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Dr.

Walid Abdelghaffar
System Function

¾ To accelerate the turbine engine up to 15%-


20% where combustion light off occurs

¾ At 60% -66% gas producer speed ,


the start system automatically shuts down

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Types of start systems

™ Pneumatic
™ Electrical
™ Electro hydraulic
™ Diesel engine

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Pneumatic Starting System

Introduction

Preceding lectures have discussed gas


turbine engine components and
operation, oil systems, and fuel
systems. This lectures will describe gas
turbine engine starting systems.

This lectures presents information


about a pneumatic starting system, its
components, and operation. A Solar
Centaur pneumatic starting system is
used as an example.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Pneumatic Starting
System: Purpose
The purpose of a gas turbine engine
starting system is to provide power to:

·rotate the turbine shaft to starting


speed

· assist the turbine to self-sustaining


speed after combustion occurs

Most gas turbine engines are started


by starter power input to the main
accessory gearbox. The gearbox is
connected to the turbine rotor and
compressor.

Any gas under pressure may be used


as a power source for a pneumatic
starting system.
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Starting System: Components
Natural gas must meet the manufacturer's
specifications. A typical pneumatic starting
system requires approximately 2600 scfm.

The main components of a Solar


Centaur starting system are as
follows:
· gas inlet strainer
· pilot gas filter
· solenoid-operated pilot valve
· starter motor shutoff valve
· lubricator
· starter motors

The gas inlet strainer is discussed first.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Starting System: Gas
Inlet Strainer
The gas inlet strainer is located at the gas
turbine skid upstream of the shutoff valve.

A shutoff valve is located downstream of the


strainer to shut off the gas supply to the starter
motor.

The strainer is a Y-shaped fitting that houses a


removable cylindrical "strainer" screen.

A pilot supply line branches off from the main


gas supply to the starting system. This line
provides pneumatic pressure to the solenoid-
activated pilot valve.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Starting System: Pilot
Gas Filter
A pilot gas filter assembly, consisting of a
10-micron filter and a pressure-reducing
orifice, is installed in the pilot supply line
upstream of the pilot valve.

The filter prevents foreign matter from


entering the solenoid-operated pilot valve.

The pressure-reducing orifice creates a


pressure drop in the pilot supply line. This
pressure drop ensures that the pilot valve
will operate properly in the event of
excessive gas pressure.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Starting System: Pilot
Valve
The pilot valve is a three-way, solenoid-operated
valve that is powered by 24-volt DC from the
electrical system and actuated by the control
system.

The pilot valve opens and closes the starter motor


shutoff valve.

When the solenoid is de-energized, pilot gas


pressure closes the starter motor shutoff valve.

When the solenoid is energized, pilot gas pressure


is vented, allowing the shutoff valve to open.

A pilot relief valve protects the filter and pilot valve


from excessive pressure.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Starting System: Starter
Shutoff Valve

The pilot-actuated starter motor


shutoff valve controls gas flow from
the supply line to the two starter
motors.

The starter motor shutoff valve is


installed upstream of the lubricator.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Starting System: Lubricator

A lubricator, located downstream of


the starter motor shutoff valve,
injects lubricating oil into the gas
flow.

The purpose of the lubricator is to


provide atomized lubricating oil to
the starter motor vanes.

A sight dome is used to check oil


flow. In addition, the lubricator bowl
has an oil level sight glass.
(Contd.)

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


On Solar Centaur gas turbines, two vane-type, pneumatically operated starter
motors are mounted on the starter adapter housing, located on the reduction
gear.

The motors transmit starting power to the engine through a common


overrunning clutch and shaft.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Starting System: Starter
Motor
The figure shows a starter motor and the
clutch, called a sprag or sprag clutch
assembly. The clutch in this installation is
in the housing that is mounted on the
engine gearbox drive.

The pawls , driving or holding links of a


ratchet that permit motion in one direction
only, are forced inward by small springs to
engage the sprag clutch ratchet. At a
preset engine speed, the pawls are thrown

(Contd.)

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


outward, disengaging the drive shaft
assembly from the sprag clutch
ratchet. The sprag clutch ratchet and
starter gear train coast to a stop and
the drive shaft assembly containing
the pawls continues to rotate at
engine gearbox speed.

The operation of the pneumatic


starting system is explained next.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Starting System: Operation

The operation of the pneumatic starting system is


automatically actuated by the gas turbine control
system panel.

The control system provides automatic starting


and sequencing as the gas turbine is accelerated
to operating speed.

During acceleration and operation, the control


system monitors the gas turbine and driven
equipment, such as a generator or compressor.

If an operating malfunction occurs, the control


system identifies the nature of the trouble and
may initiate an emergency shutdown.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


System Operation: Start Sequence

The following start sequence is not a


start-up checklist. Before a gas turbine
start is attempted:

· A thorough prestart inspection must have


been completed.
· Prestart conditions must be satisfied.

When the operator presses the START


pushbutton:

· The RUN indicator lamp illuminates.


· Start/run control system relays are energized,
and the start circuit is initiated.
· The pre/postlube pump starts, and
prelubrication begins.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


System Operation: Start Plus
15 Seconds

The following events occur 15 seconds


after the START button is pressed:

· The prelube timer times out, and the


start relay remains energized up to
66% of engine speed.

· The solenoid-operated pilot valve is


energized, and the starter motor
shutoff valve opens.

· Starter motors begin to crank and


accelerate the gas turbine.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


System Operation: Turbine At
15% Speed

When gas turbine speed reaches


15%:

· Purge timer relay inhibits fuel while purging


the machine.
· Ignition begins when fuel is admitted 10
seconds after 15% speed. (Purge timer
times out.)
· Lightoff occurs and combustion begins.
· The engine continues to accelerate with
assistance from the starter motors.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


System Operation:
Temperature @ 350°F

When engine turbine


temperature reaches 350°F:

· Ignition system is shut off.

· Pre/postlube pumps stop when


engine-driven lube oil pump
pressure reaches 35 psig.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


System Operation: Engine
Speed @ 66%

When engine speed reaches


approximately 66% or self-sustaining
speed:

· The starter clutch overruns.


· The start-relay and start circuits are de-
energized.
· The solenoid-operated pilot valve is de-
energized.
· The starter motor shutoff valve is closed by pilot
pressure.
· Acceleration continues.

The start cycle is complete at approximately 66%


engine speed.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Pneumatic Start System

V V V

PILOT G
QUICK EXHAUST
AIR/GAS G VALVE ACTUATOR
SUPPLY
SHUT OFF
VALVE
STARTER
MOTOR

SHUT OFF
VALVE
LUBRICATOR G
STRAINER
AIR/GAS STARTER
SUPPLY G G MOTOR

LEGEND
G GAS
O OIL
V VENT FROM LUBE
O OIL SYSTEM
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
PNEUMATIC start system –
SOLAR TURBINES

1. Clutch Lubrication
Fixed Orifice
2. Pneumatic Starter
Motor
3. Gas Shutoff Pilot
Solenoid Valve
4. Gas Shutoff Valve

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Starter Drive

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


1st Stage Disk

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


1st Stage Nozzle

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Too Much Start Gas

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Compressor ?

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


What Blades ?

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Good Protection System

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Hydraulic Starting System

Hydraulic Starting System:


Purpose

The purpose of a hydraulic starting


system is to supply high pressure
hydraulic fluid to a hydraulic starter
motor. This motor is mounted on
the accessory gearbox.

The hydraulic starting system


module and its associated piping,
valving, and instrumentation is
mounted on a self-contained skid.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Hydraulic Starting System:
Components

The main components of a


hydraulic starting system are as
follows:

· electric motor
· hydraulic pump
· hydraulic fluid reservoir
· hydraulic starter motor (engine
mounted)
· filter elements

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Electric Motor

The purpose of the electric motor is to drive


the hydraulic pump.

The size of the electric motor depends on


the capacity of the hydraulic start module.

Larger engines require greater starting


power.

A typical 55 gpm hydraulic starting system


that operates at 5000 psig uses a 200
horsepower electric motor.

The motor normally operates on 480 volt, 3-


phase AC and rotates at 1800 rpm on 60 hz
or at 1500 rpm on 50 Hz.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Hydraulic Pump

The hydraulic pump is an axial-piston,


variable-displacement or variable-volume
pump. This type of pump automatically
increases or decreases the volume of fluid
flow to limit output pressure.

A small charge pump is mounted on the


head of the hydraulic pump.

The purpose of the charge pump is to


prime the system and to ensure that air is
purged from the system.

The charge pump is driven through the


main hydraulic pump.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Axial-Piston Pump
An axial-piston pump consists of several
small reciprocating pumps in a common
cylinder block and housing.

The head, which contains an inlet port and


an outlet port, is attached to one end of
the pump housing.

The cylinder block contains an odd


number of cylinders (usually seven)
equally spaced from the center.

Three cylinders are always connected to


the inlet port, and three cylinders are
always connected to the outlet port. One
cylinder is located between the ports.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Axial-Piston Pump
The cylinder block and pistons rotate
inside the pump housing.

The pistons have connecting rods that


are fastened to a swash plate by ball
joints.

The drive shaft of the axial-piston pump


rotates the swash plate and cylinder
block so that the pistons move back and
forth in the cylinder block, creating the
pumping action.

Piston movement is almost overlapping,


which results in a constant flow of
hydraulic fluid.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Hydraulic Pump: Pumping
Action

The figure shows the pumping


action of one piston as the
cylinder block makes one
revolution inside the pump
housing.

When the piston is at point 1, it


has just started its inward
movement and is only partly
open to the inlet port.

(Contd.)

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


At points 2 and 3, the piston is
moving inward and the space
in the cylinder is being filled
with hydraulic fluid.

At point 4, the piston is at the


bottom of its stroke and it is
not connected to either port at
this time. This movement from
point 1 to point 4 represents
the first half of a revolution.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Hydraulic Pump:
Pumping Action

During the last half of the


revolution, the piston moves
outward toward the head.

The hydraulic fluid that filled


the cylinder during the first half
of the revolution is now forced
out through the outlet port as
the piston returns to point 1 to
start another cycle.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Variable Displacement Piston
Pump
A variable-displacement piston-type
pump provides a means for varying
the length of the pumping stroke.

The length of the pumping stroke


determines the volume of hydraulic
fluid that is discharged to the
system.

Pump stroke length is varied by


changing the angle of the swash
plate.
( Contd.)

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


The angle of the swash plate is controlled by two different means:

· A solenoid selects high or low flow operation.

· An internal compensator limits output pressure to 5000 psig by reducing


the swash plate angle to reduce cylinder displacement.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Hydraulic Starting System:
Operation

The typical hydraulic start system is


a closed loop system with all return
lines to the hydraulic fluid reservoir.
The reservoir usually stores 40 to
50 gallons of hydraulic fluid.

Automatic temperature controls


maintain hydraulic oil temperature
between 50°F and 60°F.

( Contd. )

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Alarms and shutdown switches are provided for high and low hydraulic oil
temperatures and low liquid levels.

During starting system operation, the charge pump takes suction from the
hydraulic fluid reservoir through a suction strainer.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Hydraulic Starting System:
Operation

Fluid from the charge pump flows


through a charge pump discharge filter
and then to the main hydraulic pump.
The charge pump provides over 300 psig
to the main pump suction.

The main hydraulic pump provides up to


55 gpm at 5000 psig to the hydraulic
starter motor.

High pressure fluid lines are installed


between the starting system module and
the hydraulic starter motor.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Hydraulic Starting System:
Operation

The hydraulic starter motor is


similar to the hydraulic pump.

The motor is variable displacement


with a swash plate. The power
cylinders are arranged axially
around a shaft. The angle of the
swash plate on the shaft is
controlled by a speed-sensing
mechanism.

( Contd. )

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


At speeds up to 2500 rpm, the swash plate is held at its maximum angle,
and the pistons are working through their full stroke.

At speeds over 2500 rpm, the swash plate angle decreases. At about 4500
rpm, the swash plate is almost square to the shaft.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Hydraulic Starting System:
Operation

The flow through the motor is equal


to cylinder displacement times rpm.
The flow gradually increases as the
motor speed increases up to 2500
rpm. Flow then remains more or less
constant up to cut-out speed (speed
increasing, displacement decreasing).

The starter converts high pressure


fluid energy to shaft torque, which
rotates the engine.
( Contd. )

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


The fluid discharges from the starter to the low pressure side of the system
(about 150 psig) and returns through a filter to the supply pump inlet.

Solenoid control valves are sequenced and controlled by the main unit control
panel.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Hydraulic Starting System:
Operation

When a start is initiated, the


system accelerates the gas
generator from static conditions to
self-sustaining idle speed.

The hydraulic starter motor has


an overrunning clutch, which
disconnects the starter shaft from
the gas turbine during engine
operation.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Hydraulic Clutch

™ Coupling between
torque converter and
asses gear arranged for
engage by hydraulic
piston
™ Hydraulic piston
™ Hydraulic oil inlet pipe
™ Vent pipe

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Diesel Starting System

Introduction
This is the last in the series about gas
turbine starting systems. Previous
parts provided important information
about pneumatic and hydraulic starting
systems.

This part focuses on the diesel starting


system, its components, and operation.

The figure represents a typical diesel


starting system.

The part begins with the purpose of a


diesel starting system.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Diesel Starting System:
Purpose

The purpose of a diesel starting system is to


provide power to start the turbine axial flow
compressor.

A diesel starting system performs three primary


functions during the start cycle:

· start the turbine roll (breakaway from


standstill)
· accelerate the gas turbine to firing speed
· assist the gas turbine to self-sustaining speed

A diesel starting system has three main


components. Each is described in the
information that follows.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Diesel Starting System:
Components
The main components of a diesel
starting system are:

· diesel engine

· torque converter

· hydraulic ratchet system

The three components are graphically


represented in the figure. The diesel
engine is discussed first.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Diesel Engine
A diesel engine is the primary component
of a gas turbine diesel starting system. It
is used to rotate (crank) the gas turbine
for start-up.

A diesel engine is an internal combustion


engine that converts the heat of fuel into
work in the cylinders of the engine.

Diesel engine operation is based on the


reciprocating (upward and downward)
movement (stroke) of a piston in a
cylinder.
( Contd.)

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


In a two-cycle engine, the combustion cycle is completed in each cylinder
during one revolution of the crankshaft.

The diesel starting engine for G.E. Frame 5 gas turbines is a 12 cylinder,
two-cycle engine rated at 2300 rpm.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Two-Cycle Diesel Engine

In a two-cycle engine, four events occur


during one piston stroke. The events
are:

· scavenging (air intake)


· compression (fuel injected)
· power (fuel ignition)
· exhaust

The action taking place during each of these


events is shown in the figure.

The next component discussed is the torque


converter.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Torque Converter

The torque converter is a hydraulic


device that transmits the torque
(turning force) of the diesel engine to
the gas turbine through the ratchet
jaw clutch.

The hydraulic ratchet's jaw clutch


couples and uncouples the torque
converter and diesel engine from the
gas turbine.

Rotation of the hydraulic turbine causes the output shaft of the torque converter to rotate.
This turning force (torque) is transmitted to the gas turbine through a starting clutch.
The third component of the diesel starting system is the hydraulic ratchet assembly. The
purpose of this component is discussed next.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Hydraulic Ratchet
Assembly
The purpose of the hydraulic
ratchet assembly is to assist the
starting device to begin the
rotation of a gas turbine rotor at
breakaway.

The ratchet system also rotates the gas turbine rotor during the cooldown cycle, after gas
turbine shutdown.

The ratchet is controlled partially by the starting control system.

The diesel starting system has several auxiliary systems that are essential to its operation.

These auxiliary systems are discussed next.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Diesel Starting System:
Auxiliary Systems

A diesel engine has the


following auxiliary systems:

· cooling
· lube oil
· air
· fuel
· starter control

The first system discussed is the


cooling system.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Cooling Systems

A diesel engine uses one of two


types of cooling systems:

· radiator and fan


· heat exchanger

Both systems use a centrifugal water


pump to circulate coolant and a
thermostat to maintain operating
temperature.

The radiator and fan cooling system is


discussed first.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Cooling Systems: Radiator
& Fan
In a radiator and fan cooling system, the
coolant is drawn from the lower section of
the radiator by the water pump.

The coolant is then forced through the lube


oil cooler, into the cylinder block, and up
through the cylinder heads.

When the engine is at normal operating temperature, the coolant passes through the
thermostat housings into the top part of the radiator.

In the radiator, coolant temperature is reduced by heat exchange with the airflow through
the radiator created by the fan.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Cooling Systems: Radiator
& Fan

When starting a cold engine or when


the coolant is below operating
temperature, coolant flow is restricted
by the thermostat.

A bypass tube permits water


recirculation in the engine during
warm-up.

The heat exchanger cooling system is


discussed next.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Cooling Systems: Heat
Exchanger

In a heat exchanger cooling system, the


coolant is pumped through the heat
exchanger by the water pump. The
coolant then passes through the engine
oil cooler, cylinder block, cylinder heads,
exhaust manifolds, and thermostat
housings.

A bypass tube permits coolant recirculation when the thermostat is closed. When the
thermostat is open, coolant returns to the heat exchanger for cooling and recirculation.
As coolant passes through the core of the heat exchanger, the coolant temperature is
lowered by heat exchange with raw water. Raw water is supplied by a raw water pump
from an outside source

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Lube Oil System
The diesel engine lube oil system
ensures positive lubrication at all
times.

This lube oil system has the same


purpose and components as other
lube oil systems discussed in previous
lessons.

Diesel engine lube oil provides full


pressure lubrication for all main,
connecting rod, and camshaft
bearings; piston pins; gear train; and
drive gear. Lube oil also cools the
piston.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Air System

The purpose of a diesel engine air


system is to provide air for
scavenging (removing) exhaust
gases from the engine cylinders and
for combustion.

In a two-cycle diesel, a charge of air


is forced into the cylinders by the
blower(s). Each cylinder is filled with
fresh, clean air.

( Contd.)

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


The air charge thoroughly sweeps all of the burned gases out through the
exhaust valve ports.
The air helps to cool internal engine parts, particularly the exhaust valves.

The diesel starting fuel system is discussed next.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Fuel System

The main components of the diesel


engine fuel system are:

· diesel fuel tank


· fuel charge pump
· canister tank
· main fuel pump
· filters
· fuel header
· fuel injectors

(Contd. )

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


A diesel fuel tank is built into the base of the gas turbine.

The fuel charge pump is driven by the diesel engine camshaft. This pump
supplies fuel from the base tank to a small canister tank mounted on the
side of the engine.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Fuel System
The main fuel pump takes suction from
the canister tank. It pumps the fuel under
pressure through the fuel filter to the fuel
header.

The main fuel pump is a positive


displacement gear pump that is attached
to the blower.

The fuel header delivers fuel to the fuel


injectors. The fuel is filtered through filter
elements in the injectors and then
atomized through small spray tip orifices
into the combustion chamber of each
cylinder.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Control System

This section discusses the starter


control system.

The primary diesel controls are:

· starter

· speed control system

· stop mechanism

· electronic logic

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Control System
The starter is a DC electric starter motor. The
starter motor is attached to the diesel engine
block.

Lead-acid storage batteries provide electric


power for starting.

Diesel engine speed is controlled by the


variable speed governor. A hydraulic actuator
positions the governor speed control lever. A
small, engine-driven pump supplies engine oil
for actuator operation.

When the accelerating solenoid is energized,


the governor lever is driven to the high
operating speed position.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Control System

When the solenoid is de-energized, the


lever is returned to the idle position.

The diesel engine stop mechanism is a


solenoid connected to the governor.

When the stop solenoid is energized, it


activates the shutdown mechanism,
shutting off fuel and stopping the
engine.
Electronic logic in the gas turbine control panel provides automatic sequencing of
the starter and control solenoids for normal diesel engine start-up, for normal
and emergency engine shutdown, and for exercising and testing the engine.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Control System
To protect the diesel engine, electronic logic
also monitors the starting clutch position,
the engine lube oil pressure and the engine
speed.

Alarms and emergency shutdowns are


initiated for out-of-limit operating conditions.

If the diesel engine is tripped when the throttle


is in the full open position, the throttle does not
reset.
The next diesel engine restart will be made with the throttle set at full power. The throttle lever
should be manually reset before the next start attempt.
The next section discusses the operation of a diesel starting system.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Diesel Starting System:
Operation

The following describes the operation of a


diesel starting system. The procedure
assumes the gas turbine is off cooldown,
in a ready to start condition with all pre-
start-up checks complete.

When START is selected:

· starting clutch is engaged

· starting motor is energized to start the


diesel engine

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


The diesel engine idles through a 2-minute warm-up cycle.

The acceleration solenoid is energized to accelerate the diesel engine to max


speed for gas turbine breakaway with hydraulic ratchet assistance.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Operation

Following gas turbine breakaway:

· acceleration solenoid is de-energized and


the diesel engine slows to approximately
1900 rpm

· acceleration stop solenoid controls diesel


engine speed until the gas turbine is
sequenced through the warm-up cycle

· acceleration stop solenoid is de-energized


· acceleration solenoid is energized to
accelerate the diesel engine to maximum
rpm for acceleration of the gas turbine

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Operation

At diesel engine speed of 3000 to


3400 rpm:

· clutch automatically disengages


· acceleration solenoid is de-
energized
At this time, the diesel engine:
· returns to idle speed
· idles through a cooldown period
· stops when the stop solenoid is
energized

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Electric Starters

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Electric Starters

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Trouble Shooting Guide

FAIL TO CRANK

1. Check For Engine Rotation.


2. Check Magnetic Pickup And Circuit.
3. Check Starter System.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Fail To Start

1. Check Oil Temperature


2. Check Operation Of Guide Vanes
3. Check Operation Of Bleed Valve
4. Check Operation Of Fuel Actuator
5. Check Operation Of Fuel Shutoff Valve

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Ignition Failure

1. Check T5 On Restart Attempt.


2. Check Torch And Igniter Assemblies
3. Check T5 Thermocouples
4. Check Pilot Fuel Pressure Regulator
5. Replace Spark Plug

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Scheduled Performance Tasks Table

1. Clean strainers in supply lines to start system.

2. Check start system and associated wiring and


controls.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Trouble Shooting Guide

FAIL TO CRANK

1. Check For Engine Rotation.


2. Check Magnetic Pickup And Circuit.
3. Check Starter System.

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Fail To Start

1. Check Oil Temperature


2. Check Operation Of Guide Vanes
3. Check Operation Of Bleed Valve
4. Check Operation Of Fuel Actuator
5. Check Operation Of Fuel Shutoff Valve

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Ignition Failure

1. Check T5 On Restart Attempt.


2. Check Torch And Igniter Assemblies
3. Check T5 Thermocouples
4. Check Pilot Fuel Pressure Regulator
5. Replace Spark Plug

Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar


Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Gas Turbine- Start Systems Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar
Dr. Walid Abdelghaffar