehe den Hund . -What do I see? * den Hund (=direct object)
f Vielen Dank! Than k you very m u ch !

Er hat ein Lied gesungen.* Wh at did he sing? + ein Lied (=/iysct object)

o after certain prepositions (words in English such as dt, for, with, into orfrom) d The genitive case
which are alwavs used with the accusative. ) Der for mascul ine nouns and das for neuter nouns change to des. Ein changes
to eines. The end ings of mascu line and neuter singular nouns also change in the
Es ist fiir seine Freundin. It's for his g irlfriend.
genitive case.
Es ist schwierig ohne einen Wagen. lt's difficult without a car.
durch das Rauchen wurde ich Smoking made me ill. D -s is added to masculine and neuter nouns ending in -en, -el, -er.
krank. -
der Wagen car des Wagens

+ For more informotion on Prepositionsfollowed by the accusative case, see page 66

das Rauchen smoking des Rauchens
der Esel donkey -
des Eselg
o after certain prepositions of place when movement is involved: der Computer computer + des Computerg
an on, to, at lch mag die Farbe des Wageng. I li ke the colour of the car.
auf on, in, to, at Die GriiBe des Computerg The size of the comouter isn't
hinter behind ist nicht wichtig. important.
in in, into, to D -es is added to most masculine and neuter nouns of one syllable ending in a
neben nextto, beside consonant.
0ber over, across, above der Freund friend - des Freundes
unter under, among der Mann man * des Mannes
vor in front o[, before '
der Sitz seat des Sitzes
zwischen between der Arzt doctor + des Arztg5

Stell dein Rad neben mein Auto. Put your bike next to my car.
derTisch table des Tisches

Sie legten ein Brett liber das Loch. They put a board over the hole.
das Schloss castle - des Schlosses
Die Schwester desArztes hilft The doctor's sister helps him
[J ruotethatwhen there is no movement involved afterthese prepositions, manchmal in der Sprechstunde. in the surgery sometimes.
the dative case is used. Das Museum befindet sich The museum is nearthe castle.
Sie geht in die Stadt. (dccusdtive) She's going into town. in der Nihe des Schlosses.
Er war in der Stadt. (dotive) He was in town. ! Die changes to der and eine to einer in the genitive. The endings of fem inine

+ For more information on Prepositions followed by the accusotive or the dotive case,
sinqular nouns in the genitive case are the same as in the nominative.
see poge 158. die Arztin (female) doctor - der Arztin

o in many expressions of time and place which do not have a preposition Case Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative der Wagen die Dose das Lied
Das macht sie ieden Donnerstag. She does that everyThursday.
ein Wagen eine Dose ein Lied
Die Schule ist einen Kilometer The school is a kilometre awav.
Accusative den Wagen die Dose das Lied
einen Wagen eine Dose ein Lied
cenitive des Wageng der Dose des Lied5
eines Wagens einer Dose eines Lieds

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. * For more information on Articles, see poge 25.
12 Nout'ts NouHs r3
) The genitive case is used:
. to show that something belongs to someone
Grammar Ertra!
-e may also be added to the dative singular ofmasculi ne and neuter nouns to make the phrase
DasAuto der Frau war rot. The woman's carwas red.
easrerto Dronounce
DerHundmeiner Mutteristganz Mymother'sdogisreallysmall.
zu welchem zwecke? to what purpose?
. after certain prepositions which always take the genitive
Weqen des schlechten Wetters We'll have to go home because The dative case is used:
miissen wir nach Hause gehen. ofthe bad weather. . to show the ind i rect object of a verb - an ind irect object answers the question
Ifglz ihrer Krankheit geht sie She goes for a walk every day, who to/for? ot to/for whatT
jeden Tag spazieren. despite her illness.
He gave the man the book. * Who did he give the book to? + the man
o in some expressions of time noun indirect object)

eines Tages one oay Er gab dem Mann das Buch.

o aftercertainverbs
E_l The dative case Erhilft seiner Mutter im He helps his motherwith the
) Der changes todem and ein toeinem in the dative. Singular nouns in the dative Haushalt. housework.
have the same form as in the nominative.
Q F or more i nformoti on on Verbs followed by the dotive cose, see po ge u8.
dem Auto to the car
dem Midchen to the girl o aftercertain prepositionswhich alwaystakethe dative
Nach dem Essen gingen wir After eating we went for a walk.
D Die changes to der and eine to einer in the dative. Singular nou ns in the dative
have the same form as in the nominative.
Er kam mit einer Freundin. He came with a friend.
Case Masculine Feminine Neuter
t-) FormoreinformationonPrepositionsfollowedbythedotivecose,seepoge$3.
Nominative der Wagen die Dose das Lied
ein Wagen eine Dose ein Lied . aftercertain prepositions to show position
Accusative den Wagen die Dose das Lied an on, to, at
einen Wagen eine Dose ein Lied auf on, in, to, at
Genitive des Wageng der Dose des Lieds hinter behind
eines Wagens einer Dose eines Lieds in in, into, to
Dative dem Wagen der Dose dem Lied next to, beside
einem Wagen einer Dose einem Lied
iiber over, acro55, above
unter under, among
Q For more information on Aftictes, see p\ge 25. front ol before
vor in
) -e is added to some nouns in certain set Dhrases. zwischen between
Wirgehen nach Hause. We're going home. lch sitze neben dem Fenster. l'm sitting next to the window.
Er hat sich zu Tode gearbeitet. He worked himself to death. Die Katze lag unter dem Tisch. The cat lay under the table.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

14 Nouns Nourus r5

[f ruote tnat when there is some movement involved afterthese prepositions, Key points
the aqcusative cis,g is used. y' In German, there arefourgrammatical cases- nominative, accusative,
Er war in der stadt. (dotive) He was in town. genitive and dative.
Sie geht in die Stadt. (accusative) She's going into town. ( necase you use depends on the grammaticalfunction of the noun
in the sentence.
+ For more information on Prepositionsfollowed bythe accusotive orthe dative cose, ( tnenominative case is used to showthe subjectofa sentence and
see page l58. after the verbs, sein and werden.
In certatn expressrons
y' The accusative case is used to show the direct object ofa sentence
and after certain prepositions.
Mir ist kalt. I'm cold.
y' negenitive case is used to show that something belongs to
o insteadofthepossessiveadjective(my,your,his,her,its,ourortheir)torefer somebody, and after certai n prepositions.
to parts of the body and items of clothing y' medative case is used to show the indirect object of a sentence,
lch habe mir die Haare gewaschen. I washed my hair. and after certain prepositions and verbs.
Zieh dirdieJacke aus. Takeyourjacketoff.

* For more informltion on Possessive odjectives, see page 37.

D Changesto the defi niteand indefi nitearticlesder, die ordasand ein, eine or
ein for each case are summarized in the table below to help make it easier for
you to rememberthem.

Masculine Feminine Neuter

Case Singular Singular Singular
Nominative der die das
ein eine ein
Accusative den die das
einen eine ein
Genitive des der des
eines einer eines
Dative dem der dem
einem einer einem

Q For more informotion on Afticles, see plge 25.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

16 Noutts Nourus r7

Forming plurals Die Blumen waren nicht teuer. The flowers weren't expensive.
Die Lehrerinnen sind ziemlich jung. The (female) teachers are quite
) |n English we usually make nouns plural by adding an -s to the end (gorden - youn9.
gordens',house* houses), although we do have some nouns which are irregular
Das Leben der Frauen in vielen In many countries, women's lives
- -
and do not follow th is pattern (mouse mice: child children).
Lindern ist schwierig. are difficult.
> In German, there are several differentways of making nouns plural. Wo gehst du rnit den Blumen hin? Where are you going with the
) The definite article changes in the plural, as shown in the table below: flowers?

All Genders
tr Nouns with no endinq in the plural
Nominative der die das die
D Many nouns have no plural endi ng - these are mostly masculine or neuter nouns
ending in -en, -eror-el.
Accusative den die das die
Genitive des der des der Case Singular Plural
Dative dem der dem den Nominative der Kuchen (cake) die Kuchen
der Lehrer (teacher) die Lehrer
* For more information on Afticles, see page 25. der Onkel (uncle) die Onkel
Accusative den Kuchen die Kuchen
den Lehrer die Lehrer
den Onkel die Onkel
Nouns in the dative plural ALWAYS end in -n, except those nouns wh ich come
Genitive des Kuchens der Kuchen
from other languages. Most of their pluralforms end in -s. For example: des Lehrers der Lehrer
des Onkels der Onkel
Dative dem Kuchen den Kuchen
dem Lehrer den Lehrern
dem onkel den Onkeln
t1-l Feminine plural nouns ending in -n. -en. -nen
Die Kuchen sehen lecker aus. The cakes look delicious.
> Most Cerman feminine nouns form their plural by adding -n, -en or -nen to their
singu lar form. Die onkel kommen morgen an. The uncles are coming tomorrow.
Das war die Schuld der Lehrer. That was the teachers'fault.
Case Singular Plural
Es gibt ein kleines Problem mit There's a slight problem with
Nominative die Blume (flower) die Blumen den Kuchen. the cakes.
die Frau (woman) die Frauen
die Lehrerin (teacher) die Lehrerinnen Some of these nouns also have an umlaut added to the first vowel a. o or u in the
Accusative die Blume die Blumen plural.
die Frau die Frauen
Case Singular Plural
die Lehrerin die Lehrerinnen
Nominative derApfel (apple) die Apfel
Genitive der Blume der Blumen der Garten (garden) die Garten
der Frau der Frauen
Accusative den Apfel die Apfel
der Lehrerin der Lehrerinnen den Garten die Girten
Dative der Blume den Blumen
Cenitive des Apfels der Apfel
der Frau den Frauen des Gartens der Girten
der Lehrerin den Lehrerinnen Dative dem Apfel den Apfeln
dem carten den certen
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
18 Nouns Nourus r9
Die Apfel sind genug.
nicht reif The apples aren't ripe enougn. Die Geschenke sind aufdem Tisch. The presents are on the table.
Die Girten waren wunderschiin. The gardens were beautiful. lch muss die Kinderabholen. I have to pick up the children.
Schau mal die Gr6Re derApfel ant Look at the size ofthe applest DieAuswahl derTische im Laden The shop had a large selection
Den Apfeln fehlt ein bisschen Sonne. The apples need a bit ofsun. war groB. oftables.
Sie geht mit den Kindern spazieren. She's going for a walk with the
tr Plural nouns ending in':e children.

) Some masculine nouns add an umlaut above the first vowel a, o or u and an -e D Some masculine and neuter nouns add an umlaut above the fi rst vowel a, o or u
end ing to form the plu ral. A few fem i ni ne nouns with a i n the stem also fol low and an -er ending in the plural.
this pattern. Nouns in this group often have one syllable only. Case singular Plural
Case Singular Plural Nominative das Dach (roof) die Dlcher
der Mann (man) die Minner
Nominative der Stuhl (chair) die Sriihte
die Angst (fear) die Angstg Accusative das Dach die Decher
den Mann die Minner
Accusative den Stuhl die stilhle
die Angst die Angstg Genitive des Dach(e)s der Dicher
des Mannes der Manner
cenitive des Stuhl(e)s der St!!hle
der Angst der Angste Dative dem Dach den DHchern
dem Mann den Miinnern
Dative dem Stuhl den stuhlen
der Angst den Angsteq
Die Ddcher werden repariert. The roofs are being repaired.
Die stlihle sind neu. The chairs are new. Man hatte die Minnerviillig The men had been completely
Die Regierung muss die Angste The government has to take ver9essen. forgotten.
der Bev6,lkerung ernst nehmen. the population's fears seriously. Was ist die Rolle der Minner in What is the role of men in our
Die Farbe der Stiihle. The colour of the chairs. unserer Gesellschaft? society.
DerTischler macht den Stiihlen The carpenter is making new Die Frauen sollten den Mlnnern Women should not always
neue Beine. legs forthe chairs. nicht immer recht geben. agree with men.

E_l Some unusual plurals

E_l Masculine and neuter plural nouns endinq in -e, -er or'ier
D There is another g roup of German nou ns wh ich don't follow any of the rules for
) Masculine or neuter nouns often add -e or-er to form the plural.
forming plurals - you just have to remember theml Here are some of the most
Case singular Plural common ones. As you will see, many of them are words from other languages,
Nominative das Ceschenk (present) die Geschenkg and it is common for such words to form their plural by adding -s:
derTisch (table) die Tische
Singular Meaning Plural
das Kind (child) die Kinder
dasAuto die Autos
Accusative das Geschenk die Geschenke
den Tisch die Tische das Hotel hotel die Hotels
das Kind die Kinder das Restaurant restau rant die Restaurantg
cenitive des Geschenks der Geschenkg das Baby baby die Baby5
des Tisches derTische das Thema theme, topic, subject dieThemen
des Kindes der Kinder
das Drama drama die Dramen
Dative dem Geschenk den Geschenken
das Risiko risk die Risiken
dem Tisch den Tischen
dem Kind den Kindern der Park parK die Park5
der chef boss, chiel head die chefs
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. die Firma firm die Firmen
20 Nouls Nourus zt

Die Hotelg in der Stadt sind The hotels in town are ouite
ziemlich teuer. exoensive.
Die Risike4 sind sehr hoch. The risks are very high.
y' Most German fem i n i ne r pt urat try add i ns -n, -en or
-nen to their singular form. ":?:rTil:l
Die Kinder finden die Baby5 ganz The children think the balries are
niedlich. really cute.
y' uanVnouns have no plural ending -theseare mostly masculineor
Was heltst du von den Preisen der What do you think of the prices of neuter singular nouns end ing in -en, -er or-el. Some of these nouns
Autol? also have an umlaut added to the vowel in the plural.
the cars?
Das ist die Stadt mit den vielen That's the town with all the parks.
y' Some masculine nounsadd an umlautabovethefirstvowel a, o oru
Parks. and an -e ending to form the plural. A few femi n ine nouns with a in
the stem also follow this pattern.
y' Masculineand neuternouns often add-e or-er in the plural, and can
El Pluralversussingular sometimes add an umlaut above the first vowel a, o or u.
> Some nouns are always plural in English, but singular in German. y' There are some unusual plural nouns in German which don't follow
eine Brille glasses, spectacles any Pattern.
eine Schere scissors y' Some nouns are always plural in English, but singular in German.
eine Hose trousers y' Nouns of measurement and quantity usually remai n si ngular even
if preceded by a plural numlrer.
) These nouns are only used in the plural in German to mean more than one pair.
y' ne substance which they measure follows in the same case as the
zwei Hosen two pairs of trousers noun ofquantity.

tr Nouns of measurement and quantity

) These nouns, used to describe the quantity or size of something, usually remain
singular, even if preceded by a plural number.
MOchten Sie zwei Stiick? Would you like two?
lch wiege fiinfzig Kilo. lweigh eightstone.

) The substance which they measure follows in the same case as the noun of
quantity, and NOT in the genitive case as in English.
Sie hat drei Tassen Kaffee She drank three cups ofcoffee.
Erwollte zwei Kilo Kartoffeln. He wanted two kilos of potatoes.
Drei Glas WeiRwein, bitte! Three glasses ofwhite wine,

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

22 Noutrts Noutrs z3

Weak nouns . some other common masculine nouns:

der Bauer farmer
) As we have seen, German nouns may change, accordi ng to thei r qender, case
and number.This is called declension. der Chirurg su rgeon
der Franzose Frenchman
> Some masculine nouns have a weak declension - this means that they end in
der Kollege colleague
-enot if the word ends in a vowel, in -n, in every case EXCEPT in the nom inative
der Mensch human being
singular case.
der Ochse OX
) Weak masculine nouns follow the pattern shown: der Spatz sparrow
Case Singular Plural Der junge Franzose wollte The young French guy wanted
Nominative der.lunge die Jungen schottland besuchen. to visit Scotland.
Accusative den Jungen dieJungen lch habe den Franzosen seit I haven't seen the French guy for

Genitive des Jungen derJungen einer Woche nicht mehr gesehen. a weeK.

Dative dem Jungen den Jungen

> Weak masculine nouns include: Grammar Extra!

. those ending in -og(e) referring to men The noun der Name follows the same pattern as derJunge, except in the genitive singular,
where it adds -ns instead ofj ust -n. Der Buchstabe (meaning letter(ofthe alphabet)),der Funke
der Psycholooe the psychologist (meaning spdrk) and der Gedanke (meaning thought) also follow this pattern-
Der Psychologe half ihm in The psychologist helped him
Case Singular Plural
seiner Krise. through his crisis.
Nominative der Name die Namen
. those ending in -aph (or-af) or-oph
Accusative den Namen die Namen
der Paragraf the paragraph Genitive des Namens der Namen
der Philosoph the philosopher Dative dem Namen den Namen
Der Paragrgf umfasste The paragraph was 35o words
35o Wijrter. long. Das hingt von der Wichtigkeit That depends on how important
des Namens ab, the name is.
those ending in -ant
der Elefa4l the elephant
der Diamant the diamond
Der Diamant war sehr viel The diamond was worth a lot
Geld wert. of money.

those ending in -t referring to men

derAstronau! the astronaut
der Komponisl the composer
derArchitek! the architect
Um Astronau! zu werden, muss You have to tra i n for years to
man jahrelang trainieren. become an astronaut.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

24 Nouns AnrrclEs 25

Proper nouns Articles

What is a proper noun? What is an article?
A proper noun the name of a person, place, organization orthing. Proper nouns
is ln English, an article is one of the wo-dsthe, a, and an which is used in front of
are always written with a capital letter, for exam ple, Kevin, Glasgow, Europe, a noun.
London EVe.

) E Different tvpes of articles

In German, names of people and places only change in the qenitive sinoular
when they add -s, unles3 they are preceded by the definite article or a > There are two tvpes of article:
demonstrative adjective (in English, this, that,these andthose).
o thedefinitearticle: theinEnglish"Thisisusedtoidentifyaparticularthing
Annas Buch Anna's book or person.
Klaras Mantel Klara's coat
I'm going to the supermarket.
die Werke Goethes Goethe's works
That's the woman I was talking to.
der Untergang der Titanic the sinking of theTitanic o the indefi nlte article: a or on in English, some or any (or no word at all) in the
plural.This is used to referto something unspecific, orsomething thatyou
Q For more information on Articles ond Demonstrative adjectives, see pages z5 ond y. do not really know about.
ls there a supermarket near here?
I need a day off.
Grammar Extra!
Where proper names end in -s, -sch, -ss, -8, -x, -2, or -tz, adding an extra -s for the genitive
makes them very difTlcult to pronounce.This is best avoided by using von + the dative case lZ rhe definite article
das Buch von Hans Hans's book > ln English the defi n ite article the always keeps the same form.
die Werke von Marx theworks of Marx
the book
die Freundin von Klaus Klaus's girlfriend
the books
with the books

} Herr (meaningMr) is always declined when it is part of a proper name. > In Cerman, however, the definite article has manyforms.AllCerman nouns are
either masculine, femin ine or neuter and, just as in English, they can be either
an Herrn Schmidt to MrSchmidt
singularorplural.Theword you chooseforthedepends on whetherthe noun it is
Sehr geehrte Herrgn Dear Sirs used with is masculine, feminine or neuter, singular or pluralAND it also depends
D Surnames usually form their plurals by adding -s, unless they end in -s, -sch, -ss, on the case of the noun. This may sound complicated, but it is not too difTicult.
-8,-x, -2, or-tz, in which case they add -ens. They are often preceded by the Die Frau ging spazieren. The woman went for a walk.
definite article. Der Mann ist geschieden. The man is divorced.
Die SchmidtS haben uns zum The Schmidts have invited us to sie f5hrt mit dem Auto in die Stadt. She travels into town by car.
Abendessen eingeladen. dinner. Die Farbe derJacke gefSllt mir I don't like the colour ofthejacket.
Die Schultzens waren nicht zu The Schultzes weren't at home. nicht.
Hause. lch muss die Kinder abholen. I have to pick up the children.

Q For more information on Articles, see plge 25. Das will ich mit den Beh6rden I wantto discuss thatwith the
besprechen. authorities.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. * For more informotion on Nouns, see plge 1.
26 ARTICLES Anrrclrs 27

>Thedefinitearticlechangesformasculine,feminineandneutersingularnouns. Der Mann ging ins Haus. The man went into the house.
Die Frau gehtjeden Abend Thewoman goes swimming
Definite Article Meaning
+ Noun schwimmen. every night.
Masculine der Mann tne man Sie wollen das Midchen adoptieren. They want to adopt the girl.

Feminine die Frau the woman Die zwei Frauen nebenan wollen The two women next door
ihr Haus renovieren. want to renovate their house.
Neuter das Medchen thegirl
Der Mann mit der reichen Frau. The man with the rich wife.
D The pluralforms of the definite article are the same forall qenders. Die Midchen gehen morgen ins The girls are going to the cinema
Kino. tomorrow.
DefiniteArticle Meaning lch will nicht nur mit den I don't j ust want to work with
+ Plural Noun the men.
Mennern arbeiten.
Masculine die Minner the men
Feminine die Frauen the women
Neuter diq Midchen Key points
the girls
y' the definite article changesfor masculine, feminine and neuter
singular nouns.
rtp y'
The plural forms of the definite article are the same
theform ofthe definitearticle
forall genders.
also changes depending on the case
It is a good idea to learn the article or the gender with the noun when
ofthe noun in the sentence.
you come across a word for the first time, so that Vou know whether
it is masculine, fem inine or neuter. A good dictionary will also give you
this information.
3_l Using the definite article
L The definite article also changes according to the case ofthe noun in the ) article i n Cerman (der, die or das) is used in more or less the same
The defi nite
sentence - nom inative, accusative, genitive or dative. way as we use the in English, but it is also used in Cerman in a few places where
you might not expect it.
* For more informotion on Coses, see page g.
) The defi n ite article is used with words I i ke prices, Iife and time that descri be
) The forms of the definite article in each case are as follows: q ities, ideas or experiences (called abstract nouns) rather than someth i ng

thatVou can touch with your hand. Usually, the is missed out in English with this
Feminine Neuter All Genders
type of word.
Case singular Singular Singular Plural
Nominative der die das die
Die Preise sind wirklich hoch. Prices are really high.
Das Leben ist sch6n. Life is wonderful.
Accusative den die das die
Die Zeit vergeht schnell. Time passes quickly.
Genitive des der des der
Dative dem der dem den ruotethatthese nouns are sometimes used WITHOUTthe article.
Es braucht Mut. It needs (some) courage.
Gibt es dort Leben? ls there (any) life there?

> You also use the definite article with the genitive case to show that something
belongs to someone.
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. die Jacke der Frau the woman's jacket
28 ARTICLES Anrrcus z9
) You also use the definite article with the names of roads
El ruote that you do not usually use the definite article with the genitive case
Sie wohntjetzt in der Geisener She lives in Geisener Road now
if the noun is a proper name or is being used as a proper name.
A proper name is the name of a person, place, organization orthing. StraBe.

JansAuto Jan's car D The definite article is used with months of the yeal except after the prepositions
MuttisAuto Mummy's car seit. nach and vor.
Occasionally, the definite article l5 used with proper names: Der Dezember war ziemlich kalt. The Decemberwas auite cold.
Wir sind seit September hier. We have been here since September.
e to make the sex ofthe person or the case clearer
Er hat es der Frau Kekilli gegeben. He gave it to Frau Kekilli. Q For more information on Prepositions, see plge :53.

o where an adjective is used before the proper name D lf you're talking about prices and want to say eoch, per or o, you use the definite
Die alte Frau Schnorr ist Old Frau Schnorr has died. article.
Die kosten fiinf Euro das Pfund. They cost five eu ros a pou nd.
o in certain informalsituations orto emphasize something lch habe sechs Euro das Stlick I paid six euros each.
lch habe heute den Kevin I saw Kevin todav. bezahlt.
gesehen. ) In certain common expressions the definite article is used

in die Stadt fahren to go into town

) In German, you have to use the definite article in front of masculine and feminine
mit der Post by post
cou ntries and d istricts, but Vou don't need it for neuter ones.
mit dem Zug/Bus,/Auto by tra i n/bus,/car
Die Schweiz ist auch schiin. Switzerland is also beautiful.
Deutschland ist sehr schtin. Cermany is very beautiful.

Grammar b<tra!
I n cerman, the defi nite article can be used instead ofa demonstrative ad iective
Grammar Extra!
Du willst das Buch lesen! You want to read that book!
You also use the deflnite article when geographical names are preceded by an adjective

das heutige Deutschland today's Cermany Q ror more information on Demonstrative adjedives, see page 31.

D The definite article is used with names of seasons. > In German, the deflnite article is left out:

DerWinterkommtbald. Soonitwill bewinter. o of certain set expressions

von Beruf by profession
l You often use the defin ite article with meals.
Nachrichten h6ren to listen to the news
lm Hotel wird das Abendessen Dinner is served from eight
ab acht Uhr serviert. o'clock in the hotel.

[f ruote that there are certain expressions with meals when you don't use the
definite article.
Um acht Uhr ist Fr[ihst0ck. Breakfast is at eight o'clock.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Anrrclrs 3t

tr Shortened forms of the definite article tr Words declined like the definite article
> After certain prepositions, the definite article can be shortened, though it is ) These words follow the same Datterns as the definite article:
best to avoid using some of these forms in writing:
Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative
o fiir das -
fiirs Pluralonly alle alle aller allen
Es ist fiirs Baby. It's for the baby.
singular beides beides beides beiden
o vordem +vorm Plural beide beide beider beiden
Es liegtvorm Haus. It's lying in front of the house. singular dieser, diesen, dieses/diesen, diesem,
a um das * ums diese, diese, dieser, dieser,
dieses dieses dieses/diesen diesem
Es geht ums Geld. It's a question of money.
Plural diese diese dieser diesen
) The following shortened forms can lre used in writing: singular einiger, einigen, einiges,/einigen, einigem,
a an dem -am einige, einige, einiger, einigeL
einiges einiges einiges,/ein igen einigem
Am r. Mai fahren wir in die We go on holiday on the
Ferien. rst of May. Plural ernrge ernrge einiger einigen
singular jeder, jeden, jedes/jeden, jedem,
o indemrim jede, jede, jeder, jeder,
Das Buch liegt im Haus. The book's in the house. jedes jedes jedes/jeden jedem
a zu dem -zum Plural jede jede jeder jeden
lch muss zum Bahnhofgehen. I have to go to the station. 5ingular jener, jenen, jenelenen, Jenem,
jene, jene, jener, jener,
a zu der-zur jenes jenes jenelenen jenem
Sie gehtjeden Tag zur Schule. She goes to school every day.
Plural Jene Jene jener Jenen
Q Fo r m o re i nfo r m ati o n o n Shortened form s of p repositions, see p o ge $ 5 - Singular mancher, manchen, ma nch es/m a nc hen, manchem,
manche, manche, mancher, mancher,
manches manches manches/manchen manchem
Key points Plural manche manche mancher manchen
y' the definite article is used in Cerman witfr: Singular solchen solchen, so I c hes/so lc hen, solchem,
. abstract nouns solche, solche, solcher, solcher,
solches solches solches/solchen solchem
. the genitivecaseto show possession
solche solche solcher solchen
. propernames, incertain exceptional cases Plural
welches/welchen, welchem,
o masculine and feminine countries and districts 5ingular welcher,
welche, welcher, welcher,
o names ofseasons and with months ofthe yeat except after the welches welches welches/welchen welchem
prepositions seit, nach and vor
Plural welche welche welcher welchen
o names of roads
. ra"O Or*,
"nO trtote that dieser orjener are used to translate the English demonstrative
y' the defi nit" a.rman can lre used in certain set expressions. @
"rr,a,a,n adjectives this, thot, th ese and th ose
y' wnen combined with certain prepositions, the definitearticle can
lre shortened.
o alf e, aller, allen (plural only) all, allof them
Wir haben alle gesehen. We saw all of them.
Die Eltern fuhren mit allen The parents went offwith all
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x'xiv.
Kindern weg. their children.
32 ARTTCLES Anlcus 33

beide (plurol only) both pronouns - a pronoun is a word you use instead ofa noun, when you do not
lch habe beide B0cher gelesen. l've read both books. need or want to name someone or something d irectly, for example,
tt, v?u, none.
dieser, diese, dieses this, this one, these
Willst du diesen? Do you want this one?
Dieserjunge Mann ist begabt. This young man talented.

This old house is really beautiful. Man kann ja nicht alles wissen. You can't know everything.
Dieses alte Haus ist wirklich schiin.
Es gibt manche, die keinen There are some people who don't
einiger, einige, einiges some,afew,alittle
Alkohol miigen. likealcohol.
Einioe von uns gingen spazieren. Some of us went fora walk.
Wir haben einiges gesehen. We saw quite a lot of things. + For more information on Pronouns, see page 59.

jeder, jede, jedes each, each one, every

Jeder Schiiler bekommt ein Zeugnis. Every pupil receives a report.
Sie kommt iedes Mal zu spit. She comes late every time. Grammar Extm!
einiger and i rgendwelcher end i n -en i n the gen itive before mascul i ne or neuter nou ns end i ng
jener, jene, jenes that, that one, those in-s.
.lener Junge hatte seine Brieftasche That boy had lost his wallet.
Er musste wegziehen wegen He had to move away because ofsome gossip.
verloren. irgendwelchen Geredes.
mancher, manche, manches many a, Some
jeder, welcher, mancher and solcher can also do this or can have the usual -es ending
Mancher Mann bleibt gern mit den Some men like staying at home
Das Kind solcher Eltern wird The child of such parents will have problems
Kindern zu Hause. with the children.
Probleme haben.
Manches Auto fihrt schneller als Some cars can go faster than
Trotzjeden Versuchs scheiterten Despite all attempts, the negotiations
zzokm/h. 2zokm/h.
dieVerhandlungen. failed.
solcher, solche, solches such, such a
Ein solches Mountainbike hitte ich l'd really like to have a mountain
auch gern. bike like that too.
solcher, beide and simtliche can be used after another article or Possessive
welcher, welche, welches which, which one adjective (in English, one of the words my, your, his, her, its, our or their).
Welche Frau hat die Stelle bekommen? Which woman got the job? friiher to have a bike like thattoo.
Ein solches Rad habe ich I used
auch gehabt.
Orammar Extra! Diese beiden Minner haben es Both ofthese men have seen it.
samtliche and irgendwelcher also follow the same pattern as the definite article:
. semtliche all, entire(usually plural) Although beide generally has pluralforms only, there is one singular form, beides.
sie besitztTolkiens simtliche Werke. she owns the complete works of Tolkien While beide is more common and can referto both people and things, beides
r irgendwelcher, -e, -es some or other refers only to things. Beide is used for two examples of the same thing or person,
sind noch irqendwelche Reste da? ls there anything left? or while beides is used fortwo different examples.
ls there still something left? Es gab zwei Bleistifte und er hat There were two pencils and he
beide genommen. took both.

) The words listed above can be used as: BUT

o articles Esgab einen Bleistift und ein Bild There was one pencil and one
und er hat beides genommen. picture and he took both.
Dieser Mann kommt aus Si.idamerika. This man comesfrom SouthAmerica.
sie geht ieden Tag ins Biiro. She goes to the office every day. @ Notethat beides is singular in cerman, whereas both is plural in English.
Beides ist richtig. Both are correct.
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
34 ARncLEs Amcles 35

) dies often replaces the nom inative and accusative dieses and diese when it Key points
is used as a Dronoun.
y' rhereis a grou p of woros wn icn-#;".;;" ke the defi ite arti cte der.
Hast du dies schon gelesen? Have you already read this?
I i n

Dies sind meine neuen Sachen. These are my new things.

y' These words can be used as articles or pronouns.
y' solcher ,beide and sdmtliche can be used after another article or
S ror more informotion on Pronouns, see pnge 69. possessive adjective.
) alle also has a fixed form - all - wh ich is used together with other articles or y' Oeiaegenerally has plural forms only, but there is one singularform,
possessive pronouns.
All sein Mut war verschwunden. All his courage had disappeared.
Was machst du mit all diesem What are you doing with all r' When it is used as a pronoun dles often replaces the nominative and
accusative dieses and diese.
Geld? this monev?
I ganzcan be used to replace both alle and all and is declined like an adjective.
t/ alle also has a fixed form, all.

sie ist mit dem ganzen Geld 5he disappeared with allthe
r/ ganz must lre used instead ofalle in certain situations.

verschwunden. monev.
* ror more information on Adiedives, see page 40.
6 I The indefinite article
) ganz must be used: > In English we have the indefi nite article o, wh ich changes to an in front of a word
. in time phrases that starts with a vowel. I n the plu ral we say either so me, onY or nothi n g at all.
Es hat den ganzen Tag geschneit- lt snowed the whole day long
L word you choose for a depends on whether the noun it is used
n German the
o when talking about geography I

with feminine or neuter, singular or pluralAN D it also depends

is masculine,
lm ganzen Land gab es keinen Therewasn'ta betterwine in the
on the case ofthe noun.
besseren Wein, whole country
Da ist ein There's a car.
o with nouns referri ng to a col lection of people or an i mals (collective nou ns)
The entire company was
Sie hat eine 5he has a flat.
Die ganze Gesellschaft war auf
der Versammlung vertreten. represented at the meeting. Ergabeseinem Kinc. He gave it to a child.

It has no plural forms.

Grammar Extn! Computer sind in letzter zeit Computers have become more
derjenige/diejenige/dasjenige (the one, those) is decl i ned i n the same way as the defi n ite article teurer geworden. expensive recently.
(der) + a Y7g.k.6;..,,t..
The indefinite article is formed as follows:
Q For nore information onweakadieaives, see poge 42.

Case Masculine Feminine Neuter Case Masculine Feminine Neuter

Nominative derjenige Mann dieienige Frau dasienige Kind Nominative etn etne ein
Accusative denienigen Mann diejenige Frau dasienige Kind
Accusative etnen etne etn
Genitive desienigen Mann(e)s derienigen Frau desienigen Kind(e)s
demjenigen Mann derienigen Frau demienigen Kind cenitive ernes etner etnes
Dative ernem etner etnem
dersef beld ieselbe/dasselbe (the some, the same one) is declined in the same way as derjenige.
However, after prepositions, the shortened forms ofthe defi n ite article are used for the
appropriate parts of derselbe
zur selben (=zu derselben) zeit at the same time
/ 't Using the indefinite article
im selben (=in demselben) Zimmer in the same room > The indefinite article is used very much as in English
Q For more information on shortened forms of prepositions, see poge fis Da ist ein Bus. There's a bus.
Sie hat eine neueJacke. She has a new jacket.
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. Sie gab es einer alten Dame. 5he gave it to an old lady.
Amcles 37
36 Acncles
Er hatte keine Geschwister. He had no brothers or sisters.
) ln certain situations,you do notusethe indefinitearticle:
lch sehe keinen Unterschied. I don't see any difference.
o when talking about the job someone does
richtige Antwort.
Das ist keine That's no answer.
Sie ist Arztin. She's a doctor.
Kein Mensch hat es gesehen. Not one person has seen it.
o when talking about someone's nationality or religion
Sie ist Deutsche' She's (a) Cerman.

Er ist Moslem. He's (a) Muslim.

This negative form of the indefinite article is even used when the
comes before the
[J trtote that the indefinite article ts used when an adjective positiveform of the phrase has no article.
noun. Er hatte Angst davor. He was frightened.
Sie ist eine sehr begabte She's a very talented journalist. Er hatte keine Angst davor. He wasn't frightened
in certain fixed exPressions
Esist Geschmacksache. It's a question of taste. Grammar Extra!
Tatsache ist ... It's a fact... I he negative form of the indefinite article is also used in many informal expressions

sie hatte kein Geld mehr. All her moneywas gone.

after als (meaning as o)
don't earn very much as a teacher. Es waren keine d rei Monate vergangen, lt was less than three months later
Als Lehrerin verdiene ich nicht gut' I
als ... that...
Als GroBmutter darf ich meine As a grandmother, l'm allowed to
Es hat mich keine zehn Euro gekostet. lt cost me less than ten euros.
Enkel verw6,hnen. spoil my grandchildren.
lf you want to emphasize the ein in the sentence, nicht ein can be used instead ofkein.
Nicht ein Kind hat es singen kiinnen. Not ona ch ild could sing it
tr r i) ror more informotion on Negatives, see page vg
not happeni ng or i s not true' The sentences that
these words are used i n
are called neoative sentences.
Key points
don't know him.
y' me indefinite article is used in German:
I never do mY homework on time'
. totranslatethe English a and onyinthesingular
>lnCerman,youuseaseparatenegativeformoftheindefiniteartic|e,whichis . to translate the English someor anyinthe plural
like ein in the singular, and also has pluralforms. lt means
formed exactlv
not o/not one/not anv.
o in negative sentences in its separate negative form, kein,
to translate not or never
Neuter All Genders
Masculine Feminine
Singular Plural
y' meindefinite article in Cerman is NOT used when:
Case Singular Singular
kein keine kein keine . talkingaboutsomeone'sjolr, nationalityorreligion, unless
an adjective is used before the noun
keine kein keine
Accusative keinen
keines keiner
. in certain setexpressionsorafterals meaning as o
Genitive keines keiner
keinem keiner keinem keinen
Words declined like the indefinite article
following words are possessive adjectives, one of the wo rds my, your, his,
I he
with a noun to show that one person or th i ng belongs
her, its, our or their used
see pages x-xlv' lo another. TheV follow the same pattern as the indefinite articles ein and kein.
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please
38 ARTCLES Anncus 39

mein my Mein kleiner Bruder will auch MV little brother wants to come too
dein y our (singulor fami liar) mitkommen.
sein h islits Wo steht dein altes Auto? Where is vour old car?
ihr herlits Er spielt FuBball mit seinerTante. He is playing football with his aunt.
unser our Was ist mit ihrem Computer los? What is wrong with her computer?
euer your (plurol familior) lhre Kinder sind wirklich verw6,hnt. Their children are really spoiled.
ihr thei r Wie geht es lhrer Schwester? How is your sister?
lhr your (polite singular ond plural)
lch will meine Kinder regelmiRig I want to see my children regularly.
D Possessive adjectives are formed in the following way. sehen.

Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative

Singular mein, meinen, metneS, metnem, Grammar bctra!
meine, metne, meiner, meiner,
Possessive adjectives are often followed by other adjectives i n Cerman sentences.
mein mein meines meinem
These adjectives then have the same endings as the indefinite article.
Plural merne metne metner mernen
Er liebt sein altes Auto. He loves h is old car
Singular dein, deinen, deines, deinem,
deine, deine, deiner, deiner,
Sie hat ihren neuen ComDuterverkauft. She sold her new comouter

dein deines deinem Wo ist deine rote racke? Where is your red jacket?
Plural deine deine deiner deinen irgendein(meaningsome... orother)and itsplural formirgendwelchealsotaketheseendings
Singular setnr setnen, seines, seinem, Er ist irgendein bekanntgl Schauspieler. He's some famous actor or other.
seine, setne, seiner, seiner, justsomeold woman orother
Sie ist nur irgendeine alte Frau. She's
sein sein seines sernem
Sie hat irgendein neues Buch gekauft. She bought some new book or other.
Plural setne setne seiner sernen
lch muss irgendwelche bliiden Touristen I have to show some stupid tourists or
singular ih r, ihren, ihres, ihrem.
herumfiihren. other round.
ihre, ihre, ih rer, ihrer,
ihr ihr ih res ihrem
Plural ihre ihre ih rer ihren
Singulal unser, unseren, unseres, unserem,
unsere, unserel unserer, unserer,
unser unser unseres unserem y' possess ive adj ectives, y, you r, hi s, her, its,ou r or th ei r,

Plural unsere unsere unserer unseren

".. "r,|;:uJ;fi
are decli ned I ike the indefinite articles ein and kein.
Singular euer, eu(e)ren, eu(e)res, eu(e)rem,
eu(e)re, eu(e)re, eu(e)rer, eu(e)rer,
eu(e)res eu(e)res eu(e)res eu(e)rem
Plural eu(e)re eu(e)re eu(e)rer eu(e)ren
Singular ihr, ihren, ih res, ihrem,
ihre, ihre, ihrer, i h rer,
ihr ihr ihres ihrem
Plural ihre ihre i hrer ihren
Singular lhr, lhren, lhres, lhrem,
lhre, lhre, I h rer, I h rer,
lhr lhr lhres lhrem
Plural lhre lhre I hrer lhren

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Aojesnves 4r
As in English, Cerman adjectives come BEFORE the noun they describe, but
ECTIVES AFTER the verb in the sentence. The only time the adjective does not agree with
theword itdescribes iswhen it comesAFTERthe verb.
eine schwarze Katze a black cat
What is an adjective?
a person or thin9, Das Buch ist neu. The book is new
An adjective is a'describing'word that tells you more alrout
such as their appearance, colour, size or other qualities, for example, prettv,
blue, big. Key points
y' M ost Cerman adjectives change their form accord i ng to the case
of the nou n they are descritring and whether the noun is mascu line,
Using adjectives
feminine or neuter, singularor plural.
) Adjectives are words like clever, expensive and silly that tell you more about a nou n y' In German, as in English, adjectives come before the noun they
1a ilving being, thing or idea). They
can also tellyou more about a pronoun, such describe, lrut AFTER the verb in the sentence.
as he orthey. Adjectives are sometimes called 'describing words'.They can be used
right next to a noun they are describi n9, or can be separated from the noun by a
verb like be,look, feel and so on.
a clevergirl
an exDensive coat
a sillv idea
He's just being sillY.

Q For more information on Nouns ond Pronouns, see poges t and 69

)> In English, the only time an adjective changes its form is when you are making
a comparison.
5he's cleverer than her brother.
That's the silliest idea I ever heardl

> In German, however, adjectives usuallyagreewith whattheyare describing'

This means that their end ings change depending on whether the person or thing
you are referring to is masculine, feminine or neutel and singular or plural'
it also depends on the case ofthe person or thing you are describing and whether
it is preceded by the deflnite or indefinite article.
Das neue Buch ist da. The new book has arrived.
lch wollte es der alten Frau geben. I wanted to give it to the old woman.

Sie erzihlte mir eine langweilige She told me a boring story'

Die deutschen Traditionen Cerman traditions

* For more information on Coses ond Articles, see plges 9 and 25

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv'

Aolecrves 43
42 ADrEcflvEs
> These are the plu ral end i ngs of adjectives i n the weak declension
Making adjectives agree "

Plural All Genders

tr The basic rules Nominative die alten
l In dictionaries, onlVthe basicform ofGerman adjectives is shown.You need to Minner/Frauen/Hiuser
know how to change it to make it agree with the noun or pronoun the adjective Accusative die altgq
descri bes. Men nerlFrauen/Hiuser

with the noun or pronoun it describes, you simply add Genitive der alten
)> To make an adjective ag ree
one ofthree sets ofdifferent endings:
Dative den alten
tr TheWeak Declension
)> The end ings used after the defi n ite articles der, die and das and other words
declined likethem are shown below. 3_l The Mixed Declension
Masculine Feminine Neuter All cenders ) The end i ngs used after ein, kein, irgendein and the possessive adjectives are
Case Singular Singular Singular Plural shown below.
Nominative -e -e -e -en

-en -e -e -en
[| trtote that th is declension d iffers from the weak declension on ly i n the three
Accusative forms underlined below.
Genitive -en -en -en -en
Masculine Feminine Neuter All Genders
Dative -en -en -en
Case Singular Singular Singular Plural
The following table shows you how these ifferent end ings are added to the
d Nominative -er -e -es -en
adjective alt, meaning old, when it is used with the definite article. Accusative -en -e -es -en
Genitive -en -en -en -en
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Singular Dative -en -en -en -en
Case Singular Singular
Nominative der alte Mann die alte Frau das alte Haus
die alte Frau das alte Haus
t ) For more information on the Possessive odjeaives, see page 37.
Accusative den alten Mann
Genitive des alten Mann(e)s der alten Frau des alten Hauses D The following table shows you how these different endings are added to the
Dative dem alten Mann der alten Frau dem alten Haus adjective lang, meaning long.

Nominatrve: Masculine Feminine Neuter

Der altg Mann wohnt nebenan' The old man lives next door. Case Singular Singular Singular
Accusative: Nominative ein langerWeg eine lange Reise ein langes Spiel
lch habe die alre Frau in der I saw the old woman in the Accusative einen langen Weg eine lange Reise ein langes Spiel
Bibliothek gesehen. library. cenitive eines langen einer langen eines langen
Cenitive: Weg(e)s Reise Spiel(e)s
Die Besitzerin des alten Hauses The owner of the old house Dative einem langen Weg einer langen Reise einem langen Spiel
ist ganz reich. is very rich.
Er hilft dem alten Mann beim He helps the old man to do his
Einkaufen. shopping.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x'xiv.

Aolrcrves 45
Nominative: Nominative:
Eine lange Reise muss geplantwerden' You have to plan a long trip Gutes Bier ist sehrwichtig auf Good beer isvery importantat
einer Party. a paruy.
lch habe einen langen Weg nach It takes me a long time to get Accusative:
Hause. nome" Wo finde ich gutgn KAsel Where will I get good cheese?
Genitive: Cenitive:
Die vielen Nachteile einer langen The many disadvantages of a long Das istein Zeichen gutgf Marmelade. That isa sign of good jam.
Reise... JOUrney... Dative:
Dative: Zu gutgm KHse braucht man auch You need olives to go with good
Bei einem langen Spiel kann man You can get bored with a long
Oliven. cheese.
sich langweilen. game.
L These are the plural end i ngs of adjectives when they have a strong declension.
These are the plural endings ofadjectiveswhen they have a mixed declension.

Plural All cenders [) ruote that the plural form of Kise is normally Kisesorten.

Nominative ihre langen Plural All Genders

Nominative gute
Accusative ihre langen Kasesorten/Marmeladen/Biere
Accusative 9ute
Genitive ihrer langen Kasesorten/Marmeladen/Biere
Genitive guter
Dative ihren langen
Dative 9uten
E The Stronq Declension
>> The endings used when there is no article before the noun are shown below fl trt ote that these end i ngs al low the adjective to do the work of the m issi ng

article by showing the case of the noun and whether it is singular or plurar,
Masculine Feminine Neuter All cenders masculine, feminine or neuter.
Case Singular singular singular Plural

Nominative -er -e -es -e F The article is omitted more often in Cerman than in English, especiallywhere
y ou have prepositi on * adjective + noun com b i nations.
Accusative -en -e -es -e

cenitive -en -er -en -er Nach kurzer Fahrt kamen wir in Aftera short journeywe arrived
-em -er -em -en Glasgow an. in 6lasgow.
Mit gleichem Gehalt wie du wiirde l'd be able to afford a holiday on the
The following table shows you how these d ifferent end ings are added to the ichmireinenUrlaubleistenkijnnen. samesalaryasyou.
adjective gut, meaning good.

Masculine Feminine Neuter

Case singular singular Singular

Nominative gutgl Kase gute Marmelade gutgs Bier

Accusative guten Kese gute Marmelade gutes Bier

Genitive guten Keses gutel Marmelade guten Bier(e)s

Dative guten Kase guter Marmelade guten Bier

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x'xlv'

46 ADrEcnvEs Aolecrves 47
D These strong declension end i ngs are also used after any of the fol lowi ng words D With wenig and numbers from zwei onwards, adjectives behave as follows:
when the noun thev refer to is not preceded by an article. . Strong, when there is no article:
Word Meaning Es gab damals nur wenig frisches There was little fresh fru it at that
ein bisschen a little, a bit of Obst. time.
ein wenig a little Zwei kleineJungen kamen die Two small boys came along the
StraRe entlang. street.
ein paar a few, a couple

wenrger fewer, less . Weak. when the definite article comes first:
einige (plural forns only) some Das wenige frische Obst, das es The little fresh fruit that was
etwas some, any (singular) damals gab, warteuer, available then, was exDensive.
mehr more Die zwei kleinen Jungen, die die The two small boys who came
nothing but, sheer, pure
StraBe entlangkamen. alono the street.
solch such o Mixed, when a possessive adjective comesfi rst:
was fiir what, what kind of Meine zwei kleinen Jungen sind My two small sons are cheeky
viel much, many, a lot of manchmal frech. sometimes.
welch...! what ...1 what a ...!
These strong declension endings also need to be used after possessives where
manch many a
no otherword shows the case of the followinq noun and whether it's masculine.
wenig little, few, not much
feminine or neuter, singular or plural
zwei, drei €tc two, three etc
Sebastians alte5 Buch lag auf Sebastian's old book was lying
dem Tisch. on the table.
Morgen hHtte ich ein wenig freie I could spare you some time
tomorrow Mutters neuer Computer sieht Mother's new computer looks
Zeit fiir dich.
toll aus, I rear.
sie hat mir ein paar guteTipps she gave me a few good tips.
obst als ich.
Er isst weniger frisches He eats less fresh fruit than me.
Heutzutage wollen mehrjunge Nowadays, more young women rrp
Frauen Ingenieurinnen werden. wantto beengineers. When these various end ings are added to adjectives, you have to watch
Solche leckere Schokolade habe ich I haven't had such good chocolate out for some spel I i ng changes.
schon lange nicht mehrgegessen. fora long time. When endings are added to the adjective hoch, meaning hrgh, the simple
Wir haben viel kostbargZeit We have wasted a lot of valuable form changes to hoh.
verschwendet. time. Das Gebiude ist hoch. The building is high.
Welch herrliches Wetter! What wonderfu I weatherl Das ist ein hohes Gebdude. That is a high building.
Adjectives ending in -el lose the -e when endings are added.
Das Zimmer ist dunkel. The room is dark.
Man sieht nichts in dem You can't see anything in the
dunklen Zimmer. dark room.
Adjectives ending in -er often lose the -e when endings are added.
Das Auto war teuer. The car was expensive.
Sie kaufte ein teures Auto. She bought an expensive car.
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see Pages x-xiv'
Aolecrves 49
48 Aorrcnves
leicht easv for
Key points Du machst es dir wirklich zu leicht. You really make things too easyfor
y' with the noun it is describing' you simply
To make an adjective agree vourself.
addoneofthreesetsofendings:weak,mixedorst'ron9. nah(e) close to
v Strong end i ngs are also used after particular words
when not preceded
Unser Haus ist nahe der Universitit. Our house is nearthe universitv.
;;;;il;;,?;r example, ein bisschen, ein paar' wenig and after
possessive adjectives. peinlich embarrassing for
Das war ihr aber peinlich. She was really embarrassed.

unbekannt unknown to
tr Participles as adiectives Das war mir unbekannt. I didn't know that.
in -ing' which may be used
l In English, the present particlple is a verb form ending
Verbtoformthepresentparticip|e,Whichmaythenbeusedasanadjectivewith Key points
all the usual endinqs' y' In Cerman, both present and past participles can also be used as

Auf demTisch stand ein Foto There was a Photo of a laughing adjectives.
von einem lachenden Kind. child on the table. y' winmany Cerman adjectives you use the dative case.
be used ke this'
@ trtote that the present participles of sein and haben cannot

) The past participle ofa verb can also be used as an adjective'

Meine Mutter hat meine MV mother found mY lost things.
verlorenen Sachen gefunden'
$ For more information on Post participles, see

tr Adjectivespreceded bvthedativecase
> With many adjectives you use the dative case' for example:

o ihnlich similarto
He's very like his father.
Er ist seinem Vater sehr ihnlich'

. bekannt familiarto
sie kommt mir bekannt vor. She seems familiar to me'

. dankbar gratefulto
lch bin dir sehr dankbar. l'm very gratefulto You.

o fremd strange, alien to

Das ist mirfremd. That's alien to me.

o gleich all the same to,/like

ist mir gleich. It's all the same to me.

see Pages x-xiv'

For further exPlanation ofgrammatical terms, please
50 ADrEcrvEs Aorecrrves 5I

Adjectives used as nouns Some other points about adjectives

) All adjectives in Cerman, and participles used as adjectives, can also be used I I Adiectives describing nationalitv
as nouns. These are often called adiectival nouns.
D Thesearenotspeltwithacapital letterinCermanexceptinpublicorofficial names.
D Adjectives and participles used as nouns have:
Die deutsche Sprache ist schiin. The Cerman language is beautiful.
o a caoital letter like other nouns Das franziisische Volk war entsetzt. The people of France were horrified.
Der neue Angestellte ist frii h The new employee arrived early. BUT:
angekommen. Die Deutsche Bahn hat Erfolg. The Cerman railwavs are successful
o weak, strong or mixed endings, depending on which article, if any, comes > However,whentheseadjectivesareusedasnounstorefertoalanguage,acapital
before them letter is used.
Sie ist die neue Angestellte. She is the new employee. Sie sprechen kein Englisch. They don't speak Engl ish.
Das Gute daran ist, dass ich The good thing about it is that
l'm earning more.
> lnCerman,forexpressionslikeheisEnglish/heisGermonetcanounoradjectival
mehr verdiene.
noun is used instead ofan adiective.
Es bleibt beim Alten. Things remain as they were.
Er ist Deutscher. He is Cerman.
sie ist Deutsche. 5he is German.
KeY Points
y' ndjectives in cerman, and participles used as adjectives, can also be 2 ) Adjectives taken from place names
used as nouns.These are often called adjectival nouns.
y' nd iectival nouns beqin with a capital letter and take the same endings
l These areformed byadding -erto names oftowns.They neverchange byadding
endi ngs to show case.
"*orr"t "Oj..tiu"t. Kiilner, Frankfurter, Berliner etc from Cologne, Frankfurt, Berlin etc
Der K6lner Dom ist wirklich Cologne cathedral is really
beeindruckend. imoressive.
lch m6,chte ein Frankfurter l'd li ke a frankfurter sausaoe.
L Adj ectives from die Schweiz, mean i ng Switzerland, and some other reg ions can
also be formed in this way.
Schweizer Kise mag ich gern. I reallv like Swiss cheese
> Adjectives like these can be used as nouns denoting the inhabitants of a town,
in which case they take the same endings as normal nouns.
Die Sprache des K6,lners heiBt t<iilsch. People from Cologne speak Kolsch.
Die Entscheidung wurde von den People from Frankfurt welcomed
Frankfurtern begriisst. the decision.

[) trtote that the feminine form of such nouns is formed by add ing -in in the
singularand -innen in the plural.
Christine, die Londonerln war, Christine, who was from London,
wollte nach Glasgow ziehen. wanted to move to clasoow.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see Pages x-xiv.

Aolecrrves 53
52 AprEcflvEs

Com pa ratives of adjectives
y' Adjectives describing nationality are notspeltwith a capital letter in What is a comparative adjective?
cermanexceptinpub|icorofficia|names,BUTwhentheyareusedas A comparative adjective in English is one with -eradded to itor more or less in front
nouns to refer to a language, they do have a capital letter' of it, that is used to compare people or things, for exampl e, slower, morebeautiful.
y' ndjectives taken from place names are formed Lly add i ng -er to the na m e

ofthe town and never change by add i ng end i ngs to show case' ln Cerman, to say that somethingis eosier, more expensive and so on, Vou add
y' Theycan also be used as nounsdenoting the inhabitantsofa
place' -er to the simDle form of most adiectives.
einfach * einfacher
Das war viel einfacher fiir dich. That was much easier for Vou.

[J ruote that adjectives whose simple form ends i n -en or -er may d rop the fi nal
-e to form the comparative, as in teurer.
teuer + teurer
DieseJacke ist teurgl. This jacket is more expensive.
> To introduce the person or th ing you are making the com parison with, use als
(meaning than).
Erist kleiner als seine Schwester. H e is sma ller tha n h is s ister.

Diese Frage ist einfacher als die This question is easier than the
erste. firstone.
> To say that something or someone is os ... os something or someone else, you
use so ... wie or genauso ... wie, ifyou want to mal<e it more emphatic. To sav
not as ... ds, you use nicht so ... wie.
Sie ist so gut wie ihr Bruder. She is as good as her brother
Er war qenauso gli,icklich wie ich. He was j ust as happy as I was
Sie ist nicht so alt wie du. She is not as old as you
Here are some examples of commonly used adjectives which have a vowel
change in the comparative form:

Adjective Meaning Comparative Meaning

alt old elter older
stark strong starker stronger
schwach weal( schwAcher weaKer
scharf sharp schirfer sharper
lang rong lSnger longer
KUrZ short kiirzer shorter
warm warm warmer warmer
kalt cold kalter colder
hart hard herter harder
groB big griiRer bigger

Adjectives whose simple form ends in -el lose the -e before adding the comparative
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv' ending -er.
54 ADJEcflvEs Ao;rcrves 55

eitel + eitler vain - vainer 5u perlatives of adjectives

Er ist eitler als ich. He is vainer than me.
What is a superlative adjective?
dunkel - dunkler dark * darker
A superlative adjective in English is one with -est on the end of it or most or
Deine Haare sind dunkler als ihre. Your hair is darkerthan hers.
least in front of it, that is used to compare people or th ings, for example, thinnesr,
> when used before the noun, comparative forms of adjectives take the same most beautiful.
weak, strong or mixed endings as their simple forms.
Die ji..ingerg Schwester ist grtiBer The younger sister is bigger
ln Cerman, to saythatsomething orsomeone isecsiest,Voungest, mostexpensive
als die Sltere. than the older one.
and so on, you add -st to the simple form of the adjective. As with comparative
Mein jtingergl Bruder geht jetzt My younger brother goes to
forms, the vowel in the simple form can change. Superlative forms are generally
zur Schule. school now.
used with the definite article and take the same weak endings as theirsimple forms,
* For more informotion on Mabng odjediva agree, see poges 42-48 '
Deine Hausaufgaben waren Your homework was easiest.
Grammar b<tra! Sie ist dieJiingste in der Familie. theyoungest in thefamily
She is

> with a few adjectives, comparative forms may also be used to translate the idea of -ish or lch wollte die teuersteJacke im Iwanted to buy the most
rather ... Laden kaufen. expensivejacket in the shop.
Comparative Meaning Adjectives ending in -t, -tz, -2, -sch, -ss or -R form the superlative by adding -est
elter elderly instead of-st.
diinner thinnish de r/d e/das hteste
i sc h I ec the worst
dicker Das war der schlechtgglg Film seit That was the worst film in vears
griif3er largish
ji.jnger youngish
der/ dle/ das sch m erzhafteste the most painful
kleiner smallish
Das war ihre schmerzhafteste That was her most painful injury
neuer newish
der/die/das siiReste the sweetest
Eine iltere Frau kam die stral3e An elderlywoman was coming along
entlang. the street. lch miichte den siiBesten Nachtisch. I would like the sweetest dessert.
Er war von ji.ingerem Aussehen. He was ofyoungish aPPearance. der/die/das stolzeste the proudest
MM4WWIbMWNMMNWqUMMMIWNWMqMWMqilWIW@WlWMN@itMMWilx!x,@!M'MfuMWMWWlM4b@fuEMM4MMI Sie war die stolze5lg Mutter in der She was the proudest mother in
Gegend. the area.
Key points
der/ die/ das frischeste
y' In Cerman, to form the comparativeyou add -erto the simpleform of the freshest
F0r dieses Rezept braucht man You need the freshest fru it for th is
most adjectives.
das frischeste Obst.
y' To compare people or things in German, you use so ." wie, genauso "'

wie, if you wantto make it more emphatic, or nicht so ." wie' > Adjectives end i ng i n -eu and -au also add -est to form the superlative.
y' rhan in comparatives corresponds to als. der/die/das neueste the newest, the latest
y' thereis a change in the vowel in many of the simple forms of German lch brauche die neueste Ausgabe I need the latest edition ofthe
adjectives when form ing their comparatives. des Wiirterbuchs. dictionary.
y' ndjectives whose simple form ends in'el, such as dunkel, lose the'e
der/ die/ das sch laueste the cleverest
before adding the comparative ending'er.
Sie ist die schlaueste Schiilerin She is the cleverest student in the
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see pages x-xiv'
in der Klasse. cta55.
56 ADJEcrlvEs
in Cerman by any
} The English superlative most, meaning very, can be expressed ADVERBS
of the following words.

SuPerlative Meaning
extremely What is an adverb?
An adverb is a word usually used with verlrs, adjectives or other adverbs that
sehr very
g ives more information about when, how, where, or in what circumstances
besonders especially
something happens: quickly, happily, noware all adverbs.
au [3erordentlich exceptionallV

hiichst extremely (not used with words of one syllable)

furchtbar terribly (used only in conversation) How adverbs are used

richtig reallV/most (used onlV in conversation)
D In general, adverbs are used together with:
Sie ist ein euRerst begabter Mensch. She is a most gifted Person' o verbs (act quickly. speok strangel\, smile cheerfullv)
Das Essen war besonders schlecht. The food was reallY dreadful' o adjectives (rlthgIill, o lotbetter, deeplv sorry)
Der Wein war furchtbar teuer' The wine was terriblY exPensive. . other adve rbs (fegMfast, too quickly, very well)
Das sieht richtig komisch aus. That looks reallY funnY.
> Adverbs can also relate to the whole sentence; they often tell you what the
speaker is thinking orfeel ing.

rw Fortunately, Jan had already left.

English has some irregular comparative and superlative forms -

Actually, I don't think l'll come.
Just is
'most bod'-cerman also
betterinstead of'more good"and worstinstead of
has a few irregular forms' How adverbs are formed

superlative Meaning The_Desrgrulec

Adjective Meaning comparative Meaning
gut gooo besser better der beste the best > Many English adverbs end in Jy, which is added to the end of the adjective(quick
der hiichste rhe highest
hoch high hiiher higher , quickly; sod
- sadly: frequent - frequently).
mehr more der meiste the most
viel much/a lot > In contrast, mostCerman adverbs used to commenton verbs are simply
near nAher nearer der nachste the nearest
nah adjectives used as adverbs. And the good news is that unlike adjectives, they do
not change by add ing different endings.
lch habe eine bessere ldee. I have a better idea.
Habe ich das richtig Did I hear that correctlv?
Wo liegt der nichste Bahnhof? Where is the nearest station?
Er war schick angezogen. He was stylishly dressed.

> A small number of German adverbs which do not d irectly comment on the verb
are formed by adding -weise or-sweise to a noun.
y' Most German superlatives are formed by add i n g -st to the si m ple form
ofthe adjective.
y' Adjectives ending in -t' -tz, -2, -sch, -ss, -R' -eu or-au' form the
superlative lry adding -est instead of-st'
y' Gut,hoch, viel and nah have irregular comparative and
forms: gut /besser/der beste, hoch,/hiiher/der hijchste'
der meiste, nah/niher/der nHchste.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see Pages x-xlv'

Aovsnss 59
58 ApvERBs

Meaning Adverbs often express the idea of'to what extent', for example, words in English
Noun Meaning Adverb
likeextremelyandespecially.fhese are sometimes called adverbs of degree. Some
das Beispiel exampre beispielsweise for example
common adverbs of this type in German are:
die Beziehung relation, beziehungsweise ot/or .ather/
connection that is to say Adverb ofdegree Meaning
der schritt step schrittweise step by step eu fEerst extremely
die zeit time zeitweise at times besonders especially
der Zwang compulsion zwan9swerse compulsorily betrachtlich considerablV
fast almost
kaum hardly, scarcely
Orammar Extra! ziemlich fairlV

Some Cerman adverbs are also formed by adding -erweise to an uninflected adjective.
These adverbs are mainlV used by the person speaking to express an oPinion' Es hat mir nicht besonders gefallen. ldidn't particularly like it.
lch bin fast fertig. l'm almostfinished.
Adjective Meaning Adverb Meaning
Erwarziemlich sauer. He was quite angry.
erstaunlich astonlshing erstaunlicherweise astonishingly

gliicklich happy, fortunate glticklicherweise fortunately

komisch strange, funny komischerweise strangely enough

>> There is another important group of adverbs which are NoTformed from
adjectives or nouns, for example, words like unten, oben and leider.
Das beste Buch lag unten auf The best book was at the bottom
dem Stapel. ofthe Dile.
Die Schlafzimmer sind oben' The bedrooms are uPstairs.
lch kann leider nicht kommen. unfortunately I can't come.

D Adverbs oftimefit into this categoryand thefollowing are some common ones:

Adverb of time Meaning

endlich finally
heute today
tmmer arways

morgen tomorrow
mor9ens in the mornings

sofort at once

Sie kann erst morgen kommen' She can't come till tomorrow.
Priska hat immer Hunger. Priska is always hungrY.
Ja, ich mache das sofort. Yes. l'll do it at once.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

6o Aovrnss
Aovenss 6r

Adverbs of place ' :; K€YPoints

) Adverbs of olace are words such aswhere?,there, up, nowhere. German adverbs of y' Many Cerman adverbs are simplyadjectives used as adverbs, butthey
are not decl ined, unlike adjectives.
place behave very differently from their English counterparts in the following ways:
y' ln German,someadverbsareformed tryadding -weise or-sweise to a
. where there is no movement involved and the adverb is simply referring to a
location, Vou use the form ofthe adverb you find in the dictionary'
Where is she?
y' Compound adverbsformed byadding hin orherare often used to show
Wo ist sie?
movement away from or towards the person speaki n g (or writi ng).
Sie sind nicht da. They're notthere.
Hier darf man nicht Parken. You can't park here.

Toshow some movementAWAY from the person speaki ng, you use the adverb hin
oliver und Andrea geben heute eine
oliver and And rea are having a
Party. Gehen wir hin? party today. Shallwe go?

In Cerman, hin is often added to another adverb to create what are called
compound adverbs, which show there is some movement involved. ln English,
we would j ust use adverbs in this case'

compound adverb Meaning

dahin (to) there

dorthin there

hierhin here

irgendwohin (to) somewhere or other

iiberallhin everywnere
wohin? where (to)?

Wohin fihrst du? Where are you going?

Sie liefen iiberallhin' They ran everYwhere.

o To show some movementTOWARDS the person speaking, you use the adverb
her. As with hin, this is often added to another adverb.

compound adverb Meaning

daher from there
hierher nere
irgendwoher from somewhere or other
iiberallher from all over
woher? where from?

Woher kommst du? Where do you come from?

Woher hast du das? Where did you getthatfrom?
Das habe ich irgendwoher gekriegt. I got that from somewhere or

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv'

Aovenas 6l
6z Aovenes

Comparatives and superlatives of adverbs A Superlative adverbs

What is a superlative adverb?

tr Comparative adverbs A superlative adverb is one which, in English, has -est on the end of it or most or
ledst in front ofit, for example, soonest, fostest, most/leastfrequently.

D The superlative of adverbs in German is formed in the following way and, unlike
adjectives, is not declined:
just as they can in English' am+odverb+-sten
D Adverbs can be used to make comparisons in cerman,
The comDarative of adverbs is formed in exactly the same way as that of adjectlves' Wer von ihnen arbeitet am Which of them works fastest?
that is by adding -er to the basicform' Als is used for thon' schnellsten?
Sie lSuft schneller als ihr Bruder. She runs faster than her brother. Er hat es am lanqsamsten gemacht. He did it slowest.
I see him less often than before.
lch sehe ihn seltener als friiher' ) Adverbsending in-d,-t,-tz,-2,-sch,-ss,or-Bformthesuperlativebyadding
you tne same -esten.This makes oronunciation easier.
To make os ... os or not os.'. as comparisons with adverbs'

phrases as with adjectives. Das Erdbeereiswar bei den The strawberry ice cream was the
Kindern am beliebte$en. most popular one with the kids.
o so... wie a5 "' as
Bruder. He runs as fast as his lrrother. Am heiBesten war es im Siidspanien. ltwas hottest in southern Spain.
Er lHuft so schnell wie sein
t) For more information on Superlotive adjeaives, see plge
o nicht so ... wie not as ... as SS.

Sie kann nicht so 9ut schwimmen She can't swim as well as You
wie du.
[J ruote tnat some superlative adverbs are used to show the extent of a qual ity
ratherthan a comparison.Thefollowing adverbsare used in thisway:
immer and
) The idea of more ond more... is expressed in German lry using Adverb Meaning
the comParative form'
bestens verywell
DieMSnnersprachenimmerThemenwereta|kinglouderand hiichstens atthe most/at best
lauter. louder'
meistens mostly/most often
> the more ...tne more'.. is expressed in Cerman byje "'
desto "' orje "' umso "'
spatestens at the latest
The sooner the better'
lg eher, desto besser. wenigstens at least
schneller sie fihrt, umso mehr The faster she drives, the more
Angst habe ich! frightened lam! Die Geschifte gehen bestens. Business is going very well.
see poge 53 Er kommt meistens zu spit an. He usually arrives late.
Q For more informotion on Comparotive odiedives'
At least I'm getting more money
WedSEleIE bekomme ich mehr
Geld dafiir. for it.

see pages x'xiv'

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please
64 Aovenes Aovenss 65

Word orderwith adverbs

tr Adverbs with irregular comparatives and superlatives
D A few German adverbs have i rregular comparative and su perlative forms. > In English, adverbs can come in different places in a sentence.
l'm never coming back.
Adverb Meaning Comparative Meaning Superlative Meaning
See you soon!
gern well lieber better am liebsten Dest
Suddenlv the phone rang.
bald soon eher sooner am ehesten soonesr
I'd reallv like to come.
viel much. a lot mehr more am meisten most
> This is also true of adverbs in German, but as a general rule they are placed close
like detective stories best to the word to which thev refer.
Am liebsten lese ich Kriminalromane. I

sie hat am meisten gewonnen. She won the most. o Adverbs of time often come first in the sentence, but this is not fixed.
Morgen gehen wir ins Theater OR:
Points Wir gehen moroen ins Theater. We're going to the theatre
y' tomorrow.
Comparatives of adverbs are formed in the same way as comparatives
of adjectives, add ing -er to the basic form. o Adverbsofplacecan be putatthe beginning ofasentenceto provide
y' To compare people orthings, you use so ... wie, ebenso ... wie or nicht emphasis.
so... wie. Dort haben sie FuBball gespielt OR:
y' thon i n com paratives of adverbs corresponds to als. Sie haben dort FuBball gespielt They played football there.
y' Superlatives ofadverbs are formed by using theformula am' odverb + o Adverbs of man ner are adverbs wh ich com ment on verbs. These are I i kely to
-sten/-esten. come after the verb to which they refer, but in tenses which are made up of
y' Unlike adjectives, adverbs do not change theirform to agreewith the haben or sein + the past participle of the main verb, they come immediately
verb, adjective or other adverb they relate to. before the past participle
5ie spielen qut. They play well.
Sie haben heute qut gespielt. They played welltoday.
Du benimmst dich immer schlecht. You always behave lradly.
Du hastdich schlecht benommen. You have behaved badly.

t ) For more informotion on Formingthe post participle, see plge n4.

> Where there is more than one adverb in a sentence. it's useful to rememberthe
following rule:
"time, mannel place"
Wir haben qestern gu! dorthin We found ourway there al
gefunden. right yesterday.
gestern = adverb of time
gut = adverb ofmanner
dorthin = adverb ofplace

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see Pages x'xiv.

66 Aovenes Aovenas 67

L Where there is a pronou n object (a word I i ke her, it, me or them) i n a sentence, Emphasizers
it comes before all adverbs.
What is an emphasizer?
Sie haben es qestern sehr billiq They bought itvery cheaPlY An emphasizer is a type of word commonly used in both Cerman and English,
gekauft. yesterday.
especially in the spoken language, to emphasize or change the meaning of a
es = pronoun object sentence.
gestern = adverb of time

billig = adverb of manner The following words are the most common emphasizers.
* For more information on Pronoun obieds, see plge 74. o aber is used to add emphasis to a statement
Das ist aber schiinl Oh, that's pretty!
Diese Jacke ist aber teuerl This jacket is really expensivel

y' In cerman, the position is notfixed, butthet, o denn is also used as a conjunction, but here it is used as an adverb
generally come close to the words they refer to. to emphasize the meaning.
y' Where there is more than one adverb in a sentence, it is useful to Was ist denn hier los? What's going on here then?
rememtrer the rule: time, manner, place. Wo denn? Where?
/ yJffi:l.re is a pronoun object in a sentence, it comes before all

r) For more informotion on Conjunctions, see page $8.

o doch is used in oneofthreeways:

As a positive reply to a negative statement or question:
Hat es dir nicht gefallen? - Doch! Didn't you like it? - Oh yes, I didl
To strengthen an imperative, that is the form of a verb used when giving
i nstructions:
Lass ihn doch! Just leave him.
To make a question out of a statement;
Das schaffst du doch? You'll manage it, won't you?

.) For more information on lmperotives, see page rcs.

o mal can be used in oneoftwowavs:

With imperatives:
Komm mal her! Come here!
Moment mal, bitte! Just a minutel

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see pages x-xiv'

58 Aovenes

ln informal language:
Mal sehen. We'll see.
Hiiren Sie mal ... Look here now...
Er soll es nur mal versuchen! Just let him try it! What is a pronoun?
A pronoun is a word you use instead of a noun, when you do not need or want
Ja can also be used in one of two ways.
to name someone or something directly, for example, it, you, none.
To strengthen a statement:
Er sieht ja wie seine Mutter aus. He looks like his mother
jg sein. That may well be.
D There are several d ifferent types of pronoun :
Das kann

ln informal language:
o Personal pronouns such as t, you, he, her andthey, which are used to refer to
yourself, the person you are talking to, or other people and things. They can be
la und? So what?,/What then? either subject pronouns (1, you, he and so on) or obiect pronouns (him, her,them
Das istja licherlich. That's ridiculous. and so on).
ist es ja. That's just it.
o Possessive Dronouns like mineand yours,which showwho someone or
Schon also has more than one use. something belongs to.
It is used informally with an imperative: o Indefi n ite pronou ns like someone or nothing, wh ich refer to people or thi ngs
Mach schon! Cet on with it! in a general way without saying exactly who orwhat they are.

It is also used in other informal statements: o Relative pronouns I i ke who, which or thot, wh ich I i nk two parts of a sentence
Da kommt sie schon wieder! Here she comes agai n!
Schon gut. lch habe verstanden. Okay, I getthe message. o Demonstrative Dronou ns i ke this or those, wh ich poi nt thi n gs or people out.

o Reflexive pronouns-a type ofobject pronoun thatforms partofGerman

reflexive verbs like sich setzen (meaningto sit down) or sich waschen
Key points
(meaning towosh).
y' There are lots of little adverbs used in both English and German to
emphasize or soften the meaning of a sentence in some way. t) For more information on Reftexive verbs, see page rc2.

o The pronouns wer? (mean ing who?) and was? (meaning what?) and their
differentforms. which are used to ask ouestions.
> Pronounsoften stand infora noun to save repeating it.
| finished my homework and gave it to my teacher.
Do you rememberJack? I saw him at the weekend.
D Word orderwith personal pronouns is usually different in German and English.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

70 PRONOUNS Pnoruourus 7
D Use the formal or polite Sie if talking to one person vou do not know so well,
Personal pronouns: su bject such as you r teacher, you r boss or a stranger.
What is a subject pronoun? Was haben Sie gesagt? What did you say?
A subject pronoun is a word such as l, he, she and they. lt refers to the person or
thing which performs the action expressed by the verb. Pronouns stand in for
nouns when it is clear who is being talked about, for example:My brother isn't T'P
here 0t the moment. Heill be back in an hour. lf you are i n doubt as to which form of you to use, it is safest to use sie and
you will not offend anybody. However, once a colleague or acquaintance
has suggested you call each otherdu, starting to use Sie again may be
tr Usinq subject pronouns considered insulting.
> Here are the Cerman sulrject pronouns or personal pronouns in the nominative case:

Subject Pronoun Meaning D UsethefamiliarihriftalkingtomorethanoneDersonyouknowwellorrelatives.

(Nominative case)
Also, was wollt ihr heute Abend So, what do Vou want to
ich essen? eat tonight?
du you (faniliar)
er he,/it
D Use Sie if talking to more than one person vou do not know so well.
sre she/it Wo fahren Sie hin? Whereareyou going to?
es it/he/she
man one
wtr WE

ihr you (plural) Use Sie in more formal situations for both the sinqular and plural you.
ste lney
Sie you (polite)

lch fahre nachste Woche nach I'm going to ltaly nextweek. rtp
Italien. Allof the subject pronouns only have a capital letterwhen they begin a
Wir wohnen in Frankfurt. We live in Frankfurt. sentence, except for the polite form of you, Sie, which always has a capital
* For more informotion on the Nominative case, see page 9.

lch gebe dir das Buch zuriick, l'll give you the book back when
tr du, ihrorsie?
wenn ich es zu Ende gelesen habe. I've finished reading it.
D In Eng ish we have on ly one way of saying you. I n Cerman, there are three words:
Du kannst mich morgen You can come and visit me
du, ihr and Sie. The word you use depends on: besuchen, wenn du Zeit hast. tomorrow, ifvou have time.
o whetheryouaretalking toone person ormoretnan one person Wir wiren lhnen sehr dankbar, We'd be very grateful if you could
o whetheryou are talking to afriend orfamily member, orsomeone else wenn Sie uns telefonisch ohone and let us know.
benachrichtigen wiirden.
L Use the familiar du if talking to one person vou know well, such as a friend,
someone younger than you or a relative
Kommst du mit ins Kino? Are you coming to the cinema?

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see Pages x-xiv.

Pnoruourus 73
72 PnoruouHs

tr Er/sie/es
) | n ish we general ly refer to th i n gs (such as toble, book, car) only as if . I n German'
En g I
Man is often used to avoid a Dassive construction in Cerman.
er (meaning he), sie (meaning she) and es (meaning it) are used to talk about a
Man hat das schon oft im It's already been shown a lot
thing, as well as about a person or an animal. You use er for masculine nouns,
sie forfeminine nouns and es for neuter nouns. Fernsehen gezeigt. onTV.

DerTisch ist groR + Er ist groB * For more information on the Possive, see poge $o.
The table is large + lt is large
DieJacke ist blau + Sie ist blau Theform oftheverb you use with man is the same as the er/sie/esform.
The jacket is blue + lt is blue
* For more informotion on Verbs, see pages gi,4s2.
Das Kind stand auf Es stand auf
The child stood up He,/she Stood uP

[f ruote tnat Engl ish speakers often make the m istake of cal li ng al I objects es. Key points
y' The German subject pronouns are: ich, du, er, sie, es, Sie and man in
) The sutrject pronoun sie (meaning they) is used in the plural to talk about things, the singulat and wir, ihr, sie and Sie in the plural.
as well as people or animals. Use sie for masculine, feminine and neuter nouns.
'Where are Michael and Sebastian?'-
y' rosay youin Cerman, use du ifyou aretalking to one person you know
'Wo sind Michael und Sebastian?'- well or to someone younger than you; use lhr if you are talking to more
'Sie sind im Garten.' 'They're in the garden.'
than one person you know well and use Sle ifyou are talking to one or
'Hast du die Karten gekauft?'- 'Did you buy the tickets?'- more people you do not knowwell.
'Nein, sie waren ausverkauft.' 'No, they were sold out.' y' er/sie/es (masculine,/feminine/neuter singular) and sie (masculine
'NimmstdudieHundemit?'- Areyoutakingthedogswithyou?'- to refer to things, as well as to
or feminine or neuter plural) are used
'Nein, die Nachbarin passt auf 'No, the next-door neighbour is people or animals.

sie auf.' looking afterthem.' y' Uancan mean you, they or people in general. lt is often used instead
of a passive construction.

ll_l Man
F This is often used in German in the same way as we use you in English to mean
people in general.
Wie schreibt man das? How do you spell that?
Man kann nie wissen, You never know.

) Man can also mean they used in a vague way.

Man sagt, dass das Wetter immer They say the weather is always bad.
schlecht ist.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

74 PnoruouHs Pnoruourus 75

Personal pronouns: direct object D When a modal verb I i ke wol len (mean i ng to wlnt) or kiinnen (mean i ng t0 be able

to, can) is followed by another verb in the infinitive (the'to'form of the verb), the
What is a direct object Pronoun? direct object pronoun comes directly AFTER the modal verb.
A direct object pronoun is a word such as me, him, us and them which is used Wir wollen Sie nicht mehr sehen. We don't want to see you anymore
instead ofthe noun to stand in forthe person orthing mostdirectlyaffected by
the action expressed by the verb. t ) For more information on Modol verbs, see page :r;6.

I r I Usino direct obiect Dronouns Key points

y' The German direct object pronouns are: mich, dich, ihn, sie, es,Sie
) Direct object pronouns stand in for nouns when it is clearwho orwhat is being
and einen in the singular, and uns, euch, sie and Sie in the plural.
talked alrout, and save having to repeat the noun.
y' the d i rect object pronou n usually comes d irectly after the verb, but
l've lost my glasses. Have you seen them?
i tenses I i ke the perfect comes after the part ofthe verb that comes
'Haveyou metJo?'-'Yes, I really like her!'
from haben or sein and before the past participle.
) Here arethe German directobject pronouns or personal pronouns in the y' Wnen a modalverllsuch aswollen isfollowed bythe infinitiveof
accusative case: anotherverb, the direct object pronoun comes directly after the modal
verb. '
Direct Object Pronoun
(Accusative case)
mich me
dich you (familiar)

ihn him/it
ste herlit
es itlhim/her
etnen one
uns il<

euch you (plural)

sre them
Sie you (polite)

lch lade dich zum Essen ein. l'll invite you for a meal
Sie hat ihn letztesJahr kennengelernt. She met him last year.

|?-] word orderwith direct obiect pronouns

> In tenses consisting of one verb part only, for example the present and the simple
past, the d irect object pronou n usually comes d irectly AFTER the verb.
Sie bringen ihn nach Hause. Thev'lltake him home.
) | n tenses such as the Derfect that are formed with haben or sein and the
participle, the direct object Pronoun comes AFTER the part ofthe verb that comes
from haben orsein and BEFOREthe past participle.
Er hat mich durchs Fenster gesehen. He saw me through the window.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see Pages x-xiv.

Pnoruourus 77
16 Pnoruourus

Personal pronou ns: i ndirect object 4 Word orderwith indirect object pronouns
) Wordorderforindirectobjectpronounsisthesameasfordirectobjectpronouns.
What is an indirect object Pronoun? The pronoun usually comes directly after the verb, except with tenses like the
when a verb has two objects (a direct one and an indirect one), the indirect perfectand modal verbs such aswollen.
object pronoun is used instead ofa noun to showthe person orthing the
it intended to benefit or harm, for example, me in He gIve me 0 bo1k; Sie bringt mir das Schwimmen bei. She'steaching me how to swim
Con you get me o towel? Sie hat es ihm gegeben. She gave it to him.
lch will dir etwas sagen. I want to tellyou something.

> When you have both a d irect object pronoun AN D an ind irect object pronoun
tr Usinq indirect obiect Pronouns i n the same sentence, the d i rect object pronoun or personal pronoun i n the

accusative alwavs comes first. A good way of rememlrering this is to think of

D ltisimportanttounderstandthedifferencebetweendirectandindirectobject
pronouns, as they have different forms in German: the following:

o an i nd i rect obiect answers the question who

to'l or who for? and to whot? PAD = Pronoun Accusative Dative
or for whot? Sie haben es ihm verziehen. They forgave him for it.
He gave me a book. - wh o did he givethe bookto? -
me(=indirect ob'ect pronoun) lch bringe es dir schon bei. l'llteach Vou.
can you get me a towel? Wh o can you get a towe| for? me (=indirect object
KeY Points
o if someth i ng answers the question what? or who?, then it is the direct
y' Thecerman indirectobject pronounsare: mir,dir, ihm, ihr, ihm,
and NOTthe indirect object in the singu|ar, and uns, euch, ihnen and Ihnen in
He gave me a bool< - What did he give me? - altook(=direct obiect)
canyougetmeatowe|?.Whotconyougetrne?+atowe|(=directobject) y' rhei nd i rect object pronoun comes after the verb, except with tenses
)Herearethecermanindirectobjectpronounsinthedativecase: like the perfect and when used with modal verbs such as wollen.
object pronoun always comes afterthe direct object
Indirect Object Pronoun Meaning
(Dative Case) " ;i".;::fct
mlr tofor me

dir to/forVou (fonilior)

ihm to/fothim/it
ihr to/for her/iL
ihm to/fot ir/him/her
einem tofor one

uns tofor us

euch to/fotvou (plurol)

ihnen tolfor them
lhnen to/foryou (Polite)

Er hat mir das geschenkt He gave me that as a Present.

Sie haben ihnen eine tolle Thev told them a great storY.
Geschichte erzihlt.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv'

Pnoruouns 79
78 Pnonoul,ts

Personal pronouns: after prepositions Grammar Ertn!

) When a personal pronoun is used after a preposition and refers to a person, After certain prepositions used to express movement, that is aus (meaning out or from), auf
the personal pronoun is in the case required by the preposition. For example, (meaning on) and in (mean ing in or into), combined forms with hin and her are used to give
the preposition mit is always followed by the dative case. more emohasis to the action beino carried out.

lch bin mit ihm spazieren gegangen. lwentforawalkwith him' Preposition hin or her + Preposition

D When a thing rather than a person is referred to, da- is added at the beqinning au5 hinaus,/heraus
ofthe preposition: auf hinauf/herauf
Manuela hatte ein Messer Manuela had brought a knife tn hinein,/herein
geholt und wollte damit den and was about to cut the cake
with it. Er ging die Treppe leise hinauf. He went up the stairs qu ietly.
Kuchen schneiden.
Endlich fand sie unser zelt und She fi nally found our tent and came
@ ruotethat before a preposition beginning with avowel, theform dar-+ kam herein. inside.
preposition is used. Sie iiffnete die Reisetasche und she opened the bag and put in her
legte die Hose hinein. trousers.
Lege es bitte darauf. Put it there Dlease.

l The following prepositions are affected in this way:

Preposition Pr'eposition + da or dar KeY points

an daran y' When a personal pronoun referring to a person is used after a
auf darauf preposition, the personal pronoun is in the case required by the
aus daraus
bei dabei
y' when a personal pronoun referring toa thing is used aftera
preposition, the construction da(r)- + preposition is used.
durch dadurch
fii r Qafiir
tn darin
mit damit
nach danach
neben daneben
iiber dariiber
unter darunter
zwischen dazwischen

+ For more information on Prepositions, see poge $3.

a prepositions.
Note these com bi ned forms are also used after verbs followed by

sich erinnern an + accusative case = to remember

lch erinnere mich nicht daran I don't remember (it)

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see Pages x-xiv.

8o Pnoruourus Pnoruours 8r

Possessive pronouns a meaning

N that
ote ner,dei mea nin

li a r), sei ner, m ea n i n g hi s /its, ihrer,
g yours (fo mi
meaningVours (polite), unserer, meaning ours
What is a possessive pronoun? and euerer, meaning yours (plural familior) have the same endings as meiner.
ln English you can say This is my cor orThis cor is mine.In the first sentence my is
a possessive adjective. In the second, mine is a possessive pronoun.
A possessive pronoun i s one of the w ords mine, yours, hers, his, ours or theirs,
which are used instead ofa noun to showthatone thing or person belongs to Unserer, meaning ours is often pronounced unsrerand euerer, meaning
another, for example, AskCarol if this pen is hers. often pronounced eurer.This pronunciation is
yours (plural familiar) is
occasionally reflected in writing.

Cerman possessive pronouns are the same words as the possessive adjectives
mein, dein, sein, ihr, unser, euer, ihr, lhr, with the same endings, EXCEPT in the Masculine Feminine Neuter All Genders
masculine nominative singular, the neuter nom inative singular and the neuter Case Singular Singular Singular Plural
accusative singulal as shown below Nominative uns(e)rg1 uns(e)re u ns(e)rgg uns(e)re

Possessive Accusative uns(e)ren uns(e)re uns(e)re! uns(e)re

Adjective Meaning Pronoun Meaning Genitive uns(e)reE uns(e)rel uns(e)rgg uns(e)rel
Masculine Das ist mein That is mV DieserWagen That car is Dative uns(e)1911 uns(e)rel uns(e)re,m uns(e)ren
Nominative Wagen ist meiner mine
singular Masculine Feminine Neuter All Genders
Neuter Das ist mein That is my Dieses Buch That book is Case Singular Singular Singular Plural
Nominative Buch book ist meins mine
Nominative eu(e)rel eu(e)re eu(e)rgg eu(e)re
Accusative eu(e)ren eu(e)re eu(e)rqg eu(e)re
Neuter Sle hat mein She has Sie hat meins She has
Accusative Buch taKen my genommen taken mine cenitive eu(e)res eu(e)rel eu(e)re! eu(e)rel
Singular genommen Dool( Dative eu(e)rem eu(e)rel eu(e)rgm eu(e)ren

> Here is the German possessive pronoun meiner, meaning mine, inall its forms: War euer Urlaub billiger als unsrer? Was your holiday cheaper than ours?

Masculine Feminine Neuter All cenders E Note the translation of o[mine, o[yours etc, where the personal pronoun in the
Case sinoular Singular Singular Plural dative is used:
Nominative merner metne mein(e)s merne Er ist ein Freund von mir. He isafriend of mine.
Accusative merngl metne mein(e)s metne lch habe eine CD von dir bei mir I have a CD ofvours at home.
Genitive metnes metner merngE metner zu Hause.
Dative merneE merngl mernglD mernen
Key points
@ Note that the nominative and accusative neuter forms only of all the possessive y' Cermanpossessive pronouns have the same form and endings asthe
pronouns are often pronounced without the last -e, for example meins instead possessive adjectives mein, dein, sein, ihr, unser, euer, ihr, lhr, except
of meines. in the masculine nominative singular, the neuter nominative singular
DerWagen da driiben ist meiner. The car over there is mi ne. and the neuter accusative singular.
Er ist kleiner als deiner. It is smallerthan yours. y' rhe nominative and accusative neuterforms of allthe possessive
Das ist besser als meins! That's betterthan mine! pronouns are often pronounced without the last -e, for example meins
Das Haus nebenan ist sch6,ner als seins. The house next door is nicerthan his. instead of meines.
MeineJacke warteurer als ihre. My jacket was more expensive y' Unserer, meaning ours is often pronounced unsrerand euerer, meaning
than hers. yours(plural fomilior) is often pronounced eurer.This pronunciation is
occasionally reflected in writing.
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
82 PnonouHs Pnoruourus 83

lch kenne hier keinen.

Indefinite pronouns Idon't know anybody here.
KeinerweiB Bescheid iiber ihn. Nobody knows about him.
What is an indefinite Pronoun? Das trifft auf keinen zu. That does not apply to anybody
An indefinite Pronoun is one of a smallgroup of pronouns suchaseverything, nere.
nobodyandsomethingwhich are used to referto people orthings in a general Erwollte ein Stiick Schokolade, He wanted a piece of chocolate,
way without saying exactly who or what they are' aber ich hatte keine. but I didn't have any.
,,Hast du Geld?" -,,Nein, gar "Have you got any money?" -
kein5." "No, none at all."
ln German, the indefinite pronounsjemand (meaning someone, somebody)and
niemand (mean i ng no-one, nobody)are often used i n speech without any end i ngs. The indefinite pronoun einer (meaning one) only has a singular form and can also
In written cerman, the endings are added.
lre used to referto people orthings.
Case lndefinite Pronoun
Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative jemand/niemand
Case Singular Singular Singular
Accusative jemandeg/niemanden
Nominative etner etne ein(e)s
cenitive j e ma n d(g!q,/ni emand(e)s
Accusative etnen etne ein(e)s
Dative jemandgm,/niemandem
cenitive ernes etner etnes
lch habe esjemandem gegeben' I gave it to someone. Dative etnem etner etnem
Jemand hat es genommen. someone has stolen it.
She didn't see anyone. Sie trifft sich mit einem ihrer She's meeting one of her old
Sie hat niemanden gesehen.
I d idn't meet anvone on the way.
alten Studienfreunde. friends from universitv.
lch bin unterwegs niemandem
begegnet. lch brauche nur einen (e.9. einen Wagen, einen Pullover etc) OR:
lch brauche nur eine (e.9. eine Blume, eine Tasche etc) OR;

rtp lch brauche nureins (e.9. ein Buch, ein Notizbuch etc) | only need one.

lfvou wantto express the sen seof somebody or other, use irgendjemand
which is declined likejemand. Key points
lch habees irgendjemandem gegeben. I gave ittosomebodyorother' y' lemand and niemand can be used without endings in spoken Cerman
but have endings added in written Cerman.

The indefinite pronoun keiner has the same endings as the article kein, keine,
y' Keiner has the same endings as the article kein, keine, kein except
in the nom inative masculine and nom inative and accusative neuter
kein except in the nominative masculine and nominative and accusative neuter
forms, and can be used to referto peopleorthings.when referring to peoPle it
forms, and refers to people or things.
meansnobody,not...anybodyornoneandwhenreferringtothings,itmeansnot... y' Eineronly hasa singularform and refersto people orthings.
lnv ot none.

Masculine Feminine Neuter All Genders

Case Singular Singular singular Plural
Nominative keiner keine keins keine
Accusative keinen keine keins keine
Genitive keines keiner keines keiner
Dative keinem keiner keinem keinen

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv'

8+ Pnoruourus PnoruouHs 85

Reflexive pronouns > Unlike English, reflexive pronouns are also used after prepositions when the
pronoun "reflects back" to the subject ofthe sentence.
What is a reflexive pronoun? Er hatte nicht genug Geld bei sich. He didn't have enough money
A reff exive olrject pronoun such as myself ,yourself ,himself ,herself and
pronoun is an on him.
ourselves thatforms Dart of German reflexive verbs like sich waschen (meaning fo Hatten Sie nicht genug Geld bei sich? Didn't you have enough money
wosh) orsich setzen (meanin gto sit down).Areflexive verb is a verb whose subject on vou?
and object are the same and whose action is "reflected back" to its subject.
L Another use of reflexive pronouns in Cerman is with transitive verbs where the
action is performed for the benefit ofthe subject, as i n the Engl ish phrase:
Cerman reflexive Dronouns have two forms: accusative (for the direct object I bought myselfa new hat" The pronoun is not always translated in English.
pronoun) and dative (for the indirect object pronoun), as follows: lch hole mir einen Kaffee. l'm going to get (myself) a coffee
Accusative Form Dative Form Meaning Sie hat sich eine neueJacke gekauft. She bought(herself;a newjacket"
mich mtr myself L Reflexive pronouns are usually used in Cerman where eoch other and one another
dich dir yourself (familiar) would be used in English.
sich sich h i m se lflh erse lfli tse lf
Wir sind uns letzte Woche begegnet. We met (each other) last week.
uns uns ou rselves

euch euch yourselves (plur4l) @ ruotethateinander, (meaning one another, eoch other),which does notchange
in form, mav be used instead of a reflexive pronoun in such cases.
sich sich themselves
sich Vou rselTVourselves (polite)
Wir kennen uns schon OR
Wir kennen einander schon. We already know each other
Er hat sich rasiert. He had a shave.
> After prepositions, einander is always used instead of a reflexive pronoun.
Du hast dich gebadet. You had a bath.
The preposition and einander are then joined to form one word.
lch will es mir zuerst iiberlegen. l'll have to thi nk about it first.
Sie redeten miteinander. Theyweretalking to each other.
@ trtote that unlike personal pronouns and possessives, the polite forms have no
In English, pronouns used foremphasis arethe same as normal reflexlve pronouns, for
caDital letter.
example, I did it myself" In Cerman selbst or, in informalspoken language, selber
setzen Sie sich bitte. Please take a seat
are used instead ofreflexive pronouns for emphasis.They never change theirform
Nehmen Sie sich ruhig etwas Zeit. Take your time.
and are always stressed, regardless oftheir position in the sentence:
) The reflexive pronou n usually follows the fi rst verb in the sentence, with certa in lch selbst habe es nicht gelesen, aber... I haven't read it myself, but ...
Sie wird sich dariiber freuen. 5he'll be pleased aboutthat.
Key points
o lfthe subject and verb are swapped round in the sentence' and the subject
y' Cerman reflexive pronouns have two forms: accusative for the d irect
is a personal pronoun, then the reflexive pronoun must comeAFTER the
personal pronoun. object pronoun and dative for the indirect object pronoun.
Dariiberwird sie sich freuen. She'll be pleased aboutthat. y' Reflexive pronouns are also used after prepositions when the pronoun
"reflects back" to the subject ofthe sentence.
. lf the sentence is made of up two parts or clauses, then the reflexive pronoun
comesAFTERthe subject in the second clause. Reflexive pronouns are usually used in Cerman where each other or
one anotherwould be used in English, buteinander can be used as an
lch frage mich, ob sie sich I wonder if she'll be pleased
about that. alternative and is always used after prepositions.
dariiber freuen wird.
+ For more information on Word order, see page V5.
SelUst or, in informal spoken German, selber are used instead
reflexive pronouns for emphasis.
+ For more information on Reftexiveverbs, see poge rc2.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

PnoHour,rs 87
85 PnonouHs

Relative pronouns Ttp

What is a relative Pronoun? fn English we often miss out the object pronoun swho,which andthot..
words who, which and thdt (and the
In English a relative pronoun is one of the For example, we can say boththe friends thot I see most, ot the friends
more formal whom). These pronouns are used to introduce information that I see most, andthe house which we want to buy, or the house we want. to buv.
makes it c|earwhich person or thing i5 being talked about, for examp|e,The
mln ln Cerman you can N EVER miss out the relative pronoun in this way.
you quite valuoble.
Die Frau, mit der ich gestern
who hls just come in is Ann's boyfriend;The vase that broke was
The woman I spoke to

Relative pronouns can also introduce further information about someone

or gesprochen habe, kennt deine yesterday knows your
something,forexample, Peter,whoisobritliontpointer,wIntstostudYort;)Ine's Mutter. mother.
house, which was built in :,89o, needs a lot of repoirs'

ln cerman the most common relative pronouns der, den, dessen, dem etc
E asNoten that ish,
the genitive forms are used in relative clauses in much the same way
Engl but to translate of whom,
one of whom
some the followi ng
the same forms as the definite article, except in the dative pluraland
sing ular and plural. They are declined as follows: Das Kind, dessen Fahrrad The child whose bicvcle had
Masculine Feminine Neuter All Genders gestohlen worden war, fing been stolen started to crv
Singular singular Singular Plural an zu weinen.
der die das die Die Kinder, von denen einige The children, some of whom
das die schon lesen konnten, ... could alreadv read, ...
Accusative den die
Meine Freunde, von denen My friends, one of whom ...
Genitive dessen deren dessen
Dative dem der dem denen

Relative pronouns must agree in gender and number with the noun to which Orammar bctra!
they refer, butthe case they have depends on theirfunction in the relative clause' When a relative clause is introduced by a preposition, the relative pronoun can be replaced by
The relative clause is simply the part of the sentence in which the relative wo- or wor- ifthe noun or pronoun it stands for refers to an object or someth i ng abstract. The fu
pronoun appears. Relative clauses are ALWAYS seParated by commas from the

form of the pronoun plus preposition is much more common.

rest ofthe sentence.
Das Buch, woraus ich vorgelesen
o In thefollowing example, the relative pronoun den is in the accusative habe, gehiirt dir.
because it is the direct object in the relative clause' OR:

Der Mann, den ich gestern The man that I saw Yesterday Das Buch, aus dem ich vorgelesen The book I read aloud from belongs
gesehen habe, kommt aus ZUrich' comes from Z0rich' habe, gehiirt dir. ro you.

o ln this second example, the relative pronoun dessen is in the

genitive because
it is used to show that something belongs to someone'
In German werand was are normally used as interrogative pronouns (meaning
Das Midchen, dessen Fahrrad The qirl whose bike was stolen' whol and what?) to ask questions. They can also be the subject ofa sentence or a
gestohlen worden ist. relative pronoun. For example, he who, 0 woman who, anyone who, those who etc.
Wer das glaubt, ist verriickt. Anyone who believes that is mad.
Was du gestern gekauft hast, The th i ngs you boug ht yesterday
steht dir ganz gut. really suityou.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv'

88 PnoruouHs Pnoruourus 8g

trtotetnatwas isthe relative pronoun used in set expressions with certain

I nterrogative pronouns
neuter forms. For examPle: What is an interrogative pronoun?
alles, was ... everything which the words who, whose, whom, what and which when they are used
Th i s i s one of
das, was... that which instead of a nou n to ask q uestions, for example, Whotb happening?; Who's coming?
nichts, was ... nothing that
vieles, was ... alot that
wenig, was ... little that L t Wer? and was!
Nichts, was er sagte, hat Nothing that he said was right. D Wer andwas only have a singularform.
Das, was du jetzt machst, What you are doing now is Case Persons Things
ist unpraktisch. impractical. Nominative wer? was?
Mit allem, was du gesagt hast, We agree with everything You Accusative \rven? was?
sind wir einverstanden. said. Genitive wessen?
Dative wem?

' o They can lre used in direct questions.

n'rn"mostcommon rerative r:::::l':. den,dessen,dem etc have
Wer hat es gemacht? Who did it?
the same forms as the definite article, except in the dative plural and
genitive singular and plural. Mit wem bist du gekommen? Who did vou come withT
y' Relative pronounsmustagree in genderand numberwith the noun to Wo ist der Kugelschreiber, mit Where is the pen you wrote it
which they refer, buttaketheircasefrom theirfunction in the relative dem du es geschrieben hast? with?
clause. TheV can also be used in indirect questions.
a/ ;;;;"" you can NEVER miss outthe relative pronoun, unlike in
lch weiB nicht, wer es gemacht hat. I don't know who did it.
Sie wollte wissen, mit wem sie She wanted to know who she
,, ilt,ff:..tauses are atways separated by commas from the rest of the fahren sollte. was to travel with.
y' Wer andwas are normally used as interrogative pronouns butcan also
be the subject ofa sentence or a relative Pronoun. I4 Interrogative pronouns with prepositions
> When used with prepositions,was usually becomeswo- and is combined with
the preposition to form one word.Where the preposition begins with a vowel,
wor- is used instead.
Wodurch ist es zerst6rt worden? How was it destroyedT
Worauf sollen wir sitzen? Es gibt What should we sit on?
keine stiihle. There aren't anv chairs.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see Pages x-xiv'

90 Pnououtus

tr Wasftirein?.welcher? VERBS
> These are used to mean whot kind of '. ' Tand which one?and aredeclined likethe
definite article.
What is a verb?
hatjetzt ein Autot'- "He has a car now." -
,,Er A verb is a'doing'word which describes what someone or something does, what
"What kind (of one) did he buY?"
,,Was fiir eins hat er gekauft?" someone or someth ing is, or what happens to them, for example, be, sing, live.
Welches hast du gewollt? Which one did You want?

4 For more i nformati on n Words declined like the definite article, see pa ge 31'
Weak, strong and mixed verbs
) TheV can refer to people or thi ngs and requ re the aPPropriate end ngs'
i i
> Verbs are usually used with a noun, with a pronoun such as l, you or she, orwith
Filr welchen (e.g. welchen Job, welchen Whisky etc) hat sie sich somebody's name. They can relate to the present, the past and the future; this is
entschieden? OR: called theirtense.
Fiirwelches (e.g. welches Haus, welches Buch etc) hat sie sich t ) For more information on Nouns lnd Pronouns, see plges t and 69.
entschieden? OR:
Flir welche (e.g. welche Person, welche Jacke etc) hat sie sich > Verbsareeither:
entschieden? o weak; thei r forms follow a set pattern. These verbs may also be called reg u lar.
Which one did she choose? o strong and irregular; theirforms change according to different patterns.
o mixed; thei r forms fol low a m ixtu re of the patterns for wea k and stron g verbs.
KeY Points
y' meinterrogative pronounswerand wascan be used fordirectand > Regular English verbs have a base form (the form of the verb without any endings
indirect questions and only have a singular form. added to it, for example, walk).This is the form you look up in a dictionary.The base
form can have to in front of it, for example, to wolk.This is called the infin itive.
y' When used with prepositions, was becomes wo-' orwor-when the
preposition begins with a vowel. > cerman verbs also have an infinitive, which is the form shown in a dictionary;
y' wasfiirein?and welcher? are used to mean what kind of . "? andwhich most weak, strong and mixed verbs end in -en. For example, holen (meaning to
one? fletch) is weak, helfen (mean i ngto help) is strong and denken (mean ing to think)
is mixed. All Cerman verbs belong to one of these groups. We will look at each of
these three groups in turn on the next few pages

> Eng I ishverbs have other forms apart from the base form and i nfi n itive: a form
end g i n -s (wolks), a form end i ng in -ing (walking), and a form end i n g i n -ed
i n


> Cerman verbs have many more forms than this, which are made up of endi ngs
added to a stem. The stem of a verb can usuallV be worked out from the infinitive
and can change, depending on the tense ofthe verb and who or what you are
ralking about.
> German verb endings also change, depending on who orwhatyou are talking
about: ich (l), du (you (informal)), erlsie/es(he/she/it),Sie (you (format)) in the
s ingular, or wir (we), ihr (you (informal)), Sie (you (formal)) and sie (they) in the

plural. German verbs also have different forms depending on whether you are
referring to the present, future or past.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see Pages x-xiv'

t i, For VerbTobles, see supplement.
92 VERBS Venes 93

The present tense

What is the present tense?
The present tense is used to talk about what is true at the moment. what
happens regularlyand what is happening now, forexample,t'm a student, I trovel
t0 college by troin, I'm studvinI longuages.

l! Usingtheoresenttense
> | n English there are two forms of the present tense. One is used to talk abour

things happeni ng now and the other is used for things that happen all the time.
ln Cerman, you use the same form for both of these.
o thingsthatare happening now
Es reqnet, It5 raining.
Sie spielen FuBball. Th ey teplayrng footba ll .

. thingsthathappen all thetime, orthingsthatyou doasa habit

Hier regnet es viel. It rains a lot here.
Samstags spielen sie FuBball. They plav football on Saturdavs.

> In Cerman there are three alternativeways ofemphasizing thatsomething is

happening now:
. presenttense+an adverb
Er kocht gerade das Abendessen. H e's cooki nq d i nner.
o beim + an infinitive being used as a noun
lch bin beim B0geln. lam ironing
o eben,/gerade dabei sein zu (mean ing to be in the process of) + an infinitive
Sie ist oerade dabei, eine E-Mail zu She is justwriring an email.
> ln English you can also use the present tense to talk about something that is
going to happen in the near future. You can do the same in Cerman.
Morgen spiele ich Tennis. I'm goinq to play tennis tomorrow.
Wir nehmen den Zug um zehn Uhr. We're qettino the ten o'clock train.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see Pages x-xiv'

Vrngs 95
94 vERBs
> Now you know how to fi nd the stem of a verb, you can add the correct ending.

rrp Which one you choose will depend on whether you are referring to ich, du, er,
sie, es, wir, ihr, Sie or sie.
Although English sometimes uses parts of the verb to be to form the
or.r.ni t.nt. of other verbs (fo r exam ple, I am listenin g, shds tllking)'
() For more informotion on Pronouns, see page 69.
Cerman N EVER uses the verb sein in this way'
D Here are the present tense end ings for weak verbs end i ng i n -en:
when using seit orseitdem to describe an action which began in the
and is continuing in the present, the presenttense is used in Cerman' Pronoun Ending Add to Stem, Meanings
where in English a verb form with have or has is used' e.g. spiel-

lch wohne seit drei Jahren hier. I have been livinq here for three
ich -e ich spiele lplay
lam playing
Seit er krank ist, hat er uns nicht He hasn't visited us since he's du du spielst you play
you are playing
besucht. been ill'
Seitdem sie am Gymnasium ist, Since she's been qoing to grammar
er spiel!
sie spiel!
he/she/it plays
he/she/it is
hat sie kaum mehr Zeit. school, she's hardlY had anYtime.
es es spiel! playing

[J that if the action is fi nished, the perfect tense is used in cerman

trtote wtr -en wir spielen we play

Seit seinem Unfall habe ich ihn I have only seen him once since we are playing

nur ein einziges Mal qesehen. his accident ihr -t ihr spiel! you (plural) play
you are playing
sie -en sie spielen they play
they are playing
e Forming the Present tense of weak verbs
Sie Sie spielen you (polite) play
n German end in -en in the
their infl nitive form. This is you are playing
)> Nearlv all weak verbs i
form of the verb vou find in the dictionary, for examp|e, spie|en, machen,
weak verbs are regular and thei r changes follow a set pattern or conjugation. Sie macht ihre Hausaufgaben. She's doing her homework.
out what holt die Kinder. He's fetch ing the children.
To know which form of the verb to use in German, you need to work
the stem ofthe verb is and then add the correct ending.The stem ofmost verbs
intheoresenttenseisformedbychoppingthe-enofftheinfinitive. m Note that you add -n, not -en to the stem ofweak verbs ending in -ern and -eln
to get the wir, sie and Sie forms of the present tense.
lnfinitive Stem (without-en)
Pronoun Ending Add to Stem, Meanings
spielen (to play) spiel-
e.g. wander-
machen (to mdke) mach- wtr -n wir wandern we hillwalk
holen (to fetch) hoF we are hillwalking
sie -n sie wandern they hillwalk
where the infin itive of a weak verb ends in -eln or -ern, only the -n is chopPed they are hillwalking
off to form the stem. sie sie wandern you (polite) hillwalk
you are hillwalking
lnfinitive Stem (without-n)
wandern (to hillwalk) wander- Siewandern gern, oder? You like hillwalking, don'tyou?
segeln (to sail) segel- lm Sommer wandern wir fast jedes In the summerwe go hillwalking
Wochenende. most weekends.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see Pages x-xiv'

Venes 97
Pronoun Ending Add to Stem, Meanings
pronunciation e.g.lern-
endings in the du, er, si" and ihr parts ofthe verb to make
"nO "t du -est du lernst you learn
you are learning
er -t er lern! helshe/it learns
sie sie lerng he/she/it is learning
es es lernt
ihr -t ihr lern! you (plural) learn
you are learning

Sie lern! alles ganz schnell. She learns everything very quickly
Vou (plurdl) talk
you are talking
Key points
You talk about Yourwork allthe y' Weakverbs are regularand mostofthem form their presenttense
Du redest doch die ganze Zeit liber
time! stem by losing the-en from the infinitive.
deine Arbeit!
( mepresent tense endingsforweakverbs ending in-en are:
-t, -en, -t, -en, -en.
-e, -st,
y' lfthestem ofaweakverlr ends in-d,-t,-m or-n, an extra-e isadded
before the endings to make pronunciation easier.
he/she/it works
he/she/it is working
3 j Formino the present tense of strono verbs
you (plural)work
D The presenttense of moststrong verbs isformed with the same endings that
you are working
are used for weak verbs.

Siearbeite!iibersWochenende' She'sworkingovertheweekend' Pronoun Ending Add to Stem, Meanings

work a lot.
lhr arbeitel ganz sch6n viel' You e.g. sing-
ich -e ich singe I sing
isadded to make
> lfthestem ofaweakverbends in-m or-n'thisextra-e I am singing
oronunciationeasier.|fthe.mor-nhasaconsonantinfrontofit,the-eisadded' du -st du singst you sing
ple lelnen
except if the consonant is l, r or h, for exam '
you are singing

Ending Add to Stem, Meanings er -t er singg he,/she,/it sings

e.g. atm- sie sie singg he/she/it is singing
you breathe e5 essingl
du -est du atmest
you are breathing wtr -en wirsingen we sing
he/she/it breathes we are singing
er -et er atmet
sie atmet he/she/it is breathing ihr -t ihr sing! you (plural) sing
es atmet you aresinging
ihr atmet you (piur4l) breathe ste -en sre srnggl they sing
ihr -et
you are breathing they are sing ing
5re 5ie singen you (polite) sing
You're breathing verY deeplY'
Du atmest ganz tief. you are singing

Sie singen in einer Gruppe. Theysing in a band.

98 VERBS Venss 99
> However, the vowels in stems of most strong verbs changeforthedu and
ey'sie,/es forms. The vowels listed below change as shown in nearly all cases:
Pronoun Ending Add to Stem, Meanings
e +
long ie (see sehen) e.g. fahr-
shorte + i(seehelfen) ich -e ich fahre drive
a + i (seefahren) I

I am driving
au + iu (seelaufen) du -st du fHhrst you drive
o + ii (see stoRen) you are driving
o longe * ie er -t er€hr! he/she/it drives
Pronoun Ending Add to Stem, Meanings sie sie fah4 helshe/it is driving
e.g. seh- es es€hrt
ich -e ich sehe I see wtr -en wirfahren we drive
Iam seeino we are driving
du -st du siehst you see
ihr ihr fahrt you (plurol) drive
Vou are seeing
you are driving
er -t er sieh! helshe/it sees
sie siehl he/she/it is seeing sie -en sie fahrgn they drive
es essieht they are driving
wtr -en wir sehen we see Sie Sie fahren you (polite) drive
we are seeinq yo.u are driving
ihr -t ihr seht Vou (plural) see
Vou are seeing Am Samstag fEhrt sie nach ltalien. She's driving to ltaly on Saturday.
sie -en sie sehen they see
they are seeing au- iu
sie Sie sehen ' you (polite) see
you are seeing Pronoun Ending Add to Stem, Meanings
Siehst du fern? Are you watchingTV? ich -e ich laufe Irun
o shorte + i
I am running
du -st du lHufst you run
Pronoun Ending Add to'Stem, Meanings
you are running
e.g. helf-
-e ich helfe help er -t er leuft helshe/it runs
ich I
lam helDino sie sie lAuft helshe/it is running
du -st du hilfst you help es es liuft
you are helping wtr -en wir laufen we run
er -t er hilft helshe/it helps we are runnrng
sie sie hilf! he,/she/it is helping
ihr -t ihr lauft you (p,urol) run
es es hllft
you are running
wtr -en wir helfen we help
we are helpinq sie -en sie laufen tney run
ihr -t ihr helft you (plurol) help they are running
you are helping Sie Sie laufen you (polite) run
sie -en sie helfen they help you are running
they are helping
sie Sie helfen you (polite) help Er liuft die roo Meter in He runs the 1oo metres in record
you are helping Rekordzeit. time.
Heute hilf! er beim Kochen. He's helping with the cooking today.
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
IOO VERBS Venes tot
o+ > The nine mixed verbs are:

Pronoun Ending Add to Stem, Meanings Mixed Meaning Mixed Meaning Mixed Meaning
e.g. stoB- Verb Verb Verb
ich -e ich stoBe I push brennen to burn kennen to Know senden to send
I am pushing
bringen to Ilring nennen to name wenden to turn
du -st du stiiBt you push
you are pushing
denken to think rennen to run wtssen to know

er -t er stiiB! he/she/it pushes

The present tense of m ixed verbs has the same end ings as weak verbs and has
sie sie stiiRt helshe/it is pushing
no vowel or consonant changes in the stem : ich bringe, du bringst, er/sie/ es
es es st0tl!
bringt, wir bringen, ihr bringt, sie bringen, Sie bringen.
wtr -en wir stof3en we pusn
we are pushing Sie bringt mich nach Hause. She's bringing me home.
ihr -t ihr stoBq you (plural) push Bringst du mir etwas mit? Will you bring something
you are pushing for me?
sie -en sie stoRen they push
they are pushing [J ruote that the present tense of the most i m portant stron g, weal< and m ixed

you (polite) push

verbs is shown in theVerbTables.
sie sie stotsen
you are pushing t) For VerbTables, see supplement.

Pass auf, dass du nicht an den Watch outthatyou don't bump

Tisch stiiRg. i nto the table.
Key points

E Note that strong AN D weak verbs whose stem ends in -s, -2, -ss or -R (such as y' There are nine mixed verbs in German.
stoBen) add -t rather than -st to get the du form i n the present tense. However, y y_.t:it mixed verbs,has the.same endings as weak verbs
ifthe stem ends in -sch. the normal -st is added. l!: 1enllof
and has no vowel or consonant changes in the stem.
Verb Stem Du Form
wachsen wachs- wachst
waschen wasch- waschst

Key points
( strongverbs have the same end ings in the present tense as weak

y rn.""*., orvowels ofthe stem ofstrong verbs change(s) in the

present for the du and erlsie,/es forms.

tr Forming the presenttense of mixed verbs

) There are n ine m ixed verbs in Cerman. They are very com mon and are formed
according to a mixture of the rules already explained for weak and strong verbs.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see Pages x-xiv.

I02 VERBs Vrnss ro3

Reflexive verbs Reflexive Forms Meaning

ich setze mich I sit (myself) down
What is a reflexive verb? du setzt dich you sit (yourself) down
A reflexive verb is one where the subject and object are the same, and where ey'sie,/es setzt sich helshe/it sits down
the action'reflects back'on the subject. Reflexive verbs are used with a reflexive wir setzen uns we sit down
pronoun such as myselfi, yourself andherself in English, forexample, I washed myself', ihr setzt euch you (plural familiar) sit down
He shoved himself . sie setzen sich they sit down
Sie setzen sich you (polite form) sit down

lch setze mich neben dich. l'll sit beside you.

1 | Usino reflexive verbs
Sie setzen sich aufs Sofa. TheV sit down on the sofa.
) | n Cerman, reflexive verbs are much more common than in English, and many
are used in everyday German. Reflexive verbs consist of two parts: the reflexive Reflexive Forms Meaning
pronou n sich (mean ing himself, herself , itself, themselves ar onesef ) and the ich erlaube mir I allow (myself)

infinitive of the verb. du erlaubst dir you allow (yourself)

erlsie,/es erlaubt sich he/she,/it al lows mself/herselTitself
* For more information on Reflexive pronouns, see poge 84'
wir erlauben uns we allow ourselves
h i

ihr erlaubt euch you (plural familiar) allow yourselves

trl Forminq the oresent tense of reflexive verbs sie erlauben sich theV allow themselves

> R"R"*iu. uerbs are often used to yourself) every day

descri be th i ngs you do (to Sie erlauben sich you (polite form) allow yourself

or that involve a change of some sort (getting dressed, sitting down, getting
lch erlaube mirjetzt ein Bier. Now l'm going to allow myself a beer.
excited, being in a hurry).
Er erlaubt sich ein Stlick Kuchen. He's allowing himself a piece of cake.
D The reflexive pronoun is either the d irect object in the sentence, wh ich means
it is in the accusative case, or the indirect object in the sentence, which means > Some of the most common German reflexive verbs are listed here:
it is in the dative case. OnlV the reflexive pronouns used with the ich and du forms Reflexive Verb with Reflexive Pronoun Meaning
ofthe verb have separate accusative and dative forms: in Accusative
sich anziehen to get dressed
Accusative Form Dative Form Meaning
sich aufregen to get excited
mich mrr myself
sich beeilen to hurry
dich dir yourself (fomiliar)
sich bescheftigen mit to be occuDied with
sich sich him selTh erself/i tself sich bewerben um to apply for
uns uns ou rselves sich erinnern an to remember
euch euch Vourselves (plurdl) sich freuen auf to lookforward to
sich sich themselves sich interessieren flir to be interested in
you rself/you rselves (polite) sich irren to lre wrong
sich sich
sich melden to report (for duty etc) orto volunteer
l The present tense forms of a reflexive verb work i n j ust the same way as an sich rasieren to shave
sich setzen orhinsetzen to sit down
ordinaryverb, exceptthatthe reflexive pronoun is used aswell.
sich trauen to dare
l Below you willflnd the present tense of the common reflexive verbs sich setzen sich umsehen to look around
(meaning to sit down) which has its reflexive pronoun in the accusative and sich
erf auben (meaning to ollow oneself) which has its reflexive pronoun in the dative. lch ziehe mich schnell an und l'll get dressed quickly and then we
dann gehen wir. can go.
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. Wir mlissen uns beeilen. We must hurry.
1()4 VERBS Venas ro5

Reflexive Verb with Reflexive Pronoun Meaning The imperative

in Dative
to give up (something)
What is the imperative?
sich abgewiihnen
An imperative is a form of the verlr used when giving orders and Instructions,
sich ansehen to have a look at
for example,Shutthe door!; Sit. down!; Don't. go!
sich einbilden to imagine (wronglY)
sich erlauben to allow oneself
sich leisten to treat oneself
sich nehern to get close to l1-] Using the imperative
sich vornehmen to plan to do > In Cerman, there are three main forms of the imperative that are used to give
sich vorstellen to imagine instructions or orders to someone.These correspond to the three different ways
sich wiinschen to want of saying you: du,ihr and Sie. However, it is only in the Sie form of the imperative
that the pronoun usually appears - in the du and ihr forms, the pronoun is
lch muss mir das Rauchen I must give up smoking. generally dropped, leaving only the vertr.
abgewiihnen. Hdr zu! Listenl
Sie kann sich ein neuesAuto nicht She can't afford a new car.
Hiiren Sie zu! Listen!
Was wiinscht ihr euch zu Weihnachten? What do you want for Christmas?
l4 Forminq the present tense imperative
object refl exive pronoun changes to an irect object
[J ruote that a d i rect i nd
D Most weak, strong and mixed verbs form the present tense imperative in the
pronou n if another d i rect object is present.
following way:
lch wasche mich. I'm havi ng a wash.
mich = direct object reflexive pronoun Pronoun Form of Verb Example Meaning
lch wasche mir die Hdnde. I am washing my hands. lmperative
mir = indirect object reflexive pronoun du (singular) verb stem (+ e) hol(e)! fetchl
die Hinde = direct object ihr (plural) verb stem +t holt! fetchl
4 For more informotion on Pronouns, see poge 59. Sie (polite singular verD Stem + en holen sie! fetch!
and plural) + Sie
>> some cerman verbs which are not usually reflexive can be made reflexive by
adding a reflexive Pronoun.
Should I report it?
m Note that the -e ofthe du form is often dropped, but NoTwhere the verb stem
Soll ich es melden? ortm-. In such cases, the -e is kept to make the
ends, for example, in chn-, fn-,
lch habe mich gemeldet. I volunteered. imperative easier to pronounce.

* For more information on word order with Reflexive pronouns, see poge 84 Htir zul Listenl
Hol esl Fetch it!

BUT: Offne die Tiirl Open the doorl

y' A reflexive verb is made up JHlltJpronoun and a verlr.
Atme richtig durch! Take a deep breathl
Pronouns in the accusativeare mich,dich,sich, uns, Rechne nochmal nach! Do your sums again!
" lfff f.Tobject
/ object Pronouns in the dative are mir, dir, sich, uns, euch,
y' In the present tense the reflexive pronoun usually comes after the verb.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

r06 VERBS Venes ro7

Reflexive verb Meaning lmperative Forms Meaning

Grammar Ertra! sich setzen to sit down setz dich! sit down!
Weak verbs ending i n -eln or -ern also retai n this -e, but the other-e in the stem itself is often
setzt euch! sit down!
dropped in spoken German.
setzen Sie sich! do sit down!
Verb Meaning lmperative Meaning
wandern to walk wand(e)re! walk! t) For more informotion on Reflexive pronouns, see page 84.
handeln to act hand(e)le! act!
D In verbs which have separable prefixes, the prefix comes atthe end ofthe
l Any vowel change i n the present tense of a strong verb also occurs i n the du form Verb with Separable Meaning lmperative Example Meaning
of its imperative and the -e mentioned above is generally not added. However, if Prefix
this vowel change in the present tense involves add ing an umlaut, this umlaut is zumachen to close Mach die Tiir zu! Close the doorl
NoTadded tothedu form of the imperative.
aufhtiren to stop Htir aber endlich auf! Do stop it!
Verb Meaning 2nd Person Meaning 2no Person Meaning
Singular Singular Q For more informotion on Separabte prefixes, see poge rcg.
nehmen to taKe du nimmst you taKe nimm! takel
other points about the imperative
' 4
helfen to helP du hilfst Vou help hirf! help!
liufst you run lauf(e)! run!
> In Cerman, imperatives are usuallyfollowed by an exclamation mark, unless they
laufen to run du
are not lreing used to give an order or instruction. For example, they can also lre
stoBen to push du st6Bt vou pusn stot3(e)! push!
used where we m ig ht say Ca n you... or Could you ... i n Engl ish.

Lass ihn in Ruhe! Leave him alone!

tr Word orderwith the imperative Sagen Sie mir bitte, wie spdt es ist. Can you tell me what time it is
) An object pronoun is a word like es (meaning it), mir (meaning me) or ihnen ptease?
(meaning them/to them) that is used instead ofa noun as the object ofa sentence. ) Theverbsein (meaning tobe)isastrong, irregularverb. lts imperativeformsare
In the imperative, the object pronoun comes straight after the verb. However,
also irregular and the du, Sie and less com mon wir forms are not the same as the
you can have orders and instructions containing both direct object and indirect
Dresent tense Forms of the verb.
obiect pronouns. In these cases, the direct object pronoun always comes before
the indirect object pronoun. Sei ruhigl be quietl
Seid ruhig! be quietl
Hol mir das Buch! Fetch me that book!
Seien Sie ruhigl be quiet!
Hol es mir! Fetch me it!
Fetch me that bookl
Holt mir das Buch!
Holt es mir! Fetch me it!
The words auch, nur, mal and doch are frequently used with imperatives
Holen Sie mir das Buch! Fetch me that book!
to change their meanings in different ways, but are often not translated
Holen Sie es mir! Fetch me it! since they have no direct equivalent in English.
* For m ore informotion o n word order with indirea obiect Pronouns, see page v. Geh doch! Co on!/Cet going!

> | n the i mperative form of a refl exive verb such as sich waschen (mean i ng to Sag mal, wo warst du? Tell me,wherewereyoul
wash oneself) or sich setzen (mean ing to sit down), the reflexive Pronou n comes Versuchen Sie es mal! Cive it a try!
immediatelv after the verb. Komm schon! Do come/Please come.
Mach es auch richtig! Be sure to do it properly.
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
r()8 VERBS Vrnas ro9
Verb prefixes in the present tense
Gnmmar Extra!
There are some alternatives to using the imperative in 6erman: What is a verb prefix?
In English, a verb prefix is a word such as up ordown which is used with verbs to
create new verbs with an enti rely d ifferent mean ing.
i nstructions or Dublic announcements
get+getup+ getdown
Einsteigen! All aboard!
put + put up + put down
Zwiebeln abziehen und in Ringe schneiden. Peel the onions and slice them.
shut * shut up + shut down
. Nouns, adjectives oradverbs can also be used as imperatives
Ruhe! Be quiet!/Silence!
Vorsicht! careful!/Look outl > | n Cerman there is a similar system, but the words are put before the infi nitive
and joined to it:
Some ofthese have become set expressions
zu (meaning to)+geben (meaning ta give)=2tJgsben (meaning to ldmit)
Achtungl Listen !/Attention!
an (meaning on, to, by) + 2ishen (meaning to pull) = anziehen (meaning
Rauchen verboten! No smoking.
to put on or to attroct)

) Prefi xes can be found i n strong, weak and m ixed verbs. Some prefi xes are always
joined to the verb and never separated from it- these are called inseparable prefixes.
However, the majority are separated from the verb in certain tenses and forms,
and come at the end ofthe sentence. They are called separable preflxes.

E Inseparable prefixes
D There are eight inseparable prefixes in German, highlighted in the table of
common inseoarable verbs below:

|nseparable Meaning Inseparable t eaning nseparable Meaning Inseparable \reaning

Verb Verb /erb Verb

l3schreiben to describe intteuschen :o disappoint gchdren to belong lgdieren :o tose

llDpfangen to recetve llhalten lo preserve misstrauen t0 mistrust lellegen to dismantle

[| ruote that when you pronounce an i nseparable verb, the stress is N EVER on the
inseparable prefix:

Das muss ich wirklich nicht vergessen. I really mustn't forget that.

E Separable prefixes
> There are many separable prefixes in German and some of them are highlighted
in the table lrelow which shows a selection of the most common separalrle verbs:
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Meaning Separable
]4 Verbcombinations
abfahren to leave mitmachen tojoin in
) Below you wi ll see some other types of word wh ich can be com bi ned with verbs.
These combinations are mostlv written as two separate words and behave like
ankommen to arrive nachgeben to give way/in
seDarable verbs:
aufstehen to get up vorziehen to prefer
. Noun + verb combinations
eUsgehen to go out weglaufen to run away
Ski fahren to ski
einsteigen to get on zuschauen to watch
lch fahre gern Ski. I likeskiing
feststellen to establish/see zurechtkommen to manage
zuriickkehren to return
Schlittschuh laufen to ice-skate
freihalten to keep free
to come (here) zusammenpassen to bewell-suited;
lm Winter kann man Schlittschuh You can ice-skate in Winter.
hinlegen to put down to go well together
lnfi nitive + verb combinations
Der Zug fihrt in zehn Minuten ab. The train is leaving in ten kennenlernen to meet or to get to know
minutes. Meine Mutter m6chte dich My motherwants to meet you.
lch stehe jeden Morgen frijh auf. Iget up early every morning. kennenlernen,
Sie gibt niemals nach. She'll never give in. Er lernt sie nie richtig kennen. He'll never get to know her properly.

sitzen bleiben to remain seated

Bleiben Sie bitte sitzen. Please remain seated.
El Word orderwith separable Prefixes
spazieren gehen to go for a walk
> | consisting of one verb part only, for example the present and the
n tenses Er aehtjeden Tag spazieren. He goes for a walk every day.
imperfect, the separable prefix is placed atthe end of the main clause'
Other adjective + verb combinations
Der Bus kam immer spit an, The bus was alwavs late.
bekannt machen to announce
Q For more information on Separable prefixesin the perfecttense, see page n5. Die Regierung willdas morgen The government plans to announce
bekannt machen. it tomorrow.
) In sulrordinate clauses, the preflx is attached to the verb, which is then placed
at the end ofthe subordinate clause. Some adverb +verbcombinations
Weil der Bus spAt ankam, Because the bus arrived late, kaputt machen to break
verpasste sie den Zug. she missed the train. Mach mir bloB mein Fahrrad Don'tyou dare break my bike!
nicht kaputt!
4 For more information on Subordinote ctauses, see pogetn.
Verb combinations with -seits
) Ininflnitivephrasesusingzu,thezuisinsertedbetweentheverbanditsprefix abseitsstehen to stand apart
to form one word. Sie steht immer abseits von den 5he always stands apart from the
Um rechtzeitig aufzgstehen, muss ln order to get up on time l'll have anderen. others.
ich den Wecker stellen. to setthe alarm.
Prefix combinations with sein
Q For more informotion on the tnfrnitive, see page 84' aufsein to be open or to be up
Das Fenster ist auf. The window is open.
Die Geschdfte sind am Sonntag The shops are closed on Sundays.
nicht auf.
Sie ist noch nicht auf. She isn't up yet.
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see pages x'xiv'
112 VERBS Vrnes rr3
zu setn to be shut The perfect tense
Das Fenster ist zu. The window is shut
What the perfect tense?
E Note that auf (meaning open) is anotherword for ge6ffnet and zu (meaning
sh ut. or closed) i s another wo rd fo r geschlossen.
The perfect is one ofthe verb tenses used to talk about the past, especially about
a single, ratherthan a repeated action.

Den Nachtisch habe ich schon l've alreadv eaten dessert.


L1-] Usingtheperfecttense
) The German perfect tense is the one generally used to translate an English form
such as I havefinished.

I have finished the book. lch habe das Buch zu Ende qelesen.
D The perfect tense is also sometimes used to translate an Enqlish form such as
t qove.

I gave him my phone numlrer. lch habe ihm meine Nummer


When a specific time in the past is referred to, you use the perfect
tense in German. In English you use the *ed form instead.
cestern Abend habe ich einen Krimi Last night lwatched a
im Fernsehen gesehen. thrilleronW.

The perfect tense is used with seit or seitdem to describe a completed action in
the past, whereas the present tense is used to describe an action which started
in the past and is still continuing in the present.
Seit dem Unfall habe ich sie nur l've only seen her once since the
einmal qesehen. accident.
t) For more information on this use of the Presenttense, see poge 94.

i4 Formino the perfecttense

D U nl i ke the present and im perfect tenses, the perfect tense has TWO parts to it:
. the present tense of the irregular weak verb haben (mean i ng to have) or the
irregular strong verb sein (meaning to be).They are also known as auxiliary
o apartofthemainverbcalledthepost.participle,likegiven,finishedanddonein
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see Pages x-xiv. Enalish.
rr4 vERBS Venas rr5
) lnotherwords,theperfecttenseinGerman isliketheform Ihavedone in English. To form the past participle of mixed verbs, you add ge- to the beginning of
the verb stem and, like weak verbs, -t to the end. As with many strong verbs,
Pronoun Ending PresentTense Meanings
the stem vowel may also change.
ich -e ich habe I have

du -st du hast you have Infinitive Take off-en Add ge- and -t
er -t er hat helshe/it has bringen (to run) bring- gebracht
sie sie hag denken (to think) denk- gedacht
es es ha!
wtr -en wir haben we nave D Theperfecttenseofseparableverbsisalsoformedintheaboveway,exceptthat
ihr -t ihr hab! you (plural) have the separable prefix isjoined on to the front ofthe ge-: ich habe die Flasche
sie -en sie haben they have aufggmacht, du hast die Flasche aufggmacht and so on.
Sie Sie haben you (polite) have
D With inseparable verbs, the only d ifference is that past participles are formed
without the ge-: ich habe Kaffee bestellt, du hast Kaffee bestellt and so on.
Pronoun Ending PresentTense Meanings
ich ich bin lam t .) For more information on Seporabte and lnseporoble verbs, see poge rcg.
du du bist you are
er er ist helshe/i,t is
sie sie ist
41 Verbs that form their perfect tense with haben
es es ist D Most weak, strong and m ixed verbs form thei r perfect tense with haben,
wtr wir sind we are for example machen:
ihr ihr seid you (p,ura,) are
Pronoun haben Past Participle Meaning
ste sie sind they are
ich habe gemacht I did, I have done
5ie Sie sind you (polite) are
du hast gemacht you did,you havedone
er hat gemacht her/sher/it did,
f|l Forming the past participle sie helshe/it has done
L To form the past partici ple of weak verbs, you add ge- to the beg inn in g of the es

verb stem and -t to the end. wtr haben gemacht we did, we have done
ihr habt gemacht you (plural familiar)
lnfinitive Take off-en Add ge- and -t
did, you have done
holen (to fetch) hoF geholt
ste haben gemacht they did, they have done
machen (to do) mach- gemacht
5ie haben gemacht y ou (si n gul a /
r p I u ral form ol)
did, you have done
@ ruote that one exception to this rule is weak verbs ending in -ieren, which omit
tne ge.
Sie hat ihre Hausaufgaben schon 5he has already done her
studieren (to study) studiert (studied) gemacht. homework.
To form the past participle ofstrong verbs, you add ge- to the beginning ofthe Haben Sie gut geschlafen? Did you sleep well?
verb stem and -en to the end. The vowel in the stem may also change. Er hat fleiRig gearbeitet. He has worked hard.

lnfinitive Take off-en Add ge- and -en

laufen (to run) lauf- gelaufen
singen (to sing) sing- gesungen

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

rT6 VERBS Venas rr7

Lql haben orsein! r ) Here are the perfect tense forms of a very common strong verb, gehen, in full:

) MOST verbs form thei r perfect tense with haben. Pronoun setn Past Participle Meanings
lch habe das schon gemacht. l've already done that. ich bin gegangen I went, I have gone
Wo haben Sie fr0her gearbeitet? Where did you work before? du bist gegangen you went, you have gone
er ist ge9an9en helshe/it went,
> With refl exive verbs the refl exive pronoun comes i mmed iately after haben. sie he,/she,/it has gone
lch habe mich heute Morgen geduscht. I had a showerthis morning. es

Sie hat sich nicht daran erinnert. She didn't remember. wtr sind 9egan9en wewent, we have 9one
ihr seid gegangen you (plural familiar) went,
* For more information on Reflexiveverbs, see plgerc2. you have gone

5te sind 9egangen they went, they have gone

! There are two main groups of verbs which form their perfect tense with sein
sind gegangen ou ral form al)
5ie y (si n gul a r/pl u
instead ofhaben, and most ofthem are strong verbs:
went, you nave gone
o verbswhich take no directobjectandare used mainlytotalkabout
movement or a change ofsome kind, such as:
m Note that the perfect tense of the most important strong, weak and m ixed
to go verlrs is shown in theVerbTables.
kommen to come
r) For VerbTables, see supplement.
ankommen to arrive
abfahren to leave
aussteigen to get off
einsteigen to get on )/
sterben to die
sein to be y' the perfect tense. is formed with the present tense of haben orsein
werden to become and a past participle.
bleiben to remain y' mepast participle begins in ge- and ends in-tforweakverlrs,
begegnen to meet in ge- and -en for strong verbs often with a stem vowel change,
gelingen to succeed and in ge- and -t for mixed verbs, with a stem vowel change.
aufstehen to get up y' Mostverbstakehaben in the perfecttense. Many strong verbs,
fallen to fall especially those referri ng to movement or change, take sein.

Gestern bin ich ins Kino gegangen. I went to the cinema yesterday.
Sieist heute Morgen ganz friih She left really early this
abgefahren. morning.
An welcher Haltestelle sind Sie Which stop did you get off at?

o two verbs which mean to happen.

Was ist geschehen/passiert? What happened?

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

I18 VERBS Vecas rr9

The imperfecttense
What is the imperfect tense?
Remem ber that you N EVER use the verb sein to translate was or werein
The imperfecttense is one ofthe verb tenses used to talk aboutthe past, especially
forms like was roining orwere looking and so on. You change the Cerman
in descriptions, and to say what used to happen, for example, lt wos sunny atthe
verb ending instead.
weekend; I used to walk to school .

L1l Using the imperfect tense

2 | Formino the imperfect tense of weak verbs
D To form the i mperfect tense ofweak verbs, you use the same stem ofthe verb
L The German imperfect tense is used:
as for the present tense. Then you add the correct ending, depending on
. to describe actions in the past which the speaker feels have no link with the whetheryou are referring to ich, du, er, sie, es, wir, ihr, sie orSie.
Pronoun Ending Add to Stem, Meanings
Er kam zu spat, um teilnehmen He arrived too late to take e.9. spiel-
zu kdnnen. part. ich -te ich spielte lplayed
. todescribewhatthingswere likeand howpeoplefelt in the past lwas playing
du -test du spieltest you played
lch war ganz traurig, als sie I was very sad when she left.
you were playing
er -te er spielte herzsherzit played
Damals oab es ein groRes Problem There was a big problem with sie sie spielte helshe/it played
mit Drogen. drugs at that time. es es spielte he/she/itwere playing
. to saywhat used to happen orwhatyou used to do regularly in the past wtr -ten wir spielten we played
wewere playing
Wir machten jeden Tag einen We used to qo for a walk every
Spaziergang. day. ihr -tet ihr spieltet you (plural) played
you were playing
Samstags spielte ich Tennis. I used to plavtennis on Saturdays.
sie -ten sie spielten they played
theywere playing
@ trtote that if you want to tal k about an event or action that took place and
was completed in the past, you normally use the perfecttense in German Sie 5ie spielten you (polite) played
conversation. The imperfect tense is normally used in written Cerman. you were playing

Was hast du heute qemacht? What have you done today?

Sie holte ihnjeden Tag von der She picked him up from work
* For more information on the Perfecttense, see plge fi3. Arbeit ab. every oay.
Normalerweise machte ich nach dem I usually did my homework
D When using seit or seitdem to describe someth ing that had happened or had
AbendessenmeineHausaufgaben. afterdinner.
been true at a point in the past, the imperfect is used in cerman, where in
English a verlr form with hod is used. D Aswith the presenttense, someweakverbs changetheirspellings slightly
Sie war seit ihrer Heirat als Lehrerin She had been working as a when they are used in the imperfect tense.
beschAftigt. teachersince hermarriage. . lfthestem ends in-d.-t, -m or-n an extra-e isadded beforethe usual
imperfect end ings to make pronunciation easier.
Q p s,
i nformotion on the Ptuperfect tense, see p oge 14.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

r2O VERBS Vengs tzr

Pronoun Ending Add to Stem, Meanings To form the imperfect tense of strong verbs you add the following endings to
e.g. arbeit- the stem, which undergoes a vowel change.
ich -ete ich arbeitete lworked
Pronoun Ending Add to Stem, Meanings
I was working
e.g. rief-
du -etest du arbeitgles! you worked
ich ich rief I shouted
you were working
lwas shouting
er -ete er arbeitete helshe/it worked
du -st du rlgfs! you shouted
sie sie arbeitete helshe/it was working
you were shouti ng
e5 es arbeitete
wtr -eten wir arbeiteten weworked er er rlef helshe/it shouted
we were working sie sie rjgf he/she/it were shouti ng
es es rlef
ihr -etet ihr arbeitetet you (plural) worked
you were working wtr -en wir riefen we shouted
-eten we were shouting
ste sie arbeiteten they worked
they were working ihr -t ihr rieft you (plurdl) shouted
-eten you were shouting
Sie Sie arbeiteten you (polite) worked
you (polite) were working ste -en sie rlgfen they shouted
theywere shouting
Sie arbeitete ijbers Wochenende. She was working over the weekend. Sie Sie rlefen you (po,ite) shouted
lhr arbeitglgl ganz sch6,n viel. You worked a lot. you were shouti ng

. lfthe -m or-n has one ofthe consonants l, ror h in front of it, the -e is not Sie rief mich immerfreitags an. 5he always called me on Friday.
added as shown in the du, er, sie and es, and ihr forms below. Sie liefen die StraBeentlang. They ran along the street.
Als Kind sangst du viel. You used to sing a lot as a child.
Pronoun Ending Add to Stem, Meanings
e.o. lern-
As in othertenses, the verb sein is a very irregular strong verb since the
du -test du lerntest you learned
you were learning
imperfect forms seem to have no relation to the infinitive form of the verb:
ich war, du wa'st,er/sie/es war, wirwaren, ihrwart, sie,/Sie waren.
er -te er lernte helshe/it learned
sie sie lernte helshe/it was learning
es es lernte Forming the imperfect tense of mixed verbs
ihr -tet ihr lerntet you (plural) learned
you were learning ) The imperfect tense of m ixed verbs is formed by add ing the weak verb end ings
to a stem whose vowel has been chanoed as for a strono verb.
Sie lernte alles ganz schnell. She learned everything very quickly
Pronoun Ending Add to Stem, Meanings
e.g. kann-

tr Forming the imperfect tense of strono verbs ich

ich k4nnte
du kanntest
I knew
you Knew
) The ma i n d ifference between strong verbs and weak verbs i n the i mperfect
er -te er kannte he/she/it knew
is that strong verbs have a vowel change and take a different set ofendings. sie kannte
Forexample, let's comparesagen and rufen: es es kannte

lnfinitive wtr -ten wir kannten we Knew

Meaning Present lmperfect
Weak sagen ro say er sagt er sagte
ihr -tet ihr kanntet you (plural) knew
sre -ten sie kannten they knew
Strong rufen to shout er ruft er rief
Sie Sie kannten you (polite) knew

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. Er kannte die Stadt nicht. He didn't know the town.
I22 VERBS Venas rz3
> Bringen (mean i ng to bring) anddenken (meani ng to think) have a vowel AN D The future tense
aconsonantchange in their imperfectforms
bringen (to bring) denken (to think)
What is the future tense?
future tense is a verb tense used to talk about someth ing that will happen
ich brashte ich dachte
orwill lre true.
du brashtest du dachtest
er/sie/es braqhte er/sie/es dachte
wir brgghten wir dashten tr_] Usingthefuturetense
ihr brashtet ihr dachtet
sie,/Sie braqhten
> In English the future tense is often shown by will or its shortened form 'll.
sielSie dachten
What willyou do?
E verbs
Note that the imperfect tense of the most important strong, weak and mixed
shown in theVerlrTables.
The weather will be warm and dry tomorrow.
He'll be here soon.
+ For VerbTables, see supplement. l'll give you a call.
> J ust as in English, you can use the present tense in German to refer to someth ing
Key points that is going to happen in the future.

r' imperfect tense generally for things that happened

The is used Wir fahren nAchstes Jahr nach
We're going to Greece nextyear.
regularly for descriptions
or the past, especially written German.
in in
lch nehme den letzten zug heute
r' The imperfect weak verbs formed using the stem the verb
of is same of
I'm taking the last train tonight.
as for the present tense + -te, -te, -ten,
these end i ngs: -ten.
-test, -tet,
(. lfthe stem ofa weak verb ends in -d, -t, -m or-n an extra -e is added The future tense lS used howeverto:
before the usual imperfect endings to make pronunciation easier. o emohasize the future
lfthe -m or-n has one ofthe consonants l, r or h in front of it, the -e
Das werde ich erst nichstes Jahr I won't be able to do that until
is not added.
machen k6nnen. nexr year.
r' The imperfect tense of strong verbs is formed by adding the following
. express doubt orsuppose something aboutthe future
end ings to the stem, which undergoes a vowel change: -, -st, -, -en, -t,
-en. Wenn sie zuriickkommt, wird sie l'm sure she'll help me when
( The imperfect tense of mixed verbs is formed by adding the weak verb mir bestimmt helfen. she returns.
endings to a stem whose vowel has been changed as for a strong verb. D ln Englishweoften usegoing tofollowed byan infinitivetotalkaboutsomething
The verbs bringen and denken also have a consonant change. that wi ll happen in the i mmed iate future. You CAN NOT use the German verb
gehen (meaning to go) followed by an infinitive in the same way. Instead, you
use either the present or the futu re tense.
Das wirst du bereuen. You're going to regret that.
Wenn er sich nicht beeilt, verDasst He's going to miss the train if he
er den Zug. doesn't hurry up.

A Forminothefuturetense
> The future tense has TWO parts to it and is formed in the same way for allverbs,
be they weak, strong or mixed:
. the presenttense of the strong verb werden (meaning to become),which acts
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. as an auxiliary verb like haben and sein in the perfect tense
124 vERBs Vrnas rz5

Pronoun Ending PresentTense Meanings The conditional

ich -e ich werde lbecome
What is the conditional?
du -st du wirst you become
The conditional is a verb form used to talk about things that would happen
er er wird helshe/it becomes
or that wou ld be true u nder certain cond itions, for example, I would help you if
sie sie wird
I could.lt is also used to say what you would like or need, for example, Could you
es es wird
give me the bill?
wtr -en wirwerden we become
ihr -t ihr werdet you (plural) become
sre -en sie werden they become
lI Using the conditional
sie -en sie werden Vou (polite) become
> You can often recognizea conditional in English bytheword wouldorits
o the infinitive of the main verb, which normally goes at the end of the clause shortened form'd.
or senrence.
lwould lre sad if you left.
Pronoun PresentTense lnfinitive of Meanings
lf you asked him, he'd help you.
ofwerden Main Verb
ich werde holen I willfetch > In German, the conditional is also used to express would.
du wirst holen you willfetch
lch wiirde dir schon helfen, ich Iwould help you, but I don't
er wird holen he/she,/it will fetch
habe aber keine Zeit. have the time.
Was wiirden Sie an meiner Stelle Whatwould you do in my
tun? position?
wlr werden holen we will fetch
ihr werdet holen you (p,urdl) will fetch
sie werden holen they will fetch lA Forming the conditional
Sie you (polit€) will fetch
D The cond itional has TWO parts to it and is formed in the same way for all verbs,
Morgen werde ich mein Fahrrad holen. l'llfetch my bike tomorrow. be they weak, strong or m ixed:
SiewirddirmeineAdressegeben. She'llgiveyoumyaddress. . thewiirde form orsubjunctive oftheverbwerden (meaning to become)
Wir werden drauRen warten. We'llwait outside. o the infi nitive of the main verb, which normally goes at the end of the clause,
@ ruote that in reflexive verbs, the reflexive pronoun comes after the present
Pronoun Subjunctive lnfinitive of Meanings
tense ofwerden. ofwerden MainVerb
lch werde mich nechste Woche l'll prepare nextweek ich w[irde holen lwould fetch
du wiirdest holen you would fetch

er wiirde holen helshe/it would fetch

' sie
n ,oucan use a presenr tense ,I::fflll'o,ark about somethins that
just as in English.
will happen or be true in the future,
wtr wiirden holen we would fetch
y' The future tense is formed from the present tensle ofwerden and the
infinitive of the main verb. ihr w[irdet holen you (plural) would fetch

y' voucANNoT usegehen with an infi nitive to refertothingsthatwill ste wiirden holen they would fetch

sie Vou (po,ite) would fetch

r' or suppose something about the future.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv,

Das wUrde ich nie machen. I would never do that. The pluperfect tense
Wlirdest du mir etwas Geld leihen? Would you lend me some money?
What is the pluperfect tense?
Wiirden Sie jemals mit dem Rauchen Would you ever stoP smoking?
The pluperfect is a verb tense which describes something that had happened
or had been true at a point in the past, for example, I'd forgotten to finish my
n Note that you have to be careful not to mix uP the present tense ofwerden,
used to form the future tense, and the subjunctive ofwerden, used to form

the conditional. Thev look similar.


. 1 | Usino the DluDerfect tense

ich werde ich wtirde > You can often recogn ize a pluperfect tense in English by a form like I had arrived,
you'd fallen.
du wirst du wiirdest
er/sie/eswird erAieles wiirde Sie waren schon wegoefahren. They had already left.

wirwerden wir w0rden Diese Blicher hatten sie schon gelesen. They hAd-already read these
ihr werdet ihr wiirdet
Meine Eltern waren schon ins Bett My parents had gone to bed early.
sielsie werden sielSie wlirden

@ t tote tnat when translat ing had done/had been doing i n conj unction with
Key points seit,/seitdem, you use the imperfect tense in cerman.
y' The conditional tense is formed from the subjunctive orwiirde part sie machte es seitJahren. She had been doinq itforyears.
of werden and the infinitive of the main verb.
y' The conditionaltense is often used with the sulrjunctive. Q For more informotion on the tmperfect tense, see poge n8 .

A Forming the pluperfect tense

> Li ke the perfect tense, the pluperfect tense in Cerman has two parts to it:
. the m perfect tense of the verb haben (mean ng to hove) or sein (mean ing
i i

to be)
. thepastparticiple.
> lf a verb takes haben in the perfecttense, then itwilltake haben in the
plu perfect too. lf a verb takes sein i n the perfect, then it wi ll take sein i n the
plu perfect.

* For more information on the tmperfect tense and the Perfect tense, see poges n8
and fi3.

tr Verbstaking haben
> Here are the pluperfect tense forms of holen (meaning to fetch) in full.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

r28 VERBS Vrnas rz9

Pronoun haben Past Participle Meanings The subjunctive

ich hatte geholt I had fetched
what is the subjunctive?
du hattest you had fetched
The i s a verb form that is used i n certai n ci rcumstances to express
er hatte geholt he,/she/it had fetched
some sort of feeling, or to show there is doulrt about whether something wil
happen or whether something is true. lt is only used occasionally in modern
Eng lish, for example, lf I were Vou, I wouldn't bother; So be it.
wtr hatten geholt we had fetched
ihr hattet geholt you (plurol) had fetched
sie hatten geholt they had fetched
L Using the subjunctive
Sie Vou (polite) had fetched
> In German, subjunctive forms are used much more frequently than in English,
lch hatte schon mit ihm qesprochen. I had already spoken to him. to express uncertainty, speculation or doubt.
Es kiinnte doch wahr sein. lt could be true.
tr Verbstakingsein > Subjunctives are also commonly used in indirect speech, also known as reported
} H ere a re the pl u perfect te n se forms of reisen (mea nin g to trlvel) in full. speech. What a person asks or thi n ks can be reported d i rectlv:

Sie sagte: ,,Er kennt deine Schwester" She said, "He knows your sister"
Pronoun sern Past Participle Meanings
ich war gereist I had travelled OR indirectlv:
du warst gereist you had travelled Sie sagte, er kenne meine Schwester. She said he knew my sister.
er war gereist helshe/it had travelled
sie [) ruote tnat the change from direct to ind irect speech is indicated by a change
es oftense In English, but is shown by a change to the subjunctive form in Cerman.
wtr waren gereist we had travelled
ihr wart gereist you (plurol) had travelled
waren gereist they had travelled
Grammar Extra!
you (polite) had travelled
> There are two ways of introducing indirect speech in Cerman, as in Engl ish.
. The conjunction dass (meaning rhdt) beg ins the clause containing the indirect speech
Sie war sehr spet angekommen. She had arrived verv late. and the verb goes to the end ofthe clause.
Sie hat uns gesagt, dass sie ltalienisch She told us that she spoke ltal ian.

r' r dassisdroppedandnormalwordorderappliesinthesecondclause-theverbcomes
directly afterthe subject.
at a point in the past before something else happened.
y with the imperfect tense of haben orsein and the past Sie hat uns gesagt, sie spreche ltalienisch. She told us she spoke ltalian.
y' Verbswhich take haben in the perfecttensewill takehaben in the
pluperfect tense and those which take sein in the perfect tense will
L lf you want to express a possible situation I n English, for example, I would be
happy if you cIme,you use'if'followed by the appropriate tense of the verb.
take sein in the pluperfect tense.
In cerman you use the conjunction wenn followed by a subjunctive form of
the verb.

@ ruote that the verb ALWAYs goes to the end of a clause beginning with wenn.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

r3o Venss Venas r3r
o wenn (meaning if,whenever)
Wenn du kim(e)st (subjunctive), wire (subjunctive) ich froh.
lZ Forming the present subiunctive

> The three main forms of the sutrjunctive are the present subiunctive, the
i m perfect subj u nctive and the pl uperfect su bi u nctive,
Wenn du kim(e)st, wiirde ich froh sein. I would be happy if you came.
trtotethatthe main clause can either have a subjunctiveform orthe
D The presentsubjunctive ofweak, strong and mixed verbs has the same endings:
conditional tense. Pronoun Present Subjunctive:
Wenn es mir nicht oefiele, wiirde ich Weak and Strong Verb Endings
es nicht bezahlen. ich -e
OR du -est
Wenn es mir nicht qefiele, bezahlte lf I wasn't happy with it, er/sie/es -e
(subjunctive) ich es nicht. lwouldn't pavfor it. wtr -en
ihr -et
rtp sie,/5ie -en

The imperfect forms of bezahlen, and of all weak verbs, are exactly
the same as the im perfect su bj u nctive forms, so it's better to use a
o hofen (weakverb, meaning tofetch)
conditional tense to avoid confusion. ich hole I fetch
du holest you fetch

wenn ... nur (mean ing i[only), selbst wenn (mean ing even if or even though) o fahren (strong verb, meaning to drive, to go)
and wie (meaning how) work in the same way as wenn.This means that the ich fahrg I drive, lgo
normal word order is chanqed and the verb comes at the end of the clause.
du fahre$ you drive, you go
a wenn ... nur
Wenn wir nur erfolgreich wiren! lf only we were successful!
o denken (mixed verb, meaning tothink)
ich denkg Ithink
o selbstwenn
du denkes! you think
Selbst wenn er etwas wi.isste, wiirde Even if he knew about it,
er nichts sagen. he wouldn't sayanythlng.
o wie, expressing uncertainty
Erwundertesich,wieesihrwohloinqe. Hewondered howshewas.
l Unlike wenn and wie etc, the word order does not change after als (meaning
when it is used in conditional clauses: it is immediately
as if or os though)
followed bv the verb.
Sie sah aus, als sei sie krank. She looked as if she were ill. tq Forminq the imperfect subjunctive
D The imperfect subjunctive is very common and is not always used to describe
rrp actions in the past. lt can, for example, express the future.
It is quite common to hear the subj unctive used when someone is Wenn ich nurfriiher kommen lf only I could come earlierl
asking you something politely, for example, the person serving you kdnnte!
in a shop might ask:
D The imperfect tense and the imperfect subjunctive of weak verbs are identical.
Wire da sonst noch etwas? Willthere be anything else?

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Venas r33

lmperfect/lmperfect Meaning Wenn ich du wire, w0rde ich

subjunctive rennen.
fetched INSTEAD OF
ich holte I

holtest you fetched Wenn ich du wire, rennte ich. lf lwereyou, lwould run.
er/sie/es holte he/she/it fetched lch wilrclg so etwas nie denken!
wll holten we fetched INSTEAD OF
ihr holtet you (plurdl) fetched would never think such a thinql
lch dichte so etwas nie! I

sielSie holten they/you (polite) fetched

Q For more information on the Conditionol, see page n5.
The imperfect subjunctive of strong verbs is formed by adding the following
endings to the stem of the imperfect. lf there is an a, o or u in this stem, an
umlaut is also added to it.
Grammar Extm!
Pronoun lmperfect Subjunctive: The pluperfect subjunctive is formed from the imperfect subjunctive ofhaben or sein + the past
Strong Verb Endings participle. Th is su bj unctive form is frequently used to translate the Eng lish structu re 'lf I had
-e done something, ...'
du -(e)st Wenn ich celd gehabt hette, lf I had had money,
-e wire ich qereist. lwould have travelled.
wtr -en
ihr -(e)t
sie,/Sie -en

@ wote that you add the _e to the du and ihr parts of the verb if it makes
Dron u nciati on easi er, for exam ple :

du stieBest you pushed

ihr stieBet you pushed

Pronoun lmperfect subjunctive Meaning

gebe I gave
du sabG)E! you gave

er/sie/es gebe he/she/it gave

wtr giben we gave

ihr you (plural) gave

sie/Sie gAben thev/you (polite) gave

>> The im perfect subju nctive forms of the m ixed verbs brennen, kennen, senden,

nennen, rennen ano wenden add weak verb imperfect endings to the stem of
the verb, which DoEs NoT change the vowel. The imperfect subj u nctive forms
of the remaining mixed verbs bringen, denken and wissen are also the same as
the imDerfect with one major difference: not only does the stem vowel change,
but an umlaut is also added to the a or u. However, all of these forms are rare'
with the conditional tense beinq used much morefrequently instead'

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv'

r34 vERBs Vsngs r35

The infinitive ) The infinitive can be used to give an order or instruction.

Bitte nicht in diesen Zug einsteigen! Please don't board this trainl
What is the infinitive?
The infinitive the'to'form of the verb, for example, to go, and is the form you
is > lt can also be used as a noun with a capital letter. lt is alwavs neuter.
look up in a dictionary. lt is the -en form of the verlr in German. rauchen = to smoke
Sie hat das Rauchen aufgegeben. She's given up smoking.

Using the infinitive

) zu is used with the infinitive:
. afterotherverbs
lch versuchte zu kommen. I tried to come.
o afteradjectives
Es war leicht zu sehen. It was easy to see.
Es ist schwierig zu verstehen. It's hard to understand.

o after nouns
lch habe keine Zeit, Sport zu treiben. I don't have the time
to do anv sDort.
lch habe keine Lust, meine I don'twantto do my
Hausaufgaben zu machen, homework.

) The infi n itive is used without zu after the following:

o modalverbs, such as kiinnen (meaning to be able, con)
5ie kann gut schwimmen. She can swim verv well.

* For more information on Modol verbs, see poge 46

The English -ingform is often translated by the Cerman infinitive,
as shown in some of the examples lrelow.

. theverbs lassen (meaningto stop,to leave), bleiben (meaning to stoy)

and gehen (meaning to go)
Sie lieRen uns warten. They kept us waiting.
Sie blieb sitzen. She remained seated.
Er ging einkaufen. He went shopping.

o verbs of perception such as hiiren (meaningto heor, to listen (to)) and

sehen (mean i ng to see, to wotch)
lch sah ihn kommen. I saw him coming.
Er hiirte sie singen. He heard her singing.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

136 VERBS Venss r37

Modalverbs . Expressing possibility or probability

Es maq sein, dass es falsch war. lt may well be that it was wrong.
What are modal verbs?
Modal verbs are used to modifv or change other verbs to show such things as L Here are the main uses of miissen:
ability, permission or necessity. Forexample, he con swim',mov I come?;we oughtto go. o Meaning to hoveto or rnust or needto
Sie musste jeden Tag um sechs She had to get up at six o'clock
aufstehen. every day.
tr Usins modalverbs
. Certain common, informal uses
> In German, the modalverbs are d[irfen, kdnnen, miigen, miissen, sollen and
Muss das sein? ls that really necessary?
wollen. Den Film muss man gesehen haben. Thatfilm isworth seeing.
L Modal verbs are different from other verbs in their conjugation, which is shown
in theVerbTables. [f rvote tnatyou can use a negativeform of brauchen (meaning to need) instead
of miissen for don't have to or need not
* For VerbTables, see supplement.
Das brauchst du nicht zu sagen. You don't have to say that.
! Here are the main uses of diirfen:
D Here are the main uses of sollen:
o Meaning to be allowed to or moy
Darfst du mit ins Kino kommen? Are you allowed tolcan you o Meaning oughtto or should
come to the cinema with us? Das sollten 5ie sofort machen. You ought to do that straight
o Meaning must not or moy not away.
lch darf keine Schokolade essen. I mustn't eat any chocolate. Sie wusste nicht, was sie tun sollte. She didn't know what to do
o Expressingpoliteness (whot she should do)
Darf ich? May l? . Meaning to be (supposed) towhere someone else hasasked you to do
> Here are the main uses of kdnnen: something
o Meaning to be oble to or con Du sollstdeine Freundin anrufen. You areto/should phoneyour
girlfriend (she has left a message
Wir ktinnen es nicht schaffen. We can't make it.
asking you to ring)
o Meaning would be obletoorcould o Meaning to be soid to be
Kiinntest du morgen hinfahren? Could you go there tomorrow?
5ie soll sehr reich sein. l've heard she's very rich,/
. As a more common, informalalternative to diirfen, with the meaning to be She is said to be verv rich
allowed to or can
Kann ichlglEqfich einen Kaffee haben? Can l,/may I have a coffee? D Here are the main uses ofwollen:
o Expressing possibility o Mean ing to wont or to wont to
Das kann sein. That may be so. Sie will Lkw-Fahrerin werden. She wants to be a lorry driver
Das kann nicht sein. That can't be true.
. Asa common, informal alternative to m6gen, meaning to want or wish
L Here are the main uses of m6gen: Willst du einsl Do Vouwant one?
o Meaning to like, when expressing likes and dislikes Willst du,/nliighles! du etwas trinken? Do youwant,/would you like
Magst du Schokolade? Do you I i ke chocolate? something to drink?
Sie miioen es nicht. TheV don't li ke it. o Meaning to bewillingto
o Meaning would like to,when expressing wishes and polite requests Erwill nichts sagen. He refuses to say
Miichtest du sie besuchen? Would you li ke to visit her? anything.
Miichten Sie etwas trinken? Would you like something to drink? . Expressing something you previously intended todo
lch wollte gerade anrufen. I was just about to phone.
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
138 VERBS Venas r39

t_4 Modalverbforms lmpersonalverbs

) Modal verbs have unusual Dresenttenses: What is an impersonal verb?
An impersonal verb is one that does not relate to a real person or thing and
diirfen kiinnm mtigen
where the subject is represented by it, for example, ltb going to roin: lt's ten o'clock.
ich darf ich kann ich mag
du darfst du kannst du magst
er/sie/es/man darf erlsieleslman kann er/sie/es/man mag > In Cerman, imDersonalverbs are used with es (meaning it) and the third person
singular form of the verb.
wir d[irfen wir kiinnen wir miigen
ihr d0rft ihr kiinnt ihr miigt Es regnet. It's raining.
sielSie d0rfen sielsie kiinnen sielsie mtigen Es gibt ein Problem. There's a problem

D Here are the most common impersonal verbs. ln some of these expressions
mussen solten wollm it is possible to drop the es, in which case a personal pronoun such as mich
ich muss ich soll ich will or mir begins the clause. For example:
du musst du sollst du willst Es ist mir egal, ob er mitkommt
er/sie/eslman muss erlsie/eslman soll erlsie,/eslman will OR
wtr mussen wir sollen wirwollen Mir ist egal, ob er mitkommt I don't care if he comes with us.
ihr miisst ihr sollt ihrwollt
sielSie miissen sielSie sollen sielSie wollen
Q For more informotion on Personal pronouns, see poge lo.
) These expressions are marked with a * in the list below:
In tenses consisting ofone verb part, the infinitive ofthe verb used with the
modal comes at the end ofthe sentence or clause.
. es freut mich,dass/zu I am glad that/to.

Es freut mich, dass du gekommen l'm pleased that you have come.
Sie kann sehr gut schwimmen. She is a very good swimmer.
Es freut mich, Sie in unserer Stadt I'm pleased to welcome you to
begriiBen zu dfirfen. ourtown.
Grammar Extra!
I n sentences with modal verbs where the other verb expresses movement, it can be dropped es gefdllt mir I like it.
ifthere is an adverb or adverbial phrase to show movement instead. Es gefdllt mir gar nicht. I don't like it at all.
lch muss nach Hause. I must go home. a es geht mir gut/schlecht. l'm fine,/nottoo good.
Die Kinder sollen ietzt ins Bett. The children have to go to bed now.
o es geht nicht. it's not possible
Q For more information on Adverbs, see page 57
o es geht um it's about
Es geht um die Liebe. It's about love"

Key points es gelingt mir (zu) I succeed (in)

y' Es ist mir gelungen, ihn zu i,iberzeugen. I managed to convince him.

tvtodalverbsare used to modifvthe meaning of otherverbs.
y' ln cerman, the modal verbs are diirfen, kdnnen, mdgen, mlissen, es handelt sich um it's a question of
sollen and wollen. Es handelt sich um Zeit und Geld. It's a question oftime and money.
y' Modal verbsare differentfrom otherverbs in theirconjugation. es hingt davon ab it depends
Es hingt davon ab, ob ich arbeiten It depends whether I have to
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x'xiv. muss, worl( or not.
r4o VERBS Veeas r4r
o es hat keinen Zweck. There's no point. D Allweatherverbs are imoersonal
o es ist miregal (ob)o it's all the same to me (if) lnfinitive Expression Meaning
Es ist mir egal, ob du kommst I don't care if you come or not.
donnern und btitzen es donnert und blitzt there's thunderand lightning
oder nicht.
frieren es friert it's freezing
es ist miiglich(, dass) it's possible (that) qielSen es gietst t's pouring
Es is doch miiglich, dass sie ihr It's always possible she doesn't
regnen es regnet t's raining
Handy nicht dabei hat. have her mobile with her.
schneien es schneit it's snowing
es ist ntitig it's necessary setn es ist warm,/kalt it's coldlwarm
Es wird nicht n6tig sein, mir It won't be necessary to let me
Bescheid zu sagen. KNOW,

es ist schade(, dass) it's a pity (that)

Es ist schade, dass sie nicht kommt. It's a pity (that) she isn't coming.

o es ist mirwarm ORes ist mir kalt" l'm warm OR l'm cold
o es klingelt someone's ringing the bellOR
the phone is ringing
Es hat gerade geklingelt. The bell just went OR the phone
just rang.
a es klopft someone's knocking (atthe door)

o es kommt darauf an(, ob) it all depends (whether)

Es kommt darauf an, ob ich It al I depends whether I have to
arbeiten muss. work.
es lohnt sich (nicht) it's (not) worth it
lch weiR nicht, ob es sich lohnt oder I don't know if it's worth it or not.
a es macht nichts it doesn't matter
a es macht nichts aus it makes no difference
Macht es dir etwas aus, wenn wir Would you mind ifwe went
morgen gehen? tomorrow?
es stimmt, dass... it's true that ...
Es stimmt, dass sie keine zeit hat. that she doesn't have
It's true
a es tut mir leid(, dass) ... I'm sorry(that)...
o wie geht es (dir)? How are you?
a Mirwird schlecht" I feel sick

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv,

Venss r43

Use of "es" as an anticipatory object

There is,/Ihere are
D The olrject of many verbs can be a clause beg i nn i ng with dass (mean i n g thot) or
> There are two main ways of expressing th is in Cerman' an infinitive with zu.

tr Es gibt Er wusste, dass wir piinktlich

kommen wiirden.
He knew
on time.
that we would come
o This is always used in the singularform and is followed by a singular or
plural object in the accusative case. Sie fing an zu lachen. She began to laugh.

Es qibt zu viele Probleme dabei. There are too manY Prolrlems > With some verbs, es is often used as the object to antici pate th is clause or
involved. infinitive ohrase.
Es qibt keinen besseren Wein' There is no betterwine.
Er hatte es abgelehnt, mitzukommen. He refused to come.
o Es gibt is used to refertothingsofa general nature.
D When the dass clause or infi nitive phrase lreg ins the sentence, es is not used in
gibt bestimmt Regen.
Es It's definitely going to rain.
the main clause. Instead, it can lre replaced by the pronoun das (meaning thdt).
wenn wir zu spit kommen, qibt es lf we arrive late, there'll be
Dass es Karla war, das haben wir ihr verschwiegen.
Arger. trouble.
o lt is often used informallY' [} ruote tnat dass is a subordinating conjunction and das is a demonstrative
Was gibts (=gibt es) zu essen? What is there to eat?

Was gibts? What's wrong?, What's uP? t) For more information on Subordinating conjunaions, see plge V2.
so was gibts doch nicht! That's impossiblel
D The following common verbs usually have the es object.

t2-l Es ist/es sind o es ablehnen, zu ... to refuse to

. Here, the es simply introduces the real subject ofthe sentence, so ifthe o es aushalten, zu tun,/dass ... to stand doing
subject is plural, es sind is used.The subject is in the nominative case. lch halte es nicht mehr aus, I can't stand working for them

Es sind kaum Leute da. There are hardly anY PeoPle there. bei ihnen zu arbeiten. any longer.

o where the subject and verb swap places in the clause or sentence, the es ls . es ertragen, zu tun/dass... to bear doing
dropped. lch ertrage es nicht, dass sie mir I can't bear her contradicti ng me.
Da sind kaum Leute. There are hardly anY PeoPle there. widerspricht.

ruote that es gibt frequently used i nstead of es ist/es sind i n the above two o es leicht haben, zu ... to find it easy to
@ is
examDles. Sie hatte es nicht leicht, sie zu She didn't have an easyjob
[iberreden. persuading them.
o Es ist ores sind are used to referto a temporary situation'
Es war niemand da' There was no-one there. o es niitig haben, zu ... to need to
lch habe es nicht niitig, mit dir I don't have to talk to you
o Theyarealso used to begin a story.
dariiberzu reden. about it.
Es wareinmal eine Kiinigin. Once upon a time there was a
Queen... . es satt haben, zu ... to have had enough of(doing)
lch habe es satt, englische Verben l've had enough of learning
zu lernen. English verbs.

o esverstehen, zu ... to know howto
Sie versteht es, Autos zu reparieren. She knows about repairing cars.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms' please see pages x'xlv'

144 vERBs Venas r45

D The following common verbs often have the es object' Verbs followed by prepositions
. esjemandemanhdren/ansehen, to tell by listening to,/looking
D Some English verbs must befollowed by prepositionsforcertain meanings,
dass... at someone that
forexample, towaitU,to osk@.Thisalso happens in German:
Man h6rte es ihm an, dass er kein You could tell by listening to
him that he wasn't German. sich sehnen nach to long for
Deutscher war.
wartenaqf to wait for
a es bereuen, zu tun,/dass ... to regret having done/that bitten um to ask for
lch bereue es nicht, dass ich I don't regret coming.
gekommen bin.
. esjemandem verbieten, zu ... to forbid someone to rrp
As you can seefrom the examples above, the preposition that is used
lhre Mutter hat es ihr verboten, Her motherforbade her to go
in German is not always the same as the one that is used in English.
dort hinzugehen. there.
Whenever you learn a new verb, try to learn which preposition is used
es wagen zu ... to dare to
after it too.
Erwagte es nicht, ein neuesAuto He didn't dare lruy a new car.
zu kaufen.
completely d ifferent mean i ngs.
bestehen to pass (a test etc)
bestehen aus to consist of
bestehen auf to insist on
sich freuen auf to look forward to
sich freuen iiber to lre pleased about

@ trtote that you occasionally need to use a preposition with a German

verb whose Engl ish equivalent does not have one.

diskutieren liber to discuss

Prepositions used with these verbs behave like normal prepositions and affect
the case of the following noun in the normal way. For instance, with verbs
followed lryfiirthe accusative case is always used.
sich interessieren fiir to be interested in
Sie interessiert sich nicht She isn't interested in the new
flir den neuen Wagen. car.

Averb plus preposition is not always followed by a noun or pronou n. lt can also
befollowed by a clause containing anotherverb. This is often used to translate
an-ingform in Englishand isdealtwlth in oneof twoways:
. lfthe verbs in both parts ofthe sentence have the same subject, da- or dar-
is added to the beginning of the preposition and the following verb lrecomes
an infinitive used with zu.
lch freue mich sehr darauf, I am looking forward to workjng
Forfurtherexplanation ofgrammatical terms, please see Pages x'xiv' mal wieder mit ihr zu arbeiten. with heragain.
Vecas r47

. lfthesubjectisnotthesameforbothverbs,adass(rneaningthat)clauseisused. 11 Verbs followed bv a preposition + the dative case

lch freue mich sehrdAFuf, I am looking forward to you D The following list contains the most common verbs followed by a preposition
dass du morgen kommst. coming tomorrow. plus the dative case:

o abhingenvon to depend on
tr Verbsfollowed bv a preposition + the accusative case Das hangt von der zeit ab, die That depends how much time
) The following list contains the most common verbs followed by a preposition uns noch bleibt. we have left.
pl us the accusative case: o sich beschdftigen mit to occupy oneself with
o sich amiisieren iiber to laugh at, smile about Sie beschiftigen sich im Moment They're busy with their new
Sie haben sich Uber ihn am0siert. They laughed at him. mitdem neuen Haus. house at the moment.

o sich irgern iiber l to get annoyed about/with . bestehen aus to consist of

o sich bewerben um to apply for o leiden an/unter to sufferfrom
Sie hat sich um die Stelle als She applied forthe position of Sie hat lange an dieser Krankheit She suffered from this illness for
Direktorin beworben. d i rector. gelitten. a long time.
o bitten um to ask for o riechen nach to smellof
o denken an to be thinking of o schmecken nach to taste of
Daran habe ich gar nicht mehr gedacht. l'd forgotten about that. Es schmeckt nach Zimt. It tastes of cinnamon.
o denken iiber tothinkabout, hold an opinion of o sich sehnen nach to long for
Wie denkt ihr darliber? What do you think about it? . sterben an to die of
o sich erinnern an to remember Sie ist an Krebs gestorben. She died ofcancer.
o sich freuen auf to look forward to r teilnehmen an to take part in
o sich freuen iiber to be pleased about Du solltest am Wettbewerb You should take part in the
lch freue mich sehr dariiber, dass l'm very glad you came. teilnehmen. competition.
du gekommen bist. o triumen von to dream of
o sich gewdhnen an to get used to o sich verabschieden von to say goodbye to
o sich interessieren fiir to be interested in lch habe mich noch nichtvon I haven't said goodbye to him yet.
Sie interessiert sich sehr fiir Politik. She's very interested in politics. ihm verabschiedet.
o kimpfen um to fightfor o sich verstehen mit to get along with, get on with
o sich kiimmern um to take care ol see to sie versteht sich ganz gut mit ihr. She gets on reallywellwith her.
Kannst du dich um meine Pflanzen Can you see to my plants?
klimmern? Key points
o nachdenken i.iber to think about / after verbs are often not the same as the ones
Er hatte schon lange dariiber He had been thinking about it for :fll,X"rt"t-,t,r?tions
nachgedacht. a long time. y' using.Oiffe"rent prepositions with a verb creates completely different
o sich unterhalten iiber to talk about meanings.
o sich verlassen auf to rely on, depend on use prepositions where their Enstish
Kann sie sich auf ihn verlassen? Can she rely on him?
" fflffm:?:"":,."t'"t"lly
o warten auf to wait for Prepositions used with verlrs behave like normal prepositions and
affect the case of the following noun.
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see Pages x-xiv.

Verbs followed bY the dative case

r schenken togive(asapresent)
lch schenke ihr einen Computer l'm giving her a computerfor her
zum Geburtstag. birthday.
tr verbs with a direct and indirect object
o schreiben to write
>> Some verbs are generally used with a direct object and an indirect obiect' Schreib ihm mal einen Brief. Write him a letter sometime.
For example, in the English sentence,She g Tve me a book, the direct object of
gaveis a book and would be in the accusative case in German, and rne (= to me) o zeigen toshow
is the ind irect object and would lre in the dative case in Cerman' Zeig es mir! Show me it!
Sie gab mir ein Buch. She gave me a book.

directobject=ein Buch A Verbs with their object in the dative

ind irect object = mir ) Certain verbs in German, such as helfen (meaning to help) can ONLy be followed
giving by an object in the dative case. In many cases, their English equivalents have a
> ln cerman, as in English, this type of verb is usually concerned with
direct object, and you need to learn the most common verbs which are different
or telling someone something, or with doing something for someone else.
in this way.
Sie erzahlte ihm eine Geschichte. She told him a story.
D Here are some of the most common ones.
direct object = eine Geschichte
indirect olrject = ihm
o begegnen to bump into, meet

for the d i rect object to

Er ist seinem Freund in der Stadt He bumped into h is friend in
@ trtote that the normal word order after such verbs is
begegnet. rown.
follow the indirect, EXCEPT where the direct object is a personal pronoun.
o geh6ren to belong to
Kaufst du mir das Buch? Willyou buy me the book? Wem geh6,rt dieses Buch? Whose book is this?
BUT o helfen to helo
Kaufst du es mir:? Willyou buy itfor me? Er wollte ihr nicht helfen. He refused to help her.
Q For more information on Direct and lndirect obiect pronouns, see poges 74-n ' o danken tothank
lch danke dir! Thank you!
> Here are some of the most common examples of verbs which are used with
both a di rect and an i ndirect object: o schaden todamage
Rauchen schadet der Gesundheit Smoking is bad for your health.
o anbieten to offer
Sie bot ihr die Arbeitsstelle an' She offered herthejob. o schmecken to taste
Das Essen hat ihnen gutgeschmeckt. Theyenjoyed the meal.
o bringen tobring
Bringst du mir eins? Willyou bring me one? . trauen to trust
lch traue dir nicht. I don't trust Vou
o beweisen to Drove
Kdnnen Sie es mir beweisen? can you prove it to me?

o fehlen to be absent or missing y' some cerman verbs are usr", J;]"ilLTa irecrAN D an ind rect object.
d i
Mir fehlt das n6tige Geld. don't have enough money.
y' Theindirect object isALWAYS in the dative case.
o geben to give y' The normal word order after such verbs is for the direct object to follow
Gib mir das sofort! Cive me that nowl the indirect, EXCEPTwhere the direct object is a personal pronoun.
, Cerman verbs can only be foltowed by an object in the dative
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see Pages x-xiv'
r50 VERBS Venas r5r
> Here is the present tense of the verb sehen (mean i ng to see) in its passive form.
The passive
ich werde gesehen I am seen
What is the passive? du wirst gesehen you are seen
The passive is the form ofthe verb that is used when the subject ofthe verb is er/sie,/es wird gesehen helshe,/it is seen
the person or th ing that is affected by the action, for example, I wos given,we wirwerden gesehen' we are seen
were told. it hId been mIde. ihr werdet gesehen you (plural) are seen
sie/Sie werden gesehen. they/you (formal) are seen

tr Usinq the passive

> In a normal, orcctive sentence, the'subject' ofthe verb is the person orthing rtp
that carries out the action described Llv the verb. The'object' of the verb is the There is//there ore can be translated by a verb in the passive tense in
person orthing thattheverb'happens'to. German.

Ryan (subject) hit(activeverb) me (object). Es wird immer viel getrunken There is always a lot of
aufseiner Party. drinking at his party.
) In English, as in German, you can turn an active sentence round to make a
Dassive sentence.
| (subject) was hit (possive verb) lry Ryan (lgent). > You can form other tenses ofthe passive by changing the tense ofthe verb
werden, for example, the imperfect passive.
l Verv often, however, you cannot identifywho is carrying outthe action
indicated bVtheverb. ich wurde gesehen I was seen

I was hit in the face. * For more informotion on the tmperfect tense, see page ng.
The trees will be choPPed down.
I've been chosen to represent the school.
tr Formino the passive There is a very important difference between Cerman and English in
sentences containing an indirect obiect. ln English we can quite easily
) | n En glish we use the verb to be with the
past partici ple (wos hit, was given)
turn a normal (active) sentence with an ind irect object into a passive
to form the passive and the word'by' usually introduces the agent. In German
the passive is formed using werden and the past participle, while the agent
is introduced by Active
o von, for a person or organisation, Someone (subject) gave (active verb) me (indirect object) abook(direct object).
o ordurch,forathing. Passive
The child was bitten by a dog. | (subjecr) was g iven (passive verb) abook(direct object).
Das Kind wurde von einem Hund
qebissen. In German, an indirect object can NEVER become the subject of a passive
verb. Instead, the indirect object must remain in the dative case, with
DieT0rwurde durch den Wind The doorwas opened bY the either the direct object becoming the subject ofthe passive sentence
oeiiffnet. wind. OR use of an impersonal passive construction.
Ein Buch (subject) wurde mir geschenkt.
Q For more informotion on the Post participle, see poge n4.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see pages x-xiv.

152 vERBs

E_l Avoiding the passive PREPOSITIONS

) Passives are not as common i n German as i n Eng I ish. There are three ma in ways
that German speakers express the same idea.
What is a preposition?
o by using the pronoun man (meaning they or one)with a normal, active verb. Apreposition is a word such as at, for, with, intoorfrom,which is usually
Man hatte es mir schon gesagt. I had already been told. followed by a noun, pronoun o1 in English, a word ending in -ing. prepositions
show how people and things relate to the rest ofthe sentence, for example,
@ trtote that man is not always translated asthE or one.
She's ot home; a tool fucutting grass; it's from David.
Man hatte es schon verkauft. It had alreadv been sold.

o byusing sich lassen plusaverb in the infl nitive Using prepositions

Das lisst sich machen. That can be done. > Prepositions are used in front of nou ns and pronouns (such as me, him, the mon
o by using an active tense where the agent of the action is known. and so on), and show the relationship between the noun or pronoun and the rest
of the sentence. Some prepositions can be used before verb forms ending in -ing
Susi schenkte ihr ein Auto. Susi gave her a car.
in English.
INSTEAD OF I showed my ticket to the inspector.

lhr wurde von Susi ein Auto geschenkt. She was given a car by Susi. Comewith me.
This brush is really good for cleaning shoes.

Key points * For more information on Nouns and Pronouns, see pages t and 69.
y' nepresent tense of the passive is formed by using the present tense D n Engl ish, a preposition does not affect the word or phrase
I it i ntroduces,
of werdenwith the past participle. for example:
y' ln cerman, an indirect olrjectcan NEVER becomethe subjectofa the inspector to the inspector
passive vertr.
me with me
y' youcan often avoid a passive construction lry using the pronoun man
cleaning shoes forcleaning shoes
plus an infinitive oran active tensewhere the agent is
il:[:]"*"" D In Cerman, however, the noun following a preposition must be put into the
accusative, genitive or dative case.

L1_l Prepositions followed by the dative case

) Some of the most common prepositions taking the dative case are:
aus, auBer, bei, gegenliber, mit, nach, seit, von, zu

. aus outof,from
Er trinkt aus der Flasche. He is drinking out of the bottle.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv,

Sie kommt aus Essen. She comes from Essen.
r54 Pnepostlorus Pneeosmorus r55

o auBer outof;excePt o seit since; for (of time)

Der Fahrstuhl war auBer Betrieb. The lift was out of order' Seit er krank ist, spielt er nicht He's stopped playing football

Gefahr. mehr FuBball. since he became ill.

Der patient istjetzt auBer The patient is out ofdanger now.
alle auBer mir kamen zu spit. all except me came too late'
@ ruotethatafterseit, meaning for, we use the presenttense in Cerman,
butthe oerfecttense in English.
r bei otthehome/shop/worketcof;near
lch wohne seit zweiJahren in Frankfurtfor
Feiern wir bei uns? Shall we celebrate at our house? l've been living in
Frankfurt. two years.
Bei uns in schottland ist das kein At home in Scotland that isn't
a oroblem. Sie arbeitet seit achtJahren bei She's been workinq for us for
She is at the baker's.
uns, eight years.
Sie ist beim Bicker.
Er ist noch beim Friseur. He is still at the hairdresser's. * For more information on Tenses, see plge 94.
Erwohnt immer noch bei seinen He still lives with his Parents.
. von from; about; by (when used in the passivetense)
Von Berlin sind wirweiter nach From Berlinwewentonto
n Note that bei plus the definite article can be shortened to beim.
Krakau gefahren. Krakow
+ For more information on Shortened forms of prepositions, see page $5' lch weiB nichts von ihm.
Sie ist von unseren Argumenten
I know nothing about him.

She was convinced by our

o gegeniiber opposite; towards iiberzeugt worden. ar9umenrs.
He lives opposite us.
Erwohnt uns geqen[iber.
qeqeniiber immer
Sie ist mir She has always been very
+ For more information on the Passive, see page :5o.

sehr freundlich gewesen. friendly towards me.

a Note thatvon can be used as a common alternative to the qenitive case.

ruote tnat when used as a preposition, gegen[iber is placed AFTER a pronou n, Die Mutter von diesen Midchen The mother of these girls is an
[J ist Kiinstlerin. artist.
but can be placed BEFORE oTAFTER a noun.
Sie ist eine Freundin von She is a friend ofAlexander's.
o mit with Alexander.
Er ging mit seinen Freunden He went for a walk with his
spazieren. friends. Q For more informotion on the Genitive cdse, see page n.

o nach after;to . zu to;for

Nach zwei stunden kam erwieder. He returned two hours later' Er ging zum Arzt. He went to the doctor's.
Sie ist nach London gereist. she went to London. Wir sind zum Essen eingeladen. We're invited for d inner.
lhrer Sprache nach ist sie From thewav she talks lwould
@ ruotethatzu plusthedefinitearticlecan beshortened tozum orzur.
Siiddeutsche. sav she is from southern Germany.

@ ruotethatwhen nach meansoccordingto,asinthe lastexample, itcan be placed Q For more information on Shoftened forms of prepositions, see page $5.
AFTER the noun.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see Pages x-xiv'

r56 Pnsposrrrous Pneposrrrorus t57

o durch through
Gnmmar Extra! Sie guckte durch das Loch. She looked through the hole.
Some ofthe above prepositions are also used as separable verb prefixes, that is the part at the Durch Zufalltrafen sie sich They met again, by chance.
beginning ofa separable German verb. wieder.
aushalten to endure
lch halte es nicht mehr aus. I can't stand it any longer.
. entlang olong
Die Kinder kommen die StraRe The children are coming along
(emandem) beistehen to stand by (somebody)
entlang. the street.
Er stand seinem Freund bei. He stood by his friend.

qeoen0berstehen to have an attitude towards @ trtote tnat entlang comes AFTER the noun in this meaning.
Er steht ihnen kritisch qegentiber. He has a critical attitude towards them.

jemanden mitnehmen to give somebody a lift

o fiir for;to
lch habe es fiir dich getan. ldid itforyou.
Nimmst du mich bitte mit? Will you give me a lift please?
Das ist flir ihn sehr wichtig. That is very important to him.
nachmachen to copy
Was fiir eins hat er? What kind (ofone) does he have?
Sie macht mir alles nach. she copies everything I do.
Was flir einen Wagen hat sie? What kind ofcardoes she havel
Sqmachen to snut
Was fiir Apfel sind das? What kind of apples are they?
Mach die TUr zu! Shut the door!
gegen against; around
* For more information on separable verbs, see poge rcg.
Stelle es geqen die Wand. Put it against the wall.
Haben Sie etwas oegen Have you got something for
Heuschnupfen? hayfever?
Key points Wir sind oeoen vier angekommen. We arrived at around four otlock.
y' gegeniiber, aus, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu, auBerare the most
common prepositions used with the dative case.
ohne without.

y' Ohne sie gehts nicht. It won't work without her.

tachof tfiem has several d ifferent possi ble mean i n gs, depend i ng on
the contextthey are used in. . um @)round, round obout; at (with time); by (with quantity)
y' aus,nach, mit, bei and zu can also lre used as separable verb prefixes. Der Bahnhofliegt um die Ecke. The station is round the corner.
Es fingt um neun Uhr an. It begins at nine.
Es ist um zehn Euro billiger. It is cheaper by ten euros.
A Prepositions followed bv the accusative case
[J ruote tnat um is used after certain verbs.
> The most common prepositions taking the accusative case are:
Sie baten um ein bisschen mehr They asked for a bit more time.
durch, entlang, fiir, gegen, ohne, um, wider zeit.
Es handelt sich um dein It's a question of your behaviour.

rw Benehmen.

lf you want an easy way to remember wh ich prepositions take the

Q For more information on Verbsfollowed by prepositions, see plge 45
accusative case, Vou could think of the word DOGWUF, which can stand o wider controry to, agoinst
for the prepositions durch ohne gegen wider um fiir.
Das geht mir wider die Natur. That's against my nature.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

I58 PneposrnoHs Pnrnosrrrorus r59

L The most common prepositions in this category are:

Grammar Extra!
an, auf, hinter, in, neben, uber, unter, vor, zwischen
Some ofthe above prepositions are also used as separable verb prefixes, that is the part at the ,

beginning ofa separable Cerman verb. D You usean:

durchmachen r with the accusative case
Sie hatviel durchgemacht in ihrem Leben. She's been through a lot in her life.
Die Lehrerin schrieb das Wort The teacher wrote the word
entlanogehen an dieTafel. on the board.
Wir gingen die StraBe entlang. We went along the street lch habe einen Brief an meine I wrote a letter to my mother.
um and widerare also used as separable or inseparable verb prefixes (variable verb prefixes), Mutter geschrieben.
depend ing on the verb and mean ing. lch ziehe im Sommer an die In the summer I move to the

ullarmen tnseparable to emllrace Kliste. LUd5L.

Er hat sie umarmt. He gave her a hug. . with the dative case
Umfaf fen separable to fall over Das Wort stand an derTafel. The word was written on the
Sie ist umgefallen. She fell over. blackboard.
widersprechen inseporable to go agai nst Wirtreffen uns am Bahnhof. We're meeting at the station.
Das hat meinen Wiinschen That went against my wishes.
widersprochen. E Note that an plus the defi n ite article can be shortened to am.
Der Baum spiegelt sich im
to reflect
The tree is reflected in the water,
+ For more information on shortened forms of prepositions, see plge $s.

Q For more information on Seporable verbs and lnseparabte verbs, see pages rcg and no .
D You useauf:
. with the accusative case
Stell die Suppe bitte auf llen Tisch. Put the soup on the table please.
Key points Wirfahren morgen aufs Land. We're going to the country
y' durch,entlang,fiir, gegen, ot n", r-,
and widerare the most tomorrow
common prepositions used with the accusative case. Erwarfeinen Blick aufdas Buch. He glanced atthe book.
y' trlost of them have several different possible meanings, depending on
the context they are used in.
[} ruotetnatauf plus the defi nite article can be shortened to aufs.

y' durch,entlang and gegen can also lre used as separable verb prefixes. * For moreinformation on Shortenedformsof prepositions, see page$5.
y' um andwider can also be used as variable verbal prefixes. o with the dative case
Die Suppe steht aufdem Tisch. The soup's on the table.
Aufdem Land ist die Luft besser. The air is better in the countrv.
tr Prepositions followed bythe accusative orthe dative case
D There are a number of prepositions which can be followed bV the accusative or
> You use hinter:
the dative case. You use: o with the accusative case
. the accusative case when there is some movement towards a different place Stell dich hinter deinen Bruder. Stand behind your brother.
o the dative casewhen a location is described ratherthan movement. orwhen . with the dative case
there is movementwithin the same Dlace
Sie saB hinter mir. She was sitting behind me,

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

'r50 Pnepostrtorus Pneposrrrorus t6t

D Youusein: o with the dative case

o Sie lebte dort unter Freunden. She lived there amono friends.
with the accusative case
Sie ging ins Zimmer. she entered the room. ) You usevor:
Er wollte nicht in die Schule gehen. He d idn't want to 90 to school" . with the accusative case
o with the dative case Stell den Stuhl vor das Fenster. Put the chair in front ofthe
Was hast du heute in der Schule What did you do at school window.
gemacht? today? . with the dative case
lm Zimmer warteten viele A lot of people were waiting Auf dem Foto stand sie vor dem In the photo she was standing in
Leute auf ihn. for him in the room. Haus. front ofthe house.
lch war vor ihm da. I was there lrefore h im.
E Note that in plus the deflnite article can be shortened to im or ins'
Vordem Krankenhaus linksabbiegen. Turn leftatthe hospital.
+ For more informotion on Shoftened forms of prepositions, see p09e $5.
You use zwischen:

) You use neben: o with the accusative case

o with the accusative case Er legte es zwischen die beiden He put it between the two plates.
Put your bike next to mine. Teller.
Stell dein Rad neben meines.

o with the dative case o with the dative case

Your bike's next to mine. Das Dorf liegt zwischen den Bergen. The village lies between the
Dein Rad steht neben meinem.
D You use iiber:
D Each ofthese prepositions can also be used with verbs and are then called
o with the accusative case prepositional objects.
Zieh den Pullover:0ber deinen Pull the jumper over your head! abhingen von + dative to depend on
KoPf! Das hdngt von dir ab. That depends on you
Sie ging quer 0ber das Feld. She went across the fleld.
schmecken nach+dotive to taste of
Flugzeuge diirfen nicht iiber Planes are not allowed to flY over
dieses Gebiet fliegen. this area.
Der Nachtisch schmeckt nach Zimt. The dessert tastes of cinnamon.

o with the dative case ) When auf or an is used in th is way, the case used depends on the verb - it's much
easier to learn such examples together with the case which follows them.
Die Lampe soll iiber dem Tisch The lamp should hang over the
sich verlassen auf * accusative to depend on
hingen. table.
lch verlasse mich ggfdich. l'm depending on you.
ruote that when iiber me ans about, it is always followed by the accusative case,
[J bestehen auf + dotive to ins ist on
NOT the dative.
Wir bestehen auf sofortiger We insist on immediate payment.
Wir haben viel iiber sie gesprochen. We talked about her a lot. Bezahlung.
D You use unter: glauben an + 4ccusative to believe in
r Sie glaubt an ihre Schwester. She believes in her sister.
with the accusative case
Sie stellte sich unter den Baum. She (came and) stood under leiden an + dotive to sufferfrom
the tree. Er leidet an einer tiidlichen He is suffering from a terminal
Krankheit. illness.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

r6z Pneposrtorus Pcenosmorus r53

sich freuen auf + occusotive to look forward to auBerhalb outside

lch freue mich auf die l'm looking forward to the Es liegt auBerhalb der stadt. It's outside the town.
Sommerferien. summer holidays.
infolge as o result of
warten auf + accusotive to wait for
Infolge des starken Regens kam As a result ofthe heavy rain,
Er wartetjeden morgen aq1| den Every morning he waits for the es zu Uberschwemmungen. there were floods.
Bus. bus.
o innerhalb within, inside
Q For more information on Verbs with prepositional objects, see poge us lch schaffe das nicht innerhalb I won't manage that within the
dergesetzten Frist. deadline.

Grammar Extra! . statt instead of

Some ofthe above prepositions are also used as separable or inseparable verb prefixes. Statt nach Hause zu gehen, sind Instead of going home, we went
anrechnen separable to charge for wir noch in die Stadt gegangen. into town.
Das wird lhnen spatergngerechnet. You'll be charged forthat later Sie kam statt ihres Bruders. She came instead ofher brother.
4gfsetzen separable to put on o trotz in spite of
Er setzte sich die Miitze auf. He put his cap on.
Trotz ihrer Krankheit ging sie In spite of her illness, she went
iiberqueren inseparable to cross jeden Tag spazieren. for a walk every day.
sie hat die straBe iiberquert. She crossed the street
o um...willen for...sake,becauseof ...
Q For more information on separuble verbs and lnseparable verbs, see pages rc9 and no. lch komme um deinet!4!!en. l'm coming foryour sake.
Tun Sie das bitte um meiner Please do it, for my mother's sake.
Mutter willen.
o wihrend during
( Was hast du wlhrend der Ferien What did you do during the
gemacht? holidays?
. wegen because of, on account of
Weqen des schlechten Wetters The event was cancelled lrecause
,:i wurde die Veranstaltung abgesagt. of bad weather.

,r' E Note that statt, trotz, wehrend and wegen can also be followed by the dative
Statt dem Abendessen musste lnstead ofhaving dinnel I had
ich arbeiten. to work.
bj Prepositions followed bv the genitive case Trotz allem will ich weiterstudieren. ln spite of everyth ing, I want to
) The following are some of the more common prepositions which take the continue studying.
genitive case: WHhrend dem Vortrag schlief er ein. He fell asleep during the lecture.
auBerhalb, infolge, innerhalb, statt, trotz, um... willen, wAhrend, wegen Wegen mir musste sie friih nach She had to go home early because
Hause, of me.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv,

154 Pnrpostrtorus Pnreosmorus 165

Orammar Ertra!
There are some other prepositions which take the genitive case:
o beiderseits on both sides of
Beiderseits des Flusses gibt es ein Ufer' On both sides ofthe river there is a
river bank.
o diesseits onthissideof
Diesseits der Grenze spricht man On this side ofthe border Polish and
Polnisch und Deutsch. GermanarespoKen.
o ... halber
Vorsichtshalber nehme ich heute To be on the safe side l'm taki ng an
meinen Regenschirm mit. umbrella today. tr Shortened forms of prepositions
Sicherheitshalberverschliefit er dieT[ir' For safety's sake he locks the door. > After many cerman prepositions, a shortened or contracted form of the defin ite
o hinsichtlich with regard to article can be merged with the preposition to make one word.
Hinsichtlich lhrer Beschwetde With reqards to your complaint, I have
ich lhren Briefan die passed on your letterto the relevant - aufs
Beh6rden authorities. bei+dem- beim
r jenseits on the other side of zu+der + zul
Das Dorf liegt 2 km ienseits der Grenze' The village is 2km on the other side
ofthe border. * For more information on the Dqinite ofticte, see poge 25.

D This can be done with all of the following prepositions:

Preposition + das + den + dem + der

Grammar Extra! an ans am
Special forms ofthe possessive and relative pronouns are used with wegen:
auf aufs
r meinetwegen
aufgeregt? Did he get so upset on my account? bei beim
Hat er sich meinetweoen so
o durch durchs
lch ging nicht deinetweoen nach Hause' I didn't go home because ofyou fiir fi.i rs
o seinetwegen hinter hinters hintern hinterm
lhr mUsst seinetwegen nicht auf You don't have to do without You r
tn Ins tm
euren Urlaub verzichten. holidayfor his sake.
iiber iibers [ibern iiberm
. ihretwegen
Wirsind ihretweoenfruhergegangen. Wewentearlierbecauseofthem. um ums
. unsertwegen unter unters untern unterm
sie musste unsertweoen Strafe zahlen. she had to paya fine because ofus. vor vors vorm
. euretwegen von vom
Euretweqen durfte er nicht mitspielen. Because of you he wasn't allowed to
ptav. zum zuf
. lhretwegen
sollte es lhretweqen Probleme geben, Should you cause any problems, then
dann gehen wir alle nach Hause. we'll allgo home.

4 For more information on Possssive pronouns and Relotive pronouns, see pages 80 and 86.

Forfurther explanation of grammatical terms, please see pages x'xiv.

r66 Pnepostrtorus Pnenosrnorus r67

Erging ans Fenster. He went to the window. o vors,vorm

Wir waren gestern am Meer. We were at the seaside YesterclaY. Stell den Stuhl vors Fenster. Putthe chair in front ofthe
Er ist beim Friseur. He's at the hairdresser's. window
We're going to the cinema tonight Er stand vorm Spiegel. He stood in front of the m irror
Wir gehen heute Abend ins Kino.
lm Sommer lese ich gern im In the summer I like reading in
[| ruote that if you want to stress the article in a sentence, shortened forms are
Carten. the garden. NOT used.
Es ging immer umsThema Geld. Itwas always about the subject ln dem Anzug kann ich mich I can't go out in that suitl
of money. nicht sehen lassen!
Der Hund lief unters Auto. The dog ran under the car.
Shortened forms of prepositions can also be used:
Der Ball rollte untern Tisch. The ball rolled underthetable.
Die Katze lag unterm Schreibtisch' The cat lav under the desk. o with personal pronouns representing inanimate objects, that is olrjects
talked about his holidaY. which are not living things
Ererzihltevom Urlaub. He
She d rives to the stati on. Sie war damit zufrieden. She was satisfied with that.
Siefihrtzum Bahnhof.
He goes to school. Er hat es daraufangelegt, dass He was determ ined to get the
Er geht zur Schule.
er die beste Note kriegen wilrde. best orade.
>> The following shortened forms are normally only used in informal, spoken
4 For more information on Permnal pronouns, see pageTo

o aufs
Wirfahren morgen aufs Land. We're going to the country
tomorrow n:
o durchs
5ie flog durchs Abitur' Shefailed herA Levels. i
o flirs
Das ist fiirs neue Haus. That's for the new house.

hinters, hintern, hinterm

Er lief hinters Auto. He ran behind the car.
Stell es hintern Tisch' Put it behi nd the table.
Es liegt hinterm Sofa. It's behind the couch.

iibers, Ubern, iiberm

Sie legten ein Brett 0bers Loch. They put a board over the hole'
Man muss das 0bern KoPf ziehen. You have to pull it overYour head.

Uberm Tisch hingt eine LamPe. There's a lamp hanging overthe

unters, untern, unterm
Die Katze ging unters Bett' The cat went u nder the bed.
Der Ball rollte untern Tisch' The ball rolled underthe table.
Der Hund tiegt unterm Tisch. The dog is lying under the table.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see Pages x-xiv'

Corrr1uHcrroHs t69

D lfyou use a co-ordinating conjunction, you do not putthe verb atthe end ofthe
coNJUNCTIONS clause ffi inning with the conjunctlon.
Wir wollten ins Theater, aber wir We wanted to go to the theatre
What is a conjunction? hatten kein Geld. butwe had no money.
A conjunction is a lin king word such as and, but, if and becouse, that links two wir= subject
words or phrases of a sim ilar type, for example, Dione ond I hove been friends for hatten = verb
yeors. Conj unctions also lin k two clauses, for exam ple,l left because I was bored.
In German there are two types of conjunctions, called co-ordinating
conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions'

Co-ordinating conjunctions
D aber, denn, odef sondern and und are the most important co-ordinating
. aberbut
Wir wollten ins Kino, aber wir hatten We wanted to 90 to the cinema,
kein Geld. butwe had no moneY.
trtote that you can't use aberafter a negative to mean not . '. but you must
@ .. ':
use sondern.
o aberhowever
lch wollte nach Hause, er aber wollte I wanted to go home; however,
nicht mit. he wouldn't come.

[J trtote tnat when aber means'however', it comes between the subject and verb
in the clause.
o denn because. since
Wirwollten heute fahren, denn We wanted to travel today because
montags ist weniger Verkehr. there is less trafTlc on MondaYs.
o oderor
Sie hatte noch nie Whisky oder She had never drunk whisky or
Schnaps getrunken. schnapps.
Willst du eins oder hast du vielleicht Do you want one or aren't you
keinen Hunger? hungry?
o sondern but
Es kostet nicht zwanzig, sondern It doesn't cost twenty euros,
fiinfzig Euro. but fifty.
o undand
Susi und Oliver 5usi and Oliver
Er ging in die Stadt und kaufte sich He went into town and bought
ein neues Hemd. himself a new shirt'

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see Pages x-xiv.

17o Col.t1urucnorus Cot'tlutrlcnons r7r

Co-ordinating conjunctions with two parts

> Cerman, like English, also has conjunctions which have more than one part.
Here are the most common ones:
o sowohl ... als (auch) both ... and
The verb is plural, whether the individual subjects are singular or plural.
Sowohl sein Vater als auch seine Both his fatherand motherwere
Mutter haben sich dariiber gefreut. pleased about it.
Sowohl unser Lehrkdrper als auch Both our staffand pupils took
unsere Schiiler haben teilgenommen. part.
weder... noch neither... nor
With this conjunction, the verb is plural unless both subjects are singulal
as shown below.
Weder die Lehrer noch die Sch0ler Neither the teachers nor the
haben recht. pupils are right.
Weder du noch ich wiirde es schaffen. Neither you nor I would be able
to do it.
When weder ... noch is used to lin k clauses. the subiect and verb are
swapped round in BOTH clauses.
Weder mag ich ihn noch respektiere I neither like nor respect him.
ich ihn.
nicht nur... sondern auch not only... but also
The verb agrees innumberwith the subject nearest to it.
Nicht nur sie, sondern auch ich habe They weren't the only ones to
es gehiirt. hear it - | heard it too.
When nicht nur... sondern auch is used to link clauses, the subjectand
verb are only swapped round i n the fi rst clause, not the second, BUT if
nicht nur does not begin the clause, word order is normal.
Nicht nur ist sie geschickt, sondern
auch intelligent.
sie ist nicht nur geschickt, sondern She is not only skilful but also
auch intelligent. intelligent.
o entweder... oder either... or
The verb agrees in numberwith the subject nearest to it. When entweder
... oder is used to link clauses, the subject and verb are only swapped round
in the fi rst clause, not the second
Entweder du oder Karla muss es It must have been either you or
getan haben. Karla.
Entweder komme ich vorbei, oder l'll either drop in or
ich rufe dich an. l'll give you a ring.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

172 Corulurucnons Corrrlurucrrorus r73

5u bordinating conjunctions
l The subordinate clause is always separated from the main clause by a comma. lf translating when.i:n a sentence which describes a single, completed
It is called a subordinate clause because it cannot stand on its own without action in the past, you use als, NOT wenn. you use wenn for single,
the other clause in the sentence and is linked to this by a subordinating momentary actions in the present or futu re.
Sie ist zu FuB gekommen, weil der She came on Foot because the o weil because
Bus zu teuer ist. bus is too dear.
Morgen komme ich nicht, weil ich I'm not coming tomorrow
MAIN CLAUSE = Sie ist zu FuR gekommen keine Zeit habe. Decause I don't have the time.
SUBORDINATE CLAUSE = weil der Bus zu teuer ist
o um ... zu in orderto...
[J ruotethatthe verb comes atthe end ofthe subordinate clause. Um friih aufzgstehen, musste sie In order to get up early, she had
l als, da, damit, dass, ob, obwohl, wihrend, wenn, weil, um ..' zu, and ohne ... den Wecker stellen. to set the alarm.
zu are some of the most important subordinating conjunctions.
@ trtote tnat zu is inserted between a separable verb and its prefix.
o als (when) S ps7 msys informotion on Seporobleverbs, see plge rcg.
regnete, als ich in Glasgow ankam. It was raining when I arrived in
Es o ohne... zu without...
Er verlieR das Haus, ohne ein Wort He left the house without
o da (as, since) zu sagen. saying a word
Da du nicht kommen willst, gehe ich Since you don't want to come,
allein. l'llgo on my own. @ ruotetnatum...zuandohne...zuarealwaysusedwithinfinitiveconstructions.

. damit so (that) @ ruote that with the subordinating conjunctions als, da, damit, dass, ob,
obwohl, wihrend, wenn, weil, um ... zu, and ohne... zu, the subordinate
lch sage dir das, damit du es weiBt. l'm telling you so thatyou know. clause can come BEFORE the main clause, as seen in the example with da.
. dassthat When this happens, the verb and subject of the main clause swap places.
lch weiB, dass du besser in Mathe I know (that) you're better * For more information on the tnfrnitive, see page ;54.
bist als ich. at maths than me.
> ln tenses which only have one verb part, such as the present and imperfect,
o ob if, whether the verb comes last in the subordinate clause.
fragt, ob du auch kommst. 5he wants to lcnow if you're
coming too.
Wenn er mich sah, lief er davon. Whenever he saw me, he ran awav.

o > In tenses which have two verb parts, such as the perfect tense, it is the form
obwohlalthough of haben, sein orwerden which comes last in the subordinate clause. afterthe
Sie blieb lange auf, obwohlsie mlide She stayed up late although she past participle.
war. was ti red.
Siewill nicht ausgehen, weil sie She doesn't want to go out
o wihrend while noch nichts qegessen hat. because she hasn't eaten
Sie sah fern, wihrend sie ihre She was watchingWwhile she anything yet.
Hausaufgaben machte. was doing her homework.
* For more information on the Perfect lnd lmperfeatenses, see pages n3 ond n8.
o wenn when, whenever/if
D Any modal verb, for example m6,gen (meaning to like) and k6,nnen (meaning
Wenn ich nach Hause komme, When I get home, the first thing can, to be able to), used i n a subord i nate clause is placed last i n the clause.
dusche ich erst mal. l'm going to do is have a shower.
Sie wusste nicht, ob sie kommen She didn't know if she could come
Wenn er anruft, sag mir Bescheid. lf he calls, tell me.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv. 9 For more information on Modolverbs, see p0ge36
174 CoH,urusnorus

> Here is a ready-reference guide to the key points of German word order.

tr Main clauses
) Inamainclausethesulrjectcomesfirstandisfollowedbytheverb,asinEnglish.
Seine Mutter (subject) rrinkt (verb) H is mother (su bject) drinks (verb)
Whisky. whisky.
> In tenses with more than one verb element, such as the perfect tense and the
passive, the part ofhaben, sein or werden comes after the subject, and the
past participle or inflnitive goes to the end of the clause.
Sie hat mir nichts gesaot. she told me nothing.
Er ist spit ansekommen. He arrived late.
Es wurde fiir ihn oekauft. It was bought for him.
) A d irect ol,:ject usually follows an ind irect object, except where the d irect
object is a personal pronoun.
f ch gab dem Mann (indirect object) I gave the man the monev
das Gefd (direct object).
fch gab ihm (indirect object)das Geld I gave him the money.
(direct object).
lch gab es (direct object) ihm (indirea I gave it to him.

@ trlotetnattheindirectobjectcanalsobeplacedlastforemphasis,providing
it is NOTa pronoun.
Er gab das Geld seiner Schwester. He gave the money to h is sister.
(not his brother)

9 For more informotion on Direct and lndirea objects, see pages 9 ond 4.
Q For more informotion on lJsing direct and tndireaobjeapronouns, see pogesT4 lnd76.
> As a general rule, adverbs are placed next to the words to which they refer.
o Adverbs of time often comefirst in the clause. butthis is notfixed.
Gestern gingen wir ins Theater
WirgingengesterninsTheater Wewenttothetheatreyesterdav.
o Adverbs of Dlace can also come first in the clause when Vou want to
emphasize something.
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x'xiv. Dort haben sie FuRball gespielt. Thats where they played football.
176 Wono Onoen Wono Onorn r77

o Adverlrs of manner comment on verbs and so are likely to come i mmediately

r asubordinateclause
after the verb theV refer to. Nachdem ich ihn oesehen hatte, I went home after seeing him.
They play footlrall well. ging ich nach Hause.
5ie spielen out FuRball.

. Where there is more than one adverb, a useful rule of thumb is:
"TIME. MANNER, PLACE" tr Subordinate clauses
Wir haben oestern gU! hierhin We found ourwav here all right ) A subordinate clause may be introduced by a relative pronoun (a word such as
gefunden. yesterday. der, die or dessen) or a subordinating conjunction (a word such as da, als or ob).
gestern = adverb of time
gut=adverb ofmanner
Die Kinder, die wir gesehen haben ... The children whom we saw ...

hierhin = adverb ofplace

Da sie nicht schwimmen wollte, ist As she didn't want to swim.
sie nicht mitgekommen. she didn't come.
. lf there is a pronou n object (a word I i ke her, it, me or them) i n the clause,
D The subject follows the conj unction or relative pronoun.
it comes before all adverbs.
Sie haben es gestern sehr billig They bought it very cheaPlY lch weiB nicht, ob er kommt. ldon't know if he's comino.
gekauft. yesterday.
) The main veTbALMOSTALWAYS goes to the end of a subordinate clause
The normal word order in a main clause is subjectfollowed byverb.The subject Als ich nach Hause kam, war ich When lcame home lwas reallv
can be replaced as the first element by any of the words and phrases below. ganz miide. ti red.
ln such cases, the verb is the second element in the clause.
an adverl:
Gestern sind wir insTheater We went to the theatre Yesterday. Grammar b&ra!
gegan9en. The exceptions to this are:

adirect or indirect object o A clause which normally begins with wenn, butfrom which it can be left out.

Seinen Freunden wollte er es nicht He wouldn't show it to his Findest du mein Handy, so ruf mich
friends. bitte an.
an infinitive phrase Wenn du m€in Handy findest, ruf mich lf you find my mobile, please give me
lhren Freunden zu helfen, hat sie She didn'ttrv to help herfriends. bitte an. a call.
nicht versucht.
. Indirectspeech withouttheconjunction dass(meaningthat).
another noun or pronoun Sie meint, sie werde es innerhalb einer
Deine Schwester war es. It was your sister. Stunde schaffen.
Sie war es. It was her. INSTEAD OF
Sie meint, dass sie es innerhalb einer 5he thinks (that) she will manage it
a past particiPle Stunde schaffen wird. inside an hour.
Geraucht hatte er nie' He had never, ever smoKed.

r a phrase with a PrePosition

Welt was born in this house. D Therulesapplyingtotheorderofarticles,nouns,adjectives,adverbs,direct
ln diesem Haus bin ich auf die I
and indirect o[:jects are the same in subordinate clauses as in main clauses,
EXCEPT that all these words are placed between the su bject oFthe clause and
o a clause which acts as the object of the verlr the relevant verb part.
Was mit ihm los war, haben wir nie We neverfound out what was
herausgefunden. wrong with him.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see pages x-xiv'

178 Wono Onosn
went into town with her
Sie ist gestern mit ihrer Mutter in die she
Stadt gefahren. mother yesterdaY.

SUBORDINATE CLAUSE: What is a negative?

Da sie gestern mit ihrer Mutter in die Since she went into town with A negative question or statement is one which contains a word such as not,
Stadt gefahren ist' her mother YesterdaY. neveror nothing and is used to saythatsomething is not happening, is nottrue
or is absent.

rtp Ll-l Using neoatives

D I n Engl ish we use words I i ke not, no, nothing and never to show a negative.
EXCEPTthat the verb goes to the end.
l'm notvery pleased.
* For more information on suborilinote clduses, see page 193'
Dan never rang me.
Nothing ever happens herel
There's no milk left.
}Wordorderintheimperative,indirectandindirectspeechandinverbswith > In Cerman, ifyou want to make something negative, you generally add nicht
separable prefixes is covered i n the relevant chapters: (mean ing nof) or nie (meaning never) next to the ph rase or word referred to,

Q For more informotion on the tmperotive, see page to5' lch will nicht mitgehen. I don't want to come.

4 For more information on Direct and lndirefr speech, see

page n9 ' Sie ftihrt nie mit ans Meer. She never comes with us to the
plge rcg' seaside.
Q For more i nformation on Verbs with separoble prefixes, see
> Here is a list of the other common Cerman negatives:
o nein (meaning no)
Nein, ich habe keine Zeit. No, I don't have any time.
. nichts (meaning nothing)
sie hat nichts damit zu tun. She has nothing to do with it.
o nicht mehr(meaningnot. ... ony more, no longer)
lch rauche nicht mehr. I don't smoke any more/
I no longer smoke.
Sie geht nicht mehr hin. She doesn't go any more
@ ruote that nicht and mehr always appear next to each other.
kein (meaning none)
Keiner meiner Freunde wollte None of my friends wanted
kommen. to come.
Wo ist die Milch? - Es ist keine Where is the milk? -There is
mehr da. none left.

Nicht applies to verbs. Remem ber that when you want to make a
negative statement about a noun, you must use kein. lfyou want to say
I don't drink milkany more,you would say lch trinke keine Milch mehr.

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see Pages x-xlv'

t80 Necnrtves Necnrrves t8t

+ Formore information on the lndeftnite article in negotive sentences and on tndefinite

You can change the emphasis in a sentence by moving the position
For example, nie can be placed at the
ofthe negative.
start ofthe sentence. The subject and verb
pronouns, see poges 36 and 82.
then swap positions.
o niemand (meaning nobody ot no one) Nie waren sie gliicklicher gewesen. They had never been happier.
Es war niemand im Biiro. There was nobody in the office' Nie im Leben hatte er so etwas Never in his life had he seen such
gesehen. thing.
+ For more informotion on lndefinite pronouns, see page 82.
nicht comes at the end of a negative

imperative, except if the verb is separabre,

o nirgendwo or nirgends (meaning nowhere ' not . ' . lnvwhere) in which case it comes before the separable prefix.
Nirgends sonst gibt es so sch6ne Nowhere else will You find such
lss das nicht! Don't eat that!
Blumen. beautiful flowers.
Setzen 5ie sich nicht! Don't sit downl
Hier gibts nirqendwo ein There isn'ta swimming Pool
Schwimmbad. anywhere here.
Geh nichtweg! Don't go away!
o weder noch (meanin g neither of two things)
> nicht+ the indefinite article ein is usually replaced byforms of kein.
Karotten oder Erbsen? - Carrots or peas? -
Gibt es keine PlEtzchen? Aren't there any biscuits?
Weder noch, danke. Neither, thanks.
Kein einziger Student hatte die Not a single student had done
o weder ... noch (meaning neither ... nor) Arbeit gemacht. the work.
wedersabinanocholiverkommen Neithersabinanoroliverare' 9 For more information on the lndefinite orticle, see page 3s-
zur Party. coming to the Party'
L To contradicta negative statement, doch is used instead ofja, to mean yes.
* f or more informotion on Co-ordinating coniunctionswithtttto ports, see page Vo.
Du kommst nicht mit. - Doch, You're not comino. -Yes I am
o ... auch nicht(meaningneither have I, nor does he, nor orewe etc) ich komme mit.
lchmagihnnicht.-lchauchnichtl ldon'tlikehim'-Neitherdol! Das ist nicht wahr. - Doch! That isn't truel - yes it is!
Er war noch nie im SPanien. - He's never been to Spain. - D nicht ... sondern (meaning not ... but) is used to correct a wrong idea or false
Sie auch nicht! Neither has she! impression.
Nicht Susi, sondern ihr Bruder It wasn't susi. it was her brother.
Word orderwith negatives war es.
)> In a sentence the present tense, nicht and nie
with only one verb Part, such as
usuallv come directly after the verb. However, in direct questions, the negative
word comes after the subject.
Du arbeitest nicht. You're notworking.
Arbeitest du nicht? Aren'tyou working?

I sentence with two verb parts, such as the perfect tense and the passive,
the part ofhaben, sein or werden comes after the subject and the negative
word usuallV comes directly before the past participle or infinitive. The position
ofthe negative doesn't change in direct questions.
5ie haben es nicht gemacht. You haven't done it.
Haben sie es nicht gemacht? Haven'tyou done it?

For further explanation ofgrammatical term5, Please see pages x-xiv'

Quesnorus r83

E Askinq a question bv usinq a question word

D A question word is a word like when or how that is used to ask for information.
In Cerman, these words are a mixture of interrogative adverbs, pronouns and
What is a question? adjectives. Listed below are the most common question words:
A question is a sentence which is used to ask someone about something and
wie?(how?) wo? (where?) wem?(whom?)
which in English normally has the verb in front of the subject. Question words
was? (whdt?) welcher?(which?) wessen?(whose?)
such as why, where,who,which or how are also used to ask a question.
wann? (when?) wer? (who?) warum?(whyl)

@ trtote that wer means who, NOTwhere.

How to ask a question in German D When questions are formed with interrogative adverbs like wann, wo, wie and

tr The basic rules warum, normalword order changes and the subject and verb swap places.
Wann ist er gekommen? When did he come?
> There are three ways of asking d irect q uestions in German:
Wo willst du hin? Where are you off to?
o bychanging round theorderofwords in a sentence
Wie haben Sie das gemacht? How did you do that?
o by adding nicht, nicht wahr, oder or doch (meaning isn't it) to a sentence
Warum ist sie so spit aufgestanden? Why did she get up so late?
o by using a question word

tr Asking a question by chanqino word order Ttp

) Many questions are formed in German by si mply chang ing the normal word order Rememberto use woherand wohin when direction is involved.
ofa sentence. You swap round the subject and verb, and add a question mark.
Woher kommst du? Where do you come from?
Magst (verb) d u (subject) ihnl DoVou like him?
Wohin fahren Sie? Where areyou going?
Gehst(verb)du (subject) ins Kino? Do you go to the cinema? OR
Are you going to the cinema?

> In tenses with more than one verb, such as the perfect tense and the passive, When questions are formed with interrogative pronouns and adjectives,
the part ofhaben, sein or werden comes BEFORE the subject, and the past word order is normal if the interrogative pronoun or adjective is the subject
participle or infinitive goes to the end of the clause. ofthe verb at the beginning ofthe clause.
Haben Sie es gesehen? Did you see it? Wer (subject) hat (verb) das gemacht? Who d id that?
lfthe interrogative pronoun or adjective is NOT the subject ofthe verb at the
tr Asking a question by adding nicht, nicht wahr. oder or doch
beginning ofthe clause, the subject and verb swap places.
> Astatementcan be made intoaquestion byadding nicht, nichtwahr, oderor Wem hast (verb) du (subject) es Who did you give itto?
doch, inthesamewayasisn'tit, won'tVou etc isadded in English.You'd normally geschenkt?
expect the answer to such questions to be a simple yes or no.
Das stimmt, nicht wahr? That's true, isn't it? Q For more information on tnterrogotive pronouns and Adjeaives, see plges 89 ond 3t

Das Essen istfertig, nicht? The food's readv, isn't it?

@ ruote tnat in indirect questions, that is questions following verbs of asking
Sie machen das, oder? They'll do it, won't they? andwondering, the verb comes at the end ofthe question.
Das schaffst du doch? You'll manage, won't youT
Sie fragte, ob du mitkommen She asked if you wanted to come.
D When a question is put in the negative, doch can be used to answer it more wolltest.
positively than ja.
Glaubst du mir nicht? - Doch! Don't you believe me? -Yes, I do!

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see Pages x-xiv.

r84 Quesnorus

o null
'I eins
4 vier
5 fiinf
6 sechs
8 acht
9 neun
'to zehn
ll elf
12 zwiilf
r3 dreizehn
't4 vierzehn
'r5 fiinfzehn
r6 sechzehn
17 siebzehn
r8 achtzehn
'r9 neunzehn
20 zwanzig
2'l einundzwanzig
22 zweiuiidzwanzig
3o dreiRig
40 vierzig
5o fiinfzig
6o sechzig
7o siebzig
8o achtzig
9o neunzrg
a hundred hundert
one hundred einhundert
'lol hunderteins
i02 hundertzwei
l2r hunderteinundzwanzig
200 zweihundert
a thousand tausend
one thousand eintausend
'rool tausendeins
2000 zweitausend
'loo,ooo hunderttausend
l,OOO,OOO eine Million
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms' please see Pages x'xiv.
r85 Nuusrns Nuuaens r87

fl ruotetnatzwooftenreplaceszwei inspeech,todistinguishitclearlyfromdrei. loootn 'rooo. der tausendste

'loolst tool. der tausenderste
2oooth 2000. der zweitausendste
roo,oooth 'roo ooo. der hunderttausendste
t,ooo,oooth r ooo ooo. der millionste

'r,ooo,ooo r.ooo,ooo 0rl ooo ooo When these numbers are used as nouns, thev are written with a
7.5(seven point.five) z5 (sieben Komma fiinf) caDital letter.
l5L r. dererste
2nd z. der zweite
derdritte sie ist die zehnte. She's the tenth.
3'd 3.
4th 4. dervierte half /2 halb
5tn 5. derfiinfte third /3 das Drittel
r.th 6. dersechste
two thirds /3 zwei Drittel
7th 7. dersiebte
8rn 8. derachte quarter das Viertel
three quarters 3/ drei Viertel
gth 9. derneunte
ro. derzehnte one and a half l'/, anderthalb, eineinhalb
rr. der elfte two and a half zweieinhalb
r2th rz. derzwiilfte
l3th r3. derdreizehnte BEISPIELE EXAMPLES
l4tn 14. dervierzehnte
15th r5. derflinfzehnte Sie hat zwei Autos. She has two cars.
t6th r6. dersechzehnte Er ist zwanzig Jahre alt. He is twenty years old.
ITth r7. dersiebzehnte Sie wohnt im dritten Stock. She lives on the third floor.
t8th r8. derachtzehnte Er hat am 3r. August Geburtstag. birthday is on the
H is of
l9'' r9. derneunzehnte August.
20'' 20. der zwanzigste
lch brauche anderthalb Stunden, I need an hour and a halforone
2ist zr. der einundzwanzigste
z2no zz. derzweiundzwanzigste um nach Hause zu kommen. and a half hours to get home.

3otn 3o. der dreiBigste Sie aB zwei Drittel von dem Kuchen. She ate two thirds of the cake.
40'" 40. dervierzigste
50th 5o. derflinfzigste [f ruote tnat ordinal numbers (erste, zweite, and so on) are declined according
to the number, case and genderofthe noun.
6oth 6o. dersechzigste
70"' 7o. dersiebzigste lch habe gerade mein erstes l've just bought my first car.
8otn 8o. derachtzigste Auto gekauft.
gotn 90. derneunzigste Sie kam zum zweiten Mal mit 5he arrived late for the second
'roo'' roo. derhunderste Verspitung an. time.
rolst ror. derhunderterste
'ro2"' roz. der hundertzweite 4 For more information on Nouns, see plget.
'l2l)' rzr. der hunderteinundzwanzigste
2()0'' zoo. derzweihundertste
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
r88 TTMEAND DAIE True Rruo Dnre r89
Wie spit ist es? or Whattime is it? WOCHENTAGE DAYS OFTHE WEEK
Wie viel Uhr ist es? Montag Monday
Es ist... It's ... Dienstag Tuesday
Mitternacht or null Uhr or midnight or twelve o'clock Mittwoch Wednesday
vierundzwanzig Uhr or zwiilf Uhr Donnerstag Thursday
zehn (Minuten) nach zw6lf or ten (minutes) past twelve Freitag Friday
null Uhr zehn Samstag Saturday
Viertel nach zw6lf or quarter pasttwelve Sonntag 5unday
null UhrfUnfzehn
halb eins or null Uhr dreiBig half past twelve Wann? When?
zwanzig (Minuten) vor eins or twenty (minutes) to one Montag (on) Monday
null Uhr vierzig montags (on) Mondays
Viertel vor eins or drei viertel eins or quarter to one jeden Montag every Monday
null Uhr flinfundvierzig letzten Dienstag lastTuesday
ein Uhr one o'clock nechsten Freitag next Friday
zehn (Minuten) nach eins or ten (minutes) past one Samstag in einer Woche or a week on Saturday
ein Uhr zehn in achtTagen
Viertel nach eins orein Uhr fiinfzehn quarter past one Samstag in zwei Wochen two weeks on Saturday
halb zwei or ein Uhr dreiRig half past one
zwanzig (Minuten) vor zwei or twenty (minutes) to two
ein Uhrvierzig MONATE MONTHS
Viertel vor zwei or drei viertel zwei or quarter to two
Januar January
ein Uhr fiinfundvierzig
Februar February
zehn (Minuten) vor zwei or ten (minutes) to two
Mirz March
ein Uhrfiinfzig
April April
zwiilf Uhr twelve o'clock (midday)
Mai May
halb eins orzwiilf Uhr dreiRig half past twelve
ein Uhrordreizehn Uhr one o'clock Juni June
halb fiinf or sechzehn Uhr dreiRig half past four Juli July
zehn Uhror zweiundzwanzig Uhr or
August August
ten o'clock
zwoundzwanzig Uhr September September
Oktober October
Um wie viel Uhr? At what time? November November
Wann? When? Dezember December
morgen um halb drei tomorrow at half past two Wann? When?
um drei Uhr (nachmittags) at three (pm)
im Dezember in December
kurzvorzehn Uhr just before ten o'clock
im April inApril
gegen vier Uhr (nachmittags) around four o'clock
niichsten Januar nextJanuary
(in the afternoon)
letzten August lastAug ust
erst um halb neun not until half past-eight
Anfang,/Ende September at the beginning,/
ab neun Uhr from nine o'clock onwards
morgen friih tomorrow morning end ofSeptember
morgen Abend tomorrow evening

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

r9o TTMEAND DATE True Rruo Dnre r9r
Der Wievielte is heute? What's the date today? Wann ist das passiert? When did it happen?
Welches Datum haben wir heute? am Morgen,/Vormittag in the morning
Heute ist... It's... morgens,/vormittags in the mornings
derzwanzigste Mgrz the twentieth of March amAbend inthe evening
derZwanzigste the twentieth abends inthe evenings
gestern yesterday
Heute haben wir... It's... gestern Abend yesterday evening
den zwanzigsten Merz thetwentieth of March vorgestern the day lrefore yesterday
den Zwanzigsten the twentieth vor einer Woche a week ago
vorzwei Wochen two weeks ago
Am Wievielten findet es statt? When does it take place? letztesJahr last year
am ersten April ... ... on the flrst ofApril
am Ersten... ... on thefirst Wann passiert das? When is it going to happen?
(am) Montag, den ersten April or on Monday, the first ofApril or mor9en tomorrow
Montag, den r. April Aprilrst morgen friih tomorrow morning
[ibermorgen the day after tomorrow
in zwei Tagen in two days
JAHRESZEITEN SEASONS in einerWoche in a week
im Winter in winter in vierzehn Tagen/zwei Wochen in two weeks
im Sommer in summer nAchsten Monat next month
im Herbst in autumn nichstesJahr next year

im Friihling in spring a Note that to talk about the year in which something happens, you don't use in
in Cerman.

NUTZLICHE VOKABELN USEFULVOCABULARY Das findet 2006 statt. That's taking place in zoo6.
Wannl When? Sie wurde r99o geboren. 5he was born in r99o.

lch ging r99r flir ein Jahr nach I went to Cermany for a year
Deutschland. in r99r.
heute Morgen this morning
heute Nachmittag this afternoon
heute Abend this evening
(im Jahr(e)) zoo5 in 2oo5

Wie oft? How often?

jeden Tag every oay
alle zweiTage every other day
einmal in der Woche,/pro Woche once a week
zweimal pro Woche twice a week
einmal im Monat/pro Monat once a month

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

Trrs r93
In Engl ish, you use s to show who or what something belongs to; in German
SOME COMMON DIFFICULTIES you general ly either use the gen itive case or von + the dative case.
Das Auto meiner Schwester
General problems OR
Das Auto von meiner Schwester My sister's car
l You can't alwavs translate Cerman into English and English into Cerman word
for word. While occasionally it is possible to do this, often it is not. For example: * For more information on the Genitive case, see plge n.

. Sentenceswhich contain averband preposition in English might NOT ) Cerman punctuation differs from English in severalways.
contain a preposition in Cerman.
to look at somebody/someth i ng
o Decimal places are always shown by a comma, NOTa full stop.
Jemanden,/etwas ansehen
to listen to somebody/something l,+ (drei Komma vier) 3.+ (three point four)
Jemandem/etwas zuh6ren
. However, manV sentences which contain a verb and preposition in Cerman
. Large numbers are separated by means of a space or a full stop, NOT a
DO contain a preposition in English.
20 000
sich interessiern flir to be interested in
tothinkabout OR: 20.ooo (zwanzigtausend) 20,ooo (twenty thousand)
denken [iber
) Remember that Cerman prepositions are of two types:
. Subordinate clauses are always separated from the rest of the sentence
Dya comma.
. Some are onlv ever used one case, such as gegen (accusative), bei
Er bleibt gesund, obwohl er zu viel He stays healthy, even though
(dative) and auRerhalb (genitive). For all ofthese it is useful to learn the
preposition and its case bY heart.
trinkt. he drinks too much.

o The second type are used eitherwith theaccusative orthe dative,

Q For more information on Subordinote clauses, see page 1n .

according to whether movement from one place to another is involved or o When two main clausesare linked byund (meaning and) oroder(meaning
not.The translation of the same preposition from the last group can change or), no comma is required.
according to the case being used.
wrote a letter to her brother.
Wir gehen ins Kino oder wir bleiben We'll go to the cinema or stay
Sie schrieb einen Brief an ihren She
zu Hause, at home.
Wirtreffen uns am Bahnhof. we're meeting at the station.

4 ror more information on Prepositions, see pnge $3.

) Aword which is plural in English may not be in German.
eine Brille glasses, spectacles
eine Schere scissors
eine Hose trouSers

@ trtote that they are only used i n the plural in Cerman to mean more than one
pair, for example, zwei Hosen = two pairs of trousers.

Q For more information on Nouns, see plge 1 .

Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.

r94 TrPs Trns r95

Specific problems E robe

D The verb to be is generally translated by sein.
tr Nouns with capital letters
Es ist spat. lts late.
) Unlike English,ALLGerman nouns startwith a capital letter, notjust proper Das ist nichtm6glich. Thats not possible.
D When you are talking aboutthe physical position of something you can use
derTisch the table
liegen. You may also come across sich befinden in more formal contexts.
die Politikerin the politician
the Queen
Wo liegt/befindet sich der Bahnhof? Where's the station?
die K6nigin
> In certain set phrases which describe how you are feeling or a state you are in,
@ trtote that this also applies to verbs being used as nouns.
the verb haben is used.
Sie hat ihr K6nnen bewiesen. She has proved herability. Hunger haben to be hungry
Durst haben to be thirsty
Angst haben to afraid
tr Threeformsofvou
unrecht haben to be wrong
) In English we have only one way of saying you. In German, there are three words: recht haben to be right
du, ihrand Sie. You use:
[J ruote that to say, etc 0m hot ot I etc am cold,vouuse a personal pronoun in the
o the familiar du if talking to one person vou know well, such as a friend, dative case fol lowed bV sein.
someone youngerthan you ora relative.
Mir ist heiR I am hot
Kommst du mit ins Kino? Are you coming to the cinema? NOT
o thef,amiliarihriftalking to morethan one person vou knowwell. lch bin heiB

Also, was wollt ihr heute Abend 50, what do you want to do lhr is kalt She is cold
machen? ton ight? NOT
Sie ist kalt
the formal or polite Sie if talking to one or more people vou do not know so
well, such as your teachet your boss or a stranger. > When talking aboutyour health, use thefollowing forms oftheverb gehen.
Was haben Sie gemacht? What did Vou do? Wie geht es dirllhnen? How are you?
Es geht mir gut

tr =i!s OR
Mir geht es gut. I'm fine.
) Although English sometimes uses parts of the verb to be to form the present
tense of other verbs (for exam ple,l am listening, she5tolking), German N EVER
uses the verb sein in this wav. Instead, it uses the normal present tense ofthe trrt
VETD. ) There are three ways of saying it in Cerman: er, sie and es. These correspond
play tennis to the three different genders, masculine, feminine and neuter.
lch spieleTennis. I

OR: Wo ist der Wagen? - Er steht da Where is the car? - lt's over
I am plavinq tennis drtiben. There.
lch finde meine Uhr nicht. Hast du I can't find my watch. Have you
sie gesehen? seen it?
Was hiltst du von meinem Haus? What do vou think of mv house?
- Es ist ganz schdn. - lt's really nice.
For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv.
196 TlPs Trps r97

tr Dateandtime tr Erlsie./es parts of strono verbs in the imperfect

> When talking about a particular day or date, use the preposition an + the dative L You do NOT add a -t to the erlsie,/es parts of the imperfect tense of strong verbs.
case i n the following constructions: Er/sie/es ging He,/she/it went
lch fahre am Montaq nach Hause. l'm going home on Mondav' NOT

den r. April she was d ischarged from hospital Erlsie,/es gingt

sie wurde am Dienstao,
aus dem Krankenhaus entlassen. on Tuesdav, the tst ofApri l. Er/sier/es sang Helshe,/it sang
Meine Nichte hat am 6. SePtember My n iece's birthday is on the 6th NOT
Geburtstag. ofseptember' Er/sie,/es sangt

) When stating the time of a particular event, use the preposition um + the * For more information on the lmperfecttense, see page n8.
accusative case in the following construction.

lch bin um g Uhr aufgestanden. I got up at q o'clock.

@ Inseparable verbs in the perfect tense
Der zug ist um zz.3o Uhr abgefahren. The train left at zz.3o hours-
) Inseparable verbs have no ge- added to beg inni ng of the past participle in the
perfect tense. For example:
4 For more information on Prepositions, see pages $3'
Das habe ich schon bezahlt. l've already paid forthat.
Er hat sich endlich entschlossen. He's finally decided.
tr There is. there are
4 For more information on lnseparable verbs, see page rcg.
> Both there isandthere areare translated by es gibt.

Hier oibt es ein sch6nes Freibad. There's a lovely open-air Pool

here. E can. to be abte
ln Stuttgart qibt es viele Parks. There are lots ofparks in > lf you want to say could, mean i ng was able, you use konnte, the i mperfect form
Stuttgart. ofkiinnen, you do NOT use the conditional form k6nnte.
Sie konnte nicht kommen. She couldn't make it.
Er konnte das einfach nicht. just wasn't able to do it.
El Theimperfectofmodalverbs He

) Modal verbs never have an umlaut in the imperfect tense.

k6nnen (can, to be able) konnte
miissen (must, to have to) musste
mtigen (to like) mochte
diirfen (to be allowed to) durfte
sollen (to ought to) sollte
wollen (to want) wollte

rr0 for more informltion on Modal verbs, see poge :66.

For further explanation ofgrammatical terms, Please see pages x-xiv'

o 25,29,35 aus 78,79,1s3 dates r89
) The German alphabet is pronou nced d ifferently from the way it is pronou nced aoer 6Z 168 auBer r53,r54 dative case v,B)S, zG,42,84,
in English. Use the list below to help you sound out the letters. ODOUI r55, r50 aul3erhalb 163 ro2, r53
abstract nouns 27 iuBerst s6 davon 78
according to r54 auxiliaryverbs r3,r23 days ofthe week 3, IE9
(ah) accusative case 9,15,26,42, avoiding the passive r52 oazu
Ar3 Ia:] 84,86, ro2, r53 baseform ofaverb
9' dazwischen 78
B,b Ibe:] (bav) adjectival nouns 50, 51 because 168 declension l

C,C (tsay) adjective+verbcombinations rl bei 78, r53, r54, r55, 169 defi n ite article 9, il,12, 14, r6, 25,
Itse:] adjective endi ngs 42 beide 3r,32,33 26,32,40,90
D,d [de:] (dav) adjectives r,40 beides 3r,33 dein 34,38, 80
E,e (av) adjectives describing beim 154,165,166 deiner 8r
[e:] nationality 5r bleiben * infinitive il6, r34 dem r6,86
F,f lefl (ef) adjectives preceded by dative both...ond vo demonstrative adjectives 29, 3r, 32

G,g (gav) case 48 brauchen r37 demonstrativepronouns 69,r43

lge:I adjectives taken from place orennen rol den 9,16,86
H,h Iha:] (hah) names 5r bringen rol denen 86

l, i (ee) adjectives used as nouns 5o brlngen:imperfecttense D2 denken ror

li :l adverb + verb combinations 1I but 168. denken:imperfecttense D2
t,j Uctl (vot) adverbs 57 by r55,rs7 denken: presentsubjunctive r3r

K,k (kah) adverbs ofdegree 59 can 75,136 denn 62 168

Ika:] adverbs ofmanner 65 cases g der 9, 16,2Z 86
L,I lell (el) adverbs ofplace 50,65 nouns
collective 34 deren 86

M, (em) adverbs oftime 58,65 comma 186 derjenige 34

1Tl leml adverbswith irregular comparativeadverbs 62 derselbe 34
N,n lenl (en) comparatives and comparativeofadjectiveg 53 des 42

o,o (oh) superlatives 64 comparatives and describing words seeadjectives

Io:] agreement ofrelative superlativesofadverbs 62 dessen 86
P,p lpe:l (pay) pronouns 86 comparison 40 dich j4,84,ro2
(koo) agreement:ofadjectives 40,41 compound adverbs 60 die $,27,42,86
Q,q Iku:] all 34 (ompoundnouns z dies 34
R,f lerl (air) alle 3r,34 conditional r2s, r3o diese 3r,32,34
s,s (es) afs 36,53,62,130,172,173 conjunctions 168 diesen 33
lesl alternatives to the contracted form ofthe dieser 3r,32
It Ite:] (tav) imperative
r59, r65
definite article
different types ofarti<les
U,u Iu:] (oo)
an 25,35 co-ordinating conjunctions dir 76,84,102
V'v [fau] (fow) an 30,78, r59, 16r, r65 with two parts t7o direct object 9,86
(vav) and r68 co-ordinating conjunctions r68 directobjectpronoun 74,75,n,
WW Ive:] ans couldyou... to7 84, l08
X,X Irks] (ix) ony 25 could 136 directquestions 89, r8o, r84
Y,y (Lipsilon) like'ii' in 'riber' arbeiten: imperfect tense countries 28 directspeech r29
[vpsilcn] articles 1,25 dabei 78 doch 67
Z,Z ltsetl (tset) as... as 53, 62 dadurch 78 ?oing'word seeverbs
asking a question by add i ng dafiir 78 dorthin 60
nicht, nicht wahr, oder or dahin 60 du 70
doch 'r82 damit 78,172 durch 78, r50, r56, r57, r58, r65
aski ng a question by chang ing danach 78 durchs 165, 166
word order r82 daneben 78 dllrfen 136
asking a question by using a daran 78 each 29
question word 183 darauf 78 each other 85
atthehomeetcof 154 daraus 78 ein 9,36,37,43
at r53 darin 78 ein(e)s 83
auch * imperative 1o7 darliber 78 einander 85
... auch nicht r8o darunter 78 eine 14,83
auf 78,79, r48, r59, 16r, r62, 165 das $,27,42,86,143 einem p,76,83
aufs r59, 165, 165 dass v9,143,146,172 einen 9,74,83
Forfurther explanation ofgrammatical terms, please see pages x-xiv,
2oo Mnrr lruoex Mnrru luoex zor
einer 83 genitive forms of relative ind i rect questions 89 most 55,63 one 74 proPer nouns 24
einige 31,32,46 pronouns 87 indirectspeech 129,177 miissen 136, t37 one another 85 questions r82
ettnef ... 0r vo genitivesingular 8,24 infinitive 75, 9r, r34 my 37 oneself to2 reflexive pronoun ro2
emphasizerg 67 gern 64 inflnitive+verbcombinations rl myself 84,1c.2 our 37 reflexive pronoun *
entweder.". oder Vo giving orders and infinitive * zu r45 nach 78,153, r54 ours 8o,8r direct object ro4
er 70,72,73 instructions seeimperative infinitive used as noun r35 n5chste 56 ourselves 84, io2 reflexive pronoun *
es 70,72,73,74 gleich 4a 1ng 48, 9r, r34, r45, r53, r94 namrng words see nouns out of 153,154 preposition 85
es gibt 142 haben or sein? 116 ins r60, r65 nationality 36 participles as adjectives 48, 50 reflexivepronouns 69,84
es ist,/es sind r42 he 69,70,72 inseparable prefixes ro9 neben 78, r59, 160 passive 73, r5o reflexiveverbs ro2
etwas 46 her jo,74 interrogative pronouns 87, 89 negatives V9 passiveverb+ indirectobject r5r relative clauses 86
euch 74,76,84,1c2 her- 79 tnto ro, 13,79,153 nein V9 past participle ri3, il4 relative pronouns 69, 86,88
euer 38,80 herauf 79 irgendein 39,43 neither l8o past participle of inseparable ron^rfad <^aa.h

eu(e)re 8l heraus 79 irgendjemand 82 neither...nor r7o,r8o verbs il5 seasons 3, rgo

everything 82 herein 79 irgendwelche 12,39 neuter 1,40,45 past participle of mixed verbs rr5 sein 9, 15,38, 80, ro7
feminine 1,40,45 hers 54,80,81 irregularverbs 9r neuter nouns 6,72 past participle of strong verbs 14 sein: imperfecttense r2l
femininenouns 1,4,16,18,72 herself 84, ro2 it 72,74 never 36,179 past participle ofweak verbs Tr4 seiner 8r

for r53, r55, r57 him 69,74 its 37,81 nicht r79, r8o perfecttense 74,77,113,118 seit r53, r55
foreign nouns 3 himself 84,102 itself 84,102 nicht ein 37 perfect tense of refl exive seit+imperfecttense i8,127
forming plurals 16 hin 60,79 je... desto 62 nicht mehr V9 verbs n6 seit + perfect tense 94,113
forming the conditional 125 hinauf 79 je ... umso 62 nicht nur... sondern auch 17o perfect tense of separable seit+ presenttense 94
formingthefuturetense r23 hinaus 79 jede 3r,32 nichts 179 verDs il5 seitdem' imperfecttense .ll8,r27
forming the imperative ro5 hinein 79 jemand 82 nichtso... wie 53,62 personal pronouns 69,74,77, seitdem + perfect tense 13
forming the imperfect hinter ro, 13, r58, r59, 165 jene 31,32 nicht... sondern l8'l 84,167 seitdem + perfect tense 94
subjunctive r3l his 34,32 80, 8r kein 36,37,43,179 i nie r79, r8o personal pronouns: seitdem + present tense 94
forming the imperfect tense hoch 47,56 keine 36,3'1,82 ni€mand 82, r8o after prepositions Z8 selber 85
of mixed verbs r2l hiichstens 63 Kennen lol nirgends t8o personal pronouns: selbst 85
forming the imperfect tense hiiher 56 kdnnen 75,134,8G i nirgendwo 18o direct object 74 selbstwenn r3o
ofstrong verbs r2o how? r83 lassen + inflnitive r34 nobody 82,r8o personal pronouns: separable prefixes roz ro9,
forming the imperfect tense howadverbsareformed 57 least 55,63 i no longer V9 indirect object 76 156,158
ofweakverbs r19 how adverbs are used 57 lieber 64 i nominative case 9,15,26 personal pronouns: subject 70 separable verb prefixes rS, r58
forming the passive r5o howto aska question in linking words see conjunctions none 82,179 pluperfectsubjunctive r3r she 70,72
forming the past participle il4 German r82 marn ctauses 't72,175,178 no one 82, r8o pfuperfecttense 14 shortened forms of
forming the perfecttense 13 | 69,70 making adjectives agree 42 not 36,179 prural 2,40,45 prepositions 165
forming the pluperfecttense r27 if 129,130,172 mal 67 not ... any 82 position ofverb in subordinate shortened forms ofthe
forming the present ihm 76 imperative
mal* 1o7 not ... anybody 82 cla u se 173,177 definitearticle 30
subjunctive r3l ihn 74 man 70,72,73,152 not ... any more v9 possessiveadjectives A,37,38, sich 84j02
forming the present tense ihnen 76 manch 46 not os ... as 53,62 39,43, 80 sie 70,72,73,74
of mixed verbs loo lhnen 76 manche 3r,32,33 not... onywhere r8o possessivepronouns 34,69, sie 70,71,74
form ing the present tense ihr 38,70,71,76,80 masculine 1,40,45 not... but 18r 80,84 (rmnlo n:<t tan<p
ofreflexive verbs ro2 lhr 38,80 masculrne nouns 3,9,72 nothing 69,179 possessives 47 since 155
forming the present tense ihrer 8l me 74 notonly...butalso 17o prefix combinatlons with sein rr s ing u lar 2,40,45
ofstrong verbs 97 lhrer 8l mehr 46.56.64 noun * verb combinations rl preposition + adjective + noun 45 so ... wie 53, 62
formi ng the present tense im 160,165 mein 38, 80 nouns r,16 prepositional objects 161 solch 46
ofweakverbs 94 immer 62 meiste 5O nouns: case 15 prepositions r5,78, 153 solche 3r,32
forms of the imperative ro5 imperative ro5 meistens 63 nou ns of measu rement and prepositions expressing sollen 136,137
fractions 6 imperative of verbs with mich 74,84,102 quanuly 20 movement 79 some unusual plurals 19
from 79, r53, r55 separable prefixes 1o7 mine 69,80 nouns with more than one prepositions followed by the some 25
fiir 30,78, 156, r5Z 165 imperfect subj unctive of mir j6,84,1o2 gender 8 dLLU5dLrVe Ld5e I5O somebody 82
fiirs 165, 166 mixed verbs 82 mit 78, r53, r54 nouns with no ending in the prepositions followed by the someone 69,82
future tense r23 imperfect subj unctive of mixed declension 43 pru ral 17 accusative or the dative something 82
9an2 34 strongverbs i32 mixed verbs 9r nowhere 6o, r80 case r58 sondern 168

9e- ro9, il4, il5 imperfecttense 1r8 modal verb + verb of numbers 5,47,186 prepositions followed by the sowohl ... als (auch) 17o
9e9en 156, r57 impersonal verbs r39 movement r38 ob 172 datlve case 153 statt r6j
gegeniiber r53, r54 in 30,78,79, r59, 160, 165 modalverb forms r38 object 84 prepositions followed by the stem ofaverb 9r
gehen: perfecttense 17 in 79 modal verb in subordinate object pronouns 69 genitive case 162 strong declension 44
genauso... wie 53 indefiniteafticle 25,35,40,r8o clause 173 obwohl 172 Present gl strong verbs 9l
gender l,D indefinite article in negative modalverbs 75,77,86 oder t68 present participle 48 suDJ ecr 9,84
genderofabbreviations 8 sentences 36 modalverbs*inflnitive r34 of mine 8l present tense 74,93 pronouns
subject 69
genderofcompoundnouns 7 indefinite pronouns 69, 82 miigen rj6 ofyours 8l present tense ofauxi I iary subjunctive r29, r3o
genderofinfinitives 6 indirectobject 8,76,1o2 months 3,29,189 on ne r56, r57 verbs il4 subordinateclause v2,177,178
genderofnouns 3 indirect object pronouns 76, more 53 onne... zu 172,173 pronounsusedforemphasis 85 subordinating conjunctions
genitive case 2Z 86, r53, r55 n,rc6 more and more 62 on 79 pronouns r, 33, 69, 86, r53 143,172
zo2 MRrrrr lruorx

superlative adverbs 63 verb combinations tll which? 18,

superlativeofadjectives verb endings who 69,86,8,r
55 9r
tense 9l verb prefixes r62 whom 86,8,r
thon 8,62 verb prefixes in the present whom? rfil
thot. 69.86 tense 109 whose 8,r
the m1re ... themore 62 verbs 9r whose? rll i
the whv?
verbs dative

verbs followed by

theirs 8o,8r prepositions 78,145 wie? rE i
them 69,71 verbs followed by preposition will t) 1

themselves 84, ro2 +:r.u<rtivo.r<o 1^6 wir /t ,

there is/there are 142 verbs followed by preposition with r53, r5,1 Ihe Verb Tables in the following section contain 97 tables of Cerman verbs
Lhere is/there are r5r + oalve case 47 without t,,/ (strong, weak and mixed) in alphabetical order. Each table shows you the
there 60 verbs followed by the dative wo- 87,8,r
following forms: Present, Perfect, Future, Present Subjunctive, lmperfect,
they 69.70.72 case r48 wo? rll j
this 69 verbs that form their perfect woher tlJ i Conditional, lmperative and the Present and Past Participles. For more
those 69 tense with sein n6 wohin 60, t8 r Information on these tenses, how they are formed, when they are used and so
through tS7 verbs thatform their perfect wollen 75,136, I ri
time r88 tensewith haben 15 word order 17\ on, you should look at the section on Verbs in the main text on pages 9r-'r52.
time, manner, place V6,178 verbs with a direct and indirect word order jn questions r11i
tlme pnrases 34 object r48 word orderwith direct object In order to help Vou use the verbs shown in Verb Tables correctlv, there are also
to 154,155,157 verbswith separableprefixes r78 pronouns /4
'to form oftheverb 134 verbswith thei r object I n the word order with indirect object a number of example phrases at the bottom oF each page to show the verb as it
towords r54 datrve 49 pronouns / i is used in context.
trotz 163 von r5o,153, r55, 16l, 165 word orderwith negatives r8r,
ijber 78, r59, 160, 165 vor 30, 161,165 word orderwith refl exive
um 156, r5Z 158, 165 vowel chanqe in the pronouns 84 In Cerman there are weak verbs (their forms follow regular patterns), strong
umlaut 6, rZ 18, r9, 106,132 imperative 106 word order with separable verbs (their forms follow irregular patterns) and mixed verbs (their forms follow
um ..- willen 163 vowel change in the imperfect prefixes r r( l

um... zu 172,173 tense 120 word order with the a mixiure of regular and irr-egular patterns). Two of the weak verbs in these
und 168 vowel changes in strong verbs 98 imperatave ro(i tables are holen (to fetch) and machen (to do, to make). All weak, strong ano
uns 74,76,84'1c2 wihrend 163,172 words declined like the mixed verbs are shown in full.
unser 38,80 wann? r83 definitearticle l
uns(e)re 8r warum? r83 words declined like the
unten 58 was 46, 69, 8Z 88, 89 indefinite article .a/ The Verb Index at the end of this section contains over tooo verbs, each of
unter 78, r59,165, 166 was fiir 46 would rrr,
which is cross-referred to one of the verbs given in the Verb Tables. The table
unterm 165, 166 weak declension 42 you 69,71, /4
!s 74 weak masculine nouns 22 your 8r, shows the patterns that the verb listed in the index follows.
use of'es'as an anticipatory weaknouns 22 yours 69, 80, 8 |
object r43 weak,strong and mixed verbs 9r yourself 84' tct.'
using adjectives 40 WEAK VCTDS 9r yourselves 84, ro,
using direct object pronouns 74 weder noch r8o zu 3o,78, r43, r53, r55, r6,,
using indirect object pronouns 76 weder ... noch r7o, r80 zu + infinitive tl4
using modal verbs 136 wegen r63, r64 zu a separable verb
using negatives V9 weil 172,173 zum 155, r6,,
using nouns r welch 46 zuf r55, r6',
using prepositions r53 welche 31,32 zwischen 78,159, rOr
using reflexive verbs ro2 wenig 46,47
using subject pronouns 7o wenigstens 63
using the conditional r25 wenn 129, 13o , r72 , 177
usingthedefinitearticle 4 wenn.,, nur 130
usingthefuturetense r23 wer 69, 8Z 89, r83
using the imperative ro5 werden 9, r5,123
using the imperfecttense il8 werden + past participle t50
usingtheindefinitearticle 35 werden: presenttense n4
usingthe inflnitive 84 werden: subjunctive D5
using the passive r5o what 89
usingtheperfecttense 1r3 when? r83
using the pluperfect tense D7 whenever r3o
usrngthepresenttense 93 where 60
using the subjunctive r29 wherea r83
variableverb preflxes r58 which 69, 86, 89
, l.ii t
i* ir,,', Vrns Tnglrs Vens Tneles r

weak, formed with haben


ich nenme an ich nehme an ich arbeite ich arbeite
du nimmst an du nehmest an ou arbettest du arbeitest
nimmt an et/sie/es nehme an arbeitet er/sie/es arbeite
wir nenmen an wir nehmen an wir arbeiten wir arbeiten
ihr nehmt an ihr nehmet an ihr arbeitet ihr arbeitet
sie/Sie nehmen an sie/Sie nehmen an sie,/Sie arbeiten sie,/sie arbeiten


ich habe angenommen ich nahm an ich habe gearbeitet ich arbeitete
du hast angenommen du nahm5t an du hast gearbeitet du arbeitetest
hat angenommen et/sie/es nahm an hat gearbeitet et/sie/es arbeitete
wir haben angenommen wir nahmen an wir haben gearbeitet wir arbeiteten
ihr habt angenommen ihr nahmt an ihr habt gearbeitet ihr arbeitetet
sie/Sie haben angenommen sielsie nahmen an sie/Sie haben gearbeitet sie/Sie arbeiteten


werde annehmen
ich ich wurde annehmen ich werde arbeiten ich wlirde artreiten
wifst annehmen
du du wurdest annehmen ou wirst arbeiten du wLirdest arbeiten
er/ste/es wird annehmen er/sie/es wurde annehmen wird arbeiten er/sie/es Wtirde arbeiten
wir werden annehmen wir wurden annehmen wir werden arbeiten wir wtirden arbeiten
ihr werdet annehmen ihr wurdet annehmen ihr werdet arbeiten ihr wiirdet arbeiten
s e,/S ie
i werden annehmen sie/Sie wLirden annehmen s ie,/S e
i werden arbeiten sie/Sie y7i..irden arbeiten


nimm an!/nehmen wir an!/ angenommen arbe itel,/arbeiten wi rlla rbeitetl/ gearbeitet
nehmt an!/nehmen 5ie anl arbeiten Sie!
annehmend arbeitend


Ich nehme an, doss er heute nlcht mehr kommt. l assume that he isn't coming today. Er arbeitet seit einem Jahr bei der Computerfirma. He has been worl<ing for the
Sie hatte ongenommen, dass sie zu der Party gehen darf. She had assumed that she computer firm for a year.
was allowed to go to the party. Er hot. frilher als Elektriker gearbeitet. He used to worl( as an electrician.
Nehmen Sie unsere Einladung dn? Will you accept our invitation? Ich wtrde nicht gern sonntogs orbeiten. lwouldn't like to work on Sundays.

ich=l du:you er=he/it sie=she/it es=it/he/she wir.we ihr=you sie=they Sie=you

weak, formed with haben


ich atme ich atme ich reiche aus ichreiche aus
du atmest du atmest du reichst aus du reichest aus
er/sie/es atmet ey'sie/es atme reicht aus er/sie/es reiche aus
wir atmen wir atmen wir reichen aus wir reiChen aus
ihr atmet ihr atmet ihr reicht aus ihr reichet aus
sielSie atmen sielsie atmen <iplqic reichen aus sie/Sie reichen aus


rch habe geatmet ich atmete ich habe ausgereicht ichreichte aus
du hast geatmet du atmetest du hast ausgereicht du reichtest aus
hat geatmet ey'sie/es atmete et/sie/es hat ausgereicht eilsie/es reichte aus
wir haben geatmet wir atmeten wir haben ausgereicht wir reichten aus
ihr habt geatmet ihr atmetet Inr habt ausgereicht ihr reichtet aus
sie/Sie haben geatmet sie,/Sie atmeten sie,/5ie haben ausgereicht sielsie reichten aus


ich werde atmen ich
Wi]rde atmen ich werde ausreichen ich wirrde ausreichen
du wirst atmen duwUrdest atmen du wirst ausreichen du wurdest ausreichen
elsie/es wird atmen er/sie/es wa.irde atmen et/sie/es wird ausreichen er/sie/es wr"irde ausreichen
wirwerden atmen wir Wurden atmen wir werden ausreichen wir wlirden au.sreichen
ihrwerdet atmen ihr WUrdet atmen ihr werdet ausreichen ihr wlirdet ausreichen
sielsie werden atmen sielSie wLirden atmen sielSie werden ausreichen sielSie Wrjrden ausreichen


atmel/atmen wirl,/atmetl,/ geatmet reich(e) aus!/reichen wir ausl,/ ausgereicht
atmen sie! reicht aus!,/reichen Sie aus!
atmenct ausreichend


Sie konnte wieder frei dtmen. She was able to breathe freely again Dos 6eld hat nicht ausgereicht. There wasn't enough money.
Wir atmeten tief ein und dus. We took deep breaths. Reicht. dir dls ous? ls that enough for you?
Er hat ganz normal geotmet. He breathed normally. Die Zeit reichte nie ous. There was never enough time.


sie = they Sie = VoU ich=l du:Vou er=helit sie=she,/it es=it/he/she wir=we ihr=Vou sie=they Sie=Vou
W" ttfl Vene Tnelrs
"rww \1'
vens reees W
strong, rormed with haben


ich beginne ich beginne lcn De tlse ich beiBe
du beginnst du beginnest d u be iltt du beiBest
er/sie/es beginnt er/sie/es beginne er/sie/es beiBt et/sie/es beiBe
wir beginnen wir beginnen wir beiBen wir beiBen
ihr beginnt ihr beginnet ihr beiBt ihr beit3et
sielSie beginnen sie/Sie beginnen sie/Sie beiBen sle/5re Deilsen


ich habe begonnen ich begann ich habe gebissen ich biss
du hast begonnen du begannst ou
A,, L^-+
nast geDtssen
-^l-i--^. du bissest
er/sie/es hat begonnen er/sie/es begann er/sie/es hat gebissen er/sie/es biss
wir haben begonnen wir begannen wir haben getrissen wir bissen
ihr habt begonnen ihr begannt ihr habt gebissen ihr bisst
sie/sie haben begonnen sie/5ie begannen sie/Sie haben gebissen sie,/Sie bissen


ich werde beginnen ich wrirde beginnen ich werde beiBen rcn wurde Detlsen
du wirst beginnen duwLlrdest beginnen du wirst beiBen du wrirdest beiBen
er/ste/es Wird beginnen er/sie/es wLirde beginnen et/sie/es wird bei[3en er/sie/es wijrde beiBen
wir werden beginnen wir wrlrden beginnen wir werden beiBen wir wiirden beiBen
ihr werdet beginnen ihr wtirdet beginnen ihr werdet beiBen Inr wuroet Dellsen
sie/Sie werden beginnen sielsie wiirden beginnen sie/Sie werden beiBen sie,/Sie wl-irden beiBen


beginn(e)lrzbeg innen wi r!/ begonnen bei B(e)l/b,ei Ben wi rllbei Bt!/ geDrssen
beginnt!/beginnen Siel beiBen Siel
beg innend Derlseno


Sie begann mit der Arbeit, She started working. Der Hund hat mich gebissen. The dog bit me
Die Vorstellung beginnt gleich.The performance is about to begin. Sie biss in den Apfel. She bit into the apple.
Er hat als Lehrling begonnen. He started offas an apprentice.
i Rosa bei$t sich mit Oronge. Pinl< clashes with orange.

ich=ldu=you er=he/it sie=she/it es=itlhelshe wir=we ihr=Vou sie=theV Sie=Vou ich=l du:you er:he/it sie=she/it es=itlhelshe wir=we ihr=you sie.they sie=you
Vena tneles 'ffi
weak, inseparable, formed with haben


ich bestelle ich bestelle ich biete ich biete
du bestellst du bestellest du bietest du bietest
er/sie/es bestellt er/sie/es bestelle ey'sie/es bietet er/sie/es biete
wir bestellen wir bestellen wir bieten wir bieten
ihr bestellt ihr bestellet ihr bietet ihr bietet
sie/Sie bestellen sielSie bestellen sielSie bieten sielSie bieten


ich habe bestellt ich bestellte ich habe geboten ich bot
du hast bestellt du bestelltest du hast geboten du bot(e)st
er/sie/es hat bestellt er/sie/es bestellte er/sie/es hat geboten er/sie/es bot
wir haben bestellt wir bestellten wir haben geboten wir boten
ihr habt bestellt ihr bestelltet ihr habt geboten ihr botet
sie/Sie haben bestellt sie/5ie bestellten ,i sie/Sie haben geboten sielSie boten
ich werde bestelren ich wtlrde bestellen ich werde bieten ich w0rde bieten
du wirst bestellen du wuirdest bestellen
du wirst bieten du wrirdest bieten
er/sie/es wird bestellen er/sie/es wijrde bestellen er/sie/es wird bieten er/sie/es wrjrde bieten
wir werden bestellen wir wiirden bestellen wir werden bieten wir wijrden bieten
ihr werdet bestellen ihr wrlrdet bestellen ihr werdet bieten ihr w0rdet bieten
sielSie werden bestellen sielsie wijrden bestellen sielsie werden bieten sie,/Sie wtirdenbieten


bestell(e)!,/bestel len wi rl,/ bestellt biet(e)l/b ieten wi r!/bietetl/ geboten
bestellt!/bestellen Sie! bieten Sie!
bestellend bietend


Wir bestettten einen Tisch filr zwei. We reserved a table for two. Er bot ihm die Hond. He held out his hand to him
Ich wiirde die Karten gern ifi Vorlus bestetlen. l'd tike to book the tickets in advance FUr das Bild wurden zooo Euro geboten. There was a bid of zooo euros forthe
Haben Sie schon bestetltl Have you ordered yet? pa i nti ng.
Diese Stadt hot nichts zu bieten. This town has nothinq to offer.

ich=ldu=you er-he/it sie=she,/it es=it/he/she wir=we ihr:you sie=they Sie=you kh=ldu=you er:helit sie=she/it es=itlhelshe wir=we ihr=you sie=they Sie=Vou
#,;t: :,
F .-"4 Veng TReLes VERBTABLES ,or,,

strong, formed with haben stronq. formed with sein


ich lritte ich bitte rch bleibe ich bleibe
ou h ittpct du bittest du ble ibst du bleibest
er/sie/es bittet er/sie/es bitte elsie/es bleibt er/sie/es bleibe
wir bitten wir bitten wtr bleilren wir bleiben
ihr bittet ihr bittet ihr bleibt ihr bleibet
sre/sre bitten sie/Sie bitten sielSie bleiben sie,/Sie bleiben


ich habe gebeten ich bat ich bin geblieben ich blieb
OU hast gebeten du bat(e)st du bist geblieben du bliebsr
hat gebeten et/sie/es bat f er/sie/es ist geblieben evsie/es blieb
wtr haben gebeten wir baten i wir sind geblielren wir blieben
ihr habt gebeten ihr batet ihr seid geblieben ihr bliebt
sielSie haben gebeten sie,/Sie baten l sielSie sind geblieben sie/5ie blieben


ich werde [ritten ich wrirde bitten ich werde lrleiben ich w0rde bleiben
ou wirst bitten du wLirdest bitten du wirst bleiben du wLirdest bleiben
wird bitten er/sie/es wijrde bitten er/sie/es wird bleiben ey'sie/es wtlrde bleiben
wir werden bitten wir wiirden bitten wir werden bleiben wir wtlrden bleiben
ihr werdet bitten ihr wilrdet bitten ihr werdet bleiben ihr wrirdet bleiben
5rel5re werden bitten sielSie wijrden bitten sielSie werden bleiben sielSie wtlrden bleiben


bitt(e)r/bitten wi rrlbirtefl / gebeten bleib(e)l/bleiben wirl,/bleibtl/ geblieben
bitten 5ie! bleiben Sie!
bittend bleibend


Sie bat. ihn um Hilfe.5he asked him for help. Hoffentlich bteibt das Wetter schbn. I hope the weather will stay fine.
Herr Milller kisst bitten. Mr Mriller will see Vou now. Vom Kuchen ist nur noch ein Stilck geblieben.There's only one piece of cake left.
Mon hot die Bevdlkerung um Mithilfe gebeten. The public was asked for assistance. Dieses Erlebnis blieb in meiner Erinnerung.fhis experience stayed with me.

ich=ldu:you er:helit sie=she/it es-it/helshe wir=we;6y=you sie=they Sie=you ich-l du=you er=helit sie=she/it es=it/he/she wir=we ihr=you sie=they Sie:you
vens rnares
#ffith.ffi, vene TneLes
strong, formed with haben/sein'' mixed, formed with haben


ich breche ich breche ich brenne ich brenne
brichst du brechest du brennst du brennest
er/sie/es bricht er/sie/es breche er/sie/es brennt er/sie/es brenne
wir brechen wir brechen wir brennen wir brennen
ihr brecht ih r l:rechet ihr brennt ihr brennet
sie,/Sie brechen sie/Sie brechen sielsie brennen sielSie brennen


ich habe gebrochen lch brach ich habe ge[:rannt ich bran nte
du hast gebrochen du brachst du hast gebrannt du branntest
er/sie/es hatgebrochen er/sie/es brach et/sie/es hat gebrannt er/sie/es brannte
wir haben gebrochen wir brachen wir haben gebrannt wir brannten
ihr habt gebrochen ihr bracht ihr habt gebrannt ihr branntet
sielSie habengebrochen sie/Sie brachen sie,/sie haben gebrannt sie,/5ie 5rannten


ich werde brechen ich wiirde brechen ich werde brennen ich w0rde brennen
du wirst brechen du wiirdest brechen du wirst brennen du wtirdest brennen
et/sie/es wird brechen er/sie/es wlirde brechen er/sie/es wird brennen et/sie/es w0rde brennen
wir Werden brechen wir wlirden brechen wir werden brennen wir wrlrden brennen
ihr werdet brechen . ihr wtlrdet brechen ihr Werdet brennen ihr wtlrdet brennen
sielsie werden brechen sie,/sie wtlrden brechen sielSie werden brennen sielsie wrlrden brennen


brich!/brechen wi r!/brechtl/ gebrochen brenn(e)1,/brennen wir!,/brenntl/ gebrannt
brechen Sie! brennen Sie!
brechend brennend


Mir bricht das Herz. lt's breaking my heart. Das ganze Haus brannte. The entire house was on flre.
Der Sturz broch ihm fast den Arm.The fall almost broke his arm. Wir werden diese CD zuerst brennen We'll burn this CD first.
Sie hot ihr Versprechen gebrochen. She broke her promise. Dos Streichholz brennt. nicht.. The match won't liqht.

*When brechen is used with no direct obiect. rt is formed with sein.

ich= | du :you er: he,zit sie=she/it es =it/he/she wir=we ihr=you sie = they Sie = you ich-l du=you er=helit sie=she/it es=it/he/she wir=we ihr=you sie=they Sie-you

,.1r 1, vene TReLes vsne TnsLrs

mixed, formed with haben


ich bringe ich bringe ich denke ich denke
bringst ou bri ngest du denkst du denkest
er/sie/es bringt et/sie/es bringe er/sie/es denl<t et/sie/es denke
wir bringen wir bringen wir denken wir denken
ihr bringt ihr bringet ihr denkt ihr denket
sie,/Sie bringen sielsie bringen sie/5ie denken sie/Sie denken


ich habe gebracht ich brachte ich habe gedacht ich dachte
du hast gebracht ou brachtest du hast gedacht du dachtest
er/sie/es hat gebracht et/sie/es brachte 'l et/sie/es hat gedacht et/sie/es dachte
haben gebracht wir brachten
I wir haben gedacht wir dachten
habt gebracht ihr brachtet t ihr habt gedacht ihr dachtet
sielSie haben gebracht sie/Sie brachten sie,/sie haben gedacht sie,u Sie dachten


ich werde bringen ich wrjrde bringen ich werde denken ich wtjrde denken
du wirst bringen du w0rdest lrringen du wirst denken du wtlrdest denken
elsie/es wird bringen et/sie/es wrirde bringen er/sie/es wird denken eVsie/es wr)rde denken
werden bringen wir wLirden bringen wir werden denken wir wr"irden denken
werdet bringen ihr wrlrdet bringen ihr werdet denken ihr wijrdet denken
sie,/Sie werden bringen wijrden bringen sielsie werden denken sielSie wrjrden denken


bring(e)!/bri ngen wi rl,/bri ngt!,/ gebracht denk(e)l/den ken wi rlldenktl/ gedacht
bringen 5ie! denken Sie!
lrringend denkend


Klnnst du mich zum Flughofen bringenl Can you take me to the airport? Wie denken Sie darilber?What do you think about it?
Max hat mir Blumen gebrocht. Max brought me flowers. Das war ftr ihn gedacht. lt was meant for him.
Das brachte mich auf eine ldee. lt gave me an idea. Es war das Erste, woran ich dochte. lt was the first thing I thought of.

ich=l du=you er:he/it sie=she,/it es.itlhe,/she wir=we ihr-you sie=they Sie:you lch=ldu:you er=he/it sle=she/it es.it/helshe wir=we ihr=you sie=they Sie=Vou
E#"ili vene TneLes


ich setze durch ich setze durch ich darf ich dtirfe
ou setzt durch du setzest durch ou darfst du dtlrfest
ey'sie/es setzt durch er/sie/es setze durch er/sie/es darf er/sie/es d0rfe
wir setzen durch wir setzen durch wir dtl rfen wir diirfen
ihr setzt durch ihr setzet durch ihr d ii rft ihr drjrfet
<io /(io setzen durch sie/Sie setzen durch sie/Sie d ri rfen sie/S ie d rj rfen


ichhabe durchgesetzt ich setzte durch ich habe gedurft/drirfen ich durfte
duhast durchgesetzt du setztest durch du hast gedurft/drirfen du durftest
er/sie/es hat durchgesetzt e(sie/es setzte durch e(sie/es hat gedurft,/dUrfen er/sie/es durfte
wir haben durchgesetzt wir setzten durch wir ha tlen ged u rftld il rfen wir durften
ihr habt durchgesetzt ihr setztet durch ihr habt gedurft,/diirFen ihr durftet
sielSie haben durchgesetzt sie/Sie setzten durch (ip /qic haben gedurft/dirfen sie,/Sie durften


ich werde durchsetzen ich wiirde durchsetzen werde diirfen
ich ich wtjrde dLlrfen
du wirst durchsetzen du wrlrdest durchsetzen dU wirst drirfen du wrirdest dLirfen
er/sie/es wird durchsetzen er/sie/es wtlrde durchsetzen er/sie/es wird diirfen et/sie/es wLirde dilrfen
wir werden durchsetzen wir wrlrdendurchsetzen wir werden diirfen wir wtlrden drjrfen
ihr werdet durchsetzen ihr wLirdet durchsetzen ihr werdet d0rfen ihr wilrdet dtlrfen
sie/Sie werdendurchsetzen sielSie wLirden durchsetzen sielsie werden drlrfen sie/Sie wlirden dijrfen


setz(e) durch!,/setzen wir dwchl/ durchgesetzt gedurft,/d 0rfen"
setzt durchl/setzen Sie durch!
durchsetzend d0rfend

'This form is used when combined with another infinitive


Sie setzt immer ihren Willen durch. She always gets her own way. Dorf ich ins Kino? Can I go to the cinema?
Er kann sich nicht durchsstzen. He doesn't know how to assert himself. Das wiirde ich zu Hause nicht dilrfen. I wouldn't be allowed to do that at home.
tch hobe mich mit meinem Vorschlog durchgesetzt. They accepted my suggestion. Dos diirfen Sie mir glauben. You can take my word for it.

ich.ldu=Vou er=he/it sie=she/it es.it/he/she wir=we ihr=you sie=they Sie=yorl kh = | du: you er= helit sie = she,/it es =it/he/she wir " we ihr= Vou sie = thev Sie = Vou
,, Vens TRsLes



ich empf,ehle ich empfehle ich entdecke ich entdecke
du empfiehlst cu empfehlest du entdeckst du entdeckest
er/sie/es empfiehlt er/sie/es empfehle et/sie/es entdecl<t er/sie/es entdecke
wir empfehlen wir empfehlen wir entdecken wir entdecken
ihr empfehlt ihr empfehlet ihr entdeckt ihr entdecket
sielsie empfehlen sielSie empfehlen sie/Sie entdecken sielsie entdecken


ichhabe empfohlen ich empfahl ich habe entdeckt ich entdeckte
du hast empfohlen du empfahlst du hast entdeckt du entdecktest
er/sie/es hat empfohlen er/sie/es empfahl er/sie/es hat entdeckt et/sie/es entdeckte
wir haben empfohlen wtr empfahlen wir haben entdeckt wir entdeckten
ihr habt empfohlen ihr empfahlt ihr habt entdeckt ihr entdecktet
sie/Sie haben empfohlen sielsie empfahlen sie/Sie haben entdeckt sie/Sie entdeCkten
ich werde empfehlen ich wtirde empfehlen ich werde entdecken ich wiirde entdecken
du wirst empfehlen du wi.lrdest empfehlen du wirst entdecken du wiirdest entdecken
er/sie/es wird empfehlen er/sie/es wrirde empfehlen er/sie/es wird entdeclcen er/sie/es wLlrde entdecken
wir werden empfehlen wir wtlrden empfehlen wir werden entdecken wir wtirden entdecken
ihr werdet empfehlen ihr wr.lrdet empfehlen ihr werdet entdecken ihr wtirdet entdecken
sae/Sie Werdenempfehlen sielSie wlirden empfehlen sielSie werdenentdecken sie,/sie wtirden entdecken


empfiehl!/empfehlen wir!/ empfohlen entdeck(e)1,/entdecken wi rl,/ entdeckt
empfehlt!/empfehlen Siel entdeckt!/entdecken Siel
empfehlend entdeckend


lch wiirde lhnen empfehlen, zu gehen. I would advise you to go. Kolumbus hat Amerika entdeckt. Columbus discovered America.
Was empfiehlst du mir zu tun? What would you recommend I do? lch entdecke im Park oft neue lnsekten. I often discover new insects in the Dark
Dieses Restaurant wurde uns empfohlen This restaurant has been recommended Er entdeckte sie in der Menge. He spotted her in the crowd.
IO U5.

ich-ldu=you er=helit sie=she/it es=itlhe,/she wir=we ihr=you rie=they Sie=you ich=ldu=you erihe/it sie=she/it es-it/he/she wir=we ihr:Vou sie=thev Sie=Vou
ii*',, VERB TngLes Ve*"torrrs Wffii
weak, inseparable, formed with haben strong, formed with haben


ich erzAhle ich erzihle ich esse ich esse
ou erza st h I du erzdhlest du isst du essest
erzahlt er/sie/es erzihle isst er/sie/es esse
wir erziihlen wir erzihlen wir essen wir essen
ihr erzahlt ihr erzlhlet ihr esst ihr esset
sielsie erzdh len sie/5ie erzihlen < ie /Sie essen sie/Sie essen


ich habe erziihlt ich erzdhlte ich halre gegessen ich aB
OU hast erzahlt du erzahltest du hast gegessen du aBest
er/sie/es hat erzahlt er/sie/es erzAhlte er/sie/es hat gegessen evsie/es af3
wir haben erzeihlt wir erzehlten wir haben gegessen wir aBen
ihr habt erziihlt ihr erzEhltet ihr habt gegessen ihr al,lt
s ie,/S ie haben erzihlt sie/5ie erziihlten sie/Sie haben gegessen sie/sie aBen


ich werde erziihlen ich wrirde erzahlen ich werde essen ich wr.irde essen
du wirst erzihlen du wiirdest erzahlen du wirst essen du w[rdest essen
et/sie/es wird erzihlen er/sie/es wijrde erzihlen ey'sie/es wird essen er/sie/es wrjrde essen
wir werden erziihlen wir wr.irden erzihlen wir werden essen wir wtjrden essen
ihr werdet erziihlen ihr wLlrdet erzihlen ihr werdet essen ihr wUrdet essen
sielsie werden erziihlen sie,/Sie WLirden erzihlen sielsie werden essen sie/Sie wi.irden essen


erzttrhl(e)l / erzd h I en wi r!,/ erzahlt iss!,/essen wi rl/esstl,/essen Sie! 9egessen
erzahlt!/erzahlen Sie!
erzihlend essend


Er hot. mir erziihlt., doss er schon oft in dieser Pizzeria war. He told me that he nas lch esse kein Fleisch. I don't eat meat"
often been to this oizzeria" Wir hoben nichts gegessen. We haven't had anything to eat.
Sie erziihtte uns ihren Trlum. She told us about her dream. lch mdchte etwos essen. l'd like somethinq to eat.
Man erziihtt sich, dass er Millioniir ist. People say that he is a millionaire.

ich=ldu=you er=helit sie.she/it es=itlhelshe wir=we ihr:you sie=they Sie:you ich=l du=you er=he,/it sie=she,/it es=itlhelshe wir=we ihr=you sie.they Sie=you
VeRe TngLrs vsRs Thales M
) fahr€fl (to drive/ro go) strong, formed with haben/seini' ) faf lgn (to fall) strons, formeawitnssein


ich fahre ich fahre ich falle ich falle
dufehrst du fahrest du fiillst du fallest
eilsie/es fEhrt er/sie/es fahre er/sie/es fellt er/sie/es falle
wir fahren wir fahren wir fallen wir fallen
ihr fahrt ihr fahret ihr fallt ihr fallet
sielSie fahren sie/Sie fahren sie/Sie fallen sielSie fallen


bin gefahren ichfuhr ich
lrin gefallen ich fiel
dubist gefahren du fuhrst dubist gefallen dufielst
er/sie/es ist gefahren ey'sie/es fuhr er/sie/es ist gefallen er/sie/es fiel
wir sind gefahren wir fuhren wir
sind gefallen wir fielen
ihr seid gefahren ihr fuhrt ihr
seid gefallen ihr
sie,/Sie sind gefahren sielSie fuhren sie/Sie sind gefallen sie/Sie fielen


ich werde fahren ich
wiirde fahren ich werde fallen ich wrirde fallen
du wirst fahren duw0rdest fahren du wirst fallen duwijrdest fallen
er/sie/es wird fahren er/sie/es wtirde fahren er/sie/es wird fallen er/sie/es wtlrde fallen
wir werden fahren wir wr.irden fahren wirwerden fallen wir w[jrden fallen
ihr werdet fahren ihr
w0rdet fahren ihrwerdet fallen ihr wi.irdet fallen
sielSie werden fahren sielsie wtirden fahren sielsie werden fallen sielsie wr-lrden fallen


fa h r(e)!/fah re n wirl /f ahrtl / gefahren fa I l(e)!,zfa || en wirl /f alltl / gefallen
fahren Siel fallen Siel
fahrend fallend


Sie fohren mit dem Bus in die Schule. They go to school by bus. Er fiel vom Fohrrad. He fell off his bike.
Rechts fahren! Drive on the right! tch bin durch die Prilfung gefallen. I failed my exam
Ich bin mit der Fomilie n\ch Spanien gefohren. I went to Spain with my family. Die Aktien fielen im Kurs. Share prices fell down.
Sie hot dos Auto gefahren She drove the car.

*When fahren is used with a direct object, it is formed with haben.

ich=ldu:you er:helit sie=she/it es=itlhe,/she wir=we ihr=you 3ie=they Sie:you ich=l du=Vou er-he/it sie=she/it es=itlhelshe wir=we i6;=you sie.they Sie=you
-, Veng Tnsles vens TneLes '@'dM

) fangeh (to carch) strong, formed with haben


> Tln0en (to find) strong, formedwithhaben


ich fange ich fange rcn il noe ich finde
du fangst du fangest du findest du findest
er/sie/es fbngt er/sie/es fange er/sie/es findet er/sie/es finde
wir fangen wir
fangen wir finden wir finden
ihr fangt ihr
fanget ihr flndet ihr findet
sielsie fangen sie/Sie fangen sie,/S ie fi nden sie/Sie finden


ich habe gefangen ich
fing ich habe gefunden ich fand
du hast gefangen dufingst du hast gefunden du fand(e)st
ef/sie/es hat gefangen er/sie/es fing er/sie/es hat gefunden elsie/es fand
wir haben gefangen wir fingen wir haben gefunden wir fanden
ihr habt gefangen ihr fingt ihr habt gefunden ihr fandet
sie,/Sie habengefangen s ielS ie fi ngen sielSie haben gefunden sie,/Sie fanden


ich werde fangen ich wtlrde fangen I ich werde finden ich wiirde finden
du wirst fangen du wtjrdest fangen du wirst finden du wi]rdest finden
er/sie/es wird fangen et/sie/es witrde fangen elsie/es wird finden er/sie/es wrlrde finden
wir werden fangen wirWLirden fangen wir werden finden wir wr-irden finden
ihr werdet fangen ihrwLlrdet fangen ihr werdet finden ihr wtlrdet finden
sielsie werden fangen sie,/Sie wijrden fangen sie/Sie werden finden sie/Sie wijrden finden


fang(e)l/fangen wirl/ gefangen fi nd(e)lrzfi n de n w irl /findetl / gefunden
fangt!/fangen Siel finden Sie!
fangend findend


Ich fing den Boll. I caught the ball. Hast du deine Brieftosche gefunden? Have you found your wallet?
Die Polizei hot. die Verbrecher gefongen. The police caught the criminals. Er fand den Mut, sie zu fragen. He found the courage to ask her.
Die Kotze flng die Mous. The cat caught the mouse. lch finde, sie ist. eine gute Lehrerin. I think she's a good teacher.

ich=f du=you er:he/it sie=she/it es=it/he/she wir=we ihr=Vou sie=thev Sie=vou ich=l du=you er=helit rie=she/it es=itlhelshe wir=we ihr=you sie=thev Sie=you
',: '
0", vece Tngtes

) fliegefl (to ny) strong, formed with haben/sein" > fliehen (to flee) strong, formed with haben/sein'!


ich fliege ich fliege ich fl iehe ich fliehe
du fliegst du fliegest du fliehst dufliehest
er/sie/es fliegt er/sie/es fliege er/sie/es flieht er/sie/es fliehe
wir fliegen wir fliegen wir fliehen wir fliehen
ihr fliegt ihr flieget ihr fl ieht ihr fliehet
sie/Sie fl iegen sie/Sie fliegen siels ie fl iehen sie/S ie fl iehen


habe geflogen ich flog ich
bin geflohen ich floh
hast geflogen du flogst du
bist geflohen duflohst
er/sie/es hat geflogen er/sie/es flog er/sie/es ist geflohen er/sie/es floh
wir haben geflogen wir flogen wir sind gefloher wir flohen
ihr habt geflogen ihr flogt ihr seid geflohen ihr floht
sie/Sie haben geflogen sielsie flogen sie/Sie sind geflohen sie,/Sie flohen


ich werde fliegen ich wrirde fliegen ich werde fliehen ich wrirde fliehen
du wirst fliegen du wlirdest fliegen du wirst fliehen du wLirdest fliehen
er/sie/es wird fliegen er/sie/es wLirde fliegen et/sie/es wird fliehen er/sie/es wrirde fl iehen
werden fliegen wir wtjrden fliegen wir werden fliehen wir wtirden fliehen
werdet fliegen ihr wtlrdet fliegen ihr werdet fliehen ihr wiirdet fliehen
sie/Sie werden fliegen sie,/Sie wUrden fliegen sielsie werden fliehen sie/Sie wllrden fliehen


fl ieg(e)!/fl iegen wirl /fliegtl / geflogen flieh(e)l/fl iehen wirllfl iehtl/ geflohen
fliegen Sie! fliehen Sie!
fliegend fl iehend


Wir flogen zusammen nach Sponien. We flew together to Spain. Sie floh vor der Polizei. She fled from the police.
Die Zeit fliegt. Time flies. Es gelong ihm, aus dem Cefiingnis zu fliehen. He managed to escape from prison.
Er ist von der Schule geflogen. He was thrown out of school. Sie sind aus Afghoniston geflohen. They are refugees from Afghanistan.

*When fliegen is used with no direct object, it is formed with sein. *When fliehen is used with a direct object, it is formed with haben.

ich=ldu=you er=helit sie=she/it es=itlhe,/she wir=we ihr=you sie=thev Sie-you ich=ldu.you er:he/it sie=she/it es=it/he/she wir=we ihr:you sie=they Sie=you
;* ,"i Vene Tngles

) flieBefl (to flow) strong, formed with sein


ich flieBe ich flieBe ich gebe ich gebe
du fl ieBt ou fl ieBest du gibst du gebest
er/sie/es flieBt er/sie/es flieBe er/sie/es gibt et/sie/es gebe
wir flieBen wir flieBen wir geben wir geben
ihr flieBt ihr fl ieBet ihr gebt ihr gebet
sie/Sie fl ie[3en sie/Sie flieBen sie/5ie geben sie/Sie geben


bin geflossen tcn floss ich habe gegeben ich gab
dubist geflossen du flossest du hast gegeben du gabst
er/sie/es ist geflossen er/sie/es floss er/sie/es hat gegeben elsie/es gab
wir sind geflossen wir flossen wir haben gegelren wir gaben
ihr seid geflossen ihr flosst ihr habt gegeben ihr gabt
sielSie sind geflossen sielsie flossen sielsie haben gegeben sielsie gaben


ich werde flieBen ich wiirde flief3en ich werde geben ich wrirde geben
du wirst flieBen du wurdest flieBen du wirst geben du wi.irdest geben
ey'sie/es wird flief3en er/sie/es wtlrde flieBen er/sie/es wird geben er/sie/es wi.irde geben
wir werden flieBen wir wilrden flie8en wir werden geben wir wlirden geben
ihr werdet flieBen ihr wiirdet flieBen ihr werdet geben ihr wlirdet geben
sielsie werden flieBen sielSie wtlrden flieBen sielSie werden geben sie/Sie wtirden geben


fl ie l3(e)l/fl i eBe nw i rl /fliet\tt / geflossen g i b!,ugeben wirl / gebtl / gegeben
flieBen Siel geben Sie!
fl ieBend gebend


Welcher Fluss flieSt durch Hamburg? Which river flows through Hamburgl Er gab mir das Geld filr die Bi)cher. He gave me the money for the books.
Die Trrinen flossen in Strdmen. There were floods of tears. Wos gibt es im Kino?What's on at the cinema?
Es ist genug Blut geflossen. Enough lrlood has been spilled. Wir wiirden alles darum geben, ins Finole zu kommen. We would give anything
to reach the finals.

ich=f du=you er=helit sie=she/it es=it/he/she wir=we ihr=Vou sie=thev Sie=you ich=l du=Vou er=he,/it sie=she,/it es-it/he,/she wir=we ihr=you sie=they Sie=you
Vene Tneles Vens TReLrs

strong, formed with sein stronq, inseparable, formed with haben


ich gehe ich gehe rch gewtn ne tch gewtnne
du gehst du gehest du
gewinnst gewinnest
er/sie/es geht er/sie/es gehe elsie/es gewinnt .9,
er/sie/es gewinne
wir gehen wir gehen wir gewinnen wir gewinnen
ihr geht ihr gehet ihr gewinnt ihr gewinnet
sie/Sie gehen sie/5ie gehen sielsie gewinnen sie/Sie qewinnen


ich bin gegangen ich g ing ich habe gewonnen tcn gewann
du bist gegangen du gingst duhast gewonnen du gewannst
et/sie/es ist gegangen er/sie/es ging elsie/es hat gewonnen er/sie/es gewann
wir sind gegangen wir gingen wir haben gewonnen wir gewannen
ihr seid gegangen ihr gingt ihr habt gewonnen ihr lewannt
sie/sie sind gegangen sielSie gingen sielSie haben gewonnen sielsie lewannen
ich werde gehen ich wiirde gehen ich werde gewinnen ich w0rde gewinnen
du wirst gehen du wLirdest gehen du wirst gewinnen du wrirdest gewinnen
et/sie/es wird gehen er/sie/es wi.irde gehen er/sie,/es wird gewinnen er/sie/es wr.irde gewinnen
wir werden gehen wir w0rden gehen wir werden gewinnen wir wtirden gewinnen
ihr werdet gehen ihr wiirdet gehen tnr werdet gewinnen ihr wUrdet gewinnen
sielSie werden gehen sie/Sie wiirden gehen sielsie werden gewinnen sielSie wijrden gewinnen
geh(e)l/gehen w it / gehtl / ge9angen gewi nn(e)l,zgewinnen wi rl,/ oewonnen
gehen 5ie! gewinnt!,/gewinnen Sie!
gehend 9ewrnneno


Die Kinder gingen ins Haus. The children went into the house. Er hot, den ersten Preis gewonnen. He won first prize.
Wie geht es dir? How are you? Am liebsten wiirde ich im Lotto gewinnen. What l'd love most is to win the lottery.
Wir sind gestern schwimmen gegangen We went swimming yesterday. Das Flugzeug getwann an Hijhe. ihe plane gained in altitude.

du-you er=he,/it sle =she,/it es=itlhe,/she wir=we ihr=you si€=they Sie=you ich=ldu=you er=he,/it sie=she/it es=itlhelshe wir=we ihr=you sie=thev Sie=you
" 14. Vene TneLes Vens Tneles M

(to greet) weak, formed with haben strong, formed with haben


ich griiBe ich gr0fle ich habe ich habe
0u gr0Bt du grriBest du hast du habest
et/sie/es grriBt ey'sie/es gri..iBe er/sie/es hat er/sie/es habe
wir grtiBen wir gri.iBen wir haben wir haben
ihr grtiBt ihr grrit3et ihr habt ihr habet
sie/Sie gri.iBen sie/Sie grLiBen sielSie haben sielSie haben


ich habe gegrtil'lt ich gri.iBte ich habe gehabt ich hatte
ou hast gegrtiBt ou g rri l'3test du hast gehabt du hattest
er/sie/es hat gegrLiBt er/sie/es grLiBte er/sie/es hat gehabt er/sie/es hatte
wtr haben gegrUBt wir gniBten wtr haben gehabt wir hatten
ihr habt gegrr"il'lt ihr g rtj Btet ihr habt gehabt ihr hattet
s ie,/S ie haben gegniBt sie,/S ie grti f3ten sielsie haben gehabt sielSie hatten


ich werde griiBen ich wrirde grLiBen tcn werde haben ich wrlrde haben
du wirst grr.iBen du wrlrdest grtiBen du wirst haben du wlirdest haben
er/sie/es wird gruBen ey'sie/es wrirde grriBen eVsie/es wird haben et/sie/es wtlrde haben
wir werden grtiBen wir wr"lrden grUBen wir werden haben wir wLjrden haben
ihr werdet grriBen ihr wiirdet grLiBen ihr werdet haben ihr wtirdet haben
sielSie werden grti[3en sie,/Sie wrirden grriBen sie/Sie werden haben sie/Sie wr-irden haben


g rti B(e) !/g rii t3 en w il / gtllltl / gegrilBt ha b(e)l,rhaben wirl /habtl/ gehabt
grliBen Siel haben Siel
grriBend habend


Unsere Nochbarin grilBt uns jeden Margen. Our neighbour greets us every morning. Hast. du eine Schwesterl Have you got a sister?
Er hot mich nicht gegril$t. He didn't say hello to me. Er hatte Hunger. He was hungry.
Oliver ltisst. dich gri)[3en. Oliver sends his regards. Sie hqt heute Ceburtstag. lt's her birthday today.

ich=ldu=you er=helit sie=she/it es=it/he,/she wir=we ihr=you sie=they Sie=you ich=ldu:you er=he,/it sie=she/it es=it/he,/she wir=we ihr=you sie=they Sie.you
h',,r#" Vene Tneles Vrne TRaLrs ffi

strong, formed with haben weak, formed with haben


ich halte ich halte ich handle ich handle
haltst du haltest OU handelst du handlest
er/sie/es helt er/sie/es halte er/sie/es handelt er/sie/es handle
wir halten wir halten wir handeln wir handlen
ihr haltet ihr haltet ihr handelt ihr handlet
sielsie halten sielSie halten sie/5ie handeln sie,/Sie handlen


habe gehalten ich h ielt ich habe gehandelt ich handelte
hast gehalten du hielt(e)st du hast gehandelt du handeltest
er/sie/es hat gehalten er/sie/es hielt er/sie/es hat gehandelt et/sie/es handelte
wir haben gehalten wir hielten wir haben gehandelt wir handelten
ihr habt gehalten ihr hieltet ihr habt gehandelt ihr handeltet
sielSie haben gehalten sie,/Sie h ielte n <ialqic haben gehandelt sielsie handelten
ich werde halten ich wurde halten ich werde handeln ich wrirde handeln
du wirst halten du wrirdest halten du wirst handeln du wrirdest handeln
et/sie/es wird halten ey'sie/es wrjrde halten er/sie/es wird handeln er/sie/es w[jrde handeln
wir Werden halten wir wiirden halten wir werden handeln wir wurden handeln
ihr werdet halten ihr w[jrdet halten ihr werdet handeln ihr wrirdet handeln
sielSie werden halten sie/Sie wrirden halten sielSie werden handeln sielSie wrlrden handeln


halt(e)!/halten wi rl,/haltet!,2 gehalten handlel/handeln wirllhandeltl,/ gehandelt
halten Sie! handetn 5ie!
haltend handelnd


Kannst du dos mal halten? Can Vou hold that for a moment? Die Ceschichte handelte von einem llten Monn. The story was about an old man.
Der Bus hielt vor dem Rothlus.ihe bus stopped in front of the town hall. Wir mi)ssen schnell handeln We must act quickly.
Ich habe sie fi.ir deine Mutter gehatten. I took her for your mother. Er hat frilher in Cebrouchtwagen gehandelt. He used to deal in used cars.

lch=ldu=you er=helit sie=she/it 93=it/he/she wir=we ihr=you sie=they Sieiyou ich=l du=you er=he/it sle=she/it es.it/he/she wir=we ihr=you sie=they SiG=Vou
W "*t^"* Vrortorrw MW'fu

strong, formed with haben weak, formed with haben


ich henge ich hHnge ich heize ich heize
du hAngst du hingest cu heizt du heizest
et/sie/es hangt er/sie/es hiinge heizt er/sie/es heize
wir h;ingen wir hAngen wir heizen wir heizen
ihr hdngt ihr henget lhr heizt ihr heizet
sie,/Sie hAngen sie/Sie hiingen sie/Sie heizen sie,/Sie heizen


ich habe gehangen ich h ing ich habe geheizt ich heizte
du hast gehangen du hingst ou hast geheizt du heiztest
hat gehangen er/sie/es hing t er/sie/es hat geheizt er/sie/es heizte
wir haben gehangen wir hingen i wlr haben geheizt wir heizten
ihr habt gehangen ihr hingt ihr habt geheizt ihr heiztet
sie,/S ie haben gehangen sielsie hingen sielSie haben geheizt sielSie heizten


ich werde hingen ich wLirde hingen ich werde heizen ich wurde heizen
du wirst hengen du wlirdest hAngen du wirst heizen du wrirdest heizen
er/sie/es wird hAngen er/sie/es wi]rde hiingen er/sie/es wird heizen er/sie/es wtjrde heizen
wir werden hdngen wir wrirden hiingen wir werden heizen wir wllrden heizen
ihr werdet hingen ihr w0rdet hingen ihr werdet heizen ihr wtlrdet heizen
sielsie werden hiingen sie,/Sie wiirden hAngen sie/sie werden heizen sie/Sie wijrden heizen


hin g(e)l/hdn gen wi r!,/hdngtl,/ gehangen heiz(e)f rzhe ize n wirl / heiztl / geheizt
hAngen Sie! heizen Sie!
oconjugated as a weak verb when it PRESENT PARTICIPLE PRESENT PARTICIPLE
has o direct object.
hAngend heizend


Das Bild hing an der Wond. The picture was hanging on the wall. Der Ofen heizt gut. The stove gives offa good heat.
Sie hat sehr on ihrem Vater gehangen She was very attached to her father. Wir heizen mit Holz. We use wood for heating.
Er hiingt an seinem Beruf. He loves his job. Ab Oktober wird gehein. The heating is put on in October.

ich=ldu-you er=helit sle=she,/it es=it/he/she wir=we ihr=you si€=thev Sie:Vou ich=l du=you er=he,/it sie=she/it es=it/he/she wir=we ihr=you sie=they sie=you
,", VgngTngtes vene TneLrs '#..*

strong, + dative, formed with haben weak, formed with haben


ich helfe ich helfe ich hole ich hole
ou h ilfst du helfest du holst du holest
eilsie/es hitft et/sie/es helfe ey'sie/es holt er/sie/es hole
wir helfen wir helfen wir holen wir holen
ihr helft ihr helfet ihr holt ihr holet
sielsie helfen sielSie helfen sielsie holen sie/Sie holen


ich habe geholfen ich half ich habe geholt ich holte
du hast geholfen du halfst du hast geholt du holtest
ey'sie/es hat geholfen er/sie/es half ey'sie/es hat geholt ey'sie/es holte
wir haben geholfen wir halfen wir haben geholt wir holten
ihr habt geholfen ihr halft ihr habt geholt ihr holtet
sielSie haben geholfen sie/Sie halfen sie,/Sie haben geholt sie/5ie holten
ich werde helfen ich wrirde helfen ich werde holen ich wUrde holen
du wirst helfen du wLirdest helfen du wirst holen du wLirdest holen
er/sie/es wird helfen er/sie/es wi.jrde helfen er/sie/es wird holen er/sie/es wurde holen
wir werden helfen wir wiirden helfen wir werden holen wir wtirden holen
ihr werdet helfen ihr wtirdet helfen ihr werdet holen ihr wUrdet holen
sie,/Sie werden helfen sie/Sie wuirden helfen sielSie werden holen sie/Sie wiirden holen


h i lf l/helfen wirt / helftt / geholfen hol (e)l,zhole n wirl /holtl / geholt
helfen Siel holen Sie!
helfend holend


Er hot, mir dabei geholfen. He helped me with it. Er hott jeden Tag frische Milch vom Supermarkt. He fetches fresh milk from the
Diese Aznei hilft gegen Kopfschmerzen. This medicine is good for headaches, supermarl(et every day.
Sein Vorschlag half mir wenig. His suggestion was not much help to me. Soll ich ihn ansTelefon holen? Shall I get him to come to the phone?
lch hobe mir eine Erkiiltung gehott. I caught a cold.

ich=ldu:you er=helit sie-she,/it es=itzhe/she wir=we ihr=Vou sie=theV Sie=Vou ich.ldu=you er=he,/it sie.she/it es=it/he,/she wir=we ihr=you sie=they Sie=Vou
W vene TnsLes vexe teetes
strong, formed with sein


ich kenne ich kenne ich komme ich komme
du kennst ou kennest du kommst du kommest
et/sie/es kennt er/sie/es kenne eilsie/es l(ommt er/sie/es komme
wir Kennen war kennen wir kommen wir kommen
ihr kennt ihr kennet ihr kommt ihr kommet
sie/Sie Kennen sielSie kennen sielSie kommen sie,/Sie kOmmen


ich habe gekannt ich kannte ich bin gekommen ich kam
ou hast gekannt du kanntest du bist gekommen du kamst
hat gekannt er/sie/es kannte er/sie/es ist gekommen er/sie/es kam
wtr halren gekannt wir kannten wir sind gekommen wir kamen
ihr habt gekannt ihr l(an ntet ihr seid gekommen ihr kamt
sielsie haben gekannt sielsie kannten sie,/Sie sind gekommen sie,/Sie kamen


ich werde kennen ich wrlrde kennen ich Werde kommen ich wUrde kommen
du wirst kennen du wrirdest kennen du wirst kommen du wLirdest kommen
ey'sie/es wird kennen et/sie/es wUrde kennen er/sie/es wird kommen er/sie/es wurde kommen
wir werden kennen wtr wrjrden kennen wir Werden kOmmen wir Wi.jrden kommen
ihr werdet kennen ihr wrirdet kennen ihr werdet kommen ihr w[.irdet kommen
sielSie Werden kennen sie/Sie wrirden kennen sie/Sie werden kommen sielSie wrlrden kommen


kenn(e)!/ken nen wi r!,/kennt!,/ gekannt kom m(e)!,/kommen wi rll gekommen
kennen Sie! kommtl/kommen 5ie!
kennend kommend


Ich kenne ihn nicht. I don't know him. Er kam die StraBe entlang. He was coming along the street.
Er konnte kein Erbarmen. He knew no mercv. lch komme zu deiner Plrty. I'm coming to your party.
Kennst. du mich noch? Do vou remember me? Woher kommst du? Where do vou come from?

ich=ldu=you er=he,iit sie=she,/it es=it/he/she wir=we ihr=Vou sie=thev Sie=vou ich=ldu:Vou er:he/it sie=she/it es=it/he/she wir=we ihr:you sie=they Sie=you
m**** Vecg Tnsles vene rneres 4*m
modal, formed with haben strong, formed with haben


ich kann ich kcjnne ich lasse ich lasse
ou kan nst du kcinnest du l5sst du lassest
er/sie/es kann er/sie/es konne er/sie/es lAsst er/sie/es lasse
wir kcinnen wir konnen wir lassen wir lassen
ihr k6nnt ihr konnet ihr lasst ihr lasset
sielSie kdnnen sielSie konnen sie/5ie lassen sie./Sie lassen


ich habe gekonnt/kdnnen ich
konnte ich habe gelassen ich lieB
ou hast gekonnt/krjnnen dukonntest du hast gelassen du liel'lest
et/sie/es hat gekonnt/konnen er/sie/es konnte er/sie/es hat gelassen er/sie/es lieB
wir haben gekonnt/konnen wir kOnnten wir haben gelassen wir lieBen
ihr habt gekonnt/kdnnen ihr konntet ihr habt gelassen ihr lieBt
sre/5re haben gekonnt/kcinnen sielSie konnten sielSie haben gelassen sie,/5ie lief3en


ich werde konnen ich wiirde konnen ich werde lassen ich wiirde lassen
ou wirst konnen du wiirdest konnen du wirst lassen du wiirdest lassen
er/sie/es wird kcinnen er/sie/es wi.jrde konnen er/sie/es wird lassen er/sie/es wijrde lassen
wir werden konnen wir wLirden kdnnen wir werden lassen wir Wijrden lassen
ihr werdet k6nnen ihr wrjrdet kdnnen ihr werdet lassen ihr wiirdet lassen
sie/Sie werden kcinnen sielSie wijrden kcjnnen sielsie werden lassen sie/Sie wrlrden lassen


gekon nt,/l<on nen"' assen w irl / lasstl
lass !,/f / gelassen/lassen
lassen Sie!
konnend lassend
form is used when combined with another infinitive.


Er kann gut schwimmen. He can swim well. Sie lie$ uns warten. She kept us waiting.
Sie konnte kein Wort Deutsch.She couldn't speak a word of German tch lasse den Hund nicht auf das Sofo.lwon't let the dog on the sofa
Kann ich gehen? Can I go? Sie hoben ihn allein im Auto getassen. They left him alone in the car.

ich=l du=you er=helit sie=she/it es=itlhe/she wir=we ihr=you sie=thev Sie:you kh=ldu=you er=he,/it sie=she/it es=it/he/she wir=we ihr=you sie=they Sie=you
q*; Vene Tneles Vrortorr'* W"'.ffi,

strong, formed with sein strong, formed with haben


ich laufe tch laufe ich leide ich leide
du lautst du laufest du leidest du leidest
ey'sie/es liiuft er/sie/es laufe ey'sie/es leidet et/sie/es leide
wir laufen wir laufen wir leiden wir leiden
ihr lauft ihr laufet ihr leidet ihr leidet
sie/Sie laufen sie/Sie laufen sie,/Sie leiden sielSie leiden


ich bin gelaufen ich lief ich habe gelitten ich litt
du bist gelaufen du liefst du hast gelitten du litt(e)st
er/sie/es iSt gelaufen er/sie/es lief er/sie/es hat gelitten eilsie/es litt
wirsind gelaufen wir liefen wir haben gelitten wir litten
ihrseid gelaufen ihr lieft ihr habt gelitten ihr littet
sie,/Sie sind gelaufen sie/Sie liefen sielSie haben gelitten sie/Sie litten


ich Werde laufen ich wiirde laufen ich werde leiden ich wiirde leiden
du wirst laufen du wLirdest laufen du wirst leiden du wiirdest leiden
er/sie/es wird laufen er/sie/es w0rde laufen er/sie/es wird leiden ey'sie/es wiirde leiden
wir werden laufen wir wtjrden laufen wir werden leiden wir wtlrden leiden
ihr werdet laufen ihr wiirdet laufen ihr werdet leiderr ihr wtlrdet leiden
sielSie werden laufen sie/Sie wLlrden laufen sielsie werden leiden sielsie wtirden leiden


lauf(e)!,/laufen wirl / lauftl / gelaufen leid(e)l/leiden wirl /leidett / gelitten
laufen Siel leiden 5iel
laufend leidend


Er lief so schnell er konnte. He ran as fast as he could. Sie litt on Asthml. She suffered from asthma.
Sie liiuft stiindig zur Polizel. She's always going to the police. Wir haben unter der Hitze geliuen. We suffered in the heat.
Das Schiff ist. auf Crund gelaufen. The ship ran aground. Ich kann ihn nicht leiden. I can't stand him.

ich=ldu:you er=helit sie.she/it es=it/he/she wir=we ihr:you sie=they Sle=you ich=l du=Vou er:he