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Ajinkya (9967658) Business Systems

Amit (9967013)
November 10, 2010

9967658
9967013
Ajinkya Aman Gawande
Amit Ashok Kamble

Busine November 10

2010
ss
System
s
Semester 2
Assessmen
t2

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Ajinkya (9967658) Business Systems
Amit (9967013)
November 10, 2010

Contents
Sr. Pg.no
No
Marking Schedule 3-4
Introduction 5
a) Case study 1 : Alibris.com 6-11
i) Possible Business Strategies 6-9
(a) Internal Tool : Swot Analysis 6-7
(b)External Tool : Porter’s Five Forces 8-9
ii) Impacts of E-Commerce on Marketing, Sales, 10-11
Procurement, delivery and customer service of
Alibris
iii) Competitive advantage of the Business 11
b) Case study 2 : Brein and eBay 12-13
1) Brein 12
2) eBay 13
c) Case study 3 : Day Chocolate Company Gold 14-16
Service
i) Identified Threats 14
i) Solutions to those threats 14-15
ii) Security Standards Considered 16
d) Case study 4 : Alibaba.com 17-19
i) Activity 1 : Creation of Lock-in effect 17

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ii) Activity 2 : Different listing charges 17


iii) Activity 3 : Opportunities 17-18
iv) Activity 4 : Advantages and Lock-in effect 18-19
v) Activity 5 : Alibaba.com’s reputation re Yahoo! 19
References 20 - 21

MARKING SCHEDULE (Course Weighting 40%)

Possible Actual
ITEM Comments
Marks Marks
1. Presentation:
i. Cover (1)
ii. Contents page (1)
iii. Page numbering (1)
iv. Spelling and Grammar (5)
v. Evidence of further research (5)
vi. Report format: 30
• Introduction (2½)
• Body/Findings (½)
• Use of graphic elements,
statistics or any other tool
to support the text (10)
• Conclusion (2½)
• Referencing (1½)
2. Case 1 - Alibris:
a) Appropriate business models used e.g.
one (1) for internal environment
5

and one (1) for external environment 5


b) Impact of E-commerce on the business
clearly described. i.e. how marketing, 10
sales, procurement, delivery and customer
service were affected
c) Competitive advantage of the business 5
(gain or loss)

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3. Case 2 – Brein and e-Bay:


i. Identified issues (2.5 marks per sub-
case)
5

ii. Legislation (4 marks per sub-case) 8


iii. Ethical issues (3.5 marks per sub-case) 7
iv. Personal conclusion (7.5 marks per sub-
case)
15
4. Case 3 – Day Chocolate
Company Gold Service:
i. Identified threats 15
ii. Solutions to those threats
a. Applicable technologies available 7.5
b. Specific product or service for
the Day Chocolate Company
7.5

iii. Security standards considered 5

5. Case 4 - Alibaba.com:
i. Activity 1 - Creation of lock-in effect 15
ii. Activity 2 - Different listing charges 15
iii. Activity 3 - Opportunities 15
iv. Activity 4 - Advantages and lock-in effect 15
v. Activity 5 - Alibaba.com’s reputation re 15
Yahoo!

TOTAL 200 ______

PERCENT: ___________

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TUTOR: Laura Addinall


E-mail: laura.addinall@boppoly.ac.nz

Introduction

The following report is based on four case studies, which are


further divided into several parts.

Case study 1 is about Alibris.com an online book store. The 1st case
study focuses on strategic management tools and impact of e-
commerce on business of Alibris.com.

Case study 2 asks us to solve and build your personal conclusion on


two cases. One from Amsterdam that involves case of illegal file
sharing and the other from Germany that involves issue of online
auction.

Case study 3, requests us to help “Divine Chocolate Company” to


help it with security concerns, that might affect the company on
implementation of new Information System.

Case study 3, is completely based on B2B market in China, it is


about Alibaba.com which is an early entrant in B2B Chinese market,
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which focuses on connecting small SMBs in China with global


market.

a) CASE STUDY 1 – Alibris.com

i) Possible Business Strategy :


a) Using Internal tool : SWOT Analysis
○ SWOT analysis is a strategic planning method used to evaluate
the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in
a project or in a business venture. It involves specifying the objective
of the business venture or project and identifying the factors that
are favorable and unfavorable to achieve that objective.

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November 10, 2010

The following report is a SWOT analysis (an internal Business tool)


of “Alibris”.

○ Strengths

➢ Compared with Amazon’s 36.9 million unique visits in July 2003,


Alibris got 535,000 unique visits. In contrast to Barnes &
Noble’s market capitalization of $1.6 billion, Alibris is privately
held, financed by its own sales and private investors.

➢ Alibris focuses on a niche that is a sub-market for giants: used


and hard-to-find books, which makes buyers and readers all
over the world to, turn to Alibris for the hard-to-find books.

➢ Along with directly retailing the books into market and


customers, Alibris CEO Marty Manley, also turned Alibris into a
supplier for the bookselling giants, and this made Alibris the
biggest supplier of hard-to-find books Barnes and Noble.

➢ Alibris’s technology platform is based on Linux which uses


database search application `Texis’, and this platform links a
vast number of independent booksellers.

➢ Availability of multiple sales channels for sellers, which allows a


seller to publish his book on a wide range and facilitates a
buyer anywhere within any of Alibris’s sales channel to buy it.

➢ Alibris’s software platform, from so many sales channels


generates volumes of sales data, which helps Alibris to monitor
the position of a book in the market.

○ Weakness

➢ A bookseller is charged 15% commission for a direct book sale


by Amazon, whereas Alibris chargers 20% commission for the
same, but it offers seller’s books in its many sites.

➢ There are some books on Alibris whose “prices are terrible”


Manley says, he even says that, those book are old and sell at a
higher price than the new ones.

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○ Opportunity

➢ Providing a platform on Internet for all readers and people to


read books and sell them back in return and also exchange
them.

➢ Extending Alibris from just books to the areas of music, and


movies. Providing DVD’s, CD’s and VHS tapes.

○ Threats

➢ Dominance of Alibris by e-commerce mega sites like Amazon


and Barnes & Noble.

➢ Sellers marching their own drum of price, leading to price


disparity, Because of this, there are some books that never sell
and lay there forever which increases the inventory
management cost of the company.

a) Using External tool : Porter’s Five Forces

○ The Porter's 5 Forces tool is a simple but powerful tool for


understanding where power lies in a business situation. This is
useful, because it helps you understand both the strength of your
current competitive position, and the strength of a position you're
considering moving into.

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The following report is an analysis of “Alibris”, based on Porter’s Five


Forces (an external Business tool)

○ Supplier Power

➢ For Alibris, the available suppliers for books are the people and
small bookstores. Though Alibris do not directly buy book from
people (sellers), the sellers are the one who have power to rate
a book. But, compare to Alibris and sellers, Alibris provide
sellers a platform to sell their books, so sellers want Alibris and
Alibris want sellers. Comparatively the supplier’s power is less
then compared to Alibris, which helps Alibris to control the
supply of its inputs.

○ Buyer Power

➢ In relation to B2C, the buyers are people all around the world
which lie within the sales channels of Alibris. Here the buyer
power is strong, because, people are the one who buys form
Alibris. It’s not Alibris who wants to sell books, but people are
the one who want the books. So, to make sales Alibris has to
keep on re-pricing its books constantly and make sure the book
prices are favorable.

➢ Alibris being one of the biggest suppliers has B2B buyers.


These buyers are giants in the e-commerce industry. But
comparatively with B2C, here Alibris is the biggest supplier of
Hard-to-find books. So, when giants like Amazon and Barnes &
Noble want hard-to-find books, they have to turn to Alibris. In
this case, Alibris can control the selling prices of its hard-to-find
books, hence gives an upper hand to the company.

○ Competitive Rivalry

➢ Alibris is a company dominated by e-commerce giants like


Amazon and Barnes & Noble.

➢ Alibris being the biggest supplier of hard-to-find books focuses


on hard-to-find books. Whereas, other giants have all the books
available, even the recent launches. So, when people want a
recently launched book, they know where to find it. So, Alibris
has to compete with Amazon and Barnes & Noble, so that, if a

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customer at Alibris wants “Harry Potter 5” they don’t go away


empty handed and unsatisfied.

○ The Threat of Substitution

➢ Alibris also sells new books as a customer service, because it


does not want customer’s to go away empty handed. So, when
customer knows that Alibris won’t let it go empty handed,
demand for new books will eventually increase, creating a
threat of substitution for the hard-to-find books market.

➢ Alibris plans to extend itself into the areas of music and


movies, CD’s, DVD’s and VHS tapes. Alibris has always seen as
the biggest supplier of hard-to-find books to Barnes & Noble.
People are more interested in new books, and Alibris lacks in
supplying those. If Alibris expands itself into areas of music and
movies, people will approach them only for music and movies,
when there are giants like amazon and Barnes & Noble
supplying all sorts of books (even those bought from Alibris in a
B2B purchase) to people.

○ The Threat of New Entry

➢ There is a great possibility of new firms to enter the market to


shake the position of Alibris.

➢ Alibris has its roots weak, when it comes to sale of new books,
there can be new firms who will focus only on new books, which
will make them stronger in the market and attract people.

➢ This new firms can cause a threat to Alibris and eventually lead
to termination of its customer service (sale of new books) and
only limit it to hard-to-find books.
ii) Impacts of E-Commerce on Marketing, Sales,
Procurement, delivery and customer service of
Alibris :
○ E-Commerce is the buying and selling of goods or services via
electronic systems such as the internet and other computer
networks.

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○ Marketing

➢ Now-a-days people prefer to sit at home and shop online, so


companies today have to make a place for themselves in the
electronic market (Internet).

➢ Alibris being an online book store has its own home page which
is a good means of communicating with the people/customers.

➢ E-Commerce has reduced the advertisement costs. Alibris, now


just have to register with a search engine and ask them to
manage their site’s advertisement so that, they are listed at
the top, when a customer searches for them.

➢ With the help of E-Commerce Alibris can even let the customers
scan through its hard-to-find books virtual database, so that it
they want they can order one.

○ Sales

➢ E-Commerce has opened doors for Alibris to keep its market


open for 24x7.

➢ E-Commerce helps Alibris to reach every nook and corner of the


world, which allows Alibris to make sales all around the globe.

➢ Instant purchase and payment takes place through online


transactions using credit cards etc., which reduces office and
paper work.

➢ Because of E-Commerce Alibris can sell its books through


Half.com and EBay.

○ Procurement

➢ E-commerce has helped Alibris.com to sell Alibris branded


books through Half.com and eBay.com

○ Delivery

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➢ E-commerce has helped Alibris in assisting through the


complex movement of products between buyers and
customers.

➢ E-commerce allows customers to get detailed information


about the company it is trading with, and also about its offered
services.

➢ E-commerce has allowed customers to download books in


electronic format and also music and movies.

➢ E-commerce allows us to have an online tracking system for all


products, so at any time we can locate our parcel and the
progress being made.

○ Customer Service

➢ Alibris being an online bookstore, e-commerce has helped it a


lot. E-Commerce has helped it to display its database of books
in an impressive manner, which attracts customers and it is
also easy for them to browse through the database.

➢ Alibris provides customers a technology platform to get them


placed in sales channels of Amazon, Barnes & Noble and Alibris.

ii) Competitive advantage of the Business:

➢ Alibris is an online bookselling company dominated by e-


commerce mega-sites like Amazon and Barnes & Noble. These
mega-sites provide customers a wide range of available books.

➢ To grip its roots strong in the market, Alibris has come up with
its own idea of retailing used and hard-to-find books that have
high price value and demanded in market.

➢ This business strategy by Alibris’s CEO “Marty Manley” is of


great success to Alibris, even though Alibris is a small company
running with only 45 employees and financed on its own, today
competes with the e-commerce giants.

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➢ Alibris is today one of the biggest supplier of used and hard-to-


find books, and is also in partnership with e-commerce
megastores instead of being just a competitor.

➢ Alibris also earns a lot from its technology platform which


provides customers a place in its sales channels all across the
globe.

a) CASE STUDY 2 – Brein and e-Bay

1) Brein:

i) Identified Issue: This case involves the issue of illegal offering of


music files and other files. For which, Brein claimed an appeal,
against the judgment in summary proceeding, for the surrender of
personal data of customers by five internet providers.

ii) Legislation: If there was a case involving illegal offering of music


files and other files in New Zealand then, the legislation that would
be applied is, “Copyright (Infringing File Sharing) Amendment Bill
119-2 (2010)”. Which states that An Internet service provider does
not infringe the copyright in the work, or authorize A's infringement
of the copyright in the work, merely because the Internet service
provider knows of the infringement from information received as a
result of anything done under “sections 122A to 122R”, provided
that, in relation to the alleged infringement, the Internet service
provider complies with all its obligations under those sections and
under any regulations made under “section 234(eb) to (eh).”

iii) Ethical Issues: One of the ethical issues that the Amsterdam Court
of appeal did not cover was the “Dutch Copyright Law” which states
that, only an owner has the right to copy as they please, even
without actual ownership of the copyright.

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iv) Personal Conclusion: If I were a judge, I would give an order to the


ISP to provide Brein foundation with the the name, address and
residence details of subscribers who, in Brein's opinion, were illegally
sharing files via peer-to-peer (P2P) software. Because, illegal file
sharing promotes “Piracy” and “Brein foundation” being an anti-
piracy association” it should have rights to find the user who is
pirating music files, because legally “Piracy is a crime”.

1) eBay.de:
i) Identified Issue: This case involves, the issue of auction on the
internet on eBay.de, In this case a defendant (consumer) declines to
accept the delivery and pay the amount of the auctioned item.

ii) Legislation: For a similar case in New Zealand, Sections 39 & 59


under “Sale of Goods Act 1908 No 168 (as on 03 September 2007),
Public Act” would be applied. Which states that, Where the seller is
ready and willing to deliver the goods, and requests the buyer to take
delivery, and the buyer does not within a reasonable time after such
request take delivery of the goods, he is liable to the seller for any loss
occasioned by his neglect or refusal to take delivery, and also for a
reasonable charge for the care and custody of the goods, Provided that
nothing in this section shall affect the rights of the seller where the
neglect or refusal of the buyer to take delivery amounts to a
repudiation of the contract(Section 39) and A sale by auction is
complete when the auctioneer announces its completion by the fall of
the hammer, or in other customary manner: until such announcement
is made. (Section 59, 2).

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iii) Ethical Issues: The ethical that may not be covered by the law is,
“Duties of seller and buyer, which states that”, it is the duty of the
seller to deliver the goods, and of the buyer to accept and pay for
them, in accordance with the terms of the contract of sale.

iv) Personal Conclusion: If I was the judge, I would ask eBay to cancel
the highest bidder’s bid and ask them to take back the delivery of the
product sent and alternatively deliver it to the next highest bidder.

a)CASE STUDY 3 – Day Chocolate


Company Gold
Service

i) Identified Threats:
○ On implementing the given Information System, there is a possibility
of Imposters leaking the confidential information or using it for their
financial gain (i.e.) other companies or a member of other company

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can become a Gold Member and make wrong usage of company logo
or special recipes.

○ Theft of confidential information like special recipes by


eavesdroppers.

○ Hackers can hack into web servers and steal credit card information.

○ A possibility of credit card fraud.

i) Solutions to those threats


1)Applicable Technologies available:

➢ During a confidential information interchange, to avoid


eavesdroppers from listening to confidential information,
technologies like firewalls and VPNs can be used. With the help
of firewalls, the company can make sure that only the
authorized persons can gain access to the information. VPNs
(Virtual Private Network) can be used to create private
networks on public lines and can make sure that only the
authorized personnel in the private network can share
information.

➢ Firewalls only allow authorized connections to connect to the


web servers, if the firewall does not recognize the connection, it
will block the connection and let the administrator know that
there is an un-recognized connection trying to make
connection. In this way firewalls can block hackers from
hacking into web servers.

➢ Online transactions are the place where credit card information


can be stolen, so to make sure the information is accessed by
the company only, companies can make use of `S-HTTP` and
SSH technologies. S-HTTP provides encrypted communication
and secure identification of a network web server. `SSH`
provides a secure channel between two networks to exchange
data, which makes it safer to make credit card transactions.

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1) Specific Product or Service for the day chocolate company:

➢ Day chocolate company is going to implement the new


information system, which will include online confidential data
interchange and also credit card transactions. This new
information system will have many threats, to overcome those
threats, for day chocolate company “VeriSign” is a good
product.

➢ “VeriSign” provides a variety of security services; it provides


web sites a digital certificate for authentication. “VeriSign” uses
SSH and S-HTTP to make connections during, online
transactions.

➢ Currently the day chocolate company uses “MasterCard Secure


code” and “S-HTTP” for security.

➢ Figure 1, shows, a “VeriSign” digital certificate issued to


“Symantec Corporation”.

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Figure 1, VeriSign Certificate, https://sealinfo.verisign.com/splash?


form_file=fdf/splash.fdf&dn=buy.norton.com&lang=en

 Certificate Info :
✔ The green box on top with a pad lock shows that the site uses SSH
technology to secure the page; the name within the box shows the
security provider.

✔ Just next to it is “https://” in green colour, which shows that the site
uses “S-HTTP” type of security.

✔ This certificate provides Encrypted data transmission, suitable for


online transactions.

✔ This certificate also provides Identity Verification of the web site.

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i) Security standards considered:


○ AS4444 is a security standard that needs to be taken into
consideration.

○ This security standard needs to be taken into consideration because,


it provides Security framework protecting the confidentiality,
integrity and availability of information

○ It also builds confidence between trading partners.

○ The process includes identification of requirements and selection of


relevant control.

a) CASE STUDY 4 – Alibaba.com

i) Activity 1 : Creation of Lock-in effect :

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○ Alibaba.com is an early entrant in B2B portal market in China, so all


those new companies trying to get established in the Chinese
market will have to face difficulties competing with Alibaba.com.
This is because, Alibaba.com being one of the early starters will have
buried its root deep in the Chinese markets making its position
strong, and on the other hand people will also show preference to
Alibaba.com as it is an old an established company. In this way,
Alibaba.com will make it difficult for other portals in future to get
established and might have created a Lock-in effect in the Chinese
Market.

ii) Activity 2 : Different Listing Charges :

○ Global companies spend most of their efforts on business with


large companies, by giving them a good deal. If Alibaba.com gives
them a TrustPass membership in fewer fees then these companies
will spend their money in China. On the other hand Alibaba.com
charges $8000 or more for their annual listings as China Gold
Suppliers because “Jack Ma” believes that opportunities lie in
connecting SMBs around the world with SMBs in China, which will
reduce extensive traveling and expenses that this Chinese SMB’s
spent. Instead they charge the Chinese companies with
membership for translating and listing their information.

○ Jack Ma thought smartly and identified a need and is covering it;


by doing this he is helping not only his own pocket but his
country’s economy by producing jobs and helping these SMBs to
grow. Although he should raise the annual fee membership
because as large companies, these companies have enough
money to pay for a membership where the SMBs companies need
some help in this aspect, he should raise the fee to the foreign
companies to compensate the lowering in the fee to the Chinese
SMBs. The only reason Alibaba.com has different listing charges is
because, attracting global companies is the main motto of the
owner of Alibaba.com and therefore he charges foreign sellers a
lower annual fee for a TrustPass membership and charges $8000
for Chinese Companies.

ii) Activity 3 : Opportunities :


.

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○ General Electric & Sears are the oldest large global companies
established in 1892 & 1886, now-a-days due to global marketing
they want to spread around the world. These companies mainly get
the raw materials from other small business industries (SMB).
Eastern market, (i.e.) Chinese market is highly populated with SMBs
and these SMBs would be of great benefit to these giants. But, there
is an issue over EDI standards that the companies like GE & Sears
follow. The Chinese SMBs may follow other EDI standards and also
there is a language problem that the western giants and Chinese
SMB’s will face.

○ Alibaba.com is an early entrant and is a B2B portal in Chinese


market, Alibaba.com currently focuses on connecting small SMB’s in
China with large global companies. Alibaba.com can adapt itself with
the EDI standards that the large companies follow and also with that
of SMB’s in China. Alibaba.com can help SMBs and large companies
to get into good relations by converting and exchanging EDI
standards among them and also by helping Chinese SMBs to
translate and list their information, so that the large companies can
have a view of the SMBs’ inventory and their information and vice
versa. In this way Alibaba.com can become an intermediary in
relationships between Chinese SMBs and large companies such
General Electric and Sears.

ii) Activity 4 : Advantages and Lock-in effect :


○ Advantages Alibaba.com might have over eBay.com:

➢ Alibaba.com took advantage of the enormous number of


computer bulletin board services (BBS) in China, and posted
thousands of messages there to introduce Taobao to Internet
users.

➢ Taobao launched with an entirely no-fee model due to which a


significant number of eBay China’s users were migrating to
Taobao because of the free services.

➢ Lock-in effect created because of early entrant of Alibaba.com


in B2B portal in Chinese market helped it have an advantage
over eBay.com. “EBay may be a shark in the ocean, but I am a
crocodile in the Yangtze River. If we fight in the ocean, we lose

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—but if we fight in the river, we win.” Says Alibaba.com founder


Jack ma.

➢ Taobao designed its categories in accordance with the typical


structure of a Chinese department store, with separate sections
for men’s and women’s departments. By contrast, eBay China
used the category structure set by eBay’s global platform.

○ Advantages eBay.com might have over Alibaba.com:

➢ EBay.com is an online platform for millions of users to buy and


sell, eBay.com was known to be a global leader in Internet C2C
services. This global reputation might have been an advantage
over Alibaba.com.

➢ EBay China’s platform was changed significantly in terms of


listing categorization, interface styles, and technologies. Which
facilitate eBay maintenance across the whole global platform?

➢ EBay gets a lot of its revenue from small businesses, and In


China, there are so many small businesses. EBay provided a
platform where people can start their own business.

ii) Activity 5 : Alibaba.com’s reputation re


Yahoo! :

○ Yahoo! Is am American public corporation that provides internet


services like web portals etc. Yahoo! Is better known for its search
engine “Yahoo! Search”. Jerry yang, one of the founders of Yahoo!
Wanted Yahoo! To be in the Chinese market.

○ Yahoo! Was new in Chinese market, and then Chinese market was
dominated by Baidu.com, the top Chinese search engine.

○ Yahoo! Wanted to establish itself in the Chinese market and


compete Baidu.com

○ Yahoo! Failed to be successful as an auction site.

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○ Alibaba.com that created Lock-in effect had very strong roots in


Chinese market and its Taobao.com that competed eBay.com was
successful in the market.

○ In 2005 Yahoo! Paid $ 1 billion for 40% shares and bought


company’s Taobao.com

○ Yahoo! Managed Taobao.com and exported itself as a search engine


and web portal and generated huge revenue, because of the strong
reputation of Alibaba.com

○ In this way Yahoo! With the help of Alibaba.com gained reputation


and helped it to compete more effectively as a search engine and
web portal in China.

References:
– Alibris.com - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alibris

– Alibris.com - http://www.alibris.com

– Strategic Management
-http://baylearn.boppoly.ac.nz/mod/resource/view.php?id=75240

– Porter’s Five Forces


-http://baylearn.boppoly.ac.nz/mod/resource/view.php?id=75109

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– Impact of E-commerce on Sales, Marketing and Procurement


http://baylearn.boppoly.ac.nz/mod/resource/view.php?id=75309

– Impact of E-commerce on Dlivery and Customer Service


http://baylearn.boppoly.ac.nz/mod/resource/view.php?id=75385

– Brein Case - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_copyright_law

– Brein Case - http://www.ivir.nl/legislation/nl/copyrightact.html

– Brein Case - http://www.e-comlaw.com/lr/details_results.asp?


ID=343&Search=Yes

– Brein Case -
http://www.legislation.govt.nz/bill/government/2010/0119/latest/DL
M2764312.html

– Brein & EBay Case - http://www.e-


comlaw.com/lr/details_results.asp?ID=245&Search=Yes

– EBay Case
-http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/1908/0168/latest/DLM173
958.html

– EBay Case -
http://www.legislation.govt.nz/bill/government/2010/0119/latest/DL
M2764312.html

– E-commerce and Law -


http://baylearn.boppoly.ac.nz/mod/resource/view.php?id=75551

– E-commerce and Security -


http://baylearn.boppoly.ac.nz/mod/resource/view.php?id=75137

– Divine Chocolate - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divine_Chocolate


– MasterCard SecureCode logo and HTTPS image – Courtesy
“http://divinechocolateshop.com/”

– Electronic Commerce 8E (Gary P. Schneider, chapter 5 )

24
Ajinkya (9967658) Business Systems
Amit (9967013)
November 10, 2010

– “EBay may be a shark in the ocean, but I am a crocodile in the


Yangtze River. If we fight in the ocean, we lose—but if we fight in
the river, we win.” -
http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/3984/Ma-Jack.html

– Middleware - http://baylearn.boppoly.ac.nz/mod/resource/view.php?
id=75154

– Yahoo! - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yahoo!

– Baidu - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baidu

– EBay vs TaoBao -
https://gsbapps.stanford.edu/cases/documents/IB88.pdf

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