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Templates and Manifold

Cluster Applications

Subsea Clusters of wells are basically single satellite wells arranged around a subsea
manifold assembly that collects, commingles and exports flow to surface gathering
facility. Each satellite well is not mechanically connected to the manifold except by
flowlines and umbilical, and hence a flowline connection to each well and to the
manifold is normally required.

Typically manifolds at the center of a cluster development can accommodate


between 2 and 12 wells, allow for simultaneous oil, gas and aquifer production and
handle gas or water injection. Manifold foundations can be piles, gravity or skirts
depending on seabed conditions.

Cluster-style developments were originally developed to counter-act the potential


for damage from dropped objects at surface. A falling 18-3/4 in. drilling BOP stack
could damage several wellheads and trees on a conventional production template
layout for example, whereas in a cluster-style development, one well completion at
worst would be affected. A typical subsea manifold system includes:

 base frame
 manifold frame (which supports the valve blocks and headers)
 structure for supporting ROV interface points
 controls distribution units
 accumulator banks
 control modules
 hydraulic trunking
 satellite interconnections
 pipeline connections
 pigging loops
 protective roof

The most recent deepwater manifold systems have included retrievable manifolds with remote diverless connections of
intra-field flowlines, umbilicals and pipelines.
Daisy Chain Application

The Daisy Chain subsea wells consist of two or more subsea satellite wells joined
together by a common flowline (and possibly umbilical). Valving on the
flowbases of the daisy-chained wells allows basic manifolding to commingle
flowstreams. Each subsea tree may have a choke installed to avoid pressure
imbalances in the flows.

Using daisy chained wells allows combined use of infield flowlines by more than one
well, and may provide a continuous loop for round trip pigging if needed.

The advantages of a daisy chain completion are:

 Similar to a single satellite well, cost is only incurred if and when a


completion is purchased and installed, the operator doesn't have to purchase
significant infrastructure before he needs it.
 Some sharing of flowlines may be possible.
 Round trip pigging is possible
 Wells are not mechanically linked and can therefore be located over a wide
area, which is especially important in oilfields where low permeability exists.
 In-situ access to the installed equipment by Remote Operated Vehicle (or
divers) is good because of the absence of adjacent equipment.
 Potential damage from dropped objects is constrained to (at worst) a single completion.
 Simultaneous production and drilling is not a problem

Disadvantages of daisy chain wells are:

 Subsea chokes are probably needed on each well.


 Absence of a "common datum" for flowline connections and umbilical tie-in.
 Necessity for the drilling rig to move anchors in order to reach another well.

By daisy chaining pairs of wells together, operators can better utilize the flowlines to the two completions. Instead of a
single function (production), the dual flowlines provide an ability to round-trip pig the lines, divert both production flows
into a single flowline if the second is damaged, and individually test the two wells whenever needed through independent
lines. As more subsea wells are needed, the attraction of daisy chains disappears as a manifold becomes more feasible.

Free-Standing Riser System


In a free-standing production riser system (FPRS), the production riser
transports fluids from the seafloor to a surface production facility which can be either
a floating semi- submersible platform or a tanker modified to accommodate
production equipment on board. Frequently the production riser returns
processed fluids back down to the sea floor via the sales line.

Cameron has the capability to design and build conventional as well as unique,
innovative risers for any subsea completion or production requirement.

One example of a customized solution is the Cameron FPRS design which


represents a deepwater development option. This system has been
successfully installed twice in the Gulf of Mexico, once in 1540 feet of water and
again in 2140 feet of water.

The Cameron FPRS offers reduced project costs compared with fixed bottom
supported facilities or tension leg platform and provides reduced project cycle time,
reusability, along with low maintenance as the main areas for reducing overall
capital and operating costs.

The free-standing production riser system is a non-integral structural support


column with direct production and annulus access to each well and dedicated oil
and gas sales lines. The riser column is free-standing with no tensioner support,
installed and retrieved from the floating production vessel moored
overhead.

Internal air cans, external buoyancy from syntactic foam and several joints with external air tanks all combine to provide
the riser buoyancy required to make the riser free-stand from the ocean floor. Attaching the riser column to the template is
a riser base and connector with a titanium stress joint.

The system is designed to use a variable air buoyancy riser capable of supporting multi-well free-standing
production/annulus tubing and export sales lines directly underneath the bow or stern of the floating production facility.
Additionally, the system allows simultaneous drilling, completion and workover activities while production is ongoing.

The riser is instrumented to measure riser response to various environmental conditions and to obtain actual fatigue
information. The riser is wired with strain gauges, accelerometers and inclinometer to monitor riser stresses, motion and
positions during installation and operation.

The instrumentation is connected to the vessel using an electrical cable. The cable is installed on the riser during actual
installation of the riser. The other instrumentation equipment has been previously installed on the appropriate riser joints
prior to shipment to the vessel. The joint-mounted electronics are located in pressure vessels at the bottom of the
instrumented joints.

Subsea cables connect the riser equipment to the controls unit on the production facility. The production riser
instrumentation desktop computer is located in the production control room and is capable of storing data during all rig
conditions including rig abandonment.

The riser instrumentation has two redundant systems connected to the desktop computer. There are separate electronic
cables for each system attached to the production riser as it is installed.

MOSAIC Distribution Elements

Distribution Elements in the MOSAIC system include flowbases, manifolds and


umbilical termination assemblies. These assemblies are used to receive produced
fluids from multi-well templates or satellite wells in order to control, commingle and
divert the flow to a production riser or pipeline.

Pre-engineered MOSAIC flowbases are available for a variety of single well


applications such as production satellite, water injector, gas lift production and
intermediate daisy-chain base. For two wells or more, pre-engineered MOSAIC
components can configured into manifolds to be used with satellite producers, injectors, daisy-chains and combinations of
these.
Cluster manifolds and daisy-chain solutions have been made
attractive with development of field-proven flowline connection
systems which permit trees to be installed prior to the manifold,
without the need for integrated template structures. This allows
field system construction to evolve as the field is developed, and
its true scale determined.

Distribution Elements are rated for operating pressures matching


the Christmas trees. Modularity is achieved through the use of
common valve blocks, connectors, structures and porch
extensions. The design capacity of a manifold assembly may
change by changing the number of modules added to the structure
and the size and/or quantities of the headers.

A typical subsea manifold system includes a base frame, a


manifold frame (which supports the valve blocks and headers),
and a structure for supporting ROV interface points, controls
distribution units, accumulator banks, control modules, hydraulic
trunking, satellite interconnections, pipeline connections, pigging
loops and protective roof.
Satellite Applications

The Subsea Satellite Well consists of a subsea well and guidebase or flowbase,
supporting a subsea tree, with individually connected flowlines and control umbilical.
The guidebase/flowbase is not mechanically linked to another wellhead, and the
flowlines and umbilicals are attached to each satellite tree one at a time.

Subsea Satellite wells feature independent foundations, not linked or shared with
other wells, each system is installed individually,

The advantages of a satellite completion are:

 Cost is only incurred if and when a completion is purchased and installed,


the operator doesn't have to invest in significant infrastructure before he
needs it.
 Wells can be located over a wide area, which is especially important in
oilfields where low permeability exists.
 Access limitations to the installed equipment by Remote Operated Vehicle
(or divers) are avoided because of the absence of adjacent equipment.
 Potential damage from dropped objects is constrained to (at worst) a single completion. Simultaneous production
and drilling is not a problem.

Disadvantages of satellite wells are:

 Absence of a "common datum" for flowline connections and umbilical tie-in.


 Necessity for the drilling rig to move anchors in order to reach another well.
 Individual flowlines are needed for each well

Satellite wells can be completed in a number of different ways:

Tree on "dumb" guidebase - where the flowline is connected directly to the tree, and the guidebase can be a simple drilling
guidebase. This requires removal of the connected flowline and umbilical should the tree be retrieved for any reason.

Tree on flowbase - as the tree lands and locks to the wellhead, flowloops from the tree production, and possibly annulus
valve blocks, stab into receptacles on the flowbase. Flowlines and umbilicals are made up to the flowbase, and the flowline
does not need to be disturbed if the tree is removed.

Template Applications
Subsea template field layouts involve a structural frame that supports and protects
a number of subsea wells together on the seabed. In areas of high fishing intensity,
the template structure is ideal for deflecting trawl boards and dragged lines away
from sensitive wellhead equipment.

A key advantage of templates over cluster or satellite completion systems is that


the subsea tree normally connects directly to the flowline mandrel and template
pipe work as it lands and locks onto the wellhead, this effectively eliminates one of
the flowline connections needed between a subsea tree and cluster-style manifold.

Subsea production templates fall into two broad categories:

 Unitised templates
 Integrated templates

The unitized template is normally modular in concept, and involves initially installing
a drilling template structure prior to spudding the wells. This drilling template acts
as the "temporary" guidebase for the wells. This drilling template spaces out wells
to the required position, may support conductor loads and provides the datum on
which the production equipment is based. Following drilling, the production parts of the system are installed, either as
"flowbases" run with the wellhead high pressure housing, or as a separate structure with flowline connection mandrels and
piping installed. Wells can have individual, dedicated flowlines back to a processing facility, or can be commingled in a
manifold arrangement (usually retrievable) and exported together in a common flowline. Typically unitized templates are
smaller than integrated templates, with capacity for between 2 and 8 wells.

The integrated template is typically more complete prior to load-out than the unitized template. An integrated template has
well bay inserts or flowbases installed already, and requires only drilling out and completion before production can begin.
Template size can be large, with up to 24 wells (or more), several thousand tons in weight, and a significant construction
project needed to build, test and install the template. A large installation barge can be expected to be required. Although
initial investment in the integrated template can be large, the "per well" cost falls rapidly as more wells are drilled and
completed. In addition, the advanced state of completion of the template before load-out allows for extensive integration
testing and proving prior to the template leaving the fabrication yard.

Template Production Systems

Subsea template field layouts involve a structural frame that supports and
protects a number of subsea wells together on the seabed. In areas of
high fishing intensity, the template structure is ideal for deflecting trawl
boards and dragged lines away from sensitive wellhead equipment.

A key advantage of templates over cluster or satellite completion systems


is that the subsea tree normally connects directly to the flowline mandrel
and template pipe work as it lands and locks onto the wellhead, this
effectively eliminates one of the flowline connections needed between a
subsea tree and cluster-style manifold.

Subsea production templates fall into two broad categories:

 Unitised templates
 Integrated templates

The unitized template is normally modular in concept, and involves initially


installing a drilling template structure prior to spudding the wells. This
drilling template acts as the "temporary" guidebase for the wells. This
drilling template spaces out wells to the required position, may support
conductor loads and provides the datum on which the production
equipment is based. Following drilling, the production parts of the system
are installed, either as "flowbases" run with the wellhead high pressure housing, or as a separate structure with flowline
connection mandrels and piping installed. Wells can have individual, dedicated flowlines back to a processing facility, or can
be commingled in a manifold arrangement (usually retrievable) and exported together in a common flowline. Typically
unitized templates are smaller than integrated templates, with capacity for between 2 and 8 wells.

The integrated template is typically more complete prior to load-out than the unitized template. An integrated template has
well bay inserts or flowbases installed already, and requires only drilling out and completion before production can begin.
Template size can be large, with up to 24 wells (or more), several thousand tons in weight, and a significant construction
project needed to build, test and install the template. A large installation barge can be expected to be required. Although
initial investment in the integrated template can be large, the "per well" cost falls rapidly as more wells are drilled and
completed. In addition, the advanced state of completion of the template before load-out allows for extensive integration
testing and proving prior to the template leaving the fabrication yard.

SUBSEA WELLHEAD
Mudline Wellhead

Using a mudline completion allows some significant benefits to the operator instead of a
wellhead platform, such as:

 All the external forces are transferred to the 30 in. conductor


 Lower tie-back seals can be tested,
 360 ? orientation freedom
 Direct access to production tubing annulus
 Positive lockdown of the 7 in. tubing hanger
 Unitized tie-back adapter spool (eliminates the need for more than one nipple up)
Concentric tubing hanger
 Control of SCSSV while running tubing hanger
 Immediate production when flowlines and umbilicals have been pre-installed
 Easy removal after depletion of well
 Re-usable on another completion

This Cameron stack-down mudline wellhead system has a number of important features:

 Separate running/tie-back threads and seal areas


 High pressure and high load capacity
 Hanger centralization during running
 Optional Stack-down profile allows complete cement clean up between casing strings
 Special wash-out tool that avoids rotating large diameter casings
 Low torque metal seals and dual resilient back-up seals
 External interface test port
 Right hand release running tools
STC-10 Wellheads
The STC-10 (Single-Trip Compact) wellhead is a premium subsea wellhead for
applications to 10,000 psi WP, and is a favorite choice of operators worldwide. It is
cost-effective for lower pressure wells where Cameron's CAMLAST metal-end-cap
seals are adequate.

The economical STC-10 wellhead shares some of the same features and benefits as
our STM wellhead. It is compact, runs casing hangers and seal assemblies in a
single trip and features interchangeable weight-set, elastomeric parallel bore seal
assemblies. STC-10 seals are Cameron's proprietary CAMLAST metal-end-cap seals.

Design modifications incorporated over the years have improved first time seal
assembly setting. Introduction of a dedicated seal assembly running tool has
simplified running procedures where the casing hanger has already been installed.
This running tool provides a straightforward stab, test and tool retrieval.

Five- or six-string casing options are available. The STC-10 wellhead system is
available with either Cameron hub or mandrel profiles, and features a passive
lockdown of the high-pressure housing into the 30" housing.

The STC-10 wellhead offers simple installation procedures. A five-string


configuration can be installed with just four cam-actuated running tools, all with
right-hand release. STC-10 wellheads can be used in either guideline or
guidelineless operations.

STM Wellheads
Our primary subsea wellhead is the STM Wellhead System, which is offered in
standard and enhanced deep-water, high-capacity versions. The STM (single trip,
metal-seal) wellhead is an all-purpose product for applications to 15,000 psi. It will
satisfy the vast majority of all subsea requirements, including corrosive
environments associated with deep-water exploratory, production or injection wells.
STM wellheads are suitable for use with single wells, large multi-well templates or
TLP operations.

A key feature of the STM wellhead is Cameron's exclusive hydraulically set parallel
bore metal (PBM) seal assemblies for casing hangers in the 18-3/4" high-pressure
housing. These radially engaged, bi-directional seals provide constant contact
pressure on both inner and outer sealing surfaces. PBM metal seals set between
parallel surfaces and, unlike competitive systems, are not forced down into tapered
bowls. This means the same seal loading exists if pressure comes from above or
below. Competitive tapered bowl systems can lose seal loading if pressure comes
from below, as pressure forces those components up into ever widening seal
surfaces.

STM wellheads feature a recessed seal surface machined in the housing bore below
each primary seal surface, creating a protected, separate contingency sealing
surface. Every STM wellhead has three seal assembly configurations for maximum
sealing contingencies: standard all-metal seal, metal seal with CAMLAST insert, and
a metal seal positioned to seal in the recessed bore. STM seal assemblies lock firmly
to both casing hanger and wellhead housing. However, the housing lock ring can be
removed to lock the seal
assembly to the casing hanger if
the casing hanger sets high.
Interchangeable STM
components help reduce
inventory and tooling
requirements, and minimize rig
time during installation and
workover. Seal assemblies on the 13-3/8", 10-3/4" (or 9-5/8"), and 7-
5/8" (or 7") casing hangers are identical and interchangeable. Each
assembly can be run in one trip using a single running tool. The tool
used for retrieving the seal assembly is a dedicated tool, preventing
inadvertent seal assembly retrieval.

Both five- and six-string configurations are offered to accommodate any


drilling program. A 16" casing hanger and seal assembly allows drilling
with a 17-1/2" bit and use of full-bore running equipment.

Three options are available for connecting STM wellheads to blowout


preventers and Christmas trees: Cameron hub, mandrel, and Cameron's
new deep-water, high-capacity (DWHC) profile which has been provided
without charge to the industry to promote standardization among deep-
water producers and equipment suppliers.

Two lockdown options are offered for connecting the STM wellhead high-
pressure housing to conductor housings: passively activated standard
lockdown, and passively activated preloaded high capacity lockdown.
The passively activated high pressure lockdown is achieved without a
separate lockdown trip.
STM-15 Wellheads

The STM-15 (Single Trip Metal Sealing 15,000 psi) wellhead system incorporates
Cameron reliability and a variety of versatile, time-saving features.

 Applicable for 15,000 psi, 350 G F, sour service wells in any water depth,
for both 5-string and 6-string configurations.
 Each casing hanger and seal assembly is run in a single trip.
 All seal assemblies are identical allowing the used of one running tool for
all casing hangers.
 Each seal assembly is completely retrievable as a unit.
 The connection between the casing hanger and the casing hanger running
tool (and between housings and running tools) can be tested at surface to
full rated working pressure.
 The seal assembly utilises parallel bore metal sealing (PBM seal)
technology eliminating problems inherent to tapered bore designs.
 The 18 3/4" housing is run with the bore protector in place.
 BOP testing is not dependent on wear bushing installation.
 A retrievable, re-installable guidebase is the standard offering and features
shock absorbing guide posts. This is retrieved and replaced with a
production guidebase prior to running the subsea tree.
 All running tools are left hand make-up and right hand release.
 The STM-15 wellhead can be supplied with either a Cameron hub or an
ABB-Vetco mandrel profile.

A key feature of the STM wellhead is Cameron's exclusive hydraulically set parallel
bore metal (PBM) seal assemblies for casing hangers in the 18-3/4" high-pressure
housing. These radially engaged, bi-directional seals provide constant contact
pressure on both inner and outer sealing surfaces. PBM metal seals set between
parallel surfaces and are not forced down into tapered bowls. This means the same
seal loading exists if pressure comes from above or below, (tapered bowl systems
can lose seal loading if pressure comes from below, as pressure forces those
components up into ever widening seal surfaces).

MANAGEMENT AND ENGINEERING


Modular Subsea And Integrated Completions

The general expectation with modular equipment systems is that, while it might be possible to reduce initial capital costs,
you'll have to give up something important in return. Like flexibility or expandability, or desirable product features and
benefits, for example. You could say it's a series of compromises in the name of cutting costs. In actual practice, however,
the real savings in conventional modular systems are more likely to come from simplified installation procedures, reduced
personnel training and faster delivery times. Yes, there are some manufacturing economies to be found, but precision
machining processes rarely lend themselves to corner cutting. On the other hand, the compromises required by these
systems can result in significant inefficiencies and hidden costs. Loss of flexibility in implementing future developmental
phases can put you in some very expensive predicaments.

Smaller building blocks

That's why we designed MOSAIC TM (Modular Subsea And Integrated Completions) production systems to be modular at a
much lower level than competitive systems. Because MOSAIC modules start with smaller, less expensive building blocks,
equipment for initial development phases can be provided more efficiently, without having to invest in extra equipment or
structure that may not be needed later. For more than thirty years, we have been observing which subsea equipment
features work best and applying those features to other related products. Things like alignment methods, seals, connection
devices, bolt-on peripherals...we've optimized every component down to the smallest pieces. Not only does this minimize
manufacturing costs, but it also facilitates installation and operating requirements with user-friendly features that spell
reliability and versatility. The result is MOSAIC, a pre-engineered, cost-optimized product line that is worthy of the
Cameron name.

For virtually any subsea job

Unlike conventional approaches, MOSAIC systems are not based on modular structures, but rather a combination of
standardized components that fit together in a modular fashion. Modular systems that depend on structure as a starting
point are simply not appropriate for many applications. MOSAIC systems, on the other hand, can be adapted for virtually
any subsea job, and are more easily expanded as field development needs evolve. They fit your requirements better in the
short term and the long term, too. (Think, for example, of modular office furniture that can only be purchased by the
cubicle as opposed to being able to specify the work surfaces, drawer stacks, shelves, and other components you need to
satisfy each workers personal requirements. Then think how difficult it is to anticipate the needs of workers who haven't
even been hired yet.)

The asset manager's choice

This critical difference makes MOSAIC systems especially appealing to asset managers whose job is to take a longer term
view in developing oil and gas reserves. MOSAIC components are infinitely expandable and configurable to accommodate
any asset management scheme. Many fields are developed in phases, with decisions on subsequent phases dependent
upon economic results of initial efforts. The modular-element, building block approach of MOSAIC systems allows
producers to specify pre-engineered components having application-specific features without incurring the higher costs or
extended lead times of custom systems. MOSAIC systems can be used for cluster wells or daisy chains. They can be
provided with individual flowbases or as part of a large template/manifold combination. They can be rig-deployable or not.
In effect, you can specify a system that fits your needs like custom-designed equipment, but with all the benefits of
standardized, pre-engineered components.

Six MOSAIC elements

In the MOSAIC system, six basic elements or component families have been designed: Position, Pressure, Distribution,
Access, Control and Connection. (These elements are described in more detail on the following pages.) Within each
element family, dozens and, in some cases, hundreds of product options are possible. Cameron engineers have focused on
reliability, functionality and deliverability for each of the basic MOSAIC elements. We know faster delivery times are
important in todays market, but we also know that reliability is key. Every pre-engineered MOSAIC component is based on
field-proven Cameron product technology, and is backed by our global network of service centers and aftermarket
facilities. You wont have to be a guinea pig for some unproven engineering concept with MOSAIC.

Best subsea value

And, you'll have considerable flexibility in selecting the equipment package that's right for each job. There's even a choice
of Christmas trees (see box). Our famous Dual Bore tree and innovative SpoolTree products have been re-designed as
modular assemblies, so you can stay with the basic technology your people are most familiar with, while reaping the
benefits of a pre-engineered, modular system. Since the dawn of the subsea era, Cameron has pioneered and refined
many of the most important subsea product technologies. We have a well-deserved reputation for tackling the most
difficult, exotic jobs the oil and gas industry can dish out. Now were proud to introduce MOSAIC systems, the culmination
of our experience and leadership in producing reliable subsea production systems for the most reasonable cost (best
value). In short, MOSAIC systems are the perfect fit for today's subsea economics.

MOSAIC systems are based on the two most reliable and cost-effective trees available in the world.

The heart of any subsea system is the Christmas tree, and Cameron offers producers a choice of two highly reliable and
feature-rich trees in its MOSAIC system. Both trees, the innovative SpoolTreeTM Christmas tree and the famous Cameron
Dual Bore tree, are proven performers the world over. Instead of devel- oping a totally new access element, Cameron has
re-engineered these two well- accepted Christmas tree products to be offered in modular, pre-engineered versions. This
provides cost saving standardization without the risk of unproven technology. Since its introduction in 1992, the patented
SpoolTree Christmas tree has revolutionized the subsea industry. It is the number one tree in the Gulf of Mexico and other
oil- producing regions, and has been widely copied by Cameron competitors. Its unique wellhead/tree/hanger configuration
allows completion and workover operations to be performed with the tree in place. Cameron's Dual Bore Christmas tree is
the one many oilmen grew up with. It was the first to feature a dedicated annulus bore for troubleshooting, well servicing
and well conversion operations, and is now the number one tree in the North Sea. As the company that introduced both of
these pacesetting products, we've had plenty of opportunity to refine and simplify our designs. The result is two versatile,
highly reliable MOSAIC trees that are now available as pre-engineered, modular assemblies.
MOSAIC Field Architecture

Factors Affecting Field Layout


The architecture of the field layout depends upon many
factors. These factors are identified by considering all the
operations that are carried out on the field throughout its
life.

During project phase

 Development drilling and well completions.


 Subsea equipment installation, hookup and
commissioning.

During the field operation phase

 Normal operation.
 Well workover operations.
 Underwater I.M.R. activities (mostly with ROV).
 Additional drilling and subsea equipment installation.

During field decommissioning

 Well abandonment and plugging.


 Subsea equipment retrieval or abandonment.
 Final seabed survey.

The key factors driving the field seabed layout are as follows:

 Reservoir configuration, bottom hole locations and subsea well seabed positions.
 Drilling rig semi-submersible position, weather heading, mooring pattern and vessel characteristics (including
drilling riser/vessel maximum excursions).
 Seabed condition and bathymetry.
 Dominating weather conditions during drilling and workover operations but also during underwater operations with
various surface vessels.
 Supply boat movements and vessel loading/offloading.
 Optimum location of all subsea facilities in particular during pipelay/umbilical lay operations and eventual
retrieval.
 Shipping lanes, fishing activities (if any) and other existing facilities on the seabed e.g. abandoned exploration
well.

The key factors listed above all have a number of secondary conditions affecting the design layout process. Each of them
are examined in turn:

Reservoir and Wells Profiles


The reservoir configuration evaluated and simulated by reservoir engineers dictates the bottom hole location of the wells,
which could be of various profiles, vertical, deviated, highly deviated, extended reach, or horizontal. The well profiles
resulting from the selected drilling rig capabilities dictate the seabed location of the wells or position of the wellheads.

Drilling Rig and Mooring Pattern


In a typical field water depth, the anchor lines (between 8 and 12 lines) of the semi-submersible drilling rig may need to be
deployed and positioned in a large and equally distributed pattern over a length of 2000m or more.

The heading of the rig is dictated by the prevailing or dominant weather condition because the rig may be used for drilling
operation and completion, and also installation of some subsea equipment with overboard craning. In addition, seabed
corridors, in between mooring lines (dynamic mooring lines with an excursion envelope and touch down area) must be
identified for the installation of future seabed facilities e.g., tie-back of additional fields.
Finally, the mooring of any drilling rig above a subsea cluster needs to follow strict "mooring anchoring procedures" to
eliminate as much as possible any risk to the subsea facilities. The dropping of anchors and chains and the dragging of
anchors are the most significant risks. During drilling and well completion operations, as well as during well workover
operations, the rig may need to move on its anchor lines away from the vertical of the cluster, to minimize the risk of
dropping heavy objects. A safe handling area should be designated and included in the "vessel anchoring procedure".

Seabed Bathymetry
The seabed condition and corridors for flowlines and umbilical laying need to be surveyed. Obstructions, soil condition (soft
or hard etc), slope and possibility of spans must be identified.

Dominating Weather and Storm Conditions


The predominant weather pattern for winds and currents should be determined. The drilling rig is positioned heading
accordingly.

Identically, during underwater operations (installation, IMR, etc.) surface vessels operated on D.P. are also be positioned
inline with the above listed conditions.

During extreme storm conditions or typhoon, any vessel may be moved away, including the drilling rig.

Well Locations
The alternatives of directionally drilled wells from a central cluster location versus a satellite well configuration, where wells
are drilled vertically is normally considered. Several long rigid flowlines may be required for the vertically drilled option,
with a large number of subsea connections compared to the cluster option. The cost may quickly rise beyond that needed to
make the solution cost effective, especially if the cluster wells can be tied-in by the drilling vessel.

The following factors have been used in setting the wellhead positions:

 Cluster/template position,
 Bottom hole well positions,
 Wellhead separation, center to center to allow a minimum separation between wellhead equipment
 Jumper lengths to be easily manageable from the drilling rig,
 Approach angle to the North and South of the manifold to be maximized for flowlines and/or umbilicals
 Dropped object trajectories
 Flexibility of jumpers for connection requirements

Protection From Dropped Objects


The major aspects of this philosophy are that structural protection provides against small dropped objects and procedure
are imposed to avoid potential damage from large dropped objects as much as possible. However, the risk can never be
totally eliminated.

The equipment design and the field layout may require that all heavy lifts be undertaken from a surface position that is not
vertically above any subsea equipment. Potential drift angles on sinking dropped objects are considered in designating a
safe handling area.

MOSAIC Project Management

Introduction:
Cameron recognizes the importance of the three central pillars of Project Management:

 Cost
 Time
 Quality

No-one disputes the quality and workmanship of Cameron parts and products, and Cameron products are among the best
value delivered, not only from the capital expenditure standpoint, but even more so when total life-cycle costs are
calculated. Cameron products are unquestionably the best investment a company can make. And for delivery, Cameron
now offers the "30-day Tree," a revolution in delivery commitment. A very significant investment in modularization has
been made by Cameron in recent years, to allow us to offer "customized trees" at "standardized" delivery terms. A short
description of our Project Management techniques is given below:
Management:
The management of the project sets the project goals and provides direction for the project team in the execution of the
work. In addition, day-to-day responsibilities of the management are to measure the work as it proceeds and report
progress to the customer project team on a continuous basis. If the progress falls behind the agreed targets for any reason,
the project management instigates recovery plans to bring the work back on schedule in a timely and efficient manner.

Quality Assurance:
The Quality Assurance department has the responsibility to ensure that the agreed procedures and standards are being
adhered to in the course of executing the works to guarantee that the end product(s) fully meets the requirements of the
contract and project scope. The well-proven Cameron quality systems form the basis of measurement, and regular internal
and subcontract audits are used to verify that the work is being performed to the agreed system. Any inconsistencies and
non-conformities identified in the project are identified as a part of operating the quality system, and a known procedure
followed to quantify the problem and resolve it on a permanent basis. A process of continuous improvement is encouraged
by the quality department, and past experience has shown that the exceptional attitude to quality improvement by its staff
is a major reason for the pre-eminent position of Cameron in the supply industry and its outstanding success in the design
technology field today.

Engineering:
The design and engineering team consists of qualified, capable experts in the field of subsea equipment design, with many
years of experience behind them. The engineering team is responsible for the concept and detail design, drawing and 3-D
modeling, developing bills of material and parts lists, requisition preparation and interfacing with other engineering
contractors. Cameron have also had successful experience using the engineers responsible for design to follow up with
manufacture, fabrication and testing to ensure the equipment performs to specification and to be on-hand to correct any
unforeseen problems and changes.

Interface Control
A significant aspect of the engineering activities is interface control. The project team uses a system that has been tested in
other projects in the past and is known to work. A full procedure forms part of the Quality System, but essentially each
interface is identified and numbered, and a tracking sheet established with action dates to close-out the interface, in other
words to fully define it. A simple database structure is normally used to log the interface numbers.

Cost Control:
The cost control function initially develops a ?code of accounts? by which to track costs expended on the project. This
breakdown should correspond to the needs of both the customer and Cameron for cost control. The main project budget is
assembled from the various elements of cost identified by the project team, and cost curves and cash flow predictions are
prepared to explicitly track and report the project costs as and when they are incurred. A comprehensive procedure is used
to describe the necessary activities and responsibilities of the cost control department, and this procedure forms a part of
the quality system.

Schedule:
Schedule, together with cost control and quality assurance is one of the key drivers in ensuring that the project execution
meets the requirements of the contract. Project planning involves virtually the whole project team to identify the tasks and
activities needed to complete the work, assign resources to the tasks, determine the duration of the activity and resolve the
interrelationships and logical sequence of activities. Cameron are fully cognizant of the critical path method of work
planning, and use sophisticated planning tools as a normal part of our work. Based on the work breakdown structure
provided in the contract documents, a project plan is developed to cover the entire work scope, with a detailed look-ahead
of approximately six months to give the detail necessary to accurately plan the work without swamping the project in
distracting minutiae. A milestone plan is normally developed as part of the Contract Master Schedule (CMS), together with a
Control Level (Network Schedule) and Detailed plan for implementing the work. The planning department use the Cost Time
Resource (CTR) technique for projects to break the work down to the detailed level, with deliverables quantified as either
documents or equipment/materials. To accurately measure the course of the work, the deliverables are ?weighted? or
valued so that progress reports are biased to critical activities. A document register is created by the engineering staff, and
used by planning, to provide a tangible benchmark for judging engineering progress. Agreed percentage complete values
are assigned to document completion stages ahead of the work, so that the engineering can be measured as objectively as
possible.

Procurement:
Procurement of material and subcontracted services is a critical activity in the successful completion of the project.
Cameron?s long experience in this area, and its excellent relationships with suppliers and subcontractors in this industry,
gives it a significant edge in the execution of this project. The ongoing relationships with these suppliers and subcontractors
is a major factor in problem resolution, and alleviating the often adversarial relationships seen in other ?one-off? projects in
the marine industry. Cameron has already pre-qualified the preferred subcontractors for elements of the work outside
Cameron?s normal business activities, and the normal business relations with these parties avoid the chance of nasty
surprises from working with an unknown subcontractor. The purchasing effort consists of a standard purchase order for
companies providing simple materials or services, and involves a more encompassing contract for subcontractors providing
both engineering and manufacturing/fabrication services. The project team are well-versed in project procurement including
requisition development, specification and scope of work creation.

Material Control:
The prime responsibility of the material control group (which is a part of the Procurement function in this project) is to track
the flow of materials both into and out of the various construction facilities and to follow the path of the materials once
inside the project boundaries, thus ensuring full traceability. Preservation and protection of equipment while in the Cameron
facilities is also managed by the Material control group as a part of their normal activities.

Administration:
Administration includes secretarial and clerical functions for the project, (filing, word processing, travel, office facilities, and
general services for the project. A project secretary to the Project Manager is responsible for the performance of these
responsibilities and ensures they are available and sufficient.

Safety:
The safety plan is developed by the safety department in conjunction with the engineering and project management
functions. Each design review on the equipment developed includes a safety review where potential hazards and unsafe
aspects are identified and solutions found. The safety plan once implemented forms the basis of measurement and
conformance to safety standards. Other requirements of the safety department, include verifying safe work practices,
auditing conformance and leadership of formal safety studies, (FMECA, FTA, etc).

MOSAIC Project Summaries

Cameron has supplied critical products and systems to some of


the most significant projects around the world. This list gives a
small selection of projects, click on the links to download a pdf
brochure describing the project, and Cameron's scope of supply
in detail.

Note that if you are an authorized Cameron Transact User, you


have access to our experience database containing hundreds of
projects, which can be searched or sorted by product line,
geographic region, customer etc. Contact your Cameron
salesman if you need more information about registering as a
Cameron Transact User.

 TC1442 Typhoon Project (8 pages)


Details of Cameron's MOSAIC Systems for Chevron
USA and BHP Petroleum's Typhoon project in the Gulf
of Mexico.
 TC1444 Malampaya Project (8 pages)
Details of Cameron's MOSAIC Systems for Shell's Malampaya project in the Philippines.
 TC1448 Ceiba Field Early Production System (8 pages)
Details of Cameron's MOSAIC Systems for Triton's Ceiba field early production system off the coast of Equatorial
Guinea.
 TC1642 Ceiba Phase 1A Production System (8 pages)
Describes the second part of the successful Ceiba Field Development Project.
 TC1478 Captain Expansion Project (12 pages)
Details of Cameron's MOSAIC Systems for Texaco's Captain field development in the North Sea.
 TC1479 King Kong Field Development (8 pages)
Details of Cameron's MOSAIC Systems for Mariner Energy and Agip Petroleum's King Kong field development
project in the Gulf of Mexico.
 TC1483 B3 Expansion Project (8 pages)
Details of Cameron's MOSAIC Systems for the Petrobaltic-operated B3 field development in the Baltic Sea offshore
Poland.
 TC1640_B3 Petrobaltic B3 (1 page)
CAMTROL Production Controls project summary sheet.
 TC1640_Captain Texaco Captain Expansion (1 page)
CAMTROL Production Controls project summary sheet.
 TC1640_Ceiba_EPS Triton Ceiba Early Production System (1 page)
CAMTROL Production Controls project summary sheet.
 TC1640_Malampaya Shell Malampaya (1 page)
CAMTROL Production Controls project summary sheet.

 TC1640_Pat_Baleen OMV Patricia Baleen (1 page)


CAMTROL Production Controls project summary sheet.

MOSAIC Summary Overview

For more than 35 years, Cameron engineers have been designing subsea drilling and production equipment for every
conceivable situation, in every oil-producing region of the world.

Today's deep-water projects are among the most challenging ever.

And while Cameron's reputation for tackling the most exotic oil and gas assignments is well-known, our most important
accomplishment may turn out to be something very different altogether.

Like in making subsea systems simpler and less costly, for example.

We're proud to introduce MOSAIC(tm) (Modular Subsea and Integrated Completions) production systems - the first pre-
engineered subsea system that delivers the time and money-saving advantages of modular components, but with the
flexibility of custom-made.

With MOSAIC systems, we've optimized and standardized every piece of equipment in our broad line of subsea products.
And we've done it at the lowest component level, so you still have hundreds of choices to deliver the functionality you're
looking for.

MOSAIC systems are divided into elements or component families: Wellhead, Tree,Manifold, Template, Controls and
Connection. The product and component choices are described on thefollowing pages.

And the combinations are endless. MOSAIC systems can be used for cluster wells or daisy chains. They can be provided
with individual flowbases or as part of a large template/manifold assembly. If needed, they can be rig-deployable.

You even have a choice of Christmas trees. The innovative SpoolTreen Christmas tree and the proven Cameron Dual Bore
trees have both been re-engineered as modular assemblies for use in the MOSAIC system.

In short, MOSAIC systems can be adapted for virtually any subsea job, and they're more easily expanded as field
development needs evolve.

We like to think that MOSAIC systems are an asset manager's best friend, because they don't require early commitment to
expensive structures when revenue streams are still uncertain.

Instead of designing new, unproven product approaches, Cameron engineers have focused on value-engineering the ones
we already had. The result is MOSAIC subsea production systems - the perfect fit for today's subsea economics.
Related Documents

TC 1784 Cameron Products and Services Overview

MOSAIC System Engineering

System Engineering takes the multitude of individual parts and components, and
packages them into an integrated, working system. The objective is to execute a
complex multi-supply project in the most effective manner possible. The principal
fundamentals are discussed below:

Interface Control
Interface engineering

Interface engineering consists of several specific activities:

 Identify the interface and assign a number


 Define the interface
 Assign responsibilities for closing out the interface
 Identify technical references
 Formally close out the report

Interface management commences at contract award with the development of the interface plan. The interface plan
identifies all external contractor interfaces ("key interfaces"), numbers them, defines information required and the agreed
dates for interface data issue, as well as close out. Interface descriptions for each numbered item are listed on standard
interface form.

System Integration Test Planning and Management


System Integration Testing (SIT) is the function and integrity testing of the complete system, (for example subsea trees,
manifold, controls system and flowline connection system). SIT is strongly influenced by the interface engineering results to
guarantee key interfaces are thoroughly tested. Interchangeability of all major sub-assemblies is also confirmed, and in so
doing the operations staff are trained and service staff prepared for installation procedures. Initiation for this final test of
the equipment prior to installation starts early in the project so that components can be scheduled to arrive at the test site
at the appropriate time, and suitable test and handling facilities are available when required.

Design change control


In a "system" involving many components and multiple contractors, the impact of relatively minor design changes can be
significant, and can have repercussions far beyond the component itself. Design changes are therefore strictly controlled
through use of a design change control procedure to prevent unexpected and unnecessary impact on affected parties, and
to communicate approved changes in a timely manner.

Handling procedures
Drilling rig size and capabilities can limit equipment handing operations in some circumstances, and one aspect of system
engineering is to ensure equipment is not designed beyond what the installation vessel can manage or manipulate. In
particular, deck cranes often have a challenge picking up equipment from supply boats, and moonpool constraints limit
handling operations under the rig floor. This phase of system engineering reviews the necessary operations of the
installation vessel and checks that the subsea equipment fits within its working envelope.

Intervention and ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle)


Many of the subsea completions supplied by Cameron in the past have included an ROV interface of some description. The
ROV is now such a common feature of subsea completions that provision for ROV intervention to subsea equipment is
almost standard, (even in "diver depths"). Cameron assumes responsibility for ROV intervention interfaces including design,
system integration testing, and technical support of offshore service work. The goal of the system engineering phase is to
minimize the different types of interface between ROV and subsea equipment, and to optimize the interfaces to the least
complex, working solution.

Tolerance and Weight Control


Weight control is coordinated through the System Engineering group to accurately define and report weights and centers of
gravity/buoyancy. Procedures for weight control, and weight control reporting activities are project-specific, developed in
conjunction with the customer in accordance with project requirements.

Tolerance studies may be required for interfacing subsystems to confirm proper engagement and function. Important
tolerance data affecting external interface points are normally issued/required on specific interface documents. The validity
of tolerance studies is often dependent on the information received from other contractors, hence the interface control
system, is a critical link in the tolerance study exercise.

Cameron utilizes proprietary 3-D modeling packages to enhance weight and tolerance control measures. Accurate weight
data is now calculated early in the project, and is monitored closely as the design develops.

Document Control
Effective control of project documents is an important aspect of system management. Document control is managed by a
Project Document Controller, who maintains a working system for identifying, coding, and transmittal of the project's
documents and drawings.

Emphasis is placed on establishing consistent document and drawing content and format. Electronic Integrated Document
Management Systems are used to exploit latest technology in document creation, filing/archiving and transmission.

Transmittals
Transmittals (electronic or paper) are used for outgoing documents and drawings (other than correspondence) to ensure a
permanent record of the dispatch exists in the project file. This system benefits both Cameron and its clients by providing
objective evidence during any later discussions or disputes regarding receipt of important documentation. For a paper-
based system, duplicate transmittals are attached to the outgoing document or drawing and the recipient signs and returns
one copy, filing the other as their permanent record of receipt.
Filing
Maintenance of a comprehensive project file is a necessary discipline on complex projects. Normally all project
correspondence is filed by originator and date, and each issue or revision of project documents and drawings are held
electronically in a historical file for reference.

Numbering
Document numbering can be a complex and confusing process. Cameron add "intelligence" to the document number so that
the originator, work package and type of document can be ascertained from the number.

Supplier document control


Purchase orders and contracts awarded to suppliers normally define the methods to be adopted for the registration, filing,
distribution and transmittal of all documents and drawings submitted to the project. Suppliers to Cameron are normally
contractually obliged to abide by the project procedures for document control.

Safety and Risk Management


FMECA/FTA
Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a method of establishing the effect of failure within systems. This analysis can be
performed at any level of assembly. FMEA may also be done together with Criticality Analysis (CA). The combined exercise
is then called a Failure Mode Effect and Criticality Analysis (FMECA). FMEA is a "bottom up" technique most suited to the
stage of a project when detailed drawings at part and component level are available.

A fault tree analysis (FTA) provides a means of showing the logical relationship between a particular system failure mode
and the basic failure causes. The technique can be applied between any levels, from system to assembly or component
level. It is useful for assessing compliance with safety requirements, analyzing common cause failures and justifying design
improvements or additions. FTA is a "top down" approach making the technique particularly suitable for starting reliability
evaluations early in a project.

HAZOP
Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) studies are the formal, systematic, critical review of the process and engineering design in
order to identify potential hazards and operability problems and their consequences. The formal review entails an
examination of all possible deviation from intended operation by the application of "guide words" to each element of the
design.

Reliability, Availability, Maintainability


Reliability analysis is used to evaluate the potential events that could disrupt production from the subsea facility, and
identify where a design change could improve overall availability of production. Factors such as the "quality of equipment",
redundancy, spares on hand, module size and retrieve-ability, and early warning systems are reviewed to gauge the impact
of system reliability.

It is anticipated that a target availability can be established early in the project, which governs the decisions on system
design to reach the target. Cost analysis shows whether additional project investment to achieve the required availability is
economically justified.

Risk Assessment
Risk is the combined effect (product) of the probability of occurrence of an (undesirable) event, and the magnitude
(consequence) of the event.

A quantitative risk assessment identifies and quantifies the potential risks for the project. Using the comprehensive
experience of Cameron, and its extensive database, the majority of hazards and potential impacts to availability can be
classified and assessed. For any new equipment, or new applications a formal hazard review may be implemented, in order
to systematically evaluate the potential hazards.

Design Basis
The Design Basis has two main stages:

 Initially at the start of the project, to identify the known data and requirements from the customer influencing the
system design,
 At the end of the system engineering phase, to incorporate the results and findings of the system engineering
activities into the project design basis used for the detail design and analysis.

The detail engineering activity uses this developed design basis as input to carry out the final design of the equipment and
ensure all design basis requirements are met and updated as necessary. The "Design Basis" document then becomes a
'controlled' single point reference available to the whole design group. It is continuously reviewed and, (if necessary),
updated throughout the project life.

System Engineering initially establishes the basis for all engineering work to follow and provides the necessary focus for
progression to the final system design. It ensures the system linkage of the finished design engineering work to the initial
system requirements, (established through contract specification documents and compliance with the applicable industry
and governmental codes). The ultimate objective is to ensure the finished system design is fully functional, installable,
operable, reliable, and maintainable as a `total' system. A comprehensive design basis is the most appropriate vehicle to
communicate the design principals and decisions to the team.

Material selection
Material engineering for all hardware packages is carried out in the system engineering phase. The material selection,
material specification, welding specification and procedures, corrosion protection and coating requirements are defined for
each of the responsible engineering groups, both internal and subcontracted.

Flow assurance/analysis
The flow assurance activity can exploit the latest multi-phase process flow programs to accurately define liquid hold-up,
slug size, hydrate formation tendency and erosion hot-spots, to confirm system design is adequate, or identify where
design changes are needed.

Another aspect of flow assurance is the control system steady state and transient hydraulic and electrical analyses. It is
common practice to analyze the hydraulic tubing of the control system both from the response time aspect as well as the
fluid cleanliness levels, (flow regimes etc). Cameron's work during the system engineering ensures that the Control
Systems have the necessary logical verification and electrical feedback loops built-in.

Structural & foundation analysis


Selection of the optimum foundation design is dependent upon the results of the studies commissioned for this project.
When soil data and seabed conditions are fully known, the optimum foundation can be designed for review and approval.

Installation/operational analysis
Analysis work includes wellhead/casing system load analysis, dynamic riser analysis and load transfer,
manifold/wellhead/tree/running tool installation, and operation loads. Such analysis information is exchanged with the
installation contractors via the Interface Plan.

Various mainframe and PC based computer analysis software is used by Cameron including FLEXCOM, DERP, COSMOS,
PATRAN, CAESAR II, and ANSYS as considered necessary. Verification packages for any of the programs used can be
provided as required. For example, Cameron would perform a preliminary riser analysis (if required) using the DERP and
FLEXCOM software to assess the magnitude of the riser loading at each coupling and into the completion equipment. These
results input into wellhead, tree, and running tool component load analyses to confirm design suitability and compliance
with material allowable stress levels. Finite element modeling and analysis using PATRAN and ANSYS is run for critically
loaded members in the system. The manifold piping arrangement is rigorously stress-analyzed using the program CAESAR
II, which was successfully used on the Wanaea and Cossack Manifolds piping for example.

Field layout
The Subsea Wellhead, Tubing Hanger, Tree, Flowline Jumpers and Connections, and the Manifold subsystem layout
drawings are used to identify critical tolerances, interface input requirements, equipment stack-up combinations, installed
clearance requirements, preliminary weights, critical material selections, corrosion protection data, and ROV
intervention/access. This component of the system engineering phase is therefore critical to the success of the project, and
is described in more detail in the "Field Architecture" section.

Optimization & Value Engineering


Optimization involves challenging the base case design and generating/evaluating alternatives that may be more cost-
effective or safer than the base case. A formal system of evaluation (called SMART) is used to ensure consistency and
completeness.

Using sophisticated modeling packages such as Pro/Engineer offers optimization benefits, including the enhanced image
generated with three-dimensional graphics, the rapid design development of options possible through the parametric
relations defined by the user, and the "virtual" assembly available prior to physical assembly. These design aids give a
much improved design development phase, enabling each part and assembly to be clearly visualized and assembled to
mating parts long before material is ordered.
PRODUCTION
CONTROLS
Advanced Multiplex Electro-Hydraulic
Control Systems
More than 30 years ago, Cameron installed the very first subsea production system.
Shallow and simple by today's standards, it nonetheless marked the beginning of a
new era in subsea oil and gas production. Today, all the knowledge and experience
gained in production control technology is available to the industry in the CAMTROL
Production Control System.

The industry spoke, and Cameron Controls listened. The CAMTROL system has been
engineered and qualified as a completely integrated system from the ground up -
starting with 30 years of subsea experience, combined with the latest control
technology and system analysis tools. With its integrated approach and component-
level modularity, the CAMTROL system offers unequaled advantages in cost savings,
flexibility and expandability.

It's the first and only system available that incorporates all the advanced features
the industry now demands, and it is the only system available with MOSAICTM
certified system components:

• Modular components
The reliability of pre-engineered components, the adaptability to handle any field scenario,
plus the flexibility to expand as development scenarios change.
• High-integrity materials
Robust, seawater-tolerant components, designed and qualified to 3000 meters (10,000 feet).
• Segregated, redundant electronics
Delivers maximum reliability against single-mode failures.
• Smaller and lighter
Compact Subsea Control Module weighs less than 1000 kg (2200 lbs.), allowing easy installation and intervention
with standard work-class ROVs.
• The most functionality in the industry
Up to 32 control functions in each standard subsea control module.
• Retrievability
Standard tooling and modular design - plus a systems-level approach to field development - enable critical subsea
components to be easily retrieved.

Cameron provides a true systems approach for maximum efficiency.

Beyond field-proven reliability, the flexible, modular structure of the CAMTROL Production System allows Cameron to look
at your field development from a systems level. Rather than designing new components, we can focus on analyzing the
base case and options development scenarios, then re-configure our standard, pre-engineered equipment and components
to meet the RAM analysis optimized solution to your project.
Deepwater Lift-line Running Tool

Designed with the identical functionality and capability of the MMRT, the Deepwater
Lift-line Running Tool (DLRT) is specifically intended for applications without high
currents or other problematic conditions. The DLRT is suspended by a lift-line and
can be guided by an ROV.

Cameron Controls offers a suite of Multi-Mode Running Tools (MMRT), which


perform installation and retrieval of various system elements, including:

• Installation and change-out of SCM


• Installation and change-out of SAM
• Installation and change-out of inserts in the Cameron Willis Subsea
Retrievable Choke

• Installation and change-out of compact multi-phase flow meters

Diver Change-Out Tool

The Diver Change-Out Tool (DCOT) is specifically designed for diver intervention
applications for a variety of change-out functions. Like the MMRT, the DCOT locates
onto an API 17H weight receptacle interface and is run on a lift-line with or without
guide wires.

Cameron Controls offers a suite of Multi-Mode Running Tools (MMRT), which


perform installation and retrieval of various system elements, including:

• Installation and change-out of SCM


• Installation and change-out of SAM
• Installation and change-out of inserts in the Cameron Willis Subsea
Retrievable Choke
• Installation and change-out of compact multi-phase flow meters

Electrical Power Unit


The Electrical Power Unit (EPU) provides conditioned electrical power to the topside
and subsea system components. The EPU supplies dual, isolated, single-phase
power for the subsea system through the composite service umbilical, together with
power supply modules for the MCS and HPU.

Flying Lead Deployment Basket

The Flying Lead Deployment Basket provides a central, local source to enable easy
installation of subsea flying leads; including, hydraulic/chemical flying leads,
electric/hydraulic/chemical flying leads, and electric (pressure balanced oil-filled)
flying leads.

Hydraulic Power Unit

The Hydraulic Power Unit (HPU) provides redundant low- and high-pressure
hydraulic supplies to the subsea system. Self-contained and totally enclosed, the
HPU includes duty and backup electrically driven hydraulic pumps, dual redundant
filters, accumulators, and control and instrumentation for each LP and HP hydraulic
circuit. The unit operates autonomously under the control of its dedicated
programmable logic controller (PLC), which provides pump motor control, interlocks
and interface with the MCS.

Master Control Station


The Master Control Station (MCS) provides control and monitoring of the complete
system, including surface and subsea installed equipment. Two complete and
segregated MCS channel networks incorporating high reliability GE Fanuc 9070
PLC's simultaneously monitor data functions to and from each other, surface and
subsea. In the event of a channel network failure, the other continues to seamlessly
operate the control system. This dual redundant architecture eliminates single mode
failure points and the requirement for bumpless transfer from the failed to the
healthy channel network.

The MCS features open-architecture electronics with dual Fast Ethernet (or serial
RS-485 and choice of topside communication protocol including MODBUS and
Profibus) links to the host control system. It is OPC v.2 compliant for compatibility
with all other OPC v.2 compliant equipment. The MCS standard modems are
qualified to control up to 10 Subsea Control Modules at 40 km (24.9 miles) offset,
and the standard MCS can accommodate up to eight modems per channel.

Multi-Mode Running Tool

Cameron Controls offers a suite of Multi-Mode Running Tools (MMRT), which


perform installation and retrieval of various system elements, including:

• Installation and change-out of SCM


• Installation and change-out of SAM
• Installation and change-out of inserts in the Cameron Willis Subsea
Retrievable Choke
• Installation and change-out of compact multi-phase flow meters

The standard design of the MMRT allows these operations to be performed using
common intervention methods - diver-assisted, conventional guideline, guidelineless
or with an ROV - in water depths to 3000 meters (10,000 feet).

The MMRT is designed for efficient operation with a work-class ROV and is interface-
compliant with API 17H using weight transfer systems for neutral buoyancy.

SCM/SAM Transportation Cage

The SCM/SAM Transportation Cage is used to lower a replacement SCM or SAM to the seabed for installation, while also
providing a mounting position for the module being retrieved
Subsea Accumulator Module

The Subsea Accumulator Module (SAM) provides a local source of hydraulic fluid.
Each standard SAM is fitted with four 20-liter (5.3 gal.) LP and two 2.5-liter (0.7
gal.) HP accumulators, providing sufficient capacity to operate 100% of all the
valves on a production tree. The SAM has the identical footprint, lockdown and
tooling interface as the SCM and can be replaced using any Multi-Mode Running
Tool. All components are suitably earth-bonded and corrosion-protected via a
dedicated electrical connector.

Subsea Control Module

Rated for water depths up to 3000 meters (10,000 feet), the CAMTROL Subsea
Control Module (SCM) is the heart of the subsea system. The SCM weighs less than
1000 kg (2200 lbs.) and measures only 736 mm x 736 mm x 860 mm high (29" x
29" x 34" high), making it the lightest, most compact control module in the
industry. This allows easy installation and intervention by standard work-class ROVs
with any of the CAMTROL suite of Multi-Mode Running Tools. Yet with up to 32
control functions, 24 external (4-20 mA) electrical sensor inputs and available multi-
dropped intelligent completion capability, the CAMTROL SCM leads the industry in
functionality and future potential. This can reduce the number of SCMs needed for
an entire project, thereby lowering capital expenses.

The SCM provides multiplexed electro-hydraulic control and monitoring of a wide


variety of field functions including traditional tree functions, manifold valve control,
choke adjustment, position indication, header pressure/temperature monitoring,
downhole intelligence monitoring, sand detection, corrosion monitoring and
multiphase flow measurement.

Other features include:

• Oil-filled, pressure-compensated construction designed for -10„aC to +50„aC (14YF to 122 YF); controlled-
environment electrical connections; seawater-tolerant materials available throughout hydraulic system
• Diverless or diver-assisted designs
• Nominal supply pressures of 207 bar or 345 bar (3000 psi or 5000 psi) for tree and manifold valves; 345 bar, 517
bar or 690 bar (5000 psi, 7500 psi or 10,000 psi) supply pressure for SCSSV and other HP needs
• Dual SEMs with single valve electronics modules standard; dual valve electronics modules are available to
increase system total availability
• HydraQuad Couplers feature pressure-balanced shear seals which, when combined with Cameron directional
control valves, provide virtually leak-free operation for lower Opex and less non-productive time.
Subsea Distribution Unit

The modular CAMTROL design allows the subsea distribution unit to be either
separate or fully integrated. The SDU provides the hydraulic, chemical and electrical
distribution between the subsea system and the main control umbilical. The
structure is designed, tested and certified to accommodate all handling loads. For
deepwater applications, the unit can incorporate hinge-over lock capability. All
components are suitably earth bonded and corrosion protected to suit the
installation. Additional features include:

• ROV or diver make-up flying lead jumpers


• ROV or diver-operated block and bleed valves
• Electrical distribution system with optional diver or ROV replaceable fuses
• ROV interfaces compliant with API 17H

• Available with integral SCM and SAM

Topside Umbilical Termination Unit

The Topside Umbilical Termination Unit (TUTU) provides the interface between the
topside control equipment and the main umbilical system. This fully enclosed unit
incorporates electrical junction boxes for the electrical power and communication
cables, as well as tube work, gauges, and block and bleed valves for the appropriate
hydraulic and chemical supplies. +
INSTALLATION /
WORKOVER CONTROLS
Cameron Installation/Workover
Controls Systems (IWOCS)

Installation / Workover Control Systems (IWOCS)


Cameron provides a comprehensive range of IWOCS to meet the requirements of
vertical and horizontal completions in all water depths. Systems are available for
rental and outright purchase, as well as re-purchase after initial large-development
demand.

This diverse offering allows Cameron to provide cost-effective solutions from single
well satellites to large deepwater, multi-well developments in the most remote
corners of the globe.

High-reliability IWOCS operate hydraulic functions during installation, intervention


and workover of subsea completion equipment and provide facilities for monitoring
and testing various subsea functions.

Most developments use one of four field-proven standard system configurations to


minimize the cost and duration of subsea interventions and workovers throughout the whole life of the field. Custom design
solutions are available to meet specific requirements and applications.

Shallow Water Vertical Completions


IWOCS for shallow water, vertical completions provide DH control of tree functions and a failsafe pilot control system for
the LMRP. DH control is provided for THRT functions. Options are available to provide simple hydraulic interlocking of LMRP
and tree functions to ensure correct sequencing of the valves in the vertical flow path and prevent inadvertent closure of
tree valves on coiled tubing or wire line. DH control of SSTT functions and related control panel functions are additional
options.

Major system elements typically include:

 HPU and Workover Control Panel


 Workover Reel and Umbilical
 Tubing Hanger Reel and Umbilical
 EDP and LMRP Pilot Valve Modules and Accumulators

Deepwater Vertical Completions


IWOCS for deepwater, vertical completions provide EH control of tree functions, LMRP and EDP via a WSCM located on the
EDP. The system features rapid operation of all workover functions including closure of the LMRP rams and valves and
operation of the EDP, critical when operating from a dynamically positioned vessel in deepwater. DH control is provided for
the THRT functions.

Options are available to provide redundancy, operation of tree functions via the production SCM and provision of acoustic
back-up systems. DH control of SSTT functions and related control panel functions are additional options. EH control
systems for integrated control of the THRT and SSTT are also available.

Major system elements typically include:

 HPU and Workover Control Panel


 Workover Reel and Umbilical
 Tubing Hanger Reel and Umbilical
 Workover Control Module and Accumulators
 LMRP Pilot Valve Module and Accumulators
 Remote Workover Control Unit/Portable Electronic Test Unit

Shallow Water Horizontal Completions


IWOCS for shallow water, horizontal completions provide DH control of the TRT and tree functions. An EDU installed on the
LMRP/BOP enables disconnection of the workover umbilical at the LMRP/BOP interface.

Options are available to operate and monitor tree functions via the TRT during installation, and test/monitor the DHPT
following installation of the tubing hanger. DH control for THRT functions, SSTT functions and related control panel
functions are additional options.

Major system elements typically include:

 HPU and Workover Control Panel


 Workover Reel and Umbilical
 Tubing Hanger Reel and Umbilical
 Emergency Disconnect Unit
 ROV/Diver Flying Lead Jumpers from BOP to Tree

Deepwater Horizontal Completions


IWOCS for deepwater, horizontal completions provide EH control of tree functions and DH control of the TRT via the
production SCM. An EDU installed on the LMRP/BOP enables disconnection of the workover umbilical at the LMRP/BOP
interface.

Options are available to operate and monitor tree functions via the TRT during installation, and test/monitor the DHPT
following installation of the tubing hanger. DH control for THRT functions, SSTT functions and related control panel
functions are additional options. EH control systems for integrated control of the THRT and SSTT are also available.

Major system elements typically include:

 HPU and Workover Control Panel


 Workover Reel and Umbilical
 Tubing Hanger Reel and Umbilical
 Emergency Disconnect Unit
 BOP and TRT Accumulator Units
 ROV Flying Leads from BOP to Tree
 Remote Workover Control Unit/Portable Electronic Test Unit

Common Components Direct Hydraulic and Electro Hydraulic IWOCS

 Vertical and Horizontal Systems


 Workover Hydraulic Power Unit
 Workover/TRT Reel and Umbilical
 Tubing Hanger Running Tool Reel and Umbilical
 Workover Hydraulic Deck Jumper
 Tubing Hanger Running Tool Hydraulic
 Deck Jumper
 Umbilical Sheaves
 Remote Emergency Shutdown Station
 Remote Emergency Shutdown Station Deck Cable/Jumper
 Jumper Deployment Basket
 Umbilical Clamps (THRT Umbilical-to-Drill Pipe/Riser)
 Workover Control System Radio Link
 Workover Umbilical Test and
 Flushing Unit
 Installation Workover Autonomous
 Test System
 IWATS Tree-to-BOP Connector

Additional Components for EH Vertical and Horizontal Systems

 Workover Electrical Power Deck Jumper


 Workover Electrical Signal Deck Jumper
 Portable Electronic Test Equipment
 Workover Subsea Control Module
 BOP Accumulator Module
 Tree Running Tool Accumulator Set

Additional Components for DH and EH Horizontal Systems

 Emergency Disconnect Unit


 Emergency Disconnect Unit Test and Shipping Frame
 Umbilical Clamps (Umbilical-to-SCM line)
 Tree Running Tool-to-Tree Flying Lead
 Tree Flying Lead Parking Plate
 BOP-to-Tree Flying Lead
 Tree to BOP Parking Plate

Workover System Terminology

Acronym Description
BOP Blowout Preventer
DH Direct Hydraulic
DHPT Downhole Pressure/Temperature Transmitter
EDP Emergency Disconnect Package
EDU Emergency Disconnect Unit
EH Electro-Hydraulic Multiplex
ESD Emergency Shutdown System
HP High Pressure
HPU Hydraulic Power Unit
IWATS Installation Workover Autonomous Test System
IWOCS Installation Workover Control System
LMRP Lower Marine Riser Package
LP Low Pressure
MDU Mobile Drilling Unit
MTU Master Telemetry Unit
PETU Portable Electronic Test Unit
PLC Programmable Logic Controller
ROV Remotely Operated Vehicle
RTU Remote Telemetry Unit
SAM Subsea Accumulator Module
SCM Subsea Control Module
SimOps Simultaneous Workover and Production Operation Scenarios
SSTT Subsea Test Tree
THRT Tubing Hanger Running Tool
TRT Tree Running Tool
WHPU Workover Hydraulic Power Unit
WSCM Workover Subsea Control Module
WOCS Workover Control System

CAMSERV Aftermarket Services


For the life of your project - and your equipment - CAMSERV Aftermarket Services offers a one-stop approach to any
service-related need. Through 60 worldwide Service Centers, linked through Cameron's global product search integrated
within SAP-R3, CAMSERV offers a broad range of quality services, as well as reconditioned products and OEM replacement
parts to keep projects running smoothly. CAMSERV brings you more ways to minimize your Total Cost of Ownership. And
only CAMSERV offers the worldwide resources of Cameron, with the 24/7 convenience and personal, responsive service of a
local supplier - anywhere you are. CAMSERV services include:

 Equipment repair and re-manufacture


 Reconditioned equipment sales, rental and exchange
 Replacement parts
 Field services
 Computerized customer asset management services

 Consignment programs

IWATS - Installation Workover


Autonomous Test System

Traditionally, during intervention and workover completion operations, the moon pool area of the rig is the center of
activity. Often the area becomes congested and hectic. The high dollar real estate becomes a bottleneck for productivity
and rig time improvements.

With IWATS, installation and workover operations can be performed over the side, stern or through a moonpool of a
suitable vessel of opportunity. This proven technique allows operators to eliminate some of the congestion within the moon
pool area, saving valuable rig time and improving operations and safety while enabling both single well and batch well
testing. Additional benefits of the IWATS include the capability to install and retrieve a variety of flying leads, subsea
control modules, subsea accumulator modules, insert-retrievable chokes, tree caps and various other tools and equipment,
away from congestion of the moon pool.

The system is applicable for both horizontal SpoolTreeTM production systems and vertical bore Trees and can be used to
water depths of 10,000 feet (3000 meters). The design basis provides for direct hydraulic as well as electro hydraulic
multiplex installation/workover operations.

The IWATS uses a standard IWOCS and an ROV, with its launch mechanism and heave compensation system (when
necessary). The IWATS is deployed and retrieved using standard ROV launch mechanisms.

Prior to IWATS deployment, an IWOCS umbilical is attached via a hydraulic emergency release package. The umbilical
provides hydraulic supplies to the SCMs, tree test, and other functions; and power and communication supplies for the
production and workover SCMs or to sensors in direct hydraulic mode.

Once the IWATS is deployed, a ROV is used to fly an integral IWOCS flying lead to the Tree(s) or manifold(s). The flying
lead provides the means to control and monitor workover, workover and production SCM functions during completion or
workover operations. Flying lead length and configuration can be modified to suit specific field layout and well offset
distances. Chemical supplies can be provided by a separate umbilical run along with the primary umbilical.

A Cameron IWATS has been field-proven in the UK North Sea (1999) where the system was used to establish parallel test
and installation operations, resulting in measurable reduced rig time on location.

IWATS Tree-to-BOP Connector and


EDP Functions Flying Lead

The IWATS tree-to-BOP connector and EDP functions flying lead is a multi-function, ROV fly-to-place electric and hydraulic
flying lead. It allows operation and testing of the various EPD and BOP connector test ports during installation and workover
operation with the IWATS. The flying lead interconnects the tree to the EDP and associated accumulator module and the
BOP connector test ports.

Jumper Basket

The offshore/lift certified jumper basket provides for the transportation and storage of deck jumpers and sheaves.
Portable Electronic Test Unit

The PETU is a multi-purpose system providing operator access to production SCM


housekeeping and diagnostic data that is not normally available on the WHPU
operating panels. The PC-based, laptop unit incorporates a power supply,
communications equipment and interconnecting cables to enable remote location
test and operation diagnostics. Data is stored on the internal CD-RW drive. The
standard portable electronic test unit is suitable for use in ôsafe areasö only.

Remote ESD Station

The remote ESD station consists of push buttons and indicators suitable for Zone 1
hazardous area operations and can be reconfigured to meet the rig-specific safety
requirements. The unit functions to initiate a single level shutdown of the IWOCS
and a remote shutdown of the subsea production system. Protective covers prevent
accidental initiation of ESDs.

Remote ESD Station Deck


Cable/Jumper

The remote ESD station deck jumper connects to the remote ESD station, providing
safe remote communications to operate an ESD. The jumper consists of an armored
offshore electrical cable terminated at each end with multi-pin, explosion proof
connectors (for deepwater systems) or an unarmored thermoplastic pneumatic
hydraulic bundle terminated at each end with stab plates (for shallow water
systems).

ROV Hot Stab Blind Receptacle

The ROV hot stab blind receptacle is attached to the BOP stack or TRT for parking the ROV test stab flying lead and testing
the IWOCS pressure test line during the running or retrieving of the BOP stack.

ROV Test Stab Flying Lead

The ROV/test stab flying lead is a single-line, ROV fly-to-place hydraulic flying lead allowing testing of the tree connector
gasket and tubing hanger/ HP cap seals. One end of the flying lead is permanently attached to the BOP stack EDU, while
the second end is fitted with an ROV fly-to-place hydraulic hot stab.

THRT Hydraulic Deck Jumper

The THRT hydraulic deck jumper interconnects the WHPU and THRT reel. The jumper consists of an unarmored
thermoplastic hydraulic bundle terminated with stab plates at each end.

Tree Flying Lead Parking Plate

The tree flying lead parking plate allows parking and protection of the tree flying lead when not connected to the tree
production controls stab plate. A parking plate on the BOP allows flying lead parking when running or retrieving the BOP
stack and drilling riser. A second parking plate is fitted to the TRT to allow parking of the tree flying lead following
disconnection at the end of the Tree running sequence prior to recovery of the TRT.

TRT Accumulator Set

The TRT accumulators provide hydraulic power to the production SCM to enable testing of the tree when initially run.
Accumulators are provided for each hydraulic supply line.

TRT-to-Tree Flying Lead

The TRT-to-tree flying lead is a multi-function, ROV fly-to-place electric and


hydraulic flying lead allowing operation of the production SCM and control of tree
functions following lockdown of the tree with the TRT connected. The flying lead
provides compensation for the SCM hydraulics from the IWOCS during tree
installation.

Tubing Hanger Running Tool (THRT)


Reel and Umbilical

The THRT reel and umbilical is a reeled, multi-way hydraulic umbilical providing
communication connections to control THRT functions. A hand-held remote pendant
enables operation from an adjacent location. An automatic spooling device ensures
correct umbilical lay during deployment and retrieval, while a failsafe brake prevents
drum rotation when the umbilical is suspended and during operations. Individual
hydraulic couplers terminate the subsea umbilical hydraulic hoses, while wet-
mateable connectors terminate the electrical cables for DHPT monitoring.

Umbilical Clamps - THRT Umbilical-to-


Drill Pipe/Riser

Clamps are provided to clamp the THRT umbilical to the drill pipe or completion riser for tubing hanger deployment. The
clamps ensure the umbilical is adequately attached to prevent umbilical damage.

Umbilical Clamps - Workover


Umbilical-to-SCM Line

Clamps are provided to clamp the workover umbilical to the drill pipe used for deployment of the TRT, or to the choke
and kill lines during deployment of the BOP stack. The clamps ensure the umbilical is adequately attached at all times to
prevent any damage to the umbilical.

Umbilical Sheaves

The umbilical sheaves assist deployment of the workover/TRT and THRT control umbilicals and are sized to ensure that an
umbilical cannot be bent beyond recommended minimum bend radius. Sheave rollers are made from corrosion-resistant
material and provide smooth, abrasive free movement of an umbilical.

WOCS Radio Link


The WOCS radio link system provides a highly secure, line-of-sight, dual channel ESD communications link between a MDU
and a fixed platform or floating production system. The system is intended for use under SimOps and provides the ability to
initiate a fully automated shutdown of the subsea production facility from the MDU or other workover/intervention vessel.

Major components of the system include an MTU located on the production facility, and a RTU and ESD panels located on
the MDU. Alarms are raised at both ends of the link in the event of any communication errors or system failures.

Workover BOP Accumulator Module

The BOP accumulator module provides hydraulic power for the production SCM
using dedicated accumulators on each supply for systems not configured with
subsea accumulators on the tree. The module is mounted to the BOP stack in a
robust framework that provides protection during BOP handling.

Workover BOP-to-Tree Flying Lead

The BOP-to-tree flying lead is a multi-function, ROV fly-to-place electric and hydraulic flying lead allowing operation of the
production SCM and control of the tree functions during installation and workover operations with the BOP in place. The
flying lead connects to the BOP stack-mounted EDU and accumulator module to the production control system stab plate on
the tree.

Workover EDU Test and Shipping


Frame

The EDU test and shipping frame protects the EDU from damage during storage and offshore transportation. The unit
enables checking, flushing and pressure testing of EDU operations prior to installation on the BOP.

Workover Electrical Deck Jumper


Power

The workover electrical deck jumper interconnects an EH WHPU and workover reel, providing dual power channels for
production and workover SCMs. The jumper consists of an armored offshore electrical cable terminated with multi-pin
explosion proof connectors at each end.

Workover Emergency Disconnect Unit


The EDU enables safe disconnect of the surface, rig-mounted, equipment from the
fixed subsea equipment during drilling unit drift, drive-off or other emergency
situations. The unit consists of a multi-way remotely operated hydraulic and
electrical stab plate at the LMRP/BOP stack interface, allowing the workover
functions to be disconnected between the tree and the workover umbilical in the
event that the drilling riser is disconnected from the BOP.

Workover Hydraulic Deck Jumper

The workover hydraulic deck jumper connects the WHPU and workover reel. The jumper consists of an unarmored
thermoplastic hydraulic bundle terminated at each end with stab plates.

Workover Hydraulic Power Unit

The WHPU is the primary system component of the IWOCS. It provides the
hydraulic power to operate the various running tools, and subsea tree valves.

WHPUs typically include:

 Dual redundant LP and HP pump systems


 Dual reservoirs
 Filtration to NAS 1638 Class 6
 Independent transfer and clean-up pump and filter system
 LP and HP accumulation
 Local control panels for HPU and workover functions
 PLC control for EH systems

The integrated local control panel provides control of tree functions, TRT/ workover umbilical reel and the THRT umbilical
reel.

Workover Subsea Control Module

The WSCM uses CAMTROLÖ production control system technology to provide a compact, lightweight system for operating
vertical tree workover functions and light intervention control systems. The WSCM is easily removable on deck for
maintenance and provides dual redundant electronics. Use of a common power and communications system is possible for
workover and production SCMs, allowing a truly integrated control system.

Workover Umbilical Test and Flushing


Equipment

The workover umbilical test and flushing equipment allows all elements of the IWOCS to be flushed and tested prior to use
or during routine offshore maintenance. Typical uses include pressure test and flushing, and continuity and insulation tests.

Workover/Tree Running Tool (TRT)


Reel and Umbilical
The workover/TRT reel and umbilical is a reeled, multi-way EH umbilical providing
power and communication connections to control TRT and tree functions. A hand-
held remote panel enables reel operation from an adjacent location. An automatic
spooling device ensures correct umbilical lay during deployment and retrieval. A
failsafe brake prevents drum rotation when the umbilical is suspended and during
IWOCS operations. Wet-mateable connectors terminate the subsea umbilical
electrical cables when provided for EH operations or DHPT monitoring, while a multi-
way stab plate terminates the subsea umbilical hydraulic hoses.

FLOWLINE
CONNECTION
Cameron Vertical Connection (CVC)
System

Definition:
Flowline tie-in – connection of a flowline to a subsea facility. This includes
connection to any of the following subsea facilities:

• Trees
• Manifolds
• Templates
• FLETs (FlowLine End Terminations)

Installation Methods:
(Pipeline and Flowline Installation)

• First End Stab and Hinge-Over, Lay Away


o Zinc, Umbilicals
o Luna, Dual Flexible Flowlines
o Rocky, Dual Flexible Flowlines
o Malampaya, Umbilicals
• Second End or Lay Up To
o Pampano Export Lines, Rigid Jumpers
• Towed-in-Place Bundle
o MC 441, Satellite Wells
o GB 387, Satellite Wells
• Towed-in-Place Pipeline
o Troika Export Lines, Rigid Jumpers

Design Features:
Vertical Connection

• Tool Make-up
• Guidelineless
• ROV Operated
• Subsea Seal Replacement

Advantages of Vertical Connections:


Connectors lowered directly onto hubs.
Compact receiver structure and hub support (CVC = 32.5” diameter).
No horizontal motion required to make up hubs (no length change).
Eliminates flexibility loops required by some horizontal systems.
Vertically installed and removed pressure caps and enclosures.

Advantages of a Tool-based System:

• Economic - Cost removed from connections and placed in tools.


Many connections, few tools
• Improved Reliability - No hydraulics left subsea on connectors.
Hydraulic systems are all on the tool.
• Maintenance - Tools are retrieved and can be repaired.

Advantages of CVC Tool Engaging the Connector Directly:

• Shorter - Height not effected by pipe size or pipe bend radius.


• Connections can be stacked vertically.
• No vertical height limitations.
Flexible riser connections can be stabbed vertically and made up using CVC tool.
| Click here to launch the Cameron Vertical Connector web module

| CVC Presentation Slideshow

CAMFORGE Pipeline Repair

The Cameron CAMFORGE pipeline repair system allows for emergency repair of
subsea pipelines. The CAMFORGE cold forging tool forges the end of the pipeline
being repaired to the mating hub of a Cameron collet connector or a standard
flange. Features of the CAMFORGE system include:

 Hubs are cold-forged to the pipe, forming a series of metal-to-metal seals


along the pipe-to-hub junction.
 The pipe-to-hub seal is verified at full pipeline test pressure before the
CAMFORGE forging tool is removed from the pipe bore.
 The hub does not require pressure-relief vent ports which could form leak
paths.
 The CAMFORGE forging tool is simple with a minimum number of moving parts.

 The CAMFORGE system can be thoroughly inspected on the surface prior to subsea deployment.

Flowline Pull-in & Connection

After the Christmas tree is installed on the ocean floor, flowlines must
be connected to carry the produced fluids to the surface production
facility. Cameron has been providing solutions to flowline hook-up
challenges for decades. Depending on the field conditions, divers can
be used for accessible shallow-water locations, or remote-operated
diverless systems are available for deep water or other locations
inaccessible to divers.

The following are various Cameron flowline pull-in and connection


products:

Swivel Flange

 Simple
 Cost-effective
 Well proven
 Diver assisted installation

Remote Stab

 Automatic flowline connection


 Diverless make-up

Collet Connector

 Pre-loaded connections
 Gasket (metal) seal connection
 Excellent for high separation forces

Pull-In

 Loads isolated from the wellhead


 Diverless operation

Lay-Away

 Connection can be made at surface before tree is run


 Flowline sled can be avoided

Connection

 Remote flowline cap removal and seal plate installation is available if required

McPac[TM] Pul l-In/Connection Tool

 Dual function pull-in and connection tool.


 Tool is recovered leaving only the connected lines subsea.
 Suitable for flowlines and umbilicals.

CAMFORGE[TM] Pipeline Repair System

 Emergency repair of pipelines.


 Simple, reliable, permanent repair.

Two methods of remote, diverless flowline connection are the "pull-in" method where the flowline is attached to a sled and
pulled to the well by cables, and the "lay-away" method where the flowline is lowered vertically on guidewires and then laid
away from the well. (A variation of the lay-away technique is the "spool piece tie-in" where a pre-fabricated spool with
connectors on either end is lowered vertically and stabs a receptacle at the wellhead and the pipeline end simultaneously).

Factors such as the water depth, the practicality of using divers and the requirement for either wellhead to platform (first
end) connection or platform to wellhead (second end) connection determine which method is to be used.

Cameron offers a variety of flowline connection systems, from a simple flange or swivel flange with an AX or BX gasket to a
totally remote hydraulic connection system. The broad range of products available and years of previous experience place
Cameron in a position to provide the optimum flowline tie-in and connection solution for any subsea field.

Length Compensating Joint

The length compensating joint is used to replace mid-point swivels in typical spool pipeline sections. This allows use of 30'
to 40' spool pieces to be used in place of typical sections which are approximately 150' in length. This facilitates handling
during installation and eliminates large crane capacity requirements. Length compensating joints may also be used for
completion of subsea tree-to-flowline and subsea template-to-pipeline connections.

Features of the length compensating joint include:

 The length compensating joint can be hydraulically extended or retracted during installation of the spool piece and
lock-up of the collet connectors.
 After spool piece installation, metal-to-metal seals are energized in the joint.
 Joint slips are hydraulically locked for a rigid connection.
 Make up of the connection is reversible in case future replacement of damaged pipeline sections is required.

 Length compensating joints with elastomer sealing are also available.

McPac Diverless Connections

The McPac pull-in connection system is used for first and second end connections of
flowline/hydraulic control bundles, electrical cables and pipelines in deepwater
applications with deflect to connect lay procedures This system consists of a heavy
duty pull-in tool and a compact make-up tool. Features include:

 McPac tools operate totally diverless.


 The system provides single wire rope pull-in of one or two major diameter
hubs to the subsea template, subsea manifold or satellite tree. Each hub
features metal-to-metal seals and can accommodate a grouping of
flowlines, control lines and electrical cables.
 Test/protection covers on inboard and outboard hubs permit pressure
testing at any time prior to connection.
 Connection is a totally separate operation from pull-in and can be delayed
or performed immediately after pull-in.
 After installation, metal-to-metal face seals are pressure-tested with the
make-up tool. No hydraulic components remain on the sea floor after the
hubs and clamps are made up and tested.

 The McPac system provides capability to disconnect, remove and replace


pulled-in connections.

MOSAIC Connection Elements

Connection Elements provide linkage between MOSAIC modules and


pipelines and include items such as pipeline, flowline and umbilical
connection systems. Connection Elements are typically used in
horizontal, vertical, diver-assist or ROV-driven applications.

Cameron has a long history of leadership in development of flowline


and pipeline connections systems. For example:

 Camerons horizontal pipeline connection systems, which


include CAMFORGE pipeline repair products
 McPAC horizontal pull-in and connection system for a range
of connections from large pipelines to small in-field flowlines
and umbilicals
 Vertical connection jumpers utilizing Cameron collet
connectors and flexible or rigid jumpers
 Structural mooring connections for attachment of production
risers to turret moored FPSOs
 Haul-down riser connectors for shuttle tankers
 Stab and hinge umbilical connection systems for templates or dedicated foundations
 Lay away connections with both horizontal and vertical connection systems

MOSAIC Connection Elements utilize common interfaces which allow a variety of different types of connection systems to be
attached. For example, modular Christmas trees are designed to allow whatever type of connection system is required
(vertical, horizontal, diver-assist or ROV-driven).

This modularity leads to reduced engineering cycle times by minimizing the engineering required for modifications, and
reduces or eliminates errors found during assembly or offshore installation. By utilizing the systemic view, all connection
requirements in a field development, such as well jumpers, pipeline jumpers, and umbilical terminations, can use the same
connection technology. This simplifies tool requirements, reduces the number of running procedures to be accommodated,
and also reduces spare parts inventories.

MOSAIC Horizontal Connection

The totally guidelineless horizontal flowline connection system incorporates a


pivoting Hub Support & Alignment Structure (HSAS) with orienting stab alignment
pin. The HSAS is deployed in vertical position, and for a first end connection,
stabs into the flowline porch structure at the wellhead, where the inboard hub is
mounted. The stab pin latches to the porch base when HSAS pivots to horizontal
and provides a hinge point for flowline layaway and hub horizontal alignment.

Major Components:

 Guidelineless Hinged Helical Stab PIC End Connections


 Hub Support & Alignment Structure (HSAS) Improved PIC Connection
Tool
 Horizontal Connection System: Continued

PIC End Connections

 Standard hubs & clamps; 2 sizes


 Larger hub arrangement accepts large bore flowline, multi-bore lines &
umbilicals
 Smaller hub arrangement accepts small or single bore lines.
 First & second end connections of flowline/hydraulic control bundles,
electrical cables and pipelines.

PIC Connection Tool

 Hydraulic power supplied by ROV: no guidelines or umbilical required.


 Single Hydraulic Motor Drives 2 Jack Screws.
 ROV deployable: actuating saddle & hydraulic motor separate modules.
 ROV retrievable seal plate.
 Run guidelineless or with guidelines.
 Compact hub connection tool.
 Metal to metal seals are pressure tested with connection tool.
 Connection system completely diverless.

HSAS

 Sliding support saddle.


 Hub stroked by connection tool.
 Provides final alignment & clamp make-up.
 Run guidelineless or with guidelines.

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Non-Integral Collet Connectors

Cameron pipeline collet connectors have been designed using principles proven with
similar Cameron connector designs for high pressure and deepwater drilling
applications. Use of collet connectors minimizes the need for diver assistance when
joining pipeline sections subsea. Pipeline connections formed by collet connectors
are structurally stronger than the pipeline itself, and remain unaffected by time or
changing operating conditions. Hydraulic pressure is used to close the fingers of
collet connectors over the mating hubs of pipeline sections. These fingers have
special taper and mechanical lock features to prevent movement. All Cameron collet
connectors utilize the proven AX gasket to form a metal-to-metal seal between
mating hubs. Seal integrity of each connection can be pressure-tested prior to
service. Cameron collet connectors are available in non-integral and integral
designs. Non-integral collet connectors are available in pipe sizes up to 20" and are
positioned and closed by a separate actuator which is recoverable after use. Integral
collet connectors are available in pipe sizes ranging from 6" to 54". These
connectors feature internal hydraulic cylinders which complete positioning and
closing of the collet fingers and are best used where diver assistance must be
minimized. Features of Cameron collet connectors include:

 Forged steel construction of pressure-containing components including


clamp hub, collet fingers, locking ring, and body.
 Full bore which does not restrict normal pigging operations.
 Compliance with API 6D regulations.
 Pressure test of AX gasket seal prior to pressurizing line and capability for
subsea change-out if necessary.
 Compliance with NACE MR-01-75 for sour service requirements.
Single and Double Swivels
Cameron swivels are used as tie-in components for subsea pipelines and can be
used for land and offshore applications to accommodate the following conditions:

 When variable changes in the direction of a pipeline are anticipated.


 When exact axial direction of the changes of a pipeline cannot be
determined.
 When stresses due to mechanical torque must be eliminated.
 When changes in direction or elevation of intersecting lateral pipelines are
anticipated.

These conditions may occur due to land settling, platform movement, pipeline
expansion and contraction dye to thermal changes, crossing of an earth fault,
seafloor scouring due to ocean currents, or a future need to bury a pipeline.

Features of Cameron swivels include:

 Cameron swivels remain flexible after installation to minimize stress


caused by line displacement, compensate for platform settling and allow
for future burying of the line.
 Metal-to-metal sealing ensures that the seal integrity is not affected by
fluctuations in the line pressure or temperature.
 Swivels seals tightly against sand and abrasive materials to ensure long
subsea service life.
 Swivel construction meets API specifications.
 High-strength forged components ensure a connection which is stronger
than the pipeline.
 Swivels rotate a full 360ª to assist in equipment line-up and approach
orientation.

Single Swivels
The single swivel consists of forged components which are assembled and welded
together to form a low profile, high strength unit consisting of three basic parts; the
body, swivel cup and cup retainer. Single swivels allow ª10ª angular movement of
the pipeline in any direction to accommodate a wide variance in pipe approach
angles. The full bore of the single swivel does not restrict normal pipeline pigging
operations including intelligent pigs.

Double Swivels
The double swivel consists of two single swivel designs mounted back-to-back with a single forged body. This allows for a
maximum ª20ª deviation in the angle of approaching pipeline sections.

Structural Collet Connectors


Structural collet connectors are available in sizes up to 60". Cameron offers
connectors with load ratings up to 8 million lb tensile load and 12 million ft-lb
bending moment. They are used to form disconnectable, load-carrying links for
the following applications:

 Attachment of removable flotation tanks to offshore jackets to


implement float-out and setup. Once the jacket is set in place, the
flotation tanks can be removed quickly by remote de-actuation of the
collet connectors. Tanks and collet connectors can them be reused on
other jackets.
 Quick connect/disconnect link between floating production facilities and
their mooring system. This capability allows for temporary yet quick
disconnection and evacuation of a production vessel in case of severe
weather conditions. Use of structural collet connectors also reduces the
cost of the mooring system by decreasing structural requirements.

 Structural collet connectors can be custom-designed to meet specific


load requirements and special customer needs.

CHRISTMAS TREE
CameronDC Subsea Electric Tree

All Electric. All Cameron.

Subsea Products and Systems

CameronDC represents a breakthrough solution to


the risks of subsea production, and addresses the
challenges that can result in downtime, costly
intervention, deferred production and lost revenue for
offshore operators. This unique all-electric system,
powered by direct current, dramatically improves
reliability, availability and maintainability. The system
has no batteries, hydraulics or accumulators and
much of the conventional electro-hydraulic equipment
has been simplified or eliminated. The CameronDc
design translates to far greater uptime performance
and significant cost savings.

Improved System Availability and Reliability -


CameronDC provides 99% or better uptime
availability in deepwater and at long stepout
distances.

OPEX/CAPEX Savings - Operational savings are


derived from fluids, reliability improvements, lower intervention costs and increased total production.
Capital expenditure savings include umbilicals, hydraulic fluids, and installation and commissioning.

Deepwater and Long-Distance Stepouts - CameronDC delivers capability at virtually limitless water
depths and long-distance stepouts (beyond 100 miles) coupled with great response times.

Actuation Speed and Accuracy - With the elimination of hydraulics for power and signal, control
system commands can be sent in rapid succession thus avoiding the lag time needed for accumulator
charging. Flow and control of the well are maintained with precision.

High-Speed Communication and Real-Time Condition Monitoring - Without the need to transmit
hydraulic signals through the umbilical, communication with equipment is near instantaneous and
feedback on subsea conditions is instantaneous.

Environmentally Friendly - Without dependence on conventional hydraulics, the system offers


significant health, safety and environmental advantages. The potential for hydraulic leaks is eliminated,
as is the issue of fluids disposal.

CameronDC is a unique all-electric system powered by direct current. Suddenly reliability, availability
and maintainability take a giant leap forward. CameronDC is simpler. Environmentally friendly. Easier
to install. Fewer parts to maintain. Better feedback and greater response time. Is it game-changing
technology? Absolutely.

Modular Dual Bore Tree

Cameron's Dual Bore Christmas tree is the one many oilmen grew up with. It was the
first to feature a dedicated annulus bore for troubleshooting, well servicing and well
conversion operations, and has been the number one tree selection in the North Sea for
many years.

While this tree was originally introduced as a custom-engineered product, it has now
been re-engineered as a modular system using pre-engineered subassemblies to save
time and money. Modular Dual Bore trees can be specified with guideline or
guidelineless Position Elements for production or injection well applications.

The modular valve block is available in 4", 5" and 7" nominal bore sizes and 5,000,
10,000 or 15,000 psi WP pressure ratings. Valve assemblies feature the field-proven
Cameron FLS Gate Valves with one-piece construction, spring-loaded seats and
corrosion-resistant, metal-to-metal seals for maximum sealing integrity.

The standardized central block offers 40 different wing valve arrangements with single
or double master valves and a variety of trim options, including corrosion inlays and full
cladding. Master and swab valves are located in the vertical bore.

Cameron Compact Modular (CM) actuators are offered in sizes from 2" to 7" with
pressure ratings to 15,000 psi in 10,000 feet (3000 meters) of water. These
hydraulically actuated, fail-close actuators are available with a choice of ROV or diver-
assist overrides and position indicators.

Pre-engineered Cameron Willis subsea chokes are another integral part of the modular Dual Bore tree package. Subsea
chokes are offered in Standard, Diverless/ROV Retrievable and ROV/Running Tool Retrievable models.
Modular SpoolTree

Since its introduction in 1992, the patented SpoolTree Christmas tree has
revolutionized the subsea industry. It is the number one tree in the Gulf of Mexico
and other oil-producing regions, and has been widely copied by Cameron
competitors.

The SpoolTree system's unique wellhead/tree/hanger arrangement lands the tubing


hanger on a dedicated load shoulder in the tree. This stack-up configuration saves
significant rig time (see below) by allowing completion and workover operations to
be performed with the tree in place and flowlines undisturbed.

The SpoolTree system's horizontal valve assembly allows an unobstructed vertical


path to the tubing completion. SpoolTree valves are external to the vertical bore.
Therefore, wireline tools no longer are run through gate valves, greatly reducing the
risk of damaging tree components. Production and annulus valves are contained on
the exterior of the spool in mini-blocks. Connected to the blocks are flowloops which
provide production, cross-over and circulation functionality.

All SpoolTree system valves are the field-proven Cameron FLS Gate Valves. A
typical valve cluster would include: production and annulus master valve, production
and annulus wing (isolation) valve, cross-over valve, workover valve and isolation
valves for SCSSV, CIV and other requirements. Because the SpoolTree tubing
hanger is a concentric bore design, completions can be installed with a single work
string. This eliminates the need for expensive workover/completion riser systems,
which translates to significant capital equipment savings.

The SpoolTree system provides numerous safety advantages, too. Its body is machined with an 18-3/4" hub profile on top
to allow installation of a standard 18-3/4" drilling blowout preventer. In fact, all completion activities can be performed
under full BOP control.

Even if the well is live under the tubing hanger due to production tubing failure, safe full-bore access can still be achieved
using the drilling BOP. In a conventional system, wireline plugs would be installed in the tubing hanger so the tree could be
removed for installation of a BOP for tubing hanger access. This potentially dangerous situation is eliminated by the
SpoolTree design.
SpoolTree 10-year Anniversary

Mudline Tree

The Modular Mudline Subsea Tree has been developed as a simple production
system that can be economically installed on a mudline well from a jack-up rig. This
system uses diver assistance to minimize cost and complexities and is very suitable
for shallow water production projects.

The Modular Mudline Tree offers the following features:

 Minimum cost and low maintenance.


 Tree designs are available for single or multiple string completions.
 Reliable and field-proven gate valves are available in either a stacked or
composite valve block configuration.
 Tree design offers the option of completing inside 9-5/8 in. or 7 in. casing.
 Primary metal-to-metal seals are used at all environmental interfaces.
 Tree features a self-orienting tubing hanger with positive lockdown and
anti-rotation capabilities.
 SCSSV lines are independently controlled.
 Tree can be readily maintained with diver assistance.

 A full range of service trims is available.