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Gkos dh nkIkdh ft~u f;~yK dk :'rdkB

sR. qrsym isMG,


cyArmYn, Drm pRcwr kmytI id.is.gu.mYnyjmYNt kmytI

Gkos ftu f;ZyK dh nkpkdh fJE'I dh e[Zb tZ;'I dk 2% th


BjhI, go d/F dh nk}kdh gqkgs eoB bJh ehshnK e[opkBhnK pkeh
;ko/ d/F tk;hnK Bkb'I eJh r[DK tZX jB. i/eo n;hI fJj ejhJ/ fe
r[o{ e/ f;ZyK B/ jh d/F dh nk}kdh d/ ;[gB/ ~ ;keko ehsk j? sK
fJ; rZb ftu e'Jh nZs eEBh BjhI j't/rh.

Gkos d/ ;[szosk ;zrokw d/ fJfsjk; ftu'I i/eo f;ZyK ~


fJe gk;/ oZy fdZsk ikt/ sK fgZS/ fbZyD :'r ;wroh Bk j'D d/
pokpo jh ofj iKdh j?. jK ! p'r; fe;w dhnK xNBktK iK gksoK
~ nk}kdh dh bVkJh ti'I gquko e/ ykBkg{osh sK }o{o ehsh ik
;edh j?. fit/I nZi eZbQ whvhJ/ ftu tkgo fojk j?. go ;ZukJh sK
;ZukJh jh j[zdh j? T[; ~ fe;/ w[bzw/ dh b'V BjhI j[zdh.

i/eo f;Zy e"w d/ nkgD/ Xow, fJfsjk; tZb Mksh wkohJ/


sK fJ; dk sK iBw jh dZp/, e[ub/ s/ fbskV/ j'J/ b'eK ~ nk}kd
eokT[D, T{u-Bhu, }ks-gks, S{nk-Sks ns/ \'eN eoweKvK s'I
w[es eotk e/ nksfwe, nkofEe s/ ;wkfie gZy'I ;[szso eokT[D
bJh jh j'fJnk ;h. fJ; wjkB fto;/ T[go jo f;Zy ~ wkD eoBk
ukjhdk j?.

Gkos r[bkw feT[I j'fJnk <


Gkos d/ fJfsjk; s'I fJ; rZb dh ;wM g?Idh j? fe fJE'I d/ b'eK dh nkg;h c[ZN, nB?fsesk, ufoZsojhBsk ns/ ;tkoE
ekoB fJj w[be brGr d' j}ko ;kbK s'I r[bkw fojk .

fJj ekoB fe;/ d/F d/ r[bkw j'D bJh ekch j[zd/ jB. fJBQK ekoBk s'I fpBQK r[bkwh bJh j'o ekoBk dh b'V jh BjhI
ofj iKdh.
;kvk w[be ed/ FeK s/ j{BK dk, ed/ r"ohnK s/ r}BthnK dk, ed/ fyb}hnK s/ s[rbeK dk, ed/ \ko;hnK iK
\oK;;hnK dk, ed/ b'XhnK s/ w[rbK dk, ed/ g[osr/ihnK ns/ nzro/iK dk r[bkw j[zdk nk fojk ;h. j'o s/ j'o fJj gkDh GoB
tkb/ wkFehnK ns/ r[bkwK dk th r[bkw ofj u[Zek j?. fijV/ fJE'I d/ b'eK Bkb G/vK pZeohnK tork fttjko eod/ ;B.

;wki dh s;tho L
j}koK ;kbK dh r[bkwh B/ fJE'I d/ b'eK dh phosk, nZDy s/ r?os ~ ]sw eo fdZsk ;h. fJj fJfsjk;e ;ZukJh j? fe
Gkos T[s/ gfjb/ fpd/Fh jwbkto who ek;w 712 Jh;th ~ jh fJZE'I d/ t;BheK dh nDy r?os ~ u[D"sh d/Dh nkozG eo fdZsh
;h. fjzd{ shoEK s/ Xow ;EkBK ~ B[e;kB gj[zukfJnk ikD bZfrnk. b'eK bJh g{iD:'r wjKg[oyK s/ @GrtkBK# dhnK w{oshnK
~ s'V GzB ns/ m[Zv/ wko e/ fBokdo ehsk iKdk ;h. ftd/Fh jwbktoK B/ fJ; d/F dh XB d"bs T{mK, p?b rZvhnK, x'V/ rZvhnK,
yZuoK ns/ y'fsnK T[s/ bZd-bZd e/ nkgD/ w[beK ftu gj[zukJh.

Gkos dhnK B"itkB ;[zdo bVehnK ~ ;ko/ ;z;ko ftu s'jf\nK tZi'I th G/fink iKdk fojk j?. r}Bh (n\rkfB;skB
dk fJe Ffjo) d/ p}koK ftu Nek-Nek w[Zb oZy e/ Gkosh fjzd{ bVehnK ~ t/funk frnk, go fJ; foFhnK w[BhnK ns/ eJh
ueotosh okfinK dh ;zskB Bkb Go/ j'J/ fJ;/ d/F ftu'I, ftd/Fh jwbktoK tZb'I ehs/ ik oj/ }po s/ }[bw d/ fybk\ e'Jh
e[;e ;eD dh fjzws oZyD tkbk ;kjwD/ Bk nkfJnk. fJ; ;ko/ nBoE ~ @JhFto dk GkDk# iK @GrtkB dh o}k# ;wM e/
brksko podkFs ehsk iKdk fojk. fJE/ jh pZ; BjhI fdZbh d/ oki/ ~ jh GrtkB ;wM e/ g{ik th ehsh iKdh ojh. nkw b'eK
ftZu ftF/F eoe/ gqubs fojk j? fe fdZbh dk okik jh ;kvk JhFto j?.

f;Zy r[o{nK dk :'rdkB L

Gkos dk fJfsjk; fJ; rZb dk


r[nkj j? fe 1526 JhH sZe g{o/ d/F ftu
fJE'I d/ b'eK T[go nefj s/ n;fj }[bw j[zd/
oj/. e/tb r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih jh gfjb/
n?;/ b'e nkr{ ;B fiBQK B/ 1528 JhH ftu
pkpo pkdFkj ~ T[;d/ ;kjwD/ fBvosk Bkb
fejk fe, @s{z }kpo j?I s/oh je{ws pZ[uVk dh
j?.# Bshi/ tZi'I r[o{ ;kfjp ih ~ }/bQ dhnK
uZehnK gh;DhnK gJhnK ns/ fJjBK uZehnK
ftu d/F tk;hnK d/ fdbK ftubk vo, wkB'
r[o{ gkfsFkj B/ ghj ;[ZfNnk.

d/F tk;hnK ~ Xkofwe s/ oki;h ;[szsosk dh ehws dk nfj;k; eotkfJnk ns/ oki gqpzX d/ wkbeK ~ @efb eksh
oki/ ek;kJh# efj e/ MzM'fVnk. GftZy d/ ]so/ ~ GKgd/ j'J/ nkg ih B/ fejk @gkg eh izR b? ekpbj[ XkfJnk i'oh wzr? dkB[ t/
bkb'#..# @y[ok;kB y;wkBk ehnk fjzd[;skB vokfJnk..# dk ;zd/F xo-xo d/ e/ fiZE/ b'eK ~ ;ktXkB ehsk T[E/ d/F dh nk}kdh
bJh ;[szsosk ;?BkBhnK dh Gkb bJh BhIj oZy fdZsh. fJ; :sB Bkb EK-EK nzdo b'eK d/ fdbK ftu nk}kdh d/ ;[Zy dk
nfj;k; g?dk j'fJnk. jkew s/ Xkofwe F/qDh d/ p/-feoe nkr{nK d/ otZJhJ/ ~ pdbD bJh r[o{ ih B/ b'eK ~ fJj efj e/
MzM"fVnk fe

i/ iht? gfs bEh ikfJ.. ;G[ jokw[ i/sk feS[ ykfJ|

(;qh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ih, nze L 142)

r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih d/ i'sh i'fs ;wk ikD fgZS'I tkoh-tkoh r[o{ ;kfjpK B/ d/F d/ b'eK ftu Xkofwe nk}kdh dh u/sBk
irkT[D bJh ;]s fwjBs ehsh ns/ oki;h s"o #s/ pd/Fh oitkfDnK d/ ipo i[bw ~ o'eD bJh Gkosh ;wki nzdo pVh
w}p{s bfjo yVh eo fdZsh. fJ; ezw ~ fe;/ w[ekw #s/ gj[zukT[D bJh r[o{ ;kfjpK ~ Gkoh e[opkBhnK th d/DhnK gJhnK.
gzit/I r[o{ noiB ;kfjp ih ns/ B"t/I gksFkj r[o{ s/r pjkdo ;kfjp ih dh Fjkds B/ b'eK dh nzso nkswk ~ ikr g?D bJh
w}p{o eo fdZsk, fi; Bkb T[j jo gqeko dh nrtkJh bJh r[o{ xo tZb d/yD bZr gJ/. fJ; bJh fezBK uzrk j't/ i/eo fJjBK
FjhdhnK dh :kd nZi ;oekoh gZXo #s/ ;KM/ o{g ftu wBkT[Dh F[o{ eo fdZsh ikt/.

r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih dk sK ;kok ihtB jh ftd/FhnK ns/ d/F ftub/ T[BQK d/ io ]ohd r[bkw fposh d/ FeshFkbh b'eK
d/ }po-}[bw ~ ]sw eoB T[go bZr frnk. d;w gksFkj d/ i'sh ifs ;wk ikD fgZS'I g{oh f;Zy e"w r[o{nK d[nkok gkJ/
g{ofBnK #s/ ubdh j'Jh brksko nZr/ tXdh rJh.

pkpk pzdk f;zx pjkdo L (1708 s'I 1716 JhL) L


r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih dh nkfrnk Bkb pkpk pzdk f;zx pjkdo B/ gzikp d/
ikbw nfXekohnK ~ f;ZX/ o;s/ gkT[D bJh 5 nes{po, 1708 JhL ~ BKd/V s'I
gzikp tZb e{u ehsk. fJj fiT[I fiT[I nZr/ tZXdk frnk fBnK ns/ nk}kdh g;zd
fBvo fe;w d/ b'e fJ; d/ ek\b/ ftu Fkwb j[zd/ rJ/. e/tb nrb/ d' ;kbK d/
]{Bh ;zxoF fgZS'I jh f;ZyK B/ pzd/ pjkdo dh ;[uZih nrtkJh ;dek ;ko/ gzikp T[^s/
nkgDk nfXeko iwK fbnk. irQk irQk ;[oZfynk u"IehnK ns/ EkD/ ekfJw eo e/
nkw b'eK ftu Go';k g?dk ehsk frnk fe ykbf;nK d/ j[zd/ j'fJnK T[BQK ~ w[rbK
s'I voB dh e'Jh b'V BjhI j?. g/Iv{ y/soK ftu gzukfJsK dk rmB ehsk frnk.
w[ikfonK d/ nfXeko ]sw eo e/ tkjh eoB tkb/ fe;kBK ~ }whBK d/ wkbe pDk
fdZsk frnk. f;zx oki ftu ;koh goik pVh ;[yh tZ;D bZr gJh.

w[rb dopko B/ gzikp ftu f;ZyK jZE'I j'Jh jko dk pdbk b?D bJh nkgDh
;koh ;?fBe Fesh M'e fdZsh. nk]oeko, r[odk; Bzrb (gzikp) dh rVQh ftu fxo/
j'J/ pzdk f;zx pjkdo ~ ;kEhnK ;w/s bzw/ ;w/I dh x/okpzdh fgZS'I frq\sko eo e/
fJe ib{; dh Feb ftu fdZbh fbnKdk frnk, fi; Bkb r[o{nK dh iBw G{wh
gzikp ~ nk}kd eokT[D bJh FjhdhnK d/D dk d"o F[o{ j' frnk.
Fjhdh ;kek L
5 wkou, 1716 JhL tkb/ fdB s'I fdZbh ftu w[rb pkdFkj co]Fhno d/ j[ew Bkb jo o'} ;" ;" f;ZyK d/ f;o XVK s'I
tZy eo e/ 740 f;zxK ~ Fjhd eo fdZsk frnk. fe;/ fJe th f;Zy B/ nkgDh ikB p]Fh eoB bJh nkgD/ w[be iK Xow ~
fgZm Bk ftykJh. nk}kdh d/ fJj gqtkB/ jZ; jZ; e/ Fjhd j' rJ/.

16 i{B, 1716JhL ~ pkpk pzdk f;zx pjkdo ~ th wfjo"bh (fdZbh) fty/ pV/ y"\Bke s;hj/ d/ e/ Fjhd eo fdZsk
frnk, fi; Bkb ;ko/ gzikp ftu jkjkeko wZu rJh. fdZbh ftu fi; EK s/ pkpk ih ~ Fjhd ehsk frnk T[E/ j[D :kdrko d/
o{g ftu r[od[nkok pfDnk j'fJnk j?, fJE/ jo ;kb Fjhdh i'V w/bk brkfJnk iKdk j?. fJj n\;'; Bkb jh efjDk g?Idk j?
fe f;ZyK s'I fJbktk ed/ fe;/ j'o B/ fJj :kd BjhI wBkJh.

f;Zy ;odkoK dk gzikp #s/ nfXeko (1730 s'I 1780 JhL) L


f;ZyK ~ gzikp ftu'I ]sw eoB bJh w[rb ;oeko B/ pE/ok }'o brkfJnk go f;Zy ;odkoK d/ T[^u/ ;[Zu/ fJ]bke, p/-
gBkj db/oh ns/ pjkdoh Go/ ihtB eo e/ nkw b'eK dh jwdodh jw/Fk jh fJBQK dk tZvk ;jkok pDh ojh. fdZbh dopko d/
ew}'o j'D fgZS'I f;Zy ;odkoK B/ S/sh jh ;ko/ gzikp d/ nkgD/ nkgD/ gqGkt nXhB fJbkfenK T[^s/ ep}k eo e/ pkoK ;[szso
oki ;Ekfgs eo bJ/. fJBQK ~ pkoK fw;bK fejk iKdk j?.

1H Gzrh fw;b L bkj"o, nzfwqs;o, r[ioks, f;nkbe'N nkfd.

2H nkjb{tkbhnk fw;b L w[bskB, eg{oEbk, j[fFnkog[o, B{o wfjb nkfd.

3H okwrVQhnK L ;qh r'fpzdg[o, ebkB"o, pNkbk, ekdhnK, fonkVeh nkfd.

4H F[eouZehnk L r[ioKtkbk, tihokpkd, fgzv dkdB ]K, uetkb, ibkbkg[o nkfd.

5H eBQJhnk L r[odk;g[o, gmkBe'N, jk}hg[o, w[e/ohnK nkfd.

6H c?ib[gohnk L ibzXo, B{og[o, pfjokwg[o, gZNh nkfd.

7H c[behnk L gfNnkbk, ihId, BkGk ]k; oki ;B.

8H vZb/tkbhnk L fcb"o, okj'I, Be'do.

9H BeZJh L u{Bhnk, Feog[o, dhgkbg[o, e'N, ewkbhnk nkfd

10H eo'V f;zxhnk L BtK Ffjo, jfonkDk, p;h ebQK, Fkw u[ok;h, o[Vek, wkoezvk nkfd.

11H fBFkB tkbhnk L nzpkbk, Fkjpkd nkfd.

12H Fjhd fw;b L ;fsb[i d/ g{op ftu ;fEs e[M fJbke/.


wjkokik oDihs f;zx dk oki (1786 JhL s'I 1839 JhL) L
gzikp d// nzdo{Bh ns/ pkjoh jkbks ~ fXnkB ftu oZy e/ oDihs f;zx fe;/
Bk fe;/ soQK ;kohnK fw;bK ~ fJeZmk eo e/ ;w[Zu/ gzikp T[go fJe
ftFkb oki ekfJw eoB ftu ;cb j' frnk. T[j nkgDh ;oeko ~
;oeko-J/-]kb;k ns/ nkgD/ nkg~ pkdFkj BjhI ;r'I @f;zx ;kfjp# ejk
e/ ][F j[zdk ;h. T[j ed/ s]s #s/ Bk p?fmnk ns/ Bk jh f;o T[^s/ ski
oZfynk. wjkokik oDihs f;zx B/ 7 i[bkJh, 1799 JhL ~ bkj"o Ffjo T[^s/
nkgDk nfXeko iwk fbnk ns/ S/sh jh fJ; ~ okiXkBh j'D dk n?bkB th
eo fdZsk.

gzikp ns/ f;ZyK d/ fJfsjk; ftu bkj"o dh pVh wjZssk j?. fJj
fuoK s'I gzikp dh okiXkBh fojk j?. fgSb/ nZ;h ;kbK s'I bkj"o d/ fi; Fkjh
feb/Q/ ftu f;ZyK fto[ZX ;kiFK ouhnK iKdhnK ;B, j[D T[; T[go e/;oh
fBFkB ;kfjp bfjokT[D bZr fgnk. f;ZyK dk y[ok-y'i ]sw eo d/D dk
n?bkB eoB tkb/ nkg wo w[Ze rJ/. go ykb;k T[;/ soQK uVQdh ebk ftu
ftuodk j'fJnk ;w[Zu/ gzikp dk ;[szso wkbe pD p?mk ns/ nZXh ;dh sZe
iBsk dk fgnko s/ Go';k fiZs e/ iB-;kXkoB dhnK n;h;K dk gkso
pfDnk fojk.

oDihs f;zx dh w"s fgZS'I rdkoK dk o'b L


fiT[I jh wjkokik oDihs f;zx dh w"s j'Jh, bkj"o dopko ftu T[^u/ nj[fdnK #s/ ezw eoB tkfbnK B/ nZyK pdb
bJhnK. nzro/}K dh Ffj #s/ f;Zy oki d/ tko;K ns/ oytkfbnK dh esb'-rkos j'Dh F[o{ j' rJh. fJj ;kok toskok bkbuh
pqkjwD s/ v'ro/ nfXekohnK d/ Bkgke rZmi'V dhnK r[gs ;kiFK dk f;ZNk ;h. fiBQK B/ X'yk d/D bJh f;Zyh Feb n]fsnko
ehsh j'Jh ;h.

fXnkB uzd v'rok gqXkB wzsoh, T[; dk Gok ;[u/s uzd, eFwho s'I gzfvs dhB BkE, ][Fjkbh okw (][Fjkb f;zx) fwFo
ns/ f;Zy \"}K d/ GJhJ/ ioB?b bkb f;zx tor/ ftFtk;-xkshnK B/ f;Zy oki dh oki;h uVQs ~ nzdo'I nzdoh x[D tkrz{ yk
fbnk. (:kd oj/ f}bQk w/om, gorBk ;odkDk dk ofjD tkbk r"V }ks dk pqkjwD ][Fjkbh okw (][Fjkb f;zx), T[; dk Gok
okw bkb (okw f;zx) ns/ Gshik s/i okw (s/ik f;zx) fiBQK B/ wjkoki/ ~ y[F eoB bJh f;Zyh ;o{g XkoD eoe/ ]kb;k
dopko ftu T[^uhnK gdthnK jk;b ehshnK ;B. go nzro/}K d/ ikb ftu c; e/ bkbu tZ; fJBQK B/ ]kb;k oki Bkb tZvk Xq'j
ewkfJnk. f;Zy irs fJBQK dh rdkoh ~ ed/ th G[bk BjhI ;edk.)
f;Zy oki d/ t\kdkoK e'b ]{B d/ jzM{ tjkT[D s'I f;tk j'o e'Jh ukok BjhI ;h. ;w[Zuk f;Zy ;wki pj[s jh p/u?B ;h.
fJe soQK Bkb f;ZyK dh oki;h skes pqkjwDK dh ukDfenk Bhsh ns/ nzro/}K dh e[fNb Bhsh nZr/ jko yk rJh. fi; Bkb f;Zy
e"w bzw/ ;w/I bJh r[bkwh d/ ;zrbK ftu ieVh rJh.

r[bkp f;zx B/ nzro/}K Bkb fwb e/ bkj"o d/ ]kb;k dopko fto[ZX ;kiFK ouhnK. T[; B/ nzro/}K ~ tuB fdZsk fe
T[j f;Zy ;oeko, ;?Bk ns/ b'eK ftu c[ZN g[nk e/ jo jkbs ftZu okiXkBh bkj"o T[^s/ nzro/}K d/ nfXeko bJh o;sk fsnko
eo/rk. fJ; tuB ~ g{ok eoB fgZS'I fJ;/ r[bkp f;zx B/ izw{ s/ eFwho dk oki fJBkw ti'I gqkgs ehsk ;h.

wjkokik oDihs f;zx dh w"s d/ eohp d; ;kbK fgZS'I jh ftFkb f;Zy oki g{oh soQK ;wkgs eo fdZsk frnk. nzro/}K
B/ nkgDhnK e[fNb ukbK Bkb gzikp ~ nkgD/ nfXeko y/so Gkos ftu Fkwb eo e/ nkgD/ ;kwoki dk fjZ;k pDk fbnk. f;Zy
oki ed/ ]sw Bk j[zdk i/eo rdko pqkjwD, v'ro/, \"}h ioB?b bkj"o dopko Bkb drk Bk ewkT[Id/. t\kdko f;Zy \"}K B/
nzro/}K Bkb uko nk]oh izrK bVhnK, fi; ftu nzro/}K d/ SZe/ S[vk fdZs/ rJ/ go \"} eh eodh ! id GJhJ/ ioB?b jh nzdo'I
nzro/}K Bkb ob/ j'J/ ;B. T[j wZuh j'Jh izr ftu f;Zy \"} ~ bVfdnK ftu/ SZv e/ GZi rJ/ . fJ; soQK f;Zy \"} dh fiZsh
j'Jh pkih th jko ftu pdb rJh. Fkj w[jzwd B/ fdb uhothI eftsk ftu fbfynk j? L

izr fjzd-gzikp dk j'D bZrk, d't/I gksFkjh \"}K GkohnK B/.

nZi j't/ ;oeko sK w[Zb gkt/, fijVhnK ]kb;/ B/ s/rK wkohnK B/.

fJe rZb j'o, id'I f;Zy gzikp ~ pukT[D bJh nzro/}K Bkb bV oj/ ;B sK ;ko/ Gkos ftu'I e'Jh th f;ZyK dh wdd
bJh Bk pj[fVnk. ;r'I nzro/}K tZb j' e/ gzikp ~ r[bkw pDkT[D bJh f;ZyK fto[ZX pVh ;orowh Bkb bVd/
oj/. n?;/ d/F Grsh d/ i}p/ s'I tko/ tko/ ikJhJ/HHH.

L gzikp ~ jfEnkT[D fgZS'I nzro/iK dhnK ;orqwhnK L


fpqfNF gqpzXeh p'ov L (1849 - 1853)
rtoBo iBob bkov vbj"ih B/ gzikp ~ X'y/ s/ e{NBhfse ukbK Bkb 29 wkou 1849 JhL ~ jfEnk b?D fgZS'I gzikp
dk ;kok gqpzX ubkT[D bJh fszB w?IpoK j/Boh bko?I;, fJ; dk Gok ikB bko?I; s/ ukob; w?B;b nXkos fJZe jkJh gkto p'ov
ekfJw ehsk. fJ; B/ nkgD/ uko ;kb d/ no;/ ftZu f;ZyK ~ ekp{ ftZu oZyD bJh pV/ nfjw c?;b/ ehs/.

ykb;k ;?Bk Gzr eoBh L


ykb;k ;?Bk ~ nkgD/ ezNo'b j/m oZyDk pVk emB ezw ;h. T[j fe;/ th ;w/I prkts eoe/ gzikp ~ w[V nzro/iK s'I
w[es eotk ;edh ;h. fJ;/ bJh nzro/iK B/ gfjbk ezw ykb;k ;?Bk ~ s'VB dk ehsk.
;ko/ f;Zy c"ihnK ~ bkj"o p[bk e/ T[BQK dhnK pekfJnk sBykjK d/ fdZshnK rJhnK ns/ gdth s'I jNk fdZsk frnk.
n?bkB ehsk frnk fe ;ko/ c"ih s/ ;odko nkgD/ jfEnko fsnkr d/D ns/ fBZih fefbnK ~ Ykj d/D.

fi; c"ih f;Zy skes d/ ;kjwD/ ed/ e'Jh nV BjhI ;h ;edk, j[D T[BQK jh c"ihnK ns/ ;odkoK ~ Go/ j'J/ wB Bkb
nkgD/ jfEnko iwK eokT[D/ g? rJ/. fJ; ;dw/ ~ eJh f;Zy ;odko podk;s Bk eo ;e/ ns/ T[j T[uh T[uh G[ZpK wko e/ o'J/.
go T[BQK ~ Xotk; d/D tkbk j[D e'Jh BjhI ofj frnk ;h.

nkw b'eK ~ th jfEnko ofjs eoB bJh nzro/iK B/ fgzvK ftZu BzpodkoK dh ;jkfJsk Bkb jfEnko }ps ehs/. bZyK
pzd{eK s/ feqgkBK iwK eo bJhnK rJhnK ns/ n?bkB ehsk frnk fe ;oekoh w[bk}wK s/ nzro/iK s'I fpBK e'Jh th Bkrfoe
nkgD/ gk; jfEnko BjhI oZy ;edk. fJ; d/ Bkb jh jfEnko pDkT[D ns/ t/uD T[s/ th gkpzXh brk fdZsh rJh. j[ew dh
T[bzxDk eoB tkfbnK ~ Gkoh i[owkB/ ns/ e?d dh ;ik fdZsh ikD bZrh.

gzikp dk ;kFB gqpzX L


ftFkb gzikp ~ ;Zs vth}BK ftZu tzv e/ nZr/ fifbnK ns/ sfj;hbK nB[;ko tzfvnk frnk. fifbnK dh e[b frDsh
27 ;h. vth}B dk w[Zy fJzukoi efwFBo ns/ fiQb/ dk w[Zy fJzukoi fvgNh efwFBo brkfJnk frnk. jo sfj;hb dk gqpzX
sfj;hbdko eoB bZfrnk.

b'eK ~ y[F eoB d/ :sB L


b'eK dk fXnkB nkgD/ tZb fyZuD bJh nzro/}K B/ eJh BfjoK dh y[dtkJh F[o{ eotk fdZsh. fgFkto s'I fdZbh ftueko
ih Nh o'v dh T[;koh j'D bZr gJh, o;s/ ftub/ dfonktK s/ g[b T[;ko/ rJ/. ;ko/ gzikp ftZu ;VeK dk ikb ftSk fdZsk frnk.
;VeK feBko/ SK-dko o[Zy brkJ/ rJ/. nozG ftZu vke tzvD dk ezw f;gkjhnK ~ ;"Ifgnk frnk, go ;zB 1851 JhL ftZu
vkehJ/ Gosh ehs/ rJ/. o/bK dk ikb ftSkT[D dh :'iBk pDkJh rJh. 1855 JhL ftZu sko-xo ekfJw ehs/ rJ/. ftek; d/ fJj
;ko/ ekoi Gkt/I b'eK bJh b[GktD/ ;B go n;b ftZu gzikp tk;hnK ~ FKs eoB bJh nzro/iK dh fJj fJZe izrh Bhsh dk jh
fjZ;k ;h.

ikB-bko?I; (1853-1858)
gzikp dk uhc efwFBo pD e/ ikB-bko?I; B/ gzi ;kb pVh fwjBs Bkb gzikp tk;hnK ~
nkgDh geV ftZu fbnKdk. gZehnK ;VeK, BfjoK, o/b s/ vke-sko gqpzX B/ gzikp d/ Bt-fBowkD
dh ;EkJh BhIj oZy fdZsh. tZv/ tZv/ f;Zy ;odko fdb'I sK nzro/iK d/ pj[s fto[ZX ;B go T[j
nkgDk nzdobk r[Z;k gqrN BjhI ;B j'D d/Id/.

fJ; ;w/I gzikp ftZu ;[oZfynk bJh eohp 60, 000 c"ih w"i{d ;B. fiBQK ftu 36000
fjzd';skBh, 10,000 nzro/i s/ pkeh Bt/I Gosh ehs/ rJ/ 14,000 gzikp d/ B"itkB. f;Zy nzro/iK
ns/ fjzd';skBh ;?fBeK d/ fto[ZX ;B feT[Ife fjzd';skBh ;?fBeK B/ nzro/iK Bkb j' e/ f;Zy oki ~ ysw eotkfJnk ;h. fJjh
ekoB j? fe id 1857 JhL ftZu fjzd';skBh ;?fBeK B/ nzro/iK fto[ZX rdo wukfJnk sK f;Zy ykw'F oj/ ;B. fjzd';skBh ;?fBeK
~ nzro/iK jZE'I e[ZN g?Idh t/y e/ f;ZyK ~ e[M FKsh fwbDh ;[Gkte ;h, feT[Ife ni/ nZm ;kb gfjbK fJjh ;?fBe f;ZyK fto[ZX
nzro/iK Bkb fwb e/ gzikp dh ;oeko-J/-ykb;k ~ ysw eoB bJh pV/ ukn Bkb bV/ ;B. fJ; soQK f;ZyK s/ fjzd';skBh
;?fBeK dh nkg;h d[FwDh dk nzro/iK ~ pj[s bkG j'fJnk. nZXh ;dh s'I ufbnk nk fojk f;Zy oki-Gkr fJBQK fjzd';skBh
;?fBeK B/ ni/ nZm e{ ;kb gfjb/ jh ysw eotkfJnk ;h, Gbk f;Zy fJBQK dk ;kE d/ th fet/I ;ed/ ;B.

nzro/iK gqsh j'o ;{fpnK d/ f;ZyK dk o'b L


Gkos d/ j'o ;{fpnK ftu ofjD tkb/ f;Zy i' B"eoh dh sbkF ekoB nzro/ih c"i ftu Gkosh j'J/, T[BQK ns/ fjzd';skBh
j'o ;?fBeK ftueko fJe w[ZYbk coe ;h. f;Zy nzro/iK d/ jo nk:'r ns/ tfjFh j[ew ~ ;[D e/ T[; T[s/ nwb eoBk, f;Zy
Xow d/ w[Yb/ n;{bK d/ fto[ZX ;wMd/ ;B. fJj' ekoB ;h fe T[BQK B/ eJh Bk}e w"fenK s/ ftdo'j eoe/ tZvh frDsh ftu
FjkdsK th fdZshnK. go j'o fjzd';skBh ;?fBe nZyK whN e/ nzro/iK d/ jo j[ew T[s/ c[Zb jh uVkT[Id/ oj/ ;B.

Gkt/I nzro/iK B/ gzikp T[s/ 1849 JhL ftu


w[ezwb o{g ftu epik ehsk ;h, go u'yk ;wK gfjbK
th T[so gqd/F, fpjko, pzrkb d/ f;Zy i' nzro/iK dh
B"eoh sK efonk eod/ ;B go T[jBK dh ;kwoki tkbh
Bhsh s'I jw/FK nzdo'I d[yh jh ofjzd/ ;B. fi; dk ;w/I
;w/I T[BQK B/ gqrNktk th ehsk.

d/F d/ e[M fjZf;nK ftu 1824 JhL ~ eJh tZvhnK


xNBktK tkgohnK, fiBQK ftu'I e[M e{ dk ;zy/g t/otk
fJ; gqeko j? L

powK T[s/ jwb/ ;w/I f;Zy ftdo'j L


1824 Jh;th ftu powk Gkos dk jh fJe nzr ;h. T[; ;w/I nzro/iK e'b f;Zy
;?BeK dh pj[ ;zy:e ezgBh 47, B/fNt fJB\?BNoh ezw eodh ;h.

nzro/}K B/ fJBQK ~ powk T[go jwbk eoB dk j[ew d/ fdZsk, go f;Zy ;?BeK B/
nkgD/ powh GoktK T[go jwbk eoB s'I fJBeko eo fdZsk ns/ p?oe g[o s'I nZr/
tZXDk th pzd eo fdZsk. fJ; soQK f;Zy \"i B/ nzro/} ;oeko dk j[ew Bk wB e/
prkts eo fdZsh.

fJ; prkts ~ e[ubD bJh ;o n?vtov B/ 11 Btzpo 1824 JhH ~ r'ok


\"i dh tos'I eoe/ f;ZyK dh g{oh fJB\?BNoh ~ x/ok gk fbnk ns/ s'gK Bkb jwbk
eoe/ bZrGZr ;ko/ f;Zy \"ihnK ~ G[zB fdZsk. fijV/ e[M fJe \"ih T[E'I nkgDhnK
ikBK puk e/ GZi/, T[j j[rbh dfonk gko eod/ ;w/I jVQ ekoB o[VQ rJ/. fijV/ e[M fiT[Id/ f;Zy f;gkjh ekp{ nkJ/, T[jBK ~
\K;h T[s/ bNek e/ ]sw eo fdZsk frnk.

fJ; prkts ~ GVekT[D dh ;koh f}zw/tkoh fo;kbdko ;[o f;zx, pbkek f;zx ns/ iksk f;zx d/ Bkb-Bkb fw;No dk;
d/ f;o wVQh rJh, fijVk fJe pzrkbh n\;o ;h. fJ; xNBk ftu eohp 880 \"ih wko/ rJ/. fiBQK ftu'I 500 s'I tZX e/tb
T[j f;Zy ;B, fijV/ T[so gqd/F, fpjko ns/ pzrkb d/ iwgkb ;B.

(;b?;e' j?obv - 3 Btzpo 1825)

fti? f;zx s/ ebtk dh prkts L


rZ[io Bo/F okw fdnkb ;jkoBg[o tkb/ dk Gshik fti? f;zx o[Veh d/ B/V/ e[ziK Bkb ;pzX oZydk ;h, fJj pVk db/o
;{owk ;h. fJjBK dk xokDk r[o{ xo dk pVk FoXkb{ ;h. r[o{ BkBe ;kfjp ih dh uoB S'j fJjBK d/ tZv/-tv/fonK ~ gqkgs
j'Jh ;h.

fJ;/ jh fJbke/ ftu ebtk BK dk fJe gqf;ZX d/F Grs ofjzdk ;h, fijVk e/tb s/ e/tb nzro/}K ~ jh esb eodk
;h. fJj ;oekoh ]}kBk b[ZNdk ns/ nzro/}K d/ pzrfbnK T[s/ vke/ wkodk ;h. nk;gk; d/ fJbke/ ftu c?b/ j'J/ izrb jh fJ;
dk xo ;B.

i[bkJh 1824 JhH ftu fti? f;zx B/ T[; Bkb fwb e/ nkgD/ ;kEhnK dh ;jkfJsk Bkb nzr/o/}K fto[ZX prkts eo
fdZsh. r'fonK ns/ r'oyk \"iK Bkb bVd/ j'J/ fJ; prkts ;w/I 200 d/F Grs Fjhd/ j'J/, fiBQK ftu'I 89 r[o{ e/ f;Zy ;B. 47
pkrhnK ~ nzro/}K B/ \K;h brk e/ Fjhd eo fdZsk, fiBQK ftu'I 17 f;Zy ;B. ;?IeV/ d/F GrsK ~ ibk tsB ehsk frnk, T[wo
e?d dhnK ;iktK fdZshnK rJhnK. fJjBK ftu nZX/ T[j f;Zy ;B, fijV/ T[so gqd/F d/ ofjD tkb/ ;B.

n;kw T[s/ jwb/ ;w/I f;Zy ftdo'j L


14 nes{po 1824 JhH ~ rkoB/vhno ezgBh ~ nzro/}K dk j[ew fwfbnk fe n;kwh b'eK ~ nkgD/ nXhB ehsk ikt/,
go ;koh ezgBh B/ ni/jk eoB s'I fJBeko eo fdZsk. id'I fJjBK ;{ofwnK B/ wfj;{; ehsk fe nzro/}K dh Bh:s yokp j' rJh
j? sK ;kfonK B/ ftdo'j yVQk eo fdZsk. fJjBK B/ eJh nzro/} n\;oK ~ wko fdZsk.

fgZS'I w"e/ dh B}kes ~ d/yd/ j'J/ nzro/}K B/ nkgDhnK \"iK dh wdd Bkb ftdo'jhnK ~ x/ok gk e/ r'bhnK Bkb G[zB
fdZsk. ezgBh d/ fijV/ itkB pu rJ/, T[jBK dk e'oN wkoFb eoe/ ;]s dzv fdZs/ rJ/. fJ; prkts dk d'F joh f;zx ns/
eosko f;zx Bkw d/ f;Zy c"ihnK T[s/ brkfJnk frnk. fJ; ftdo'j ftZu 400 d/ eohp f;Zy Fjhd j'J/. fJj fpjko ns/
n;kw d/ jh ofjD tkb/ ;B.
Jh;N fJzvhnk ezgBh pko/ ;zy/g ikDekoh L

bzvB ftu e[M nzro/i tgkohnK B/ 1600


JhL ftu Jh;N fJzvhnk ezgBh dk rmB ehsk. fJ;
B/ ijKrho pkdFkj gk;'I 1608 JhL ~ ;{os ftu
fJe e'mh pDkT[D dh nkfrnk b? bJh fi; ~
g[osr/ihnK B/ e?If;b eotk fdZsk.

1609 JhL ftu fJ;/ ezgBh B/ iwhB w[b b?


e/ wdok; Ffjo dh BhIj oZyh ns/ fJe wip{s
febQk th pDk fbnk. fJ; B/ pzrkb ftu th fpBQK
w;{b s'I tgko eoB dh nkfrnk gqkgs eo bJh
ns/ j[rbh nkfde EktK s/ nkgDhnK e'mhnK th
pDKJhnK. ukob; d{i/ B/ 1668 JhL ftu pzpJh
Ffjo feokJ/ @s/ b? e/ ezgBh d/ jtkb/ eo fdZsk.

1690 JhL ftu nzro/iK B/ ebeZsk Ffjo t;kfJnk ns/ eohp 6 ;kb fgZS'I c'oN ftbhnw Bkw d/ febQ/ dh th T[;koh
eo bJh. Jh;N fJzvhnk ezgBh B/ nkgD/ ezw dk pj[s ft;Eko ehsk, fi; Bkb 1708 JhL sZe fJj ezgBh pVh skesto pD
rJh. ;', Gkos ftu nzro/ih oki dhnK iVK fJ; tgkoe ezgBh B/ jh brkJhnK ;B. fJj th fXnkB ftZu oZyD tkbh rZb j?
fe r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih th 1708 JhL ~ jh i'sh i'fs ;wkJ/ ;B.

1757 JhL ftu gbk;h dh bVkJh fiZsD fgZS'I nzro/iK B/ pzrkb ~ g{oh soQK nkgD/ nfXeko j/m b? nKdk. fJ; fgZS'I
fJj ezgBh brksko okiBhfse fiZsK gqkgs eodh ojh. fi; Bkb Jh;N fJzvhnk ezgBh fJe wip{s okiBhfse Fesh pD
rJh.

nzro/iK dh fJj Bhsh ;h fe ikfJi B}kfJi ;ko/ Yzr tos e/ tZX s'I tZX Gkosh gqd/FK ftu nzro/ih oki ;Ekfgs
ehsk ikt/. fJBQK jofpnK Bkb jh 1843 JhL sZe fJj gzikp ~ SZv e/ eohp ;ko/ Gkos T[s/ nkgDk oki ekfJw eoB ftu
ekw:kp j' rJ/ ;B. X'y/ co/p s/ e{NBhfse ukbk dh tos'I eoe/ nzro/iK B/ 1849 JhL ftu gzikp ~ th fpqfNF oki dk fj;k
pDk fbnk.

1857 JhL d/ rdo fgZS'I nzro/i ;oeko B/ Jh;N fJzvhnk ezgBh ~ Gzr eo fdZsk. fi; Bkb 257 ;kb g[okDh fJ;
ezgBh dk ykswk j' frnk.

B'N L nzro/iK B/ 12 d;zpo 1911 JhL ~ bkb febQk fdZbh ftu d/F d/ oki/ wjKokfinK dk tZvk fJZem ehsk. fJE/ nzro/iK B/
ebeZs/ dh EK fdZbh okiXkBh pDkT[D dk n?bkB eo fdZsk. nrb/ ;kb 12 d;zpo 1912 JhL ~ tkfJ;okfJ bkov jkofvzr Bth
okiXkBh fdZbh ftu nkJ/. id'I T[; dk ib{; uKdBh u"Ie fdZbh ftu'I bzx fojk ;h sK T[; T[go pzp ;[ZfNnk frnk. tkfJ;okJ/
sK pu frnk go J/H vhH eKr wkfonk frnk.
GkJh wjkoki tb'I prkts L

nzro/}K B/ rdko v/'rfonK dh wdd Bkb gzikp ~ nkgD/ epi/ j/m sK


eo fbnk ;h, go nzdo'I nzro/} ;fjw/ j'J/ ;B fe f;ZyK dk e'Jh gsk BjhI fe
T[BQK ~ gzikp ftu'I pkjo eZYD bJh fe;/ ;w/I th e'Jh tZvk jwbk eo d/D. fJ;/
;w/I B"Iozrkpkd d/ ofjD tkb/ GkJh wjkoki f;zx B/ 1847 JhH ftZu prkts dk
Mzvk yVQk eo fdZsk, fi; Bkb nzro/}K ~ tys g? frnk. GkJh wjkoki f;zx d/
Bkw s'I nzro/} Eo-Eo ezpd/ ;B. eJh ;kb nzro/} je{ws fJjBK ~ cVB
bJh BZm GZi eodh ojh, go ;cbsk BjhI ;h fwbdh. fJZe fjzd{ ftnesh B/
fJjBK Bkb drk ewkfJnk. T[; B/ bkbu ftZu nk e/ w[ypoh eo fdZsh, fi;
eoe/ GkJh ;kfjp ~ frq\sko eoe/ d/F fBekbk d/ fdZsk frnk. GkJh wjkoki
f;zx ~ f;zxkg[o dh i/bQ ftu e?d ehsk frnk. fiZE/ T[j eJh ;kb pj[s p[oh
;ohoe jkbs ftu e?d eZNd/ oj/. vkeNoh ;jkfJsk dh b'V j'D d/ pkti{d th
ikD p[ZM e/ e'Jh fXnkB Bk fdZsk frnk fi; eoe/ T[j nekb ubkDk eo rJ/.
fJ; soQK wkBt nfXekoK dh okyh eoB dk Yzv'ok fgZND tkb/ nzro/iK B/ nkg
wkBt nfXekoK dk xkD ehsk.

;odko uso f;zx nNkoh tkb/ dh Fjhdh L


fJ; d"okB j}kok d/ ;qH uso f;zx nNkoh tkb/ B/ nkgD/ g[so F/o f;zx nNkoh tkb/
Bkb fwb e/ nzro/}K ~ gzikp ftZu'I pkjo eZYD bJh prkts eo fdZsh. r'fonK bJh fJj
fJZe BthI nk\s pDe/ nk rJh. nzro/} v"o-G"o/ j'J/ nk}kdh d/ fJBQK gqtkfBnK ~ frqcsko
eoB bJh nZvh u'Nh dk }'o brk oj/ ;B. nkyoeko e[M ;w/I fgZS'I ftFkb ;kwoki d/ n;hw
;kXBK Bkb fJBQK ~ Fjhd eo fdZsk frnk.

id'I f;Zy 1849 JhH ftZu nzro/}K Bkb Gkos dh ;[szsosk bJh nkyoh izr bVQ oj/
;B sK nzro/}K Bkb j' e/ pkeh ;ko/ Gkos dhnK o?ihw?INK, f;ZyK fto[ZX bVhnK, fi; eoe/
f;Zy jko rJ/ ns/ nzro/} gzikp ;w/s ;ko/ Gkos T[go gZe/ s"o #s/ ekp} j' rJ/.

fJ;/ ;kb d/ nzs ftZu ;o ukob; e?ghno B/ fJZe fog'oN fsnko ehsh ;h fe gzikp
ftZu 50 s'I tZX o?ihw?INK n?;hnK jB fijVhnK nzro/}h ;kFB fto[ZX prkts eoB bJh w"e/
dh Gkb ftZu jB. 1850 Jh;th ftZu fJj prkts F[o{ sK j'Jh, go f;Zy o?ihw?INb ;?INo Gzr eo d/D Bkb fJ; ~ pj[s tZvk
XZek bZfrnk. 95 f;Zy frq\sko eo bJ/ rJ/, fiBQK ~ ;]s ;}ktK fdZshnK rJhnK.
nzro/iK dh wBwkBh L (1849-1882 JhL)
gzikp ~ Gkosh fpqfNF ;kwoki ftu Fkwb eoB fgZS'I nzro/iK B/ ftfdnk c?bkT[D d/ pjkB/ fwFB ;e{bK ftu Jh;kJh
gqukoeK ~ ;orow eo fdZsk. ;oekoh Ffj @s/ fJBQK B/ pV/ T[sFkj Bkb ezw ehsk. fi; d/ f;ZN/ ti'I eJh f;Zy Jh;kJh ws ~
XkoB eoB bZr gJ//. gzE dodh gfjbK ykb;k oki d/ y[Z; ikD ns/ j[D f;ZyK dk Xow gfotosB j'D dhnK xNBktK s'I vkY/
d[yh j' oj/ ;B. w"i{dk jkbks dk w[ekpbk eoB bJh f;ZyK B/ th d{o dh ;'u e/ w[ekpb/ bJh e[M wjZstg{oB ;z;EktK yVhnK
ehshnK, fiBQK B/ f;Zy ;wki ~ Xkofwe s"o s/ FeshFkbh j'D ftu pj[s wdd ehsh.

fBozekoh nzd'bB L
f;Zy Xow nzdo nkJhnK e[ohshnK ~ d{o eoB bJh pkpk fdnkb ih B/ fJ; bfjo ~ iBw fdZsk. oktbfgzvh fty/
T[BQK B/ fJe r[od[nko/ dh ;EkgBk ehsh fi; ~ gF"ohnK dk r[od[nkok fejk iKdk ;h. pkpk ih B/ pVh wip{sh Bkb f;Zy Xow
d/ w[Yb/ n;{bK dk gquko ehsk. T[j e/tb fJe fBozeko ~ :kd oZyD dk T[gd/F d/Id/ ;B. pqjwDh eow-eKv s/ y'yb/ ohsh
fotkiK dk T[BQK B/ y[b e/ yzvB ehsk.

pkpk ih B/ jkbks dh wip{oh eoe/ gF"ohnK d/ r[od[nko/ s'I e[M whb d{o 3 d;zpo 1851 JhL ~ fBozekoh dopko dh
BhIj oZye/ gOuko d/ ezw ~ iE/pzd ehsk. pkpk ih d/ ubkD/ fgZS'I j'o T[sokfXekoh 1947 JhL sZe fJ; e/Ido s'I brksko f;y
Xow d/ tkX/ bJh m'; :sB eod/ oj/.

e{ek nzd'bB L
f;ZyK ~ Xkofwe s"o s/ ikfrqs eoB bJh e{ek nzd'bB B/ ftF/F :'rdkB gkfJnk. Xkofwe e[ohshnK fto[ZX e{fenK B/
fgzv gZXo sZe nkgDh nktki p[bzd ehsh ns/ fJe gqG{ d/ f;woB s'I S[ZN fjzd{ d/th d/tfsnK dh g{ik s'I f;ZyK ~ tofink.
fJ; nzd"bB d/ w'Yh pkpk pkbe f;zx ih ;B, fijV/ 1861 JhL ~ fJ; BkFtkB ;z;ko s'I e{u eo rJ/.

pkpk okw f;zx ih dk :'rdkB L


nkg ih wjkokik oDihs f;zx dh \"i ftu 1836 JhL ~ x'V
;tko ti'I Gosh j'J/. wjkoki/ B/ fJBQK ~ nkgD/ g'so/ eto
B"fBjkb f;zx d/ ;?fBe d;s/ ftu Fkwb eo fdZsk. 1845 JhL ~
bkj"o d/ ykb;k dopko dhnK xNBktK s'I gqGkfts j' e/ fJj
B"eoh SZv e/ tkg; nkgD/ fgzv G?Dh nokJhnK fibQk b[fXnkDk
fty/ nk rJ/, fiZE'I fJBQK B/ Xow gquko d/ Bkb-Bkb nzro/iK
fto[ZX nkgD/ fdb dk r[pko eZYDK F[o{ eo fdZsk.

pkpk okw f;zx ih B/ nzro/}K fto[ZX FKswJh nzd'bB dh


nozGsk 1869 JhH ftZu ehsh. fJj rZb ftF/F eoe/ :kd oZyD
tkbh j? fe T[d'I ni/ eKro; gkoNh dk iBw th BjhI ;h j'fJnk. pkpk okw f;zx ih B/ nzro/}K dh p'bh, fbpk;, B"eohnK,
ndkbsK, vkeykB/, o/b rZvhnK, ftd/Fh-t;s{nK nkfd dk pkJhekN eoB dk gq'rokw d/F tk;hnK ~ fdZsk ;h. nzro/}K dk
w[ekpbk eoB bJh pkpk ih B/ nkgDh ;oeko ekfJw eoB d/ m'; T[gokb/ ehs/. ;ko/ gzikp ftZu r[gs s"o #s/ T[jBK B/ nkgD/
;{p/ ekfJw eoe/ fBgkb Bo/F ns/ o{; ;oeko e'b'I ;jkfJsk bJh ftFtk; th gqkgs eo fbnk, go Gkos ftu'I fe;/ j'o B/
T[jBK dk e'Jh ;kE Bk fdZsk.

;ko/ Gkos tk;h fjzd{ ;wki dk ftFtk; jk;b eoB bJh 1871 JhH ftZu T[jBK B/ rT{ jzfsnk pzd eokT[D bJh fJZe
tZvk nzd'bB ubkfJnk. fJ; ;w/I e[ZM i'Fhb/ BkwXkoh f;zxK B/ gzikp ftZu eJh p[ZuVykfBnK d/ p[ZuVK ~ tZY ;[ZfNnk, fi; Bkb
nzro/} ;oeko ~ GVE{ g? frnk.

fJjBK f;Zy ;{ophoK B/ fwbNoh ftZu prkts c?bkD dk th :sB ehsk. ekpb ftZu GkJh fpFB f;zx, rtkbhno ftZu
GkJh Bo?D f;zx, eKFh ftZu GkJh ekjB f;zx ~ fJ; wzst bJh fB:[es th ehsk frnk.

1872 JhH ftZu fJjBK f;zxK B/ b[fXnkD/ d/ n;b/ykB/ T[s/ ep}k eoB dk c?;bk ehsk. fJ; :sB ftZu e'stkb ;w/s
7 c"ih wko/ rJ/. b[fXnkD/ d/ fvgNh efwFBo B/ c"ih ;jkfJsk wzrh ns/ nk;-gk; dhnK fonk;sK ~ th wdd eoB bJh
fejk frnk. tZvh ;orowh Bkb BkwXkoh f;zxK d/ fJ; i[Mko{ db ~ frq\sko eo fbnk frnk.

pkpk okw f;zx ih ~ i/eo pkeh Gkos tk;hnK B/ g{ok-g{ok ;fj:'r fdZsk j[zdk iK fJjBK d[nkok g/F ehs/ rJ/
pkJhekN ~ g{oh soQK ngDkfJnk j[zdk sK Gkos dh nk}kdh xZN s'I xZN 75 ;kb gfjbK j' ikDh ;h. Gkos ftZu fjzd{ fcoek
gq;sh ns/ f;ZyK gOsh Jhoykb[ ;'u j'D eoe/ jh pkpk ih dk nzd'bB ;\b Bk j' ;fenk. nzro/}K B/ pkpk okw f;zx ih ns/
T[jBK d/ 12 ;kEhnK ~ B}opzd eoe/ powk ftZu ibktsB eo fdZsk, fi; eoe/ fJj bfjo nZr/ Bk tZX ;eh.

fJj th nNZb ;ZukJh j?, i/eo 1849 JhH ftZu ;kok d/F fJZemk j' e/ f;ZyK fto[ZX Bk bVdk sK nzro/} ed/ th gzikp d/
wkbe Bk pDd/ ns/ fJ; ;{os ftZu gzikp nZi th nk}kd d/F d/ s"o #s/ ;[Zyh tZ; fojk j[zdk.

fJj jehes dZ;D ftZu osk fizBh th fjueukjN BjhI j? fe i/ pkpk okw f;zx ih d;t/I gksFkj d/ f;Zy Bk j[zd/ ns/
fe;/ d{i/ Xow ftFtk; tkb/ j[zd/ sK nZi T[j ;kv/ d/F d/ okFNo fgsk d/ ;BwkB Bkb ;BwkfBs ehs/ rJ/ j[zd/.

fJj th :kd oZyD :'r j? fe wjkswk rKXh B/ fgZS'I ik e/ nzro/iK d/ pkJhekN eoB dk fijVk gq'rokw d/F-tk;hnK ~
fdZsk ;h, T[j T[jBK dk nkgDk BjhI pbfe pkpk okw f;zx ih tkbk jh ;h. f\oekgq;sh ns/ wzB{ tkdh ;'u eoe/ jh fijVk
;fseko wjkswk rKXh ih ~ fwfbnk, T[j pkpk okw f;zx ih ~ Bk fwb ;fenk.

;odko fdnkb f;zx L


fJj gVQ e/ eJhnK ~ j?okBh j''t/rh fe ;qH fdnkb f;zx ih 1893 JhH ftZu nkb fJzvhnk B?FBb eKro; d/ bkj"o
;?FB d/ gqXkB ;B. fJj dkdk GkJh Bko' ih d/ pokpo d/ nkr{ ;B. o'}kBk fNqfpT{B n]pko nkg ih B/ jh F[o{ ehsk ;h, fi;
~ f;Zy e"w nkgD/ jZEK ftZu BjhI oZy ;eh. ub'! xZN s'I xZN fdZbh d/ f;Zy fdnkb f;zx ekbi d/ Bkw s'I sK tke\ jh jB.
ekbi dh fpbfvzr d/y e/ fe;/ ~ sK ;odko fdnkb f;zx :kd nkT[Id/ jh j'Dr/HHHH.
rdo gkoNh dk o'b L
21 ng?qb 1913 JhL ~ pkpk ;'jD f;zx GeBk
(nzfwqs;o) B/ nkgD/ ;kEhnK Bkb fwb e/ nwohek s/
eB/vk ftu rdo gkoNh dh ;EkgBk ehsh. gkoNh d/
gquko bJh Btzpo 1913 JhL ~ rdo Bkw dk fJe
;gskfje nypko F[o{ ehsk frnk. fJj T[od{,
r[ow[yh, fjzdh, wokmh ns/ nzro/ih ftu Sgdk ;h.
@rdo# ftu nzro/iK d/ nfsnkukoK dk y[Zb e/ toBD
ehsk j[zdk ;h. rdoh ;{ofwnK B/ r'fonK dh BhIdo
jokw eo fdZsh j'Jh ;h. fJ; gkoNh B/ Gkos ftu
nkikdh ;zzrokw ~ pVk pb fdZsk.

rdohnK d/ nypko B/ Gkosh b'eK ~ gq/oBk


ehsh fe T[j iE/pzd j' e/ nzro/iK d/ fgZm{nK ~ esb
eoB, ;oekoh y}kB/ b[ZND, i/bQK s'VB ns/ B"itkB
nikdh dh bVkJh bVB bJh nZr/ nkT[D. :kd oj/-
GrtkB f;zx, irs f;zx, fgqEth f;zx, eosko f;zx
;okGk s/ pkpk ;'jD f;zx GeBk rdo gkoNh dh fizd
ikB ;B.

nr;s 1914 JhL ~ GkJh itkbk f;zx 160


rdohnK d/ iE/ ;w/s ;w[zdoh ijki okjh ebeZs/
gj[zfunk go ;{j fBeb ikD eoe/ ;kfonK ~ B}opzd
eoe/ gzikp dhnK i/bQK ftu G/i fdZsk frnk. pkpk
;'jD f;zx GeBk 173 rdohnK ~ @s';kwko{# Bkw d/
ijki okjh b? e/ 29 nes{po 1914 JhL ~ Gkos ftu nkfJnk. fJBQK B/ eJh EKJh nzro/iK ns/ T[BQK d/ fgZm{nK ;w/s d/F
Xo'JhnK ~ u[D-u[D e/ pzB/ brkfJnk. id fJBK rdohnK ~ th frqcsko eo fbnk sK pj[s/ w[bskB s/ fwzNrwoh dhnK i/bQK
ftu vZe/ rJ/.

eB/vk ns/ nwohek dh y[;jkb f}zdrh SZv e/ fJj rdoh pkp/ Gkosh b'eK d/ rb'I r[bkwh dk i{bk T[skoB bJh tZvhnK
e[opkBhnK eo oj/ ;B. fJe nzdki/ w[skpe d' ;kbK d/ no;/ ftu xZN s'I xZN 8000 rdoh i'X/ Gkos ftu g[Zi u[Ze/ ;B. fJBQK
B/ nzfwqs;o, b[fXnkDK s/ BkGk fonk;s ftu eJh EKJh pzp pDkT[D d/ ekoykB/ th brkJ/. pzrkb d/ eqKshekohnK Bkb ;zgoe
eoe/ poskBth ;kwoki fto[ZX jfEnko-pzX ftdo'j dk x/ok ftFkb ehsk.

nzs ftu nzro/iK B/ fJ; bfjo ~ e[ubD ftu ekw:kph jk;b eo bJh. pj[s ;ko/ rdohnK ~ cV fbnk frnk.
d[BhnK ~ fdykT[D bJh M{m/ w[eZdw/ ubkT[D dk BkNe y/fvnk frnk, fi; nB[;ko 46 rdohnK ~ w"s dh ;ik, 194 ~ d/F
fBekbk ns/ eJhnK ~ e?d s/ Gkoh i[owkB/ ehs/ rJ/. fJj pkp/ sK nkgDhnK ikBK d/F d/ b/y/ bk rJ/ go n\;'; j? nkikd
GkoshnK B/ j[D fJzBK ~ ed/ :kd th BjhI ehsk feT[Ife fJj pj[s/ f;Zy Xow Bkb ;pzX oZyd/ ;B.

f;zx ;Gk bfjo L


1 nes{po 1873 JhL ~ d[;fjo/ tkb/ fdB wzih ;kfjp nzfwqs;o fty/ gfjbh f;zx ;Gk ekfJw ehsh rJh. fi; dk
w[Ybk ezw f;Zy Xow T[s/ SkJ/ j'J/ pqjwDh eow eKvK dh nwot/b ~ T[skoBk ;h. tfjw-Gow, M{m/ ohsh fotki f;Zy Xow ~
nzdo'I nzdoh ykJh ik oj/ ;B. f;zx ;[GktK B/ F[X ykb;kJh ihtB iKu ngBkT[D dk pVh tZvh gZXo s/ gquko ehsk.

1877 JhL ftu GkJh r[ow[y f;zx B/ gfjbh tko bkj"o Uohn?INb ekbi ftu gzikph GkFk ukb{ eotkJh. pkpk y/w
f;zx p/dh B/ r[ow[yh ;e{bK ~ ekfJw eoBk nozG ehsk. fJ; s'I gfjbK f;Zy, XowFkbK, wzdoK, w;hsK iK Jh;kJh fwFBoh
;e{bK ftu f;fynk gqkgs eod/ ;B.

1892 JhL ftu ykb;k ekbi nzfwqs;o dh ;EkgBk ehsh rJh. fJE'I gVB tkb/ nB/eK nfij/ B"itkB ;B, fizBQK nZr/
ik e/ Gkos dh nkikdh bJh pVk tZvk :'rdkB gkfJnk. ykb;k ;e{b, ekbi @f;Zy rVQ# ti'I ikD/ ikD bZr gJ/.

fJj rZb tZyoh j? fe r[od[nkfonK d/ wjzsK s/ g[ikohnK ~ f;ZyK d/ gVQ fby ikD s'I pVk vo bZrdk ;h. T[j ukj[zd/
;B fe f;Zy nkgD/ Xow, cb;c/ ns/ fJfsjk; s'I nBikD jh ofjD sKfe Xkofwe b'N{ N'b/ dhnK w"iK poeoko ofj ;eD.

f;zx ;[GktK dhnK ;qrowhnK Bkb f;ZyK ftu fiZE/ Xkofwe s/ ftfdne ikfrqsh nkJh, T[E/ nkgD/ okiBhfse nfXekoK
dh wzr th j"bh j"bh T[mDh F[o{ j' rJh. nzro/i nkgD/ fgZm[nK okjhI f;zx ;Gk d/ p[bkfonK fto[ZX b'eK ftu Bcos Gfonk
eod/ ;B.

1905 JhL ftu f;zx ;Gk d/ B/sktK B/ ;qh dopko ;kfjp dhnK gqeowK ftu'I w{oshnK ~ u[etk e/ fjzd{ eowwKvk s'I
w[es eotk fdZsk ;h. 1909 JhL ~ fJe ek~B okjhI nBzd ftnkj o;w ~ ek~Bh gqtkBrh fwb rJh, i' f;zx ;[Gk bfjo dh
nfjw gqkgsh ;h. ;Gk d/ XZVb/dko gqukoeK B/ f;ZyK ftu Xkofwe s/ f;nk;h u/sBk g?dk eoB ftu nfjw :'rdkB gkfJnk.
ykb;k ;e{bK d/ y[Zb ikD Bkb f;ZyK B/ nzro/}K d/ gOGkt j/m fJ;kJh ws ngBkT[Dk pzd eo fdZsk.

f;zx ;Gk dk T[d/F f;Zy Xow T[s/ SkJ/ j'J/ pqjwDh eow eKv dh nwot/b ~ T[skoBk ;h. f;ZyK ftu'I tfjwK-GowK s/
M{m/ ohsh fotkiK ~ ysw eoe/ F[X ykb;kJh ihtB-iku ~ gqubs eoBk fJ; d/ w[ZYb/ ezwk ftu'I fJe ;h. fJj F'e Bkb
fbyDk g? fojk j? fe nZi eZb pj[shnK f;zx ;GktK nkg;h bVkJh MrV/ dk e/Ido pD rJhnK jB ns/ gOpzXe nkgD/ ep}/
tk;s/ T[jh jZE ezv/ tosB bZr rJ/ jB fijV/ ed/ d[okukoh wjzs ngDkT[Id/ ;B. u"DthnK f;zx ;GktK d/ gOpzXe uzr/ th jB,
i' Xow gquko bJh ;orqw ofjzd/ jB.

pipi xkN dk ;kek L


pkpk r[ofdZs f;zx ih B/ ekwk rkNk wko{ ijk} okjhI 1914 JhH ftZu j'o w[;kcoK ;w/s eB/vk tZb ukb/ gkJ/ feT[Ife
j'o e'Jh th ;w[zdoh ijk} n?;k BjhI ;h fijVk Gkos s'I f;ZXk eB/vk gj[zudk j't/. nzro/}K B/ GkoshnK ~ r[bkwh dk nfj;k;
eotkT[D bJh fe;/ th n?;/ ijk} okjhI fijVk o;s/ ftZu o[e e/ nkT[Idk j't/, okjhI ;tko j' e/ eB/vk nkT[D T[s/ gkpzdh brk
fdZsh ;h, go Gkos #u'I eB/vK sZe f;ZXk nkT[D bJh e'Jh ;kXB jh BjhI ;h. fJe soQK Bkb nzro/iK B/ GkoshnK ~ e?B/vk ftZu
dkyb j'D T[go nf;ZX/ o{g ftZu gkpzdh brk fdZsh. fJ; gkpzdh ~ s'VB bJh m/e/dkoh dk ezw eoB tkb/ pkpk r[ofdZs f;Zx B/
w?dkB ftu fBsoB dk \?;bk ehsk.

fJ; B/ e'bk Y'D tkbk fJe g[okDk ijk} yohfdnk ns/ T[;dh w[ozws eoe/ nkgD/ ;\o bJh :'r pDkfJnk, go id'I
fJj ijk} okjhI w[;kfcoK ;w/s e?B/vk dh t?Be{to pzdorkj B/V/ gj[zu/ sK nzro/}K B/ ;w[zdo ftZu jh fJjBK ~ x/o/ ftZu b?
fbnk ns/ nBkT{I;w?IN eo fdZsh fe fJ; ijk} ~ pzdorkj T[go bZrD dh fJ}k}s BjhI j?. fJ; eoe/ eJh wjhB/ fJj
MrVk ubdk fojk. wip{oB ekwk rkNk wko{ d/ w[;k\oK ~ Gkos tkg; w[VBk fgnk. id'I fJBQK f;oVh d/F GrsK ~ b? e/ fJj
ijk} pi pi xkN (ebeZsk) B/V/ gj[zfunk sK fJE/ th nzro/}K B/ jfEnko f;ZX/ eo bJ/. pipi xkN s/ w[;kcoK T[go r'bh
ubk e/ eJhnK ~ w"s d/ xkN T[sko fdZsk frnk, go pkpk r[ofdZs f;zx ih fe;/ Bk fe;/ soQK pu rJ/.

pzdorkj T[go jh 50 s'I tZX f;ZyK dhnK bkFK fyZbohnK gJhnK ;B. fijV/ i]wh j' rJ/ ;B, T[jBK ;kfonK ~
frq\sko eo fbnk frnk. fJj xNBk 29 ;szpo 1914 Jh;th dh j?. ekwkrkNkwko{ d/ e[b 376 w[;kcoK ftZu'I 355 f;Zy
;B.fJ; ;ke/ Bkb ;ko/ Gkos ftu jkjkeko wZu rJh go nzro/} N; s'I w; Bk j'J/.

@ip? pkD bkfrUHHHHH# L

fJ; ;ke/ dh ]po id'I ftd/FK ftZu tZ;d/ f;ZyK e'b g[Zih sK nzro/}K fybkc j'o th o'; c?b frnk. nwohek ikgkB
nkfde d/FK ftZu ofjzd/ 170 f;zxK dk fJZe iEk 24 nes{po 1914 ~ jh Gkos g[Zi frnk. fJj ;ko/ nzro/ik ~ ;pe
f;ykT[D bJh fJE/ nkJ/ ;B, go ikpo nzro}K B/ ;kfonK ~ frq\sko eoe/ d{o-d[okv/ dhnK }/bQk ftZu pzd eo fdZsk.

wkou 1915 JhH sZe 3125 f;zx d[BhnK d/ e'B/ -e'B/ ftZu'I Gkos ftubh nk}kdh bfjo ~ pb d/D bJh gzikp gj[zu
rJ/ ;B. f;ZyK dh fcsos jh n?;h j? fe fJj dpkfJnk dZpd/ BjhI ;r' j'o GVe T[md/ jB.

;odko eosko f;zx ;okGk dh Fjhdh L


19 Btzpo ~ 1915 ~ id'I eosko f;zx ;okGk ~ eqKshekoh ;orqwhnK
eoe/ \K;h dh ;ik fdZsh rJh. T[; ;w/I @;okG/# dh T[wo e/tb 19 ;kb e[M wjhB/
jh ;h. fJj S'Nh T[wo dk nkikdh ;zrqkwhnK ;h fi; B/ d/F ~ nkikd eokT[D dk
;[gBk t/fynk ;h.

;qL Grs f;zx eosko f;zx ;okG/ dk gq;zf;e s/ T[; bJh gq/oBk ;o's ;h.
T[j fJ; ~ nkgDk oki;h r[o{ wzBdk ;h. id'I ;qH Grs f;zx ~ frq\sko ehsk frnk
sK T[; dh i/p ftu'I ;okG/ dh c'N' fBebh fi; ~ T[j jo ;w/I nkgD/ gk; ;zGkb e/
oZfynk eodk ;h. id'I eosko f;zx ;okGk ~ \K;h brkJh rJh sK nzro/i fJ; d/
j"I;b/ s/ nksw ftFtk; ~ d/y e/ j?okB j' rJ/.
ifbnktkbk pkr dk ;kek L
13 ngq?b 1919 JhL ft;kyh tkb/
fdB nzfwqs;o ftu iZfbnK tkb/ pkr ftu
fJe FKswJh o'; o?bh oZyh rJh ;h. fJ;
o?bh ftu jikoK b'e Fkwb j'J/. pj[s/ b'e
ft;kyh dk w/bk t/yD bJh fJE/ nkJ/ j'J/
;B. eJh b'e d[gfjo ;w/I t?;/ jh nkokw
eoB bJh iZfbnk tkb/ pkr ftu nkD e/ b/N
rJ/.

T[; ;w/I fJj pkr w?dkB j[zdk ;h.


fJ; d/ u"c/o/ T[u/ T[u/ wekBK dhnK ezXk ;B.
pkjo'I nzdo iK nzdo'I pkjo ikD bJh fJe'
jh szr o;sk ;h. pkr ftu 20,000 b'e fJZem/ j' rJ/, fiBQK ftu wod, fJ;sqhnK, B"itkB s/ pZu/ th ;B. fJj tZy tZy fgzvK
s/ e;fpnK ftu'I ft;kyh dk fsT[jko wBkT[D bJh nzfwqs;o gj[zu/ j'J/ ;B.

iBob vkfJo 4H30 ti/ nkgD/ 50 ;?fBeK ns/ n;b/ Bkb GohnK d' rZvhnK ;w/s iZfbnktkb/ pkr d/ w[y dtko e'b
gj[zu frnk. fpBQK fe;/ d/oh d/ T[; B/ f;gkjhnK ~ r'bh ubkT[D dk j[ew d/ fdZsk. brGr 10 fwZN sZe brksko r'bh ubdh
ojh. iBob vkfJo d/ ;?fBeK B/ 1650 r'bhnK ubkJhnK, T[BQK gk; j'o fJe th r'bh ubkT[D bJh pkeh BjhI ;h puh, Bjh sK
T[j th ubk d/Id/.

fJ; ;ke/ ftu nB/eK b'e wko/ rJ/ eJh rzGho o{g ftu iywh j' rJ/. fijV/ bkgsk j'J/ T[BQK pko/ e[M BjhI fejk ik
;edk. ;oeko B/ i]whnK dh e'Jh ;ko Bk bJh. fJ; r'bh eKv ftu xZN s'I xZN 1300 b'e Fjhd j'J/, fiBQK ftu'I 799 e/tb
f;Zy ;B.

ifbnKtkb/ pkr ftZu fjzd{, w[;bwkB s/ f;Zy Fjhd j'J/, go fJjBK dk pdbk fJZe f;Zy B"itkB T{Xw f;zx B/ iBob
vkfJo ~ fJzrb?Iv ftu r'bh wko e/ 21 ;kbK fgZS'I b? fbnk. fJj B"itkB ;?INob :shwykBk g[sbh xo nzfwqs;o fty/ gfbnk
;h, fiZE'I fJ; ~ f;Zy ;{ophoK dhnK ejkDhnK ;t/o/ Fkw d/ dhtkB ftZu ;[DB ~ fwbdhnK ;B. ;ke/ tkb/ fdB B"itkB T{Xw
f;zx ifbnK tkbk pkr d/ pkjo gkDh tkbh Sphb #s/ ;/tk eo fojk ;h. fJ; B/ ;kok r'bh eKv nkgD/ nZyhI t/fynk. fJE/ jh
fJ; B/ e;w yk bJh ;h fe T[j iBob vkfJo ~ fiT[Idk BjhI SZv/rk.

pZpo nekbh bfjo L


nzro/i ;oeko B/ 1921 JhL ftu r[od[nkok ;[Xko bfjo ;w/I gzikp ftu nZs dh ;ysh tosh ;h. ;qh BBekDk ;kfjp
d/ ;ke/ ftu nzro/iK dk jZE ns/ r[o{ e/ pkr ftu fw;No phH NhH tZb'I f;ZyK T[s/ ehs/ rJ/ nZfsnkuko s/ i/bQK ftu ehsh rJh
;ysh d/ gqsheow ti'I d[nkp/ ftZu ppo nekbh bfjo nozG j'Jh. fJ; dk w[y wzst nzro/iK d/ w[ypoK ns/ M'bh MZeK dh
nby w[ekT[DK ns/ d/F ftu jfEnko pzX ftdq'j eoe/ nzro/iK d/ oki ~ gzikp ftu'I ysw eoBk ;h.

pZpo nekbh bfjo ;w/I ibzXo, j[fFnkog[o s/ eg{oEb/ d/ f;ZyK B/ pj[s e[opkBhnK ehshnK. fJ; fJBebkph iE/pzdh
dh ;EkgBk ;qH feFB f;zx rV rZi s/ pkp{ ;zsk f;zx B/ ehsh ;h fJj foNkfJov c"ih ;B.

pZpoK B/ u[D u[D e/ d/F Xq'jhnK dh nby w[ekJh. gzikp ftu nzro/iK d/ fgZm{ Eo Eo ezpD bZr gJ/. w[ypoK B/ vod/
wko/ nkgDhnK jt/bhnK dhnK T[uhnK T[uhnK dhtkoK T[;ko bJhnK ns/ tZv/ tZv/ r/N brk bJ/. fJ; soQK nzro/iK ns/ w[ypoK
nzdo pZpoK dh pVh dfjFs c?b rJh.

fpqfNF je{ws B/ e[M ;kbK dhnK ;orqwhnK Bkb 89 pZpoK ~ frq\sko eo fbnk. fJBQK T[s/ bkj"o ftu w[eZdwK
uZfbnk, fi; dk c?;bk 28 cotoh 1925 JhL ~ ;[DkfJnk frnk. gzi pZpoK ~ cK;h, 11 ~ T[wo e?d ekb/ gkDh ns/ 38 ~
uko s'I frnkoK ;kb dh ;ik ;[DkJh rJh. pkehnK ~ i[owkB/ ehs/ rJ/. fijV/ pZpoK ~ w"s dh ;ik fdZsh rJh T[BQK B/ T[gobh
ndkbs ftu nghb eoB s'I wBQK eo fdZsk ns/ T[j jZ; jZ; e/ d/F dh nkikdh bJh Fjhd j' rJ/.

r[od[nkok ;[Xko bfjo L


r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih d/ 1708 JhL ftZu i'sh i'fs ;wk ikD fgZS'I f;ZyK bJh r[od[nkfonK dh ;zGkb eoBh n"yh j' rJh
;h. pzdk f;zx pjkdo dh 1716 JhL ftZu Fjhdh fgZS'I je{ws B/ f;ZyK d/ f;oK dk w[Zb oZy fdZsk, fi; eoe/ f;ZyK ~ izrbK
p/fbnK ftZu ofjD bJh w}p{o j'D fgnk.

nfij/ Bk}[e w"e/ #s/ T[dk;h ;zsK ;kXK B/ r[od[nkfonK dh ;/tk eoBh F[o{ eo fdZsh. fJj ;/tk ghVQh do ghVQh fJBQK
wjzsK dh n"bkd eodh ojh. r[od[nkfonK dh nkwdB s/ ikfJdkd B/ fJBQK ~ GfoFN pDk fdZsk. f;Zy fw;bK ns/ wjkokik
oDihs f;zx d/ ;w/I th r[od[nkfonK dh ikfJdkd ftZu Gkoh tkXk j'fJnk.

1849 Jh;th ftZu nzro/}K B/ gzikp ~ nkgD/ ep}/ ftZu b? fbnk. fi; eoe/ f;Zy pj[s d[Zyh ;B. nzro/}K d/ oki
ftZu wjzs j'o th G{so rJ/ feT[Ife nzro/} fJBQK ~ f;ZyK fto[ZX tosD bJh g{oh-g{oh Ffj d/Id/ ;B. T[Xo
nzro/}K B/ fwFB ;e{b y'jb e/ f;Zy B"itkBK ~ Jh;kJh ws tZb fyZuDk th F[o{ eo fdZsk ;h. fi; eoe/ f;ZyK d/ nzdo{Bh gzEe
jkbks pV/ Bk}e pD rJ/.

nfij/ jkbksK ftZu f;ZyK B/ r[od[nkfonK ~ wjzsK e'b'I nk}kd eokT[D dk Nhuk fwE e/ id'-ifjd eoBh nkozG eo
fdZsh sKfe nkgD/ fto;/ ~ ;zGkfbnk ik ;e/. wjzsK B/ nzro/}K e'b'I wdd b? e/ ;[Xkotkdh f;ZyK dk w[ekpbk eoB dk wB pDk
fbnk. fi; Bkb NeokT[ nkozG j' frnk. nzro/} BjhI ;B ukj[zd/ fe r[od[nko/ f;ZyK d/ jZE nk ikD. fJBQK ~ T[j nkgD/ oki
bJh ysok ;wMd/ ;B.

r[od[nkok soB skoB ;kfjp, ;Oh dopko ;kfjp nzfwqs;o, ;Oh nekb s]s ;kfjp, ;Zuk ;"dk pko, ;Oh BBekDk ;kfjp
nkfde wjzsK e'b'I nk}kd eokT[IfdnK pj[s ;ko/ f;zxK ~ FjhdhnK d/DhnK gJhnK. nzro/} r[od[nkok ;[Xko bfjo ~ Gkos dh
nk}kdh Bkb i'V e/ d/yd/ ;B. T[Xo wjkswk rKXh ns/ itkjo bkb Bfjo{ fJj ;wMd/ ;B fe i/ f;ZyK B/ r[od[nko/ nk}kd
eotk bJ/ sK fgZS'I S/sh jh fJjBK d/ ;fj:'r Bkb d/F th nk}kd eotkfJnk ik ;e/rk. fJ; bJh fJBQK nkr{nK B/ f;ZyK dk wB'
pb tXkT[D bJh f;ZyK d/ ;zxoF dh y[bQ/nkw jwkfJs ehsh.

FjhdhnK, ;ke/ ns/ w'ofunK ekoB f;ZyK dh ;ko/ Gkos ftZu xo-xo uouk j'D bZr gJh. nzro/}K d/ nfsnkukoK dk
fFeko j'J/ f;ZyK ~ b'e-BkfJeK tork ;fseko fwbDk F[o{ j' frnk. nkfyoeko bzwh id'-ifjd fgZS'I 1921 s'I 1924 JhL
sZe f;ZyK B/ wjzsK ns/ T[BQK d/ wkJh-pkg nzro/}K e'b'I ;ko/ r[od[nko/ nk}kd eotk e/ jh ;kj fbnk. fJj ;zxoF p/FZe
r[od[nkfonK dh nk}kdh bJh ;h go d/F dh nk}kdh bJh fJj w[ZYbk FKswJh ;zxoF j' fBpfVnk. e"wh B/sktK B/ fJ; ;zxoF
pko/ i' ftuko gOrN ehs/, T[BQK ftZu'I e[M fJ; gOeko jB L

@@w?I gqBkw eodk jK nekbhnK ~ fizBQK d/F dh nk}kdh bJh x'b nozfGnk j? ns/ nk}kdh bJh bVQ oj/ jB.##

(gzvs w'sh bkb Bfjo{)


r[od[nkok ;qh soB skoB ;kfjp ~ wjzsK e'b'I nk}kd eotkT[D bJh Fjhd j'J/ gfjb/ r[of;Zy dh rkEk ;[D e/
wjkswK rKXh B/ nekbh db ~ fJe sko fdZsh ;h fe L

@w?~ d/F nk}kd eokT[D dk B[;yk fwb frnk j?, r[od[nkok nk}kd j' frnk, w[pkoe j't/. j[D d/F th s[;hI jh nk}kd
eokT[Dk j?.# (n?wH e/H rKXh)

nekbhnK tZb'I brkJ/ rJ/ ukphnK d/ w'ou/ dh ;cbsk fgZS'I th wjkswK rKXh ih B/ fJe sko Fq'wDh nekbh db ~ G/ih
;h fi; fbfynk ;h fe L

@d/F ;[szsosk dh gfjbh bVkJh fiZs bJh rJh j?. w?I f;Zy e"w ~ tXkJh d/Idk jK.#

(n?wH e/H rKXh)

wjkswk rKXh dhnK fJj d't/I skoK eKro; ns/ nekbh db d/ foekov ftu w"i{d jB, p/Fe pfbT{ ;Nko n?eFB ;w/I
1984 JhH ftu nekbh db dk sK ;kok foekov ;kVQ e/ ;tkj eo fdZsk frnk, go eKro; gkoNh d/ nkgD/ foekov ~ ni/
sZe ed/ th nZr BjhI bZrh.

@r[o{ e/ pkr ftu'I jh d/F ;[szsosk dh bfjo T[mh j? ns/ j[D fJ;/ B/ jh d/F ~ ;[szso eokT[Dk j?.#
(gzvs wdB w'jB wkbthnk)

@f;Zy thoK B/ ;k~ d/F ;[szsosk dh gqkgsh dh iku f;yk fdZsh j?. j[D d[Bhnk dh e'Jh skes ;k~ pj[sh d/o r[bkw
BjhI oZy ;edh.#

(vkH ;?c[dhB feub{)

@nk}kdh jo fJe dk jZe j?, n;hI egZ[so jK, go nekbh ;gZ[so jB fijV/ fe nkgD/ fJ; jZe bJh bVQ oj/ ;B.

(bkbk bkigs okJ/)


@f;Zy e"w dk iBw d/F dh ;[szsosk bJh j'fJnk j? ns/ fJjBK thoK d/ j[zfdnK d/F j[D pj[sh d/o r[bkw BjhI ofj
;edk. fJj w/ok gZek ftFtk; pD frnk j?.#

(dkdk GkJh Bko' ih)

@fi; d/F e'b f;ZyK i/jh FjhdK dk e"w w"i{d j't/, T[j d/F pj[sh d/o r[bkw BjhI ofj ;edk.#

(gNk GkJh ;hsk owJhnk)

bkbk bkigs okJ/ B/ fbfynk ;h L


@@fiE'I she nfjz;k s/ T[; Bkb ;pzfXs nksw bphdkB dh GktBk dk ;pzX j?, f;ZyK B/ BBekDk ;kfjp ftu ns/ fgZS'I
niBkbk s/ nzfwqs;o ftu T[;dk n;oui eo d/D tkbk ;p{s fdZsk j?. T[jBK B/ nkgD/ nkg ~ ;qh r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx d/ ;Zu/
f;Zy ;kps eo fdZsk j? ns/ pbhdkB s/ thosk d/ fi; ftu e[Gkt dk e'Jh nzF BjhI, d/ i' T[dkjoD ;Ekgs ehs/ jB, T[jBK
dk ;z;ko d/ fJfsjk; ftu e'Jh i[nkp BjhI j?.##

vkH ykB uzd B/ fbfynk ;h,


@fJj nekbh fBo/ bj{ jZvhnK d/ pD/ j'J/ BjhI, fJjBK dh ;ohoe s/ o[jkBh Fesh nzdk}/ s'I pkjo j?.#

r[o{ e/ pkr d/ w'ou/ dh ;cbsk fgZS'I ;hH n?cH fJzvqT{; B/ fbfynk ;h, @fJ; Xosh T[s/ BthI thosk, fi;dk iBw jh
eFN G'rD dh Fesh s'I j'fJnk j?, T[ikro j'Jh j?. r[o{ BkBe d/ f;ZyK B/ d[Bhnk ~ nfjz;e bVkJh dk fJe BtkI ;pe
f;ykfJnk j?.#

gzfvs wdB w'jB wkbthnk sK f;zxK dhnK e[opkBhnK s'I fJsBk gqGkts j'fJnk ;h fe T[;B/ ;ko/ d/F d/ fjzd{nK ~
;bkj fdZsh ;h fe i/ T[j ftd/Fh je{ws dh r[bkwh s'I nk}kd j'Dk ukj[zd/ jB sK nkgD/ xo ftu xZN' xZN fJe g[Zso ~ }o{o
f;zx ;ik d/D.

r[od[nkok ;[Xko w{tw?IN ftu 500 f;Zy Fjhd j'J/, 30 j}ko f;zx }/bQK ftu rJ/ ns/ 10 bZy o[fgnk f;ZyK B/
}[owkBk Gfonk. (vkH rzvk f;zx ghHn?uHvhH)

ekb"Bh n?eN ftoZ[X (pko sfjohe ftu) Fjhd j'D tkb/, T[wo e?d ns/ nzro/}h ;oeko dhnK }/bQK ftu o[bD tkb/ th
;ko/ jh f;Zy ;B. fJE/ fJe rZb j'o fXnkB r'uo/ eoB tkbh j? fe f;ZyK dhnK e[opkBhnK dk fieo eoB tes j[D fJj fejk
ikD bZr fgnk j? fe gzikphnK B/ d/F dh nkikdh bJh e[opkBhnK ehshnK. fJj f;ZyK dh fBnkoh j'Id ~ gzikph fjzd{nK ftu
rz[w eoB dh tZvh ;kfiF j?. fJ; ftub/ ojZ; ~ f;Zy nkr{ fizBh S/sh ;wM b?D T[BK jh uzrk j?.

wjkokik fog[dwB f;zx (BkGk fonk;s) ;ko/ d/F ftu'I fJeZbk n?;k wjkokik ;h fi;B/ ;[szsosk ;zrokwhnK T[go
gkpzdhnK brkT[D ns/ y{chnk B}o oZyD tkb/ nzro/}K d/ j[ew ~ wzBD s'I ;k\ fJBeko eo fdZsk ;h. ;r'I fJj ;[szsosk
;zrokwhnK dh fts w[skfpe ;jkfJsk th eodk fojk. fJj d/y e/ nzro/}K B/ T[;~ rZdh s'I T[sko e/ T[;d/ g[Zso ~ T[E'I dk
oki Gkr d/ fdZsk, go T[;dk g[Zso th d/F GrsK Bkb jwdodh oZydk ;h. nzro/}K B/ T[;~ th frqcsko eoe/ e'vk eBkb
(wdok;) ftu B}opzd eo fdZsk. f;ZyK B/ fJ; rZb dk Gkoh fto'X ehsk p/nzs f;ZyK ~ th }/bQK ftu vZe fdZsk frnk. fJ;
;zxoF ~ ;cb pDkT[D bJh gzvs itkjo bkb Bfjo{ s/ vkH ;?c[dhB feub{ B/ th nk e/ frq\skoh fdZsh ;h.

bkj"o ;gbhw?INoh ;kiF e/; Bzpo fJe ftu gziK d/F GrsK ~ cK;h dh ;}k j'Jh ns/ gzi/ jh f;Zy ;B. fJ;/ e/; ftu
91 ~ T[wo e?d fdZsh rJh fiBQK ftu'I 90 f;Zy ;B. fJ; d/ e[M ;w/I fgZS'I jh gzi j'o ;kiF tkb/ e/;K ftu 50 pjkdoK ~
tZy-tZy soQK ;}ktK j'JhnK, fJjBK ftu 49 f;Zy ;B.

T[j ;wK th nkfJnk id'I bkj"o }/bQ ftZu fJZe' ;w/I ;Zs \K;h d/ oZ;/ bNekJ/ rJ/ ns/ fJe' ;w/I id'I 7 nekbh f;zx jZ;
jZ; e/ cK;h d/ oZf;nK ~ u[zwd/ ;B sK nzro/}K d/ ozr ghb/ g? iKd/. d[BhnK d/ fJfsjk; ftu f;ZyK s'I fJbktk n?;h fw;kb j'o
feXo/ BjhI fwb ;edh.

eKro; tZb'I ib;k L


YkJh j}ko eKro;h tbzNhnoK B/ 4 wkou 1930 JhH tkb/ fdB gzvs w'sh bkb Bfjo{ ~ pzpJh d/ w?dkB ftZu ih
nkfJnK efjDk ;h. T[Xo nzro/}K B/ fJj ib;k eoB T[s/ gkpzdh brk oZyh ;h. fJjBK YkJh j}ko eKro;h toeoK Bkb
;odko gqskg f;zx dh iE/dkoh j/m 23 nekbh f;zx ns/ 6 phphnK nekbh db tb'I Fkwb ehshnK rJhnK ;B. g[fb; B/
;kfonK ~ fsZso fpZso j'D dk j[ew ;[DkfJnk, fi; Bkb ib;/ ftu i'F tZX frnk.

id'I g[fb; B/ ;kfonK T[go bkmh ukoi eoBk F[o{ eo fdZsk sK ;ko/ eKro;h toeo GZi rJ/. fJE/ todhnK vKrK
;kjwD/ e/tb nekbh f;zx ns/ T[j phphnK jh o[ZehnK fizBQK ~ F'qwDh nekbh db B/ ib;/ ftu ikD bJh G/fink j'fJnk ;h.
g[fb; B/ oZi-oZi e/ BhbhnK d;skoK ns/ d[gZfNnK tkfbnK ~ b'j/ d/ ;zwK tkbhnK vKrK Bkb UBh d/o sZe e[ZfNnk, id'I sZe
f;gkjh nkg jh wko-wko e/ EZe Bk rJ/.

fJj ;koh tkosk JhtfBzr NkJhw} fBT{:koe d/ 23 wkou 1930 d/ gou/ ftu gqekfFs ehsh rJh.

;OH Grs f;zx dh nkyoh fJZSk L

;OH Grs f;zx gOf;ZX ;[szsok ;?bkBh ;h, fi; ~ nzro/}K B/ w"s
dh ;ik ;[Dk fdZsh. f;ZyK dh wzr #s/ wjkswk rKXh ih B/ fJj fJeoko
ehsk fe T[j tkfJ;okJ/ gk; ik e/ cK;h dh ;}k xZN eoB bJh nkgDk
g{ok-g{ok dpk gkT[Dr/. go id'I T[BQK ~ gsk bZfrnk fe Grs f;zx B/
GkJh oDXho f;zx Bkozrtkb dh gO/oDk #s/ nzfwqs SZe e/ f;Zyh ihtB
ihT[D dk gOD eo fbnk j? sK rKXh ih ;kc jh nkgD/ fJeoko s'I w[eo
rJ/. fJ; soQK Grs f;zx dh ;}k poeoko ojh.

fJj :kd oZyD :'r j? fe Grs f;zx dh nkyoh fJZSk GkJh


oDXho f;zx ih ;D/ gziK fgnkfonK gk;'I nzfwqs SZeD dh ;h go
nzro/}K B/ T[; dh fJj nkyoh fJZSk g{oh Bk ehsh ns/ 23 wkou 1931
JhL ~ cK;h #s/ bNek fdZsk, fi; Bkb ;ko/ gzikp ftZu F'e dh bfjo c?b rJh. b'eK B/ ;kok fdB o'Nh Bk ykXh. phphnK G?DK
B/ u[Zb/ nZr Bk pkbh. b'e nkgD/ ezwK s'I tkfg;, nkgD/ xohI nkD p?m/. gzikp d/ rZGo{ dh w"s B/ b'eK ~ jb{D e/ oZy fdZsk.

Grs f;zx ~ cK;h brkT[D s'I e[ZM xzN/ gfjbK T[; dh fJZe s;tho bJh rJh. T[; B/ dkjVh oZyh j'Jh ;h, i' brGr
4-5 ;?INhwhNo bzwh ;h ns/ e/;K dk i{Vk eoe/ gZr th pzBh j'Jh ;h. go fco th Grs f;zx ~ j}kws ehsh Feb ftZu, f;o
#s/ N'g gkfJnk jh ftykJh ik oj/ jB sKfe T[; dh gSkD fJZe f;Zy ti'I Bk j't/.

eKro; dk fJe j'o ib;k L


1834 JhH dk ;op fjzd eKro; dk fJibk; pzpJh d/ nk}kd w?dkB ftu j'Dk ;h. nzro/}K B/ feokJ/ d/ e[M r[zv/
pdwkFK ~ fsnko ehsk fe id'I gzvkb pDkfJnk ikt/, T[j T[ykV d/D. eJh fdB n?;k jh tkgodk fojk. eKro;h toeo
nkgDh d/y-o/y j/m gzvkb pDkT[D, Fokosh nB;o T[; gzvkb ~ T[y/V ;[ZND. jko e/ eKro; B/ wk;No skok f;zx ih ~ fJ;
f;ododh pko/ dZf;nk. wk;No ih fJe ;" nekbh ;{ophoK d/ iE/ ~ Bkb b? e/ pzpJh d/ nk}kd w?dkB fty/ gj[zu rJ/. fiBQK B/
nkgDh fBrokBh j/m gzvkb fsnko eotkfJnk ns/ f;zxK dh w"i{drh ftu fe;/ pdwkF ~ fjzws Bk gJh fe T[j gzvkb d/ j[D
B/V/ th
gj[zud/. fJ; soQK eKro; dk fJj F?FB e/tb r[o{ e/ f;zxK dh w"i{drh eoe/ jh ;\b j' ;fenk.

d/F dh nk}kdh bJh GkJh JhFo f;zx wjokDk, ;qH feFB f;zx rVrZi, ;qH yVe f;zx, wk;No w'sk f;zx, ;qH s/ik f;zx
;w[zdoh, wk;No wfjskp f;zx, ;qH s/ik f;zx neog[oh, ;qH T{Xw f;zx Bkr'e/, ;qH ;od{b f;zx ethFo, ;qH s/ik f;zx ;[szso,
;qH ;'jD f;zx i'F, ;qH ;/tk f;zx mheohtkbk, GkJh ;kfjp GkJh oDXho f;zx, GkJh fBXkB f;zx u[Zx, wk;No skok f;zx, ;qH
doFB f;zx c/o{wkB tor/ d/F GrsK d/ nk}kdh bJh ekoBkfwnK ~ fbyD bJh eJh feskpK fbyhnK iK ;edhnK jB.

dh fj;Noh nkc fJzvhnB B?FBb eKro; ftu gNk GkJh ;hsk woJhnk nB[;ko d/F dh nk}kdh ;zrokw ftu ;w[Zu/ s"o
#s/ 121 d/F GrsK ~ cK;h fdZsh rJh fiBQK ftu'I 94 f;Zy ;B. 2646 ~ ibktsB ehsk frnk fiBQK ftu'I 2147 e/tb f;Zy
;B. pkpk okw f;zx ih dh BkwXkoh bfjo, ekwkrkNkwko{ ijk} d/ Fjhd, rdo bfjo, pZpo nekbh bfjo, r[od[nkok ;[Xkok
bfjo,ekb"Bh n?eN fto[ZX pko fty/ id'-ifjd ns/ ;qH Grs f;zx ro[Zg d/ FjhdK d/ nzeV/ fJ; ftZu Fkwb BjhI jB.

nk}kd fjzd c"i L

nk}kd fjzd c"i dk rmB th fJe f;Zy ioB?b iBob w'jB f;zx B/ ikgkB ftu ehsk
;h, fi; ~ ikgkBhnK B/ frq\sko eo fbnk. fJ; dh ]po id'I wk;No skok f;zx ih ~
fwbh sK T[jBK B/ ;[GkF uzdo p'; ~ Gkos ftu'I fBeD ikD ns/ ioBb w'jD f;zx e'b
gj[zuD dh gb?fBzr ehsh. ;[GkF uzdo p'; ~ ebeZs/ s'I g?Fkto fty/ gj[zukT[D tkb/ ;ko/
jh f;Zy ;B. nk}kd fjzd c"i d/ vo eoe/ nzro/} Gkos ~ S/sh SZvD bJh w}p{o j'J/.
fJ; ftu e[Zb 42000 itkB ;B, fiBQK ftu'I 28000 e/tb f;Zy c"ih jh ;B.
f;Zyh nDy dk w[ikjok L
fJj wk;No skok f;zx ih ns/ T[jBK d/ ;kEhnK dh db/oh dk jh f;ZNk ;h, fi; B/ bkj"o n;?Ipbh s'I w[;fbw bhr dk
Mzvk T[ykV e/ Gkos ~ nZXk gzikp puk e/ fdZsk ;h. i/eo wk;No ih n?;h db/oh Bk eod/ sK gkfe;skB dh ;ojZd iwBk dk
feBkok pDBk ;h.

fJj f;ZyK ~ nkgD/ r[o{ e'b'I fwbD tkbh Fesh dk jh ewkb ;h fe eFwho ns/ j?dokpkd ftu r?o f;ZyK ~ p'b/ ;'
fBjkb, ;fs ;qh nekb dk i?ekok (Bkjok) p[bkT[D dh No/fBzr fJ; bJh fdZsh rJh fe d[FwD X'yk yk ikD fe bVB tkb/ f;Zy
jB.

fBT{:koe BkJhw} d/ gqshfBZX B/ pzrbk d/F dh nkikdh dh bVkJh ;w/I Yke/ ftu fejk ;h fe L @ykb;k jh fJe n?;k
pjkdo :'Xk j? fijVk w}b{wK dh okyh eo ;edk j? ns/ }kbwK ~ wko ;edk j?.#

fJj th :kd oZyD :'r sZE j? fe fJ; izr d/ jho' th fJe f;Zy ioB?b irihs f;zx no'Vk jh ;B. f\oe{ :fjBhns
B/ fJjBK dk f;Zyh ;o{g T[; ;w/I d[BhnK ;kjwD/ nkT[D s'I o'e fdZsk, id'I gkfe;skBh ioBb fw;No fBnk}h B/ nkgD/
jfEnko fJ; d/ ;kjwD/ ;[ZN/ ;B.

f;Zy p/FZe d/F dh ;w[Zuh nkpkdh dk 2% th BjhI jB, go nk}kdh nzd'bBK ftu, g[fb; dhnK bkmhnK ykD tkfbnK,
r'bhnK Bkb Fjhd j'D tkfbnK, cK;h d/ oZf;nK ~ jZ;-jZ; e/ u[zw b?D tkfbnK, ibktsB s/ T[wo e?d j'D tkfbnK, nkgD/
xo-xkN }whBK, ikfJdkdK dhnK e[oehnK eotkT[D tkfbnK ns/ d/F nk}kd j'D fgS'I 1962 JhH ftu uhB Bkb :[ZX ;w/I,
1965 ns/ 1971 dhnK gkfe;skB Bkb bVkJhnK ftu ns/ ni/ eZb ekofrb d/ izr ;w/I ehshnK rJhnK e[opkBhnK dh i/
fBogZysk Bkb iKu eotkJh ikt/ sK d' gqshFs f;ZyK dk fjZ;k 98 gqshFs s'I xZN BjhI pDB bZrk. nzro/}K Bkb nk}kdh dh
bVkJh ftu f;Zy e"w ns/ j'oK tb'I ehshnK e[opkBhnK dk t/otk fdZsk ik fojk j?, fi; dh g[FNh w"bkBk nk}kd B/ ehsh ;h.

fijVh ;}k fwb f;Zy j'o i'V

1H cK;h fwbh 93 28 121

2H T[wo e?d 2147 499 2646

3H ifbnK tkb/ pkr d/ Fjhd 799 501 1300

4H pipi xkN #u Fjhd 67 46 113

5H e{ek bfjo #u Fjhd 91 x 91

6H nekbh bfjo #u Fjhd 500 x 500

3697 1074 4771


fJj nzeV/ jo Gkosh ~ nuzfGs eod/ jB, go fco th ;ko/ nk}kdh ;zxoF ftu j'JhnK e[opkBhnK dk fJj e/tb
fJe Gkr jh jB. fJ; ftu T[j e[opkBhnK Fkwb BjhI ehshnK rJhnK fijVhnK nk}kd fjzd c"i, fJzvhnB
B/th dh prkts, 1946 JhH ftu fdZbh g[fb; dh n?ihN/FB t/b/ ehshnK rJhnK ;B. ;', nk}kdh d/ ;zxoF ftu jo w'ou/ #s/
f;ZyK B/ d{ihnK Gkosh e"wK Bkb'I eJh r[DK tZX fjZ;k gkfJnk.

T[go fpnkB ehsk frnk ;kok t/otk nk}kdh gqkgsh d/ ;zxoF dk e/tb fJe fjZ;k jh j?, d{;ok Gkr sK fdb ~ fjbk
e/ oZy d/D tkbk j?. fJ; Gkr ftu i' e[M tkgfonk, T[; ~ e'Jh ebw fby e/ fpnkB BjhI eo ;edh.

tzv dk nzfwqs;o #s/ n;o L


15 nr;s 1947 ~ gzikp dk nZX s'I tZX fjZ;k gkfe;skB ftZu ub/ ikD Bkb nzfwqs;o Ffjo #s/ pj[s p[ok gOGkt
fgnk. j[D sZe fJj Ffjo gzikp d/ wZX ftueko ;h, go tzv eoe/ fJj ;ojZdh Ffjo pD frnk. fJ; eoe/ fJE'I tgkoe
y/so ;[zxV e/ pj[s S'Nk j' frnk. fi; dk f;ZXk n;o fJE'I d/ b'eK dh y[Fjkbh #s/ fgnk. tzv s'I gfjb/ n\rkfB;skB,
JhokB, o{; nkfde d/FK ftZu r[o{ eh Broh dk tgkoe ;pzX pj[s r{Vk ;h. gzikp dh okiXkBh sK p/FZe bkj"o ;h, go fJ; dk
;kok tgko nzfwqs;o okjhI jh j[zdk ;h. ;', d/F dh tzv dk fijVk B[ek;B nzfwqs;o B/ T[mkfJnk T[j Gkos d/ fe;/ th j'o
Ffjo ~ BjhI T[mkT[Dk fgnk.

;kE'I ftSfVnk BBekDk L


fi; Xosh T[go gkfe;skB pDkfJnk
frnk, T[E/ 170 s'I tZX fJfsjk;e r[od[nko/
SZv e/ f;ZyK ~ Gkosh gzikp ftu nkT[Dk
fgnk. f\oe{ c;kd j'J/ ns/ esb/nkw dh
fGnkBesk ebgDk s'I pkjo dh j'Jh ;h. wK-
pkg, g[Zso-XhnK ;G ftS[V rJ/. nDfrDs
;[jkrDK d/ ;[jkr T[ikV fdZs/ rJ/. nkgDh
fJZ}s pukT[D bJh nDfrDs B"itkB bVehnK
B/ sob/ b? -b? e/ nkgD/ GoktK ~ fejk fe
s[;hI nkgD/ jZEhI ;kvh rodB eZN d/t'I sK fe
fiT[Id/ ihn n;hI tfjFh dfozfdnK d/ ekp{ Bk
nk ikJhJ/. nB/eK ;stzshnK dhnK bkFK Bkb
eJh y{j yks/ Go rJ/. j'o s/ j'o ;qh BBekDk
;kfjp torh gftZso Xosh th f;ZyK jZE'I
jw/FK bJh y[Z; rJh. nB/eK FoXktkB gq/wh
r[of;Zy nk}kdh d/ eJh-eJh ;kb fgZS'I th iBw n;EkB ;qh BBekDk ;kfjp dh :kd nkT[Id/ ;ko G[ZpK wko e/ o'Id/ nkw d/y/ ik
;ed/ ;B. ;', f;Zy e"w dh wkBf;e dFk ~ fpnkB eoBk pVk n"yk j?, go fJE/ fe;/ ~ gOtkj jh eh j?<
gqf;ZX T[od{ n]pko d/ gZsoeko BkBe uzd Bk} B/ fJ;/ ftF/ T[Zs/ d?fBe n]pko gqGks d/ 11 nes{po 1948 JhH d/
gou/ ftu fbfynk ;h fe L @@;Zu/ d/F Grs j'D d/ Bks/ ;k~ ;kfonK ~ ;theko eoBk ukjhdk j? fe d/F pNtko/ ;w/I j'J/
B[e;kB dk pj[s tZvk fjZ;k f;Zy e"w ~ jh podkFs eoBk fgnk j?.##

dhox thuko tkbh rb sK fJj j?, f;ZyK B/ fijVhnK nDfrDs e[opkBhnK fdZshnK, fJ; s'I th tZX nkgDh ikB Bkb'I
tZX fgnko/ iBw n;EkB ;qh BBekDk ;kfjp tor/ ;?IeV/ r[oXkw SZv fdZs/. fJj fsnkr, pbhdkB ns/ ;po fJ; bJh sK BjhI
;h ehsk fe nzro/}K dh fJe r[bkwh ftu'I fBeb e/ fe;/ d[;o/ dh r[bkwh ftu c; ikDk j?. fJj ;kohnK wjkB e[opkBhnK T[;
ftFtk; ~ fXnkB ftu oZy e/ ehshnK rJhnK ;B fe f;Zy e"w ~ nk}kd Gkos ftu pokpo dk ;BwkB ns/ ;fseko B;hp j'
;e/rk. i/eo T[; ;w/I e'Jh f;o fcfonk ftnesh fJj Bkjok brk fdzdk fe fjzd[;skB ftu ofjD tkb/ ;ko/ jh fjzd{ j'Dr/ sK
FkfJd ni/ sZe nzro/}K dh r[bkwh d/ ;zrb Gkos-tk;hnK d/ rbK ftu gJ/ ofjzd/.

M{m/ tkjd/, fJeoko s/ e;wK L


f;Zy e"w tZb'I ehshnK e[opkBhnK ns/ pbhdkB ekoB fjzd{ bhvoK d/ wBK ftu pVk ;fseko ;h ns/ fJ;/ eoe/ wjkswk
rKXh ns/ ;qh itkjo bkb Bfjo{ jw/Fk jh f;ZyK ~ gZek ftFtk; fdtkT[Id/ nkJ/ ;B, e;wK yKd/ nkJ/ ;B, fbysh fJeoko
eoe/ th Go';k fdzd/ nkJ/ ;B fe nk}kd Gkos ftu f;ZyK ~ w[ezwb nk}kdh dk fBZx wkBD bJh pokpo dk w"ek fdZsk ikt/rk.
n?;k Go';k fdtkT[D bJh 1929 JhH ftu eKro; gkoNh d/ bkj"o fty/ j'J/ ;wkrw ftu th fJZe wjZstg{o wsk gk; ehsk
frnk fe L

@eKro; gkoNh f;Zy e"w ~ gZek Go';k fdtkT[Idh j? fe nk}kd Gkos dk e'Jh th ;zftXkB n?;k BjhI pDkfJnk ikt/rk,
i' f;Zy e"w ~ gqtkB BjhI j't/rk.#

wkou 1931JhH ~ r[od[nkok ;h; rzi ;kfjp fdZbh d/ fJe dhtkB ftu ;qh w'jB dk; eowuzd (wjkswK rKXh) ~ ;qH
wX[;{dB f;zx B/ g[ZfSnk fe i/ eKro; gkoNh oki ;Zsk gqkgs eoe/ f;ZyK Bkb ehs/ j'J/ ;wM"fsnK s'I w[Zeo rJh sK c/oHHHHHH!

rKXh ih B/ ;zrsK ftu yVQ/ j' e/ fJ; dk T[so fJT[I fdZsk ;h, @w?I p/Bsh eodk jK fe s[;hI w/o/ tuBK ns/ eKro; tZb'I
gk; ehs/ rJ/ wfsnK #s/ :ehB oZy'. s[jkvh ;w[Zuh e"w ~ X'yk d'Dk sK fJe gk;/ fojk n;hI fe;/ fJe ftnesh Bkb th n?;k
BjhI eo ;ed/. id edh eKro; B/ nfijk eoB eh e'fFF ehsh sK T[j nkgDh popkdh ~ nkg ;Zdk d/t/rh.

w/oh s[jkv/ nZr/ fBwosk ;fjs p/Bsh j? fe s[;hI nkgD/ fjofdnK ftu'I fJj' fij/ sZE ns/ s"yb/ fpbe[b eZY fdT[. w?I
gqwkswk ~ jk}o Bk}o ikD e/ efjzdk jK fe i'-i' tkfjd/ w/o/ tZb'I ns/ eKro; tZb'I s[jkvh e"w Bkb ehs/ rJ/ jB, T[jBK ~
n;hI jo ehws s/ fBGktKr/.

w/o/ ftuko ftu eKro; dk nfjz;k ftu ftFtk; T[; tZb'I fdZs/ tuBK dh ;G s'I tZvh ns/ gZeh rkozNh j?. fJ; bJh
;kv/ f;Zy GoktK ~ fJj ;'uDk se th BjhI ukjhdk fe T[jBK Bkb ed/ e'Jh X'yk iK co/p ehsk ik ;edk j? feT[Ife id ed/ th
eKro; B/ n/;k eoB dh e'fFF ehsh, T[j nkgDh ns/ nkgD/ d/F dh popkdh dk ekoB nkg pD/rh. fJ; d/ fJbktk f;Zy
pjkdo e"w j? ns/ T[j nkgD/ jZeK dh okyh T[jBK jfEnkoK Bkb eoBk ikDdh j?, i' T[; dh ofjs wo:kdk dk fjZ;k jB.#
Gbk! j[D i/ e'Jh Fohc nkdwh eKro; gkoNh ~ g[ZS/ fe s[;hI nk}kdh gqkgs eoB fgZS'I f;ZyK Bkb fejVk tkndk g{ok
ehsk j? iK fijV/ fJeoko rKXh ih B/ r[o{ s/r pjkdo ;kfjp ih d/ Fjhdh n;EkB #s/ yVQ/ j' e/ gqwkswk dh e;w yk e/ f;ZyK
Bkb ehs/ ;B, T[jBK fJeokoK dk eh pfDn?< sK FkfJd fJ; gkoNh e'b w{zj fSgkT[D s'I f;tkJ/ j'o e'Jh ukok BjhI j't/rk.

wjkswK rKXh ih dh nkswk th T[; fdB }o{o ezp rJh j't/rh, id'I 1984 JhH ftu ;qh Bfjo{ dh bVeh ;qhwsh fJzdok
rKXh B/ Gkosh c"i ~ ;qh dopko ;kfjp nzfwqs;o T[s/ jwbk eoB dk j[ew fdZsk j't/rk. i/eo wjkswK rKXh ih ihts j[zd/ sK
FkfJd phph fJzdok nfijk Bk eo gkT[Idh.

i[bkJh 1846 JhH ~ nkb fJzvhnk eKro; ew/Nh dh whfNzr fgZS'I fJe gq?; ekBcoz; ~ ;zp'XB eofdnK Bfjo{ ih B/
fejk ;h, @gzikp dh pjkdo f;Zy e"w ftF/F wjZssk dh XkoBh j?. w/o/ ftuko ftu ;k~ fe;/ ~ th fJ; ;pzX ftu e'Jh nkgZsh
BjhI j'Dh ukjhdh fe T[so gZSw Gkos ftu fJe nfijk fJbkek ns/ fJzs}kw f;Zy e"w bJh okytK oZfynk ikt/, fi; d[nkok
fJj th nk}kdh dk nBzd wkD ;e/.#

5 iBtoh 1947 JhH ~ th eKro; B/ fJe wsk gk; ehsk fe @poskBth ekphBk dh 16 wJh 1946 dh ;ehw ns/
ftF/F eoe/ fJ; d/ i' noE fpqfNF ;oeko B/ nkgD/ 16 d;zpo 1946 d/ fpnkB ftZu eZY/ jB, T[BQK d[nkok nk;kw T[so-
gZSwh ;hwK gqKs ns/ gzikp dh f;Zy e"w ~ fiBQK th emBkJhnK dk ;kjwDk eoBk g? fojk j?, nkb fJzvhnk eKro; ew/Nh T[BQK
~ uzrh soQK ikDdh j'Jh fJ; ;ehw dk edkfus ;woEB BjhI eo ;edh feT[Ife T[j fe;/ th \?;b/ ~ m';D d/ fto[ZX j?.
gzikp ftu f;Zy e"w d/ ftF/F nfXekoK ~ sK ed/ th T[jb/ ehsk BjhI ik ;edk.# eKro; dh tofezr ew/Nh B/ wkou 1947
Jh;th tkb/ fdB fJZe, j'o wsk gk; ehsk ;h fe Gkos dk ftXkB xZN-frDsh e"wK T[s/ T[BQK dh wo}h d/ fto[ZX m'f;nk BjhI
ikt/rk.

d/F d/ nkw b'eK ~ u"ekn d/D tkbk sZE fJj j? fe ;zftXkB pDkT[D ;w/I f;ZyK Bkb ehs/ j'J/ tknd/, fJeoko pVh
p/Fowh Bkb fJZe gk;/ ;[ZN e/ f}Zdpk}h ns/ Bht/IgD dh Jhoyk fdb ftZu oZy e/ f;ZyK dh ;fjwsh s'I fpBQK jh id'I ;zftXkB
fsnko eoe/ f;Zy gqshfBXhnK ~ nkgD/ d;s]s eoB bJh fejk frnk sK T[BQK B/ fJj efj e/ fJBeko eo fdZsk fe fJj
;zftXkB ;k~ wB}{o BjhI j?. fJ; soQK Gkosh ;zftXkB ~ f;Zy gqshfBXK B/ yko} eo fdZsk, go j[D f;ZyK dh gqtkj jh fe; ~
;h. oki;h Fesh d/ XZe/ Bkb fJ; ~ ;kfonK T[s/ bkr{ eo fdZsk frnk. f;ZyK dh dkd \fonkd ;[DB tkbk FkfJd ;koh d[BhnK
ftZu j[D e'Jh BjhI ofj frnk ;h.

n?;/ ws/ Gkosh okiBhfse gkoNhnK ~ nzso nksw/ Mksh wkoB bJh w}p{o eod/ jB. fiBQK ftZu n?bkB ehsk frnk
;h fe L

@@Gkos nzdo xZN frDsh d/ fjZsK dh okyh fjs w[be d/ ;zftXkB ftZu ftF/F gqpzX ehs/ ikDr/. fJj fJZe n?bkB iK
fJeoko jh BjhI ;r'QI ;koh d[BhnK d/ o{po{ gftZso ;[rzX j?, fi; dh gkbDk eoBk ;kvk gow Xow j?.##

dk; ;wMdk j? fe fco eh b'V ;h nkgD/ gow Xow Bkb drk ewkT[D dh< ykXhnK rJhnK gftZso ;[rzXK ~ fit/I
s'fVnk frnk FkfJd nfeqsxDK ns/ tZv/-tZv/ gkghnK dhnK th o[jK }o{o fjZb rJhnK j'DrhnK!

GkJh ;kfjp f;odko eg{o f;zx ih B/ Gkosh gkobhw?IN ftZu nkgDh seoho eod/ j'J/ fejk ;h fe, @@i' b'e oZp d/
G?n ns/ r[o{ G?n s'I nk}kd j' e/ M{mhnK ;j[znK ns/ ;[rzXK oki;h gZXo T[s/ u[Zed/ jB, fiBQK d/ wBK ftZu Fow Bk dh e'Jh
uh} BjhI ofj rJh, fiBQK dh nkswk ftZu Xow dk nkGkt j' u[Zek j?, fiBQK ~ e'Jh T[BQK d/ gkgK dk dzv d/D tkbk B}o BjhI
nkT[Idk T[BQK tZb'I ft;kjxks dk fFeko j'J/, f;tkJ/ nekb g[oy d/ dopko ftZu nodk; eoB d/ f;tk, j'o eo th eh ;ed/
jB< fJ;/ bJh f;Zy fJ; ;w/I nekb g[oy e'b nkgDhnK d[Zy sebh\K dh Bftosh bJh nodk;K jh eo oj/ jB.##

i[bkJh 1947 Jh;th ~ g[okD/ gzikp dh b?fi;b/fNt n;?Ipbh ftub/ fjzd{ ns/ f;Zy w?IpoK dh fJZe T[u/uh p?me fdZbh
ftZu j'Jh, fiE/ ;op ;zwsh Bkb gk; ehsk frnk fe, @@fjzd[;skB dh tzv s'I fgZS'I gzikp dk fijVk Gkr Gkos ftZu ofj
ikt/rk, T[; ftZu fJj nsh }o{oh j? fe f;ZyK d/ ftF/F oki;h nfXekoK ~ ;[oZfyns eoB d/ g{o/-g{o/ gqpzX ehs/ ikD.##

go fjzd[;skB dh tzv fgZS'I g{ok gqpzX fJj ehsk frnk fe f;ZyK ~ fjzd{nK EZb/ dpkT[D bJh e'Jh e;o pkeh Bk SZvh
ikt/.

nk}kdh dk w[Zb L
id ;ko/ d/F ~ GkFk d/ nkXko #s/ ;{fpnK ftZu tzv fdZsk frnk sK f;ZyK B/ th gzikph ;{p/ dh wzr ehsh. fJ; pko/ 2
nes{po 1951 JhL ~ rKXh i:zsh d/ w"e/ #s/ Bfjo{ ih B/ fJ; wzr ~ f;Zy oki dh wzr dZ;d/ j'J/ GzvDK F[o{ eo fdZsk. T[BQK
nkfynk fe gzikph ;{pk pDk d/D Bkb d/F dhnK T[soh gZSwh ;ojZdK bJh ysok g?dk j' ikt/rk. fJ; bJh fJj wzr wzBD dk
e'Jh ;tkb jh g?dk BjhI j[zdk. Bfjo{ ih B/ fJE'I sZe efj fdZsk ;h fe T[j f;tb-tko sK podkFs eo b?Dr/, go gzikph ;{pk
BjhI. fJj ;G ;[D e/ ;ko/ f;Zy nkr{ jZe/-pZe/ ofj rJ/ fe gzfvs ih ~ j' eh frnk j? <

Bfjo{ ih B/ T[go'es rZbK eoe/ iB-;zx ~ th wks gk fdZsk. fJj ;kok e[ZM pj[-frDsh dhnK t'NK jk;b eoB bJh
jh fejk ik fojk ;h. e/Idoh B/sktK B/ gzikph fjzd{nK d/ wBK ftZu f;ZyK gOsh G/d-Gkt tkbh GktBk ~ T[ikro ehsk. pj[-
frDsh GkJhuko/ ~ nf;ZX/ Yzr Bkb fJFko/ ;wMkJ/ rJ/ fe j[D fJj ;kok w[be fjzd{nK dk j?. fjzd{ jh nk}kd Gkos d/ n;bh
wkbe jB ns/ f;ZyK ;w/s j'o ;G ~ goik pD e/ nkokw Bkb ofjD dh iku f;Zy b?Dh ukjhdh j?. nfijhnK GktBktK eoe/
jh gzikph fjzd{ dk fdwkr nk;wkB #s/ uVQ frnk, fi; Bkb eJh tZv/ d[yKs tkgo/.

gzikph ;{p/ pko/ Bfjo{ ih d/ ;N?Iv eoe/ pj[s tZvh frDsh ftZu gzikph fjzd{ iB-;zx Bkb'I NZ[N e/ eKro; Bkb nkD
i[V/. id u'DK j'JhnK sK gzikp ftZu nekbh jko rJ/ ns/ eKro; fiZs rJh.

T[; ;w/I ;OH gqskg f;zx e?o'I ~ gzikp ftXkB ;Gk ftZu eKro; dk g{ok ;woEB ;h. go fco th T[; dh EK s/ Ghw ;?B
;Zuo ~ w[Zy wzsoh pDkfJnk frnk feT[Ife gzikph fjzd{ fe;/ f;Zy ~ g;zd BjhI eod/ p/FZe T[j fe;/ th gkoNh ftZu feT[I Bk
j't/. gzikph fjzd{nK dk fJj rbs d;s{o nZi th ekfJw j?.

fJfsjk; rtkj j? fe id rOfj wzsoh r[bikoh bkb Bzdk B/ 1966 JhL ~ wip{oh tZ; gzikph ;{pk pDkfJnk sK fJ; dh
pDso fJ; soQK T[bheh rJh fe f;Zy jw/FK o'Id/ jh ofjD. fJ; ;h nk}kdh bJh ehshnK e[opkBhnK dk w[Zb i' f;ZyK ~ fdZsk
frnk.

tkj, T[J/ gzikp! s/ok oZp okyk!!


1947 JhL ~ nD-tzv/ g[okD/ gzikp d/ e[b y/so\b dk 62% fj;k gZSwh gzikp (gkfe;skB) ns/ 38% fj;k Gkosh
gzikp d/ fj;/ nkfJnk.

fJE/ jh p; BjhI 1966 JhL ~ gzikp dh }whB d/ fszB N[eV/ eoe/ gzikp, jfonkDK s/ fjwkub gqd/F pDK fdZs/ rJ/.

d/F dh tzv fgZS'I gzikp dh okiXkBh fFwbk ;h, fJj fjwkub gqd/F ~ d/ fdZsh rJh. jfonkDK ~ tZyoh okiXkBh pDK
e/ d/D dh EK uzvhrV ~ jh gzikp s/ jfonkDK dh ;KMh okiXkBh j'D dk e/Idoh ;oeko B/ n?bkB eo fdZsk. ni/jk eoB dk
fJe' jh we;d ;h fe gzikp d/ b'e ;dk bJh bVkJh MrV/ ftu gJ/ ofjD ns/ ed/ th soZeh Bk eo ;eD feT[Ife fJE/ pj[-
frDsh ftu r[o{ e/ f;Zy tZ;d/ ;B.

fJfsjk; dhnK nZyK Bkb i/ JhwkBdkoh Bkb d/fynk ikt/ sK fJ; ftZu e'Jh d' rtK BjhI fe nk}kdh s'I gfjb/ fjzd{
bhvo f;Zy B/sktK ~ nkgD/ fgZS/ brkT[D bJh w{oy pDkT[D ftZu pBko;h mZrK s'I th nZr/ fBeb rJ/ ;B.

fcoe{ ;'u L
Gkos dh n}'eh okiBhsh ~ fXnkB ftZu oZy e/ ftFtk; Bkb fejk ik ;edk j? fe fijVh nkoHn?;Hn?;H dh nzdo{Bh
f\oe{ fjzd{st dh ;'u fgSb/ ;kbK ftZu T[Go e/ n"ozr}/ph ;'u dk w[}kjok eoB bJh tZX c[Zb ojh j?. i/eo fJ; dh e'Jh th
;fj:'rh gkoNh fgSb/ 50 ;kb s'I d/F T[s/ oki eodh j[zdh iK nrb/ 50 ;kb sZe fJ; gkoNh ~ oki eoB dk w"ek fwb ikt/
sK ;ko/ d/F ftZu'I xZN-frDshnK dk ;ckfJnk T[;/ soQK j't/rk fit/I 1984 ftZu f;ZyK dk, iK r[ioks ftZu w;bwkBK dk j'fJnk
j?. xZN frDsh e"wK d/ pj[-frDsh p'M j/mK dZp ikD eoe/ jh j[D eJh fjzd{tkdh gkoNhnK B/ y[Zb/nkw n?bkB eo oZfynk j? fe
Gkos ftZu ofjD tkbk jo ftnesh fjzd{ j? ns/ f;ZyK pko/ sK pV/ rZi-tZi e/ fjzd{ bhvo efjzd/ jB f;Zy sK jB jh e/;Xkoh
fjzd{, go i/eo e'Jh f;nkDk g[ZSdk j? fe i/eo f;Zy fjzd{ jh jB sK fco fJjBK Bkb G/d-Gkt feT[I iK 1984 Jh;th ftZu g{o/
Gkos ftZu fJBQK dh esb/nkw feT[I ehsh rJh ns/ d'FhnK ~ ;}ktK feT[I BjhI fdZshnK ik ojhnK. fJBQK d/ r[od[nkfonK ~
nZr brk e/ feT[I ;kfVQnk frnk, fiZE/ d'B'I tes fJj nodk; j[zdh j? fe @BkBe Bkw uVQdh ebk s/o/ GkD/ ;opZs dk Gbk.#

;qh dopko ;kfjp Bkb Fohe/-pk}h L

;qh dopko ;kfjp f;ZyK dh ;op gZyh nrtkJh dk


e/Idoh X[ok j?. gzikph fjzd{ B/ nkgDh jZm Xowh Bkb
fJ; d/ fvikJhB Bkb fwbdk j'fJnk nzfwqs;o Ffjo
ftZu jh 1905 JhL ftZu fJe wzdo T[;ko fbnk, fi; ~
d[ofrnkBk wzdo efjzd/ jB.

id f;ZyK B/ okth dk gkDh gZeh jz;bh okjhI dopko


;kfjp d/ ;o'to ftZu gkfJnk sK gzikph fjzd{ B/ wzr
ehsh fe ni/jk d[ofrnkDk wzdo bJh th gqpzX ehsk ikt/.

;qh dopko ;kfjp dk fJe wkvb, nzfwqs;o d/ o/bt/ ;N/FB #s/ bZrk j'fJnk ;h. fJj wB[Zyh J/esk s/ GkJhuko/ dk oZph ;[B/jk
d/ fojk ;h. go fcoe{ FeshnK ~ fJj pVk u[ZGdk ;h. gzikp d/ p[o/ fdBK ftZu nzfwqs;o d/ fcoe{ i~Bh gzikph fjzd{nK B/
T[; wkvb ~ s'V fdZsk fe ;N/FB #s/ d[ofrnkDk wzdo dk wkvb feT[I BjhI
brkfJnk frnk.

i/ gzikp ;oeko B/ ;qh dopko ;kfjp s'I ;/b N?e; jNkfJnk sK fjzd{nK B/ wzr
oZy fdZsh fe fJj fonkfJs d[ofrnkDk wzdo ~ th fdZsh ikt/.

i/ ;qh dopko ;kfjp ~ w[cs fpibh d/D dk n?bkB ehsk frnk sK T[Bh d/o
gzikph fjzd{ u?B Bkb BjhI p?mk, id sZe T[; B/ fJj ;j{bs d[ofrnkDk wzdo
bJh Bk-gqtkB eotk bJh.

fgSb/ ;kbK s'I ;qh dopko ;kfjp nzfwqs;o ftZu nkT[D tkb/ :kso{nK dh frDsh eJh r[DK tZX rJh j?, fi; eoe/ No?fce dh
;wZf;nk #s/ ekp{ gkT[D bJh gzikp ;oeko B/ n?bkB ehsk fe nzfwqs;o d/ pkJhgk; s'I b? e/ dopko ;kfjp sZe fJe cbkJh
Uto g[b dh T[;koh ehsh ikt/rh sK fe GhV ~ ekp{ ehsk ik ;e/. gkme fJj gVQ e/ j?okB j'Dr/ fe gzikph fjzd{nK B/ th
s[ozs wzr oZy fdZsh fe fJj g[b d[ofrnkDk wzdo sZe th T[;kfonk ikt/.

j'o s/ j'o id'I th e'Jh wjZstg{oB j;sh nzfwqs;o ;qh dopko ;kfjp d/ doFB eoB bJh nkT[Idh j? sK fJj b'e gfjbK jh
o"bk gk fdzd/ jB fe T[; ~ d[ofrnkDk wzdo ftZu th nkT[Dk ukjhdk j? ns/ i/ fe;/ B/ d[ofrnkDk wzdo ftZu BjhI nkT[Dk sK
fco T[j dopko ;kfjp th Bk nkt/. fJj j? fjzd{ f;Zy J/esk dk Bw{BkHHH! fijVk 1947 s'I b? e/ j[D sZe brksko d/fynk ik
fojk j?.

f;ZyK dh j?;hns L
okiBhsh ftZu fJj th fJZe uwseko jh ;wMDk ukjhdk j? fe f;Zy nk}kdh s'I gfjbK fJZe e"w ;B, go nk}kdh
fwbD fgZS'I T[jh f;Zy e"w, fjzd{ pD rJh! fJj e'Jh n"yk ;tkb BjhI. fJ; dk T[so T[jh j? fijVk fe;/ w{oy B/ pZeoh dhnK
fszB jh bZsk j[zdhnK jB, wBkT[D dh f}Zd ehsh ;h.

12 wJh 1947 ~ bkov wkT{INp?NB, gzfvs itkjo bkb Bfjo{, Btkp fbnes nbh yK ns/ ;odko pbd/t f;zx
nzro/}K d/ ;Zd/ #s/ bzvB rJ/ sK fe fjzd[;skB d/ f\oe{ w;b/ dk e'Jh jZb eZfYnk ikt/, go fJE/ w[;fbw bhr dk eKro; Bkb
e'Jh ;wM"sk Bk j' ;fenk. fi; eoe/ Bfjo{ ih B/ tkg; w[VB dk \?';bk eo fbnk. ;oeko d/ ftF/F J/buh B/ f;ZyK dh
gqshfBXsk eoB tkb/ ;qH pbd/t f;zx ~ god/ Bkb fJZe ;[B/jk G/fink fe i/eo T[j fJZe d' fdB j'o fJE/ mfjo ikD sK xZN
s'I xZN n?;/ gqpzX }o{o ehs/ ik ;ed/ jB fe f;Zy e"w th ;z;ko dh stkohy ftZu wkD Bkb Fkwb j' ;e/rh.
f;Zy e"w dh fe;ws y'Nh j' rJh id'I fJj ;kok G/d pbd/t f;zx B/ Bfjo{ ~ ik dZf;nk ns/ fpBQK ;'u/ ftuko/ c'e/
o'jp Bkb nzro/}K ~ efjD bZrk, @@f;Zy nzro/}K e'b'I e[ZM BjhI wzrd/, f;tkJ/ fJ; d/ fe T[j fjzd';skB ftu'I fBeb ikD.
f;ZyK B/ i' e[ZM th b?Dk j't/rk, T[j eKro; ns/ fjzd{ pj[-frDsh e'b'I gqkgs eo b?Dr/.

fJZe tko ;OH pbd/t f;zx f;ZyK d/ gOshfBX d/ s"o #s/ tkfJ;okJ/ ;o feqg; ~ fdZbh fty/ fwb/. ;o feqg; B/ fejk fe
;kvh e"Iw (nzro/}) dh fJj fdbh fJZSk j? fe Gkos SZv e/ ikD s'I gfjbK T[j f;ZyK dk th e[M pDk ikD. i/eo gkfe;skB
pDBk j? sK fco f;ZyK bJh th e[ZM }o{o pDBk ukjhdk j?.

e'b jh yV/ ;o g?fEe bkoz; B/ fejk fe n;{b w[skpe sK fJ; ftZu e'Jh joi BjhI go i/ nzro/} e[ZM pDkT[Dk ukj[zD
sK feE/ pDkT[D< T[; B/ ;OH pbd/t f;zx ~ fejk ;odko ;kfjp n"j BeFk bNe fojk j?, s[;hI T[; ~ d/y e/ dZ;' fe f;Zy
;N/N fejV/ fJbke/ ftZu pDkJhJ/< fJ; rZb dk ;OH pbd/t f;zx B/ e'Jh i[nkp Bk fdZsk. j[D ;o feqg; fco ;OH pbd/t f;zx
~ BeF/ #s/ ;'Nh c/od/ j'J/ efjD bZr/ fe fJj fjzd[;skB dk BeFk j? ns/ fJ; T[go fJj gzikp j?. i/eo fpqfNF gkobhw?IN
fJj fB;fus eo d/t/ fe gkBhgs s'I b? e/ BBekDk ;kfjp sZe f;ZyK bJh ftF/F nfXeko okyt/I j'Dr/, p/FZe fJj fJbke/ fe;/
gk;/ (Gkos iK gkfe;skB) tZb ikD. e'Jh ftXkB nfijk Bk pD/, fijVk fJ; fJbke/ pko/, f;ZyK dh wo}h d/ fto[ZX j't/sK eh
fJj f;ZyK ~ wB}{o j?<

;OH pbd/t f;zx B/ fpBQK ;'u/ ftuko/ jh i[nkp d/ fdZsk fe BjhI BjhI, f;Zy e"Iw sK fijbw dfonk sZe oki wzrdh j?,
fJj E'jVh fijh EK b? e/ n;hI eh eoKr/< id'I fJ; rZb dk gsk frnkBh eosko f;zx ~ bZfrnk sK ;OH eg{o f;zx d/ ;kjwD/
T[BQK B/ fszB d[jZEV nkgD/ wZE/ #s/ wko/ ns/ f;Zy e"w dh y'Nh fe;ws #s/ ftobkg ehsk. efjzd/ jB fe ;qH pbd/t f;zx nkgD/
nkyoh fdBK ftZu fJBQK rZbK ~ :kd eo eoe/ pVk sVfgnk ;h fe w?I fszB tkoh nzro/}K dhnK g/FeFK ~ m[eok e/ nkgDh e"w
dhnK p/VhnK ftZu tZN/ gkJ/ jB.

fiBKj dh f;ZyK ~ g/FeF L


ng?qb 1942 Jh;th ftZu w[jzwd nbh fiBkj B/ f;ZyK ~ fJ; gqeko dh g/FeF ehsh ;h L

f;Zy gkBhgs d'I okth dfonk sZe dk fJbkek b? e/ wkbe pD ikD.

gzikp ftZu 33 \h;dh ns/ j'o fJbkfenK ftZu 20 \h;dh ;hNK f;ZyK bJh okythnK oZyhnK ikDrhnK.
jkJhe'oN s/ ;[gohw e'oN ftZu fB:[eshnK th fJ;/ soQK j'DrhnK.

gzikp dk w[Zy wzsoh jw/FK f;Zy jh j't/rk.

\"i ftZu f;ZyK bJh 40 \h;dh Gosh okythI j't/rh.

e'Jh th ek~Bh spdhbh f;ZyK dh o}kwzdh s'I fpBQK ed/ th BjhI ehsh ikt/rh.

fJ; g/FeF ~ T[; ;w/I f;Zy f;nk;s ftub/ wjKoEhnK B/ m[eok fdZsk. wjkokik gfNnkbk B/ th fJ; ~ Bk
;thekfonk. fJj rZb efjD ftZu e'Jh jo} BjhI fe T[; ;w/I f;Zy bhvo fjzd{ bhvoK d/ gqGkt EZb/ nkJ/ j'J/ j'D eoe/ nkgDh
e"w d/ Gb/ iK p[o/ pko/ fBoDk eoB ftZu g{oh soQK n;\b oj/.
i/ fJZe gk;/ ekfJd/-nk}w fw;No fiBkj, f;ZyK ~ nkgD/ tZb oZyD bJh g[oi'o :sB eo/ oj/ ;B sK d{i/ gk;/ gzfvs
itkjo bkb Bfjo{ tor/ fjzd{ nkr{ th f;ZyK ~ gkfe;skB tZb ikD s'I o'eD bJh g{oh tkj brk oj/ ;B. fjzd{ s/ w[;bwkB
nkr{ uzrh soQK ikDd/ ;B fe i/ f;Zy gkfe;skB Bkb rJ/ sK d/F dh ;ojZd iwBk dfonk j't/rk go i/ f;Zy Gkos Bkb ofjD
dk c?;bk eod/ jB sK d/F dh ;ojZd okth dfonk pD/rh. fJ;/ eoe/ d't/I e"wK f;ZyK ~ nkgD/ nkgD/ Bkb oZyD bJh tZv/-tZv/
;pi-pkr fdykT[D ftZu fJZe d{i/ ~ fgZS/ ;[ZN ojhnK ;B.

f;Zy nkr{nK B/ wj[zwd nbh fiBkj tZb'I ehsh ik ojh g/FeF ~ fbysh fJeoko-Bkwk eoB bJh fejk fe gkfe;skB
ftZu ofjD dh ;{os ftZu i/ ed/ f;Zy n;zs[FN j'J/ sK T[jBK gk; tZy j'D dk nfXeko j't/rk. go fJj' fijk fbysh fJeoko-
Bkwk f;Zy nkr{nK B/ fjzd{nK d/ j[owB fgnko/ nkr{ gzfvs itkjo bkb Bfjo{ gk;'I Bk wzfrnk. fJj tZvh w{oysk ;h fijVh
f;Zy nkr{nK B/ ehsh. okiBhsh dh E'jVh ;wM oZyD tkb/ ~ th fJ; sZE pko/ e'Jh G[b/yk BjhI jz[dk fe oki;h y/so ftZu
i[pkBh-i[pkBh ehs/ fJeoko #s/ Go'f;nK dh ehws ]ke d/ fJZe feDe/ Bkb'I th xZN j[zdh j?.

iipks ns/ okiBhsh tZy-tZy L


fJZe tko fw;No fiBkj B/ e?Ipfoi :{Bhtof;Nh ftZu Gkos ftZu w[;bwkBK dh ok};h dFk d/ ftF/ #s/ pVk r[zdtK
b?euo d/Id/ j'J/ fejk ;h fe, @@f;ZyK dk ;wekbh otZJhnk soe-Fk;so iK fJB;k\ d/ fe;/ th nkXko #s/ g{ok BjhI T[sodk.
fJZe gk;/ sK fJj tZyoh e"w j'D dk dkntk eod/ jB ns/ d{i/ gk;/ fjzd{nK d/ fgSbZr pD e/ w[;bwkBK ~ ysw eoBk ukj[zd/
jB. tko/ ikJhJ/ fJBQK f;Zy bhvoK s'IHHHH!## ;kuh ;kyh d/ b/ye f;odko eg{o f;zx fiBkj d/ b?euo ;w/I T[E/ w"i{d ;B i' o';
ti'I T[me/ nk rJ/, go id oks ~ j'Nb ftZu fiBkj ~ fwb/ sK fiBkj B/ fejk, @@B"itkB! i}pks dh o"I ftZu tfj ikD ~
okiBhsh BjhI efjzd/. i' e[ZM w?I b?euo ftZu fejk T[; ~ mzv/ fdb Bkb ftuko eo, toBk tZvk j' e/ s{z w/o/ b\}K ~ :kd
eo/Irk.##

fw;No fiBkj th f;ZyK ~ nkgD/ tZb fyZuD bJh T[Bk jh T[s;[e ;h fiBQK fjzd{ bhvo. f;Zy e"w B/ eKro;h fjzd{
B/sktK dhnK ykXhnK e;wK T[s/ g{ok-g{ok fJspko eoe/ nk]oh dw sZe ;kE fBGkfJnk, go d{;o/ gk;/ fijV/ wjkswk rKXh
ih ;t/o/ Fkw nkgDhnK gqkoEBktK ftZu fJj n?bkB eod/ BjhI EZed/ ;B fe @d/F d/ pNtko/ dk noE w/ok pNtkok j? ns/ fJj
j' BjhI ;edk.#

d/y'! fJ; wjkswk dk n?bkB fesBk t}Bdko ns/ noE Gog{o ;h. go j'fJnk eh< d/F dk pNtkok sK j' frnk gqzs{
wjkswk rKXh ih dk pNtkok Bk j'fJnk. w"bkBk nk}kd B/ mhe fbfynk j? fe, @@fpoX j' u[Ze/ fjzd{ eKro;h bhvo S/sh s'I S/sh
okirZdhnK dk nkBzd wkDB dh bkb;k ekoB d/F d/ pNtko/ bJh ok}h j'J/.##

d/F dh nk}kdh ykso j'J/ bzw/ ;zxoF ftZu ;ZG s'I tZX d[Zy s/ sebh\K f;ZyK ns/ o?vFoN gmkDK ~ MZbDhnK gJhnK.
fJj gmkD sK w[;bwkB ;B fi; eoe/ fJj gkfe;skB ftZu S/sh jh ou-fwu rJ/, go f;ZyK dk ;o{g sK fJ; ~ fe;/ j'oK
Bkb fwe; BjhI j'D fdzdk. FkfJd fJ;/ bJh fcoe{ FeshnK tZb'I f;o w{zj d/ tkb (e/;) eNtk e/ gfss j'D tkfbnK dk NhH
thH whvhJ/ ftZu y{p gqdoFB eotkfJnk iKdk j? sK fe T[BQK tZb d/y-d/y e/ nrbh ghVQh d/ f;Zy pZu/ th dkjVh e/; eNtk e/
d;skoK pzBDhnK SZv d/D.
fJ; soQK f;ZyK ~ Gkos dh fjzd{ pj[-frDsh ftZu }}p eoB dh nZi eZb ftnkge gZXo T[s/ fJZe bfjo ubk fdZsh
rJh j?, fi; ~ o'eDk e'Jh nk;kB ezw BjhI j?. T[j th T[; ;w/I id'I ;oeko dhnK BhshnK f\oe{ nkXko T[go xVhnK iKdhnK
j'D.

f;ZyK ~ d{o oZy' L

gkfe;skB ftZu'I T[iV e/ nkT[D tkb/ j}koK


f;Zy fdZbh ftZu th nkJ/. T[BQK ~ c"oh s"o #s/
fojkfJF, bzro s/ w?vheb ;jkfJsk dh }o{os ;h.
BthI-BthI pDh Gkos ;oeko nk}kdh d/ iFB wBkT[D
ftZu wrB j'D eoe/ FoBkoEhnK ~ nkgD/ bJh fJZe
tZvh w[;hps ns/ fpBQK p[bkJ/ wfjwkB ;wM e/ fdb'I
gO/FkB ;h. fJ; eoe/ FoBkoEhnK bJh :'r fojkfJF
nkfd dk gOpzX eoB ftZu pj[sh o[uh Bk fdyk ;eh.
fdZbh d/ nkw b'eK dk Gbk j't/! fiBQK B/ gkfe;skB
#u'I T[iV e/ nkT[D tkb/ FoBkoEhnK Bkb jwdodh
gOrN ehsh ns/ T[BQK ~ eJh-eJh wjhB/ nkgD/ xoK
iK e'mhnK ftZu ofjD bJh EK fdZsh ns/ nkgD/ Xow
GkJh ikD e/ fts nB[;ko ;/tk ehsh.

fdZbh nkT[D tkb/ ekcfbnK ~ fijV/ ykD/ d/ g?eN jtkJh ijk} okjhI ;[ZN/ rJ/, T[; dk gOpzX th r[od[nkok pzrbk
;kfjp d/ bzro ftZu'I f;ZyK B/ y[d ehsk. xZN s'I xZN shj j}ko gOFkd/ jo o'} fsnko ehs/ iKd/ ;B. i/eo ;OH pbd/t f;zx
fvc?I; wfB;o Bk j[zdk sK fe;/ B/ g?eN ;[ZND bJh jtkJh ijk} th BjhI ;h d/Dk. T[; ;w/I fdZbh dk fvgNh efwFBo n?wH
n?;H ozXktk ;h. T[; B/ ;ko/ FoBkoEhnK ~ t;kT[D bJh pVh tXhnk ;ehw fsnko eoe/ gzfvs Bfjo{ ih ~ nkfynk fe ;ko/
FoBkoEhnK ~ S/sh jh fdZbh ftZu fJZe-fJZe bZy dh nkpkdh dhnK d; eb"BhnK t;k e/ pV/ nkokw Bkb t;kfJnk ik ;edk j?.
Bfjo{ ih BZe uVQk e/ p'b/ fe fJBQK ;kfonK ~ fdZbh s'I 50 whb d{o jh oZy'.

nZi fJ; rZb ftZu e'Jh G[b/yk BjhI j? fe ;oeko dh fwbhG[rs s'I fpBQK nkoHn?;Hn?;H tork e'Jh th fjzd{ ;zrmB
f;ZyK, w[;bwkBK iK Jh;kJhnK ~ fjzd{ efjD dh r[;skyh ed/ th BjhI eo ;edk. fJ; bJh ;oeko ~ ukjhdk j? fe T[j ;ko/
Gkos tk;hnK ~ pokpo d/ Ffjoh ;wM e/ T[BQK ~ :ehB fdtkt/ fe xZN frDshnK ~ nkgDh j'Id gqsh e'Jh ]sok wfj;{; BjhI
eoBk ukjhdk. d/F ftZu ek~B ~ fJZe ;wkB bkr{ ehsk ikDk ukjhdk j?.

;', ;Zu/ Gkos tk;hU, f;ZyK dh nk}kdh ;zxoF ftubh ejkDh fiZE/ pVh bzwh j? T[E/ nDfrDs e[opkBhnK Bkb Goh
j'Jh j?. fJj f;ZyK d/ d[Zy sebhcK ns/ T[BQK Bkb ehs/ rJ/ ft;kjxks dhnK e[ZM e[ MkehnK jh jB. }ok, ;kok e[ZM j"I;b/ Bkb
gVQ e/ sK d/y'! nkg ih ~ Gkos dh nk}kdh ftZu f;ZyK d/ n;bh :'rdkB dk gsk bZr ikt/rk