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MUHAMAD IKHWAN AZIZIE

CONTENT

NO TITLE PAGE(S)
1. Introduction 1

2. Topic 1: Modular Construction Process 2

 Why Implement Modular Construction


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 How To Implement Modular Construction
3. Topic 2: Lean Shipbuilding Process 8

 Why Implement Lean Shipbuilding Process


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 How To Implement Lean Shipbuilding Process
4. Conclusion 12
MUHAMAD IKHWAN AZIZIE

INTRODUCTION

Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. It normally takes place in a specialized facility


known as a shipyard. Shipbuilders, also called shipwrights, follow a specialized occupation that
traces its roots to before recorded history. Shipbuilding and ship repairs, both commercial and
military, are referred to as the naval engineer. The construction of boats is a similar activity
called boat building. The dismantling of ships is called ship breaking.

Nowadays, there are many process created by shipbuilders in order to save cost and
money. In this assignment, the modular construction and lean shipbuilding process had been
chosen to be our topic. Below, the topic was explained in details in what, why and how the
shipbuilding process implemented in order to save both cost and time consumption.

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TOPIC 1: Modular Construction Process

The reason why modular construction process become popular in ship building industry
is because there is no other method available that allows you to start and finish a project in a
more-timely manner than modular.

Modular construction process is one of the popular method uses in shipbuilding


industry. Modular construction, or prefabricated construction, is a process that uses a
prefabricated building process that is assembled on-site to produce a permanent or temporary
prefab building.

Mod Space takes full advantage of a controlled production environment combined with
the design flexibility of traditional building methods to produce high-quality permanent or
temporary prefabricated structures for any demand. The result is a prefabricated modular
building product that is faster, more affordable and environmentally-friendly, with the all the
same architectural aesthetics you would expect from traditional building methods.

Picture 1 and 2: Pictures of modular construction in progress of a naval ship


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WHY IMPLEMENT MODULAR CONSTRUCTION

Traditional construction versus modular construction time


Advantages of modular construction process are:

Short build times Low weight


Typically 50-60% less than traditional on-site Compared to site construction, modular
Construction, leading to an earlier return on construction is about 30% of the weight of
Investment and saving in preliminaries. Conventional masonry construction.
Superior quality Economy of scale
Achieved by factory-based quality control and Repetition of prefabricated units leads to
Pre-design of similar modules. considerable economy of scale in production.
Environmentally less sensitive Reduced site labor requirement
Efficient factory production techniques are The erection and finishing teams, which
Much less wasteful and installation is less install and complete modular buildings,
disruptive on site. Involve fewer workers on site than traditional
buildings.
Safer construction Services and bathrooms
Modular construction sites have proved to be Service modules can be used, even in
significantly safer than traditional on-site traditional formed buildings.
Building.
Reduced professional fees
Standardized design details for modular
Buildings simplify and reduce the need for specialist design input.
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Less than 5% of the markets previously defined as conventional currently utilize modular
construction concepts. Given these numerous advantages, it’s only a matter of time before
modular becomes the convention method.

Ship divided into segment


HOW TO IMPLEMENT MODULAR CONSTRUCTION
MODULAR CONSTRUCTION PROCESS
In sequence:
1. Stockyard
Plates and sections were stored in the shipyard stockyard, ideally undercover.

2. Preparation
To prepare plates and section before being weld, cut, mark and other.

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3. Sub assembly
Sub assemblies include fitting, welding, fairing and many other sub assembly process

4. Assembly
This shop takes the products from the panel fabrication area and assembles them to
favricate the unit.

5. Fabrication
Including marking, cutting, bending
This shop is designed to fabricate the parts from the parts making area. These includes:

 Deep transverse frames


 Watertight bulkheads
 Longitudinal bulkheads
 Shellpanels
 Longitudinal double bottom panels
 Transverse double bottom panels
 Major and minor foundations.

6. Erection Berth (Modular Sectional Area)


This shop takes units from the unit’s assembly area to fabricate into modules

7. Basin/Afloat
By launching ship on a slipway to ensure ship able to float correctly.

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TOPIC 2: LEAN SHIPBUILDING PROCESS

Definition of lean shipbuilding process is a strategy for achieving significant continuous


improvement in performance through the elimination of all waste of resources and time in the
total shipbuilding process.

Lean Shipbuilding Concept


 A concept between lean manufacturing and lean construction
 A completely new production concept
 Inspired by a number of sources: Shingo, Toyota, Goldratt, Womack, and IGLC.

In addition, lean shipbuilding derived from the concept of lean production is lean
production theory in ship Industry, first proposed by the U.S. shipbuilding industry, shipbuilding
contract, that contract from the beginning to the delivery of the ship completed the
construction of the entire process, through motivation and mobilization of all employees to
continuously improve and perfect the process of shipbuilding, ship construction to reduce all
the waste, to reduce the shipbuilding cycle, reduce shipbuilding costs and improve shipbuilding
quality.

Value Adding Activity - An activity that transform shapes or converts raw material to meet
customer requirements.

Non-Value Adding (Waste) - Those activities that take time, resources, or space, but do not add
value.

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WHY IMPLEMENT LEAN SHIPBUILDING PROCESS


There are many reasons why shipbuilding process lean was implemented in shipbuilding
industry. Some of the factors included below:

1. Faced with an environment characterized by low build rates.


2. Rising costs for such things as materials and workers’ medical care.
3. Rising cost of building and repairing ships

There are 7 Non-Value Adding that have been recognized which slow the process in
shipbuilding industry and which leads to rising in terms of cost and time consumption. It
includes:

Overproduction Producing faster than the rate of consumption and make more product
more than the materials needed for the shipbuilding.
Inventory Unnecessary materials, cause the inventory in storage is to be full.
Motion When workers are not efficient because have to walk or moving in order
to do their jobs. For example, workers have to walk to get a tool or piece
of material.
Waiting Workers being idle between operations, waiting for a machine to cycle or
waiting for the preceding operator to finish their work.
Over Processing Having to perform more operations than are
Necessary. Example, painting prior to welding.
Correction Scrap, rework, sort, & repair add unnecessary costs.
Conveyance Unnecessary transportation can also increase money consumption.

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HOW TO IMPLEMENT LEAN SHIPBUILDING PROCESS

LEAN VS TRADITIONAL SHIPBUILDING

PPM: Production Preparation Process

The above diagram shows how different traditional shipbuilding and lean shipbuilding process.
In the research made by Toyota, it majorly affects those 5 fields which are quality, productivity,
maintenance, employees and simplicity.

Lean shipbuilding process can be implemented in methods by:

 Producing a return on investment by reducing waste and improving quality in


several processes on and above the shop floor.
 Cutting costs and/or cycle times as much as 40 percent in some shops.
 In all cases, implementing lean processes has mitigated a trend of growing ship
construction and repair costs that is driven by external factors.

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There are 3 principles of lean

 One-Piece Flow
 AKT Time
 Pull Systems

In this technical report, we emphasis on push and pull system.

Production Schedules (Push) Pull Systems (KanBan)


 Issue production schedules to all of  Let an operation or process “withdraw”
the processes, parts from a preceding process - Pull the
 Using the parts from one process to parts through.
drive the work at the next process.  Preceding Process replenishes.
 Stagger schedules so that parts are
ready ahead of need.
 Keep Direct Labor busy at all costs.  Eliminate Delays and Waste in the
Product Flow
 Improve the Flow of Purchased Materials

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CONCLUSION

From what we had learned from both of the topics, which is modular construction
process and lean shipbuilding process, it is obvious that both process are new in the world of
shipbuilding and is gaining popularity in shipbuilding construction.

The benefits of modular constructions have demonstrated it abilities to be cost effective


against traditional method, and has led to financial savings and reduced disruption on site.
While the benefit of lean shipbuilding process shows us that it could help to reduce the time
usage to built ship, rather than using traditional ways of constructing ship and thus, eliminate
unnecessary waste of time and money.

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