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Heat Exchanger

1. Abstract
The objective of this experiment is to study the function and the working of shell and
tube heat exchanger. Calculations on the heat transfer and heat loss were carried out
for energy balance study. LMTD and heat transfer coefficient also calculated for this
experiment. From the data collected, we found out that configuration of Shell and
Tube heat exchanger in counter current flow has a higher effectiveness than the co-
current flow.

2. Introduction
A heat exchanger is an equipment in which heat exchange takes place between 2
fluids that enter and exit at different temperatures. The main function of heat
exchanger is to either remove heat from a hot fluid or to add heat to the cold fluid.
The direction of fluid motion inside the heat exchanger can normally categorised as
parallel flow, counter flow and cross flow. In this experiment, we study only the
parallel flow and counter flow. For parallel flow, also known as co-current flow, both
the hot and cold fluids flow in the same direction. Both the fluids enter and exit the
heat exchanger on the same ends. For counter flow, both the hot and cold fluids flow
in the opposite direction. Both the fluids enter and exit the heat exchanger on the
opposite ends. In this experiment, we focused on the shell and tube heat exchanger.

3. Experiment Methods and Materials


The apparatus used in this experiment include a Shell and Tube heat exchanger, a cold
water circuit consists of a 50L tank and centrifugal pump, a hot water circuit consists
of a 50L tank and centrifugal pump, temperature and flow rate indicators.

The experiment procedures include:


General Start-up Procedure
A quick inspection was done to make sure the equipment is in a proper working
condition. All the valves are made sure to be initially closed except V2 and V12. The
hot water tank was filled up via a water supply hose connected to V27. The valve was
closed once the tank is full. The cold water tank was filled up by opening valve V28
and the valve was left opened for continues water supply. A drain hose was connected
to the cold water drain point. Then, the main power and the heater for the hot water
were switched on. The temperature controller was also set pointed to 50oC. The water
temperature in the hot water tank was allowed to reach the set point. After that, the
equipment is ready to be run.

General Start-down Procedure


The heater was switched off and the hot water temperature was waited until it drops
below 50 oC . Then, pump P1 and P2 were switch off. After that, the main power was
switched off and all water in the process lines were drained off. The water in the hot
and cold water tanks was retained. Finally, all the valves were closed.

Counter-current
A first, general start-up procedure was performed before the experiment begins. The
arrangement of the valve of Shell and Tube heat exchanger was switch to counter-
current as the experiment begins. Pump P1 and P2 were also switched on. Then,
valves V3 and V14 were opened and adjusted to obtain the desired flow rates for hot
water and cold water stream respectively. The system was allowed to reach steady
state for 10 minutes. Data for FT1, FT2, TT1, TT2, TT3, and TT4 were recorded.
These steps were repeated for different combinations of flow rate FT1 and FT2 as
recorded under the tables below. Pump P1 and P2 were switch off when the
experiment complete. All the results are tabulated under the tables below. After that,
we proceed to the following experiment.

Co-current
A first, general start-up procedure was performed before the experiment begins. The
arrangement of the valve of Shell and Tube heat exchanger was switch to co-current
as the experiment begins. Pump P1 and P2 were also switched on. Then, valves V3
and V14 were opened and adjusted to obtain the desired flow rates for hot water and
cold water stream respectively. The system was allowed to reach steady state for 10
minutes. Data for FT1, FT2, TT1, TT2, TT3, and TT4 were recorded. These steps
were repeated for different combinations of flow rate FT1 and FT2 as recorded under
the tables below. Pump P1 and P2 were switch off when the experiment complete. All
the results are tabulated under the tables below. Finally, the equipment was shut
down.

4. Data Analysis
The specific results for this experiment allow us to determine the heat transfers, heat
losses, heat transfer coefficient and LMTD values.

Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger


Tube O.D. (do) : 9.53 mm
Tube I.D. (di) : 7.75 mm
Tube Length (L) : 500 mm
Tube Count (Nt) : 10 (single pass)
Tube Pitch (pt) : 18 mm
Tube arrangement : Triangle
Shell O.D. : 100 mm
Shell I.D. (Ds) : 85 mm
Baffle Count : 8
Baffle Cut (Bc) : 20 %
Baffle Distance (lB) : 50 mm
Material of Construction : 316L Stainless Steel/Borosilicate Glass

Counter-current
FT1 FT2 TT1 TT2 TT3 TT4 Heat Heat
(L/min) (L/min) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) Transfer Losses
(kW) (kW)
10 2 50.0 47.6 41.7 32.9 1.2206 0.5049
10 4 49.8 46.8 39.2 32.9 1.7480 0.3230
10 6 50.0 46.5 37.8 32.8 2.0812 0.3351
10 8 50.3 46.3 36.8 32.8 2.2757 0.4857
10 10 49.7 46.5 36.0 32.6 2.3591 0.4723

FT1 FT2 TT1 TT2 TT3 TT4 Heat Heat


(L/min) (L/min) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) Transfer Losses
(kW) (kW)
2 10 49.6 40.0 33.9 32.6 0.9021 0.4253
4 10 49.8 44.2 34.3 32.6 1.1797 0.3674
6 10 50.0 44.8 35.1 32.6 1.7347 0.4197
8 10 50.0 45.3 35.6 32.6 2.0816 0.5152
10 10 49.3 45.6 35.9 32.5 2.2897 0.2653

q (kW) LMTD Ao Ai Uo Ui
1.3275 10.42 0.12 0.096 1.0616 1.3053
1.5471 11.75 0.12 0.096 1.0973 1.3491
2.1544 12.59 0.12 0.096 1.4260 1.7533
2.5968 13.05 0.12 0.096 1.6582 2.0388
2.5550 12.81 0.12 0.096 1.6621 2.0436

Co-current
FT1 FT2 TT1 TT2 TT3 TT4 Heat Heat
(L/min) (L/min) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) Transfer Losses
(kW) (kW)
10 2 49.7 47.3 32.7 41.1 1.1513 0.5056
10 4 49.9 46.6 32.7 38.8 1.6926 0.5859
10 6 49.7 46.1 32.7 37.4 1.9564 0.5290
10 8 50.1 46.1 32.5 36.4 2.1647 0.6657
10 10 50.3 45.7 32.3 35.7 2.3592 0.7475

FT1 FT2 TT1 TT2 TT3 TT4 Heat Heat


(L/min) (L/min) (oC) (oC) (oC) (oC) Transfer Losses
(kW) (kW)
2 10 49.7 40.7 32.3 33.6 0.9022 0.3283
4 10 49.6 44.0 32.3 34.1 1.1797 0.3657
6 10 50.1 45.0 32.3 34.8 1.7348 0.4196
8 10 49.8 45.2 32.3 35.3 2.0817 0.4593
10 10 49.6 45.6 32.3 35.7 2.3592 0.4028

q (kW) LMTD Ao Ai Uo Ui
1.2305 11.79 0.12 0.096 0.8697 1.0693
1.5473 13.56 0.12 0.096 0.9509 1.1691
2.1544 13.91 0.12 0.096 1.2907 1.5869
2.5410 13.78 0.12 0.096 1.5367 1.8893
2.7620 13.60 0.12 0.096 1.6924 2.0808

5. Discussion
Formulas for Calculation
Co-current Flow heat balance:
mtCpt (t2 - t1) = msCps(T1 - T2) = q

Counter-current Flow heat balance:


mtCpt (t2 - t1) = msCps(T1 - T2) = q
where,
mt = mass flowrate of cold fluid in the tube (kgs-1)
ms = mass flowrate of hot fluid in the shell (kgs-1)
Cpt = specific heat of cold fluid in the tube (kJkg-1°C-1)
Cps = specific heat of hot fluid in the shell (kJkg-1°C-1)
t1, t2 = temperature of cold fluid entering/leaving the tube (°C)
T1, T2 = temperature of hot fluid entering/leaving the shell (°C)
q = heat exchange rate between fluid (kW)

The general equation for heat transfer across the tube surface in a shell and tube heat
exchanger:
q = Uo Ao ∆ Tm = Ui Ai∆ Tm (3)
where,
Ao = outside area of the tube (m2)
Ai = inside area of the tube (m2)
∆ Tm = mean temperature difference (°C)
Uo = overall heat transfer coefficient based on
the outside area of the tube (kWm-2°C-1)
Ui = overall heat transfer coefficient based on
the inside area of the tube (kWm-2°C-1)

The coefficients Uo and Ui:

and,

where,
ho = outside fluid film coefficient (kWm-2°C-1)
hi = inside fluid film coefficient (kWm-2°C-1)
hod = outside dirt coefficient (fouling factor) (kWm-2°C-1)
hid = inside dirt coefficient (kWm-2°C-1)
kw = thermal conductivity of the tube wall material (kWm-1°C-1)
do = tube outside diameter (m)
di = tube inside diameter (m)

LMTD (log-mean temperature difference):

From the data collected, the counter-current and co-current heat exchanger’s exit
temperature of the hot fluid is higher than the exit temperature of the cold fluid. This
shows that heat may not spontaneously transfer from a colder body to a hotter body.
The increase in flow rate of one of the stream will results in an increase in the rate of
heat transfer. Theoretically, the amount of heat loss form the hot water should be
equal to the heat gain by the cold water. However, this cannot be done practically.
This may because of the heat loss to the surrounding, the heat loss in counter current
flow is approximately 26% and the heat loss in counter current flow is approximately
30% which is slightly higher. Based on the calculation done, we found out that the
values of LMTD for co-current flow is higher than the counter-current flow. But, the
overall heat transfer coefficient for counter-current flow is higher than the co-current
flow. This mean that counter current flow heat exchanger has a higher effectiveness.

6. Conclusion
This experiment shows that the shell and tube heat exchanger follows the basic law of
thermodynamics. In parallel (co-current) flow configuration, the exit temperature of
the hot fluid is always higher than the exit temperature of the cold fluid. In counter-
current flow configuration, the exit temperature of the hot fluid is also higher than the
exit temperature of the cold fluid. However, in counter current flow configuration, the
exit temperature of the cold fluid is higher than the exit temperature of the cold fluid
in co-current configuration. Hence, it is clear that for heat exchanger, counter current
flow configuration has a higher effectiveness than the co-current flow configuration.
The experiment shows that when the flow rate of one of the stream increases, the rate
of heat transfer will also increases. The amount of heat loss form the hot water is not
equal to the heat gain by the cold water due to the heat loss to the surrounding. From
the calculations done, the LMTD (log mean temperature difference) for co-current
flow is higher than the counter-current flow. However, the overall heat transfer
coefficient for counter-current flow is higher than the co-current flow. As a
conclusion, counter current flow configuration of heat exchanger is more preferred for
practical application. One of the application of heat exchanger is oil cooler.