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Introduction :
A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network consisting
of spatially distributed autonomous devices that use sensors to
monitor physical or environmental conditions. These autonomous
devices, or nodes, combine with routers and a gateway to create a
typical WSN system. The distributed measurement nodes
communicate wirelessly to a central gateway, which provides a
connection to the wired world where you can collect, process,
analyze, and present your measurement data. To extend distance
and reliability in a WSN, you can use routers to gain an additional
communication link between end nodes and the gateway.
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˜ DARPA:
Distributed Sensor Nets Workshop (1978)
Distributed Sensor Networks (DSN) program (early 1980s)
Sensor Information Technology (SensIT) program
˜ UCLA and Rockwell Science Centre
Wireless Integrated Network Sensors (WINS)
Low Power Wireless Integrated Micro sensor (LWIM) (1996)
˜ UC-Berkeley
Smart Dust project (1999)
concept of ´motesµ, extremely small sensor nodes
˜ Berkeley Wireless Research Centre (BWRC)
Pico Radio project (2000)
˜ MIT
ƫAMPS (micro-Adaptive Multidomain Power-aware Sensors) (2005)
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1. Area monitoring
2. Environmental monitoring
Greenhouse monitoring
Landslide detection
3. Industrial monitoring
Machine health monitoring
4. Water/Wastewater monitoring
Landfill ground well level monitoring and pump counter
Agriculture
5. Fleet monitoring
6. Health Monitoring
7. Security
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˜ TinyOS is the first operating system specifically designed for wireless


Sensor Networks. TinyOS·s component library includes network
protocols, distributed services,sensor drivers, and data acquisition
tools. The TinyOS system and programs was written in speacial
programming language called NesC. NesC is the extension of the C-
language.
˜ Contiki , it is another open source Operating System designed
specifically for WSNs. It is a event driven like TinyOS , and also supports
the multithreading on a perfect application basis. Contiki kernel
supports IP communication in both IPv4 and IPv6.
˜ SOS embed operating system is another OS for WSNs. It supports
loadable modules.
˜ LiteOS is another type of OS for WSNs developed in UNIX. It is possible
to operate one or more WSNs in UNIX.
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The general Hardware used in Wireless networks are

1. Embedded processor

2. Transceiver

3. Memory

4. Power source

5. Sensors
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˜ NS-2 is the most popular non-specific network simulator environment . NS-2


is a descrete event simulator developed in C++ software. The NS-2 Supports
the wide range of protocols in all layers.
˜ The second simulator for WSNs is OMNET++, it is also a discrete event
simulator developed in C++. It has very clear design . It provides easy
Graphical User Interface(GUI) library for tracing, animation and debugging
support.
˜ The other type of simulator is J-sim . It is a component based simulation
environment entirely developed in JAVA software. It is also provides GUI for
tracing, animation , debugging and also the script interface.
˜ The other simulator is NCTUns2.0, it is a discrete event simulator developed
in kernel of UNIX software.
˜ JiST/SWANS, it is also a discrete event simulation framework that
embeds the simulation in JAVA byte-code. It is run entirely in JAVA
programming.
˜ GloMoSim, it is one type of simulation framework simulation
environment built in parsec. Parsec is a simulation language derived
from C language.
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Challenges Vs Internet :
1 . Bandwidth Is very Expensive in WSNs
2. Ad-hoc
3. Energy
4. Wireless and Collaborative use
5. Collect and Decimate
Research Challenges :
1. Medium Access Control(MAC)
2. Routing
3. Localization
4. Operating Systems
5. Security
6. Programming Abstractions and Query Processing
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The main characteristics of a WSN include


˜ Power consumption constrains for nodes using batteries or
energy harvesting
˜ Ability to cope with node failures
˜ Mobility of nodes
˜ Dynamic network topology
˜ Communication failures
˜ Heterogeneity of nodes
˜ Scalability to large scale of deployment
˜ Ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions
˜ Easy of use

˜ Unattended operation.