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# Chapter 2

AC to DC CONVERSION
(RECTIFIER)

• Single
Single-phase,
phase half wave rectifier
– Uncontrolled: R, R-L , RC load
– Free wheeling diode
• Single-phase, full wave rectifier
– Controlled R,
– Continuous and discontinuous current
mode ( CCM & DCM)
p
• Three-phase rectifier
– uncontrolled (diodes)
– Controlled (SCRs)

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 1

Dr Zainal Salam
Rectifiers
• DEFINITION
DEFINITION: Converting
C ti AC (from
(f
mains or other AC source) to DC power by
using power diodes or by controlling the
firing angles of thyristors/controllable
switches.
Give example of AC
sources

## • Basic block diagram

AC input DC output

• IInput can be
b single
i l or multi-phase
li h (e.g.
( 3
3-
phase).
• Output can be made fixed or variable

## • Applications: DC welder, DC motor drive,

Battery charger, DC power supply, HVDC

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 2

Dr Zainal Salam
A K

+ +VAK - +
vs
vo
_
_

vs

π ωt

vo
io

Sketch VAK
Output voltage (DC or average),
π
Vm
Vo = Vavg =
2π ∫ 1
V
0
m sin(ωt )dωt =
π
= 0.318Vm

O
Output volltage (rms),
( )
π

∫( )
1 Vm
Vo , RMS = Vm sin(ωt )) dωt =
2
= 0.5Vm
2π 0
2

Dr Zainal Salam
Example
1 2

V RL
5

## a) The average load voltage and current

b) The load voltage in r.m.s
rms
c) The average power absorbed by the load, RL
d) The power factor of the circuit
a) 54 V & 10.8 A
b) 84.9 V
c) 1440 W
d) 0.707

Note :
Power of Sinus and Cosine,
1
sin x = (1 − cos 2 x)
2

2
1
cos 2 x = (1 + cos 2 x)
2

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 4

Dr Zainal Salam
solution
π
V 120 x 2
a) Vavg = 1 ∫ Vm sin((ωt )dωt = m = = 53.97 V
2π π 3.14
0

Vavg
Ioavg = = 10.8 A
R

π
Vm 120 x 2
b) Vorms = 1 (
∫ m
V sin(ω t ) )2
d ω t = = = 84.9 V
2π 2 2
0

2
⎛ 120 x 2 ⎞
⎜ ⎟
(Vorms )2 ⎜ 2 ⎟
c) Pavg = = ⎝ ⎠ = 1440 W
R 5

2
⎛ ⎞
(Vorms )2 ⎜⎜ 120 x 2 ⎟⎟
P 5
d ) power factor, pf = = R =⎝ ⎠ = 0.707
S Vrms .I rms 120 x Vorms
R

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 5

Dr Zainal Salam
i
+
+ vR
+ _
vs vo
_ +
_ vL
_

KVL : vs = v R + v L
di (ωt )
Vm sin(ωt ) = i (ωt ) R + L
dωt
First order differential eqn. Solution :
i (ωt ) = i f (ωt ) + in (ωt )
i f : forced response; in natural response,
From diagram, forced response is :
⎛V ⎞
i f (ωt ) = ⎜ m ⎟ ⋅ sin(ωt − θ )
⎝ Z ⎠
where :
Z = R 2 + (ωL) 2
−1 ⎛ ωL ⎞
θ = tan ⎜ ⎟
⎝ R ⎠

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 6

Dr Zainal Salam
Natural response is when source = 0,
di (ωt )
i (ωt ) R + L =0
dωt
which results in :
in (ωt ) = Ae −ωt ωτ ; τ = L R
Hence
⎛ Vm ⎞ −ωt ωτ
i (ωt ) = i f (ωt ) + in (ωt ) = ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ sin(ω t − θ ) + Ae
⎝ Z ⎠
A can be solved by realising inductor current
is zero before the diode starts conducting, i.e :
⎛V ⎞
i (0) = ⎜ m ⎟ ⋅ sin(0 − θ ) + Ae −0 ωτ
⎝ Z ⎠
⎛V ⎞ ⎛V ⎞
⇒ A = ⎜ m ⎟ ⋅ sin( −θ ) = ⎜ m ⎟ ⋅ sin(θ )
⎝ Z ⎠ ⎝ Z ⎠

## Therefore the current is given as,

⎛ Vm ⎞
i (ωt ) = ⎜
⎝ Z ⎠
[
⎟ ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) + sin(θ )e
−ωt ωτ
]
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 7
Dr Zainal Salam
R L waveform
R-L
v s,
io dI o

dt

β
vo

vR

vL

0 2π ωt
π 3π 4π

## Note : Sketch diode voltage VD

v L is negative because the current is decreasing, i.e :
di
vL = L
dt
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 8
Dr Zainal Salam
Extinction angle
Note that the diode remains in forward biased
longer than π radians (although the source is
negative during that duration).
duration) The point when
current reaches zero is when diode turns OFF.
This point is known as the extinction angle, β .
⎛V ⎞
[ ]
i ( β ) = ⎜⎜ m ⎟⎟ ⋅ sin( β − θ ) + sin(θ )e − β ωτ = 0
⎝ Z ⎠
which reduces to :
i (θ )e − β ωτ = 0
i ( β − θ ) + sin(
sin(
β can only be solved numerically.
Therefore, the diode conducts between 0 and β

## To summarise the rectfier with R - L load,

⎧⎛ Vm ⎞
⎪⎜⎜
Z

⎟ ⋅ [
sin(ω t − θ ) + sin(θ ) e −ωt ωτ
]
⎪⎝ ⎠

i (ωt ) = ⎨for 0 ≤ ωt ≤ β ⇒ τ =L/R
⎪0

⎪⎩otherwise
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 9
Dr Zainal Salam
RMS current, Power
The average (DC) current is :
β
1 2π 1
Io = ∫ i (ωt )dωt = ∫ i (ωt )dωt
2π 0 2π 0
The RMS current is :
β
1 2π 2 1 2
I RMS = ∫ i (ωt )dωt = ∫ i (ωt )dωt
2π 0 2π 0

POWER CALCULATION
Power absorbed by the load is :
Po = ( I RMS )2 ⋅ R
Power Factor is computed from definition :
P
pf =
S
where P is the real power supplied by the source,
which equal to the power absorbed by the load.
S is the apparent power supplied by the
source, i.e
S = (Vs, RMS ).( I RMS ) Quadrant of
operation ??
P
⇒ pf =
(Vs,RMS ).(I RMS )
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 10
Dr Zainal Salam
Example
1 2

L
0.1 H
V= vmsinwt

RL

100

## a) An expression for current, i & extension angle, β

b) The average current
c) The r.m.s current
d) The power absorbed by RL
e) The power factor of the circuit

a) 0.936sin(ωt - 0.361) + 0.331e - ωt/ 0.377, β= 201o(3.5
b) 0.308 A
c) 0.474 A
d) 22.4 W
e) 0.67

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 11

Dr Zainal Salam

+ iD +
vs vo
_
C _

Vm vs

π /2 π 2π 3π /2 3π 4π

Vmax vo
Vmin ΔVo
iD

α θ

## ⎧⎪Vm sin(ωt ) when diode is ON

vo =⎨
⎪⎩Vθ e −(ωt −θ ) / ωRC when diode is OFF
vθ = Vm sin θ
Time constant = t = RC

Dr Zainal Salam
Operation

## • Let C initially fully charged. Circuit is de-

energised at ωt=0

## • Diode becomes forward biased as the

source become positive

## • When diode is ON the output is the same

as source voltage. C charges until Vm
• After ωt=π/2, C discharges into load (R).

voltage

## • Diode reverse biased; isolating the load

from source.

• Th
The output
t t voltage
lt decays
d exponentially
ti ll
(with time constant RC)

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 13

Dr Zainal Salam
Estimation of θ - diode off angle
Th slope
The l off the
th functions
f ti are :
d (Vm sin ωt )
= Vm cos ωt
d (ωt )
and
(m
d V sin θ ⋅ e −(ωt −θ ) / ωRC )
d (ωt )
⎛ 1 ⎞ −(ωt −θ ) / ωRC
i θ ⋅⎜−
= Vm sin ⎟⋅e
⎝ ωRC ⎠
At ωt = θ , the slopes are equal,
⎛ 1 ⎞ −(θ −θ ) / ωRC
Vm cosθ = Vm sin θ ⋅ ⎜ − ⎟⋅e
⎝ ωRC ⎠
V cosθ 1
⇒ m =−
Vm sin θ ⋅ ωRC
1 1
=
tan θ − ωRC
θ = tan −1 (− ωRC ) = − tan −1 (ωRC ) + π
For practical circuits, ωRC is large, then :
π π
θ = -tan(∞ ) + π = − + π =
2 2
θ is very close to the peak of the sine wave. Therefore
and Vm sin θ = Vm
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 14
Dr Zainal Salam
Estimation of α
At ωt = 2π + α ,
Vm sin( 2π + α ) = (Vm sin θ )e −( 2π +α −θ ) ωRC
or
sin(α − (sin θ )e −( 2π +α −θ ) ωRC = 0
This equation must be solved numerically for α

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 15

Dr Zainal Salam
Ripple Voltage
Max output voltage is Vmax .
Min output voltage occurs at ωt = 2π + α
ΔVo = Vmax − Vmin
= Vm − Vm sin( 2π + α ) = Vm − Vm sin α
If Vθ = Vm and θ = π 2, and C is large such that
DC output voltage is constant, then α ≈ π 2.
The output voltage evaluated at ωt = 2π + α is :
⎛ 2π +π 2−π 2 ⎞ ⎛ 2π ⎞
−⎜ ⎟ −⎜ ⎟
vo ( 2π + α ) = Vm e ⎝ ω RC ⎠ = Vm e ⎝ ω RC ⎠

## The ripple voltage is approximated as :

⎛ 2π ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ 2π ⎞ ⎞
−⎜ ⎟ ⎜ − ⎜ ⎟⎟
ΔVo ≈ Vm − Vm e ⎝ ω RC ⎠ = Vm ⎜1 − e ⎝ ω RC ⎠

⎜ ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎛ 2π ⎞
−⎜ ⎟ 2π
Using Series expansoin : e ⎝ ω RC ⎠ =1−
ωRC
⎛ 2π ⎞ Vm
⇒ ΔVo = Vm ⎜ ⎟= For full-wave, output
⎝ ωRC ⎠ fRC ripple =Vm/(2fRC)

## Note: Sin (A+B)= sinAcosB + cosAsinB

SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 16
Dr Zainal Salam
Capacitor Current
The current in the capacitor can be expressed as :
dv (t )
ic (t ) = C o
d (t )
I terms off ωt , :
In
dvo (ωt )
ic (ωt ) = ωC
d (ωt )
But
⎧⎪Vm sin(ωt ) when diode is ON
vo (ωt ) = ⎨
⎪⎩Vm sin θ ⋅ e −(ωt −θ )/ ωRC when diode is OFF

## Then, substituting vo (ωt ),

⎧ωCVm cos(ωt )

⎪when diode is ON,,
⎪ i.e (2π + α ) ≤ ωt ≤ (2π + θ )

⎪⎪ (Charging current)
ic (ωt ) = ⎨

⎪− Vm sin θ ⋅ e −(ωt −θ )/ ωRC
⎪ R
⎪when diode is OFF,

i e (θ ) ≤ ωt ≤ (2π + α )
⎪⎩i.e
(Discharging current)
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 17
Dr Zainal Salam
Peak Diode Current
Note that :
is = iD = iR + iC
The peak diode current occurs at (2π + α ). Hence.
I c, peak = ωCVm cos(2π + α ) = ωCVm cos α

## Resistor current at (2π + α ) can be obtained :

.
V sin (2π + α ) Vm sin α
iR (2π + α ) = m =
R R
The diode peak current is :
V sin α
iD, peak = ωCVm cos α + m
R

N t cos(A+B)=
Note: (A+B) cosAcosB
A B - sinAsinB
i Ai B

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 18

Dr Zainal Salam
Example
A half-wave rectifier has a 120V rms source at 60Hz. The
load is =500 Ohm, C=100uF. Assume α and θ are calculated
as 48 and 93 degrees respectively. Determine (a) Expression
for output voltage (b) peak-to peak ripple (c) capacitor
current (d) peak diode current.
vs
Vm

π /2 π 2π 3π /2 3π 4π

Vmax vo
Vmin ΔVo
iD

α θ
Vm = 120 2 = 169.7V ;
θ = 93o = 1.62rad ;
Vm sin θ = 169.7 sin(1.62rad ) = 169.5V ;

## (a) Output voltage :

⎧⎪Vm sin(ωt ) = 169.7 sin(ωt ) (ON)
vo (ωt ) = ⎨
⎪⎩Vm sin θ ⋅ e −(ωt −θ ) / ωRC (OFF)

## ⎧169.7 sin(ωt ) (ON)

=⎨ −(ωt −1.62 ) /(18.85)
⎩169.5e (OFF)
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 19
Dr Zainal Salam
Example (cont’)

(b)Ripple :
Using : ΔVo = Vmax − Vmin
ΔVo = Vm − Vm sin( 2π + α ) = Vm − Vm sin α = 43V
Using Approximation :
⎛ 2π ⎞ Vm 169.7
ΔVo = Vm ⎜ ⎟ = = = 56.7V
⎝ ω RC ⎠ fRC 60 × 500 × 100u

## (c) Capacitor current :

⎧ωCVm cos(ωt ) (ON)

ic (ωt ) = ⎨ Vm sin(θ ) −(ωt −θ ) /(ωRC )
⎪⎩− R
⋅e (OFF)

## ⎧6.4 cos(ωt ) A (ON)

=⎨ −(ωt −1.62 ) /(18.85)
⎩− 0.339 ⋅ e A (OFF)

## (d) Peak diode current :

V sin α
iD, peak = ωCVm cos α + m
R
= (2 × π × 60)(100u )169.7 cos(0.843rad ) +
500
= (4.26 + 0.34) = 4.50 A

Dr Zainal Salam
ig
vs
ia

+ + VSCR - ωt
+
vs vo
_ _ vo

π ωt
v

## Sketch Vscr and

ig

Average voltage :
α ωt
π
1 Vm
Vo = ∫ Vm sin (ωt )dωt = [1 + cos α ]
2π α 2π
Vo max when
RMS voltage α = 0 degree
π 2
1
Vo, RMS = ∫ [Vm sin (ωt )] dωt
2π α

## Vm2 π Vm α sin (2α )

= ∫ [1 − cos( 2ω t ] dω t = 1 − +
4π α 2 π 2π
N power sinus:
Note i i 2x= ½(1-cos2x)
sin ½(1 2 )
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 21
Dr Zainal Salam
i

+
+ VSCR - vR
+ +
_
vs vo
_ +
vL _
_

vs

π ωt

vo

io

β
α

−ωt
⎛V ⎞
i (ωt ) = i f (ωt ) + in (ωt ) = ⎜ m ⎟ ⋅ sin (ωt − θ ) + Ae ωτ
⎝Z ⎠
Initial condition : i (α ) = 0,
−α
⎛V ⎞
i (α ) = 0 = ⎜ m ⎟ ⋅ sin (α − θ ) + Ae ωτ Draw gate
⎝Z ⎠ signal &
⎡⎛ Vm ⎞ ⎤ ωτα Vscr
⇒ A = − ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⋅ sin (α − θ )⎥ e
⎣⎝ Z ⎠ ⎦
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 22
Dr Zainal Salam
Thyristor waveform

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 23

Dr Zainal Salam
Substituting for A and simplifying,
⎧⎛ Vm ⎞ ⎡ (α − ωt)

⎪⎜ ⎟ ⎢sin (ωt − θ ) − sin (α − θ )e ωτ
⎥ for α ≤ ωt ≤ β
i(ωt ) = ⎨⎝ Z ⎠ ⎣ ⎦

⎩0 otherwise
Extinction angle β must be solved numerically
⎛ Vm ⎞ ⎡ ⎤
(α −β)
i(β ) = 0 = ⎜ ⎟⎢ sin (β − θ ) − sin (α − θ )e ωτ

⎝ Z ⎠⎣ ⎦
Angle γ = (β − α ) is called the conduction angel.

Average voltage :
β
1 Vm
( ) [cosα − cosβ]
2π ∫α
Vo = Vm sin ωt dω =

Average current :
β
1
i(ωt )dωωt
2π ∫α
Io =

RMS current :
β
1 2
i (ωt )dt
2π ∫α
I RMS =

2
Po = I RMS ⋅ R

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 24

Dr Zainal Salam
Thyristor Triggering

TCA780

v control
α = 180
o o

V st

Dr Zainal Salam
Examples

## 1. A half wave controlled rectifier has a

source of 120V RMS at 60 Hz. R = 20 Ω,
L = 0.04
0 04 H,
H and the delay angle is 45
degrees. Determine: (a) the expression for
current i(ωt), (b) average current, (c) the
Pg:90

## 2. Design a circuit to produce an average

voltage of 40V across a 100 Ω load from a
120V RMS,
RMS 60 Hz supply
supply. Determine the
power factor absorbed by the resistance.
Pg:88

## 3. An SCR is used to control power of 1 kW

230 V, 50 Hz heater. Determine the heater
ppower ffor firing g off 45o and 90o.
f g angle
Ans : 454.2 W, 250 W

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 26

Dr Zainal Salam
Effect of Freewheeling diode (FWD)
• Note that for single-phase, half wave rectifier

## • A FWD (sometimes known as commutation

diode (D2), or flywheel or by-pass) can be
placed as shown below to make it continuous
io

D1 +
vR
+ +
D2 _
vs vo
_ +
vL _
_
(a)
io io

vo= 0
+ vo= vs +
+
vs vo
vo io
_
_
_

## D1 is on, D2 is off D2 is on,

on D1 is off
(c)
(b) SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 27
Dr Zainal Salam
Operation of FWD
• Note that both D1 and D2 cannot be turned
on at the same time.
• For a positive cycle voltage source,
source
– D1 is on, D2 is off
– The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (b)
– The voltage across the R-L load is the same as
the source voltage.

## • For a negative cycle voltage source,

– D1 is
i off,
ff D2 is
i on
– The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (c)
– The voltage across the R-L load is zero.
– However the inductor contains energy from
However,
positive cycle. The load current still circulates
through the R-L path.
– But in contrast with the normal half wave
rectifier the circuit in Figure (c) does not
rectifier,
consist of supply voltage in its loop.
– Hence the “negative part” of vo as shown in the
normal half-wave disappear.

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 28

Dr Zainal Salam
• The inclusion of FWD results in continuos
load current (good current), as shown
below.
• Note also the output voltage has no
negative part (prevent output voltage
reversal). i.e. improve DC output voltage.
• Transfer
l d currentt from
f main
i rectifier
tifi
( allow rectifier regains its blocking state)

output
t t vo

io
iD1 ωt
Diode
current
iD2

0 π 2π 3π 4π

Vm Vm 2Vm
vo (t ) = + sin(ωot ) − ∑ cos(nωot )
π 2 n = 2 , 4 , 6.. ( n − 1)π
2

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 29

Dr Zainal Salam
Example
For a circuit below, determine the average
the power absorbed by the load.
2Ω, L = 25 mH, Vm=100 V, f = 60 Hz.

Vm Vm 2Vm
vo (t ) = + sin(ωot ) − ∑ cos(nωo t )
And π 2 n = 2 , 4 , 6.. ( n − 1)π
2

D1
R
D2
L

pg77

Dr Zainal Salam
Why single
single-phase
phase full
full-wave
wave ?

## • To produce purely DC (less ripple) voltage

or current
• Suitable for high power application
• Average current in the AC source is zero,
thus avoiding problem associated with
non-zero average source current especially
in transformer
• Known as two pulses rectifier, f = 100 Hz
• Output voltage doubles of half wave
rectifier
• Can have 2-quadrant operation for full

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 31

Dr Zainal Salam
Full wave rectifier

iD1
D1 D • Center-tapped

io
is 3
(CT) or mid-
+
vs
+ point rectifier
vo
_ _
requires
center-tap
D
transformer.
Full Bridge 4 D
2 Full Bridge
is
(FB) does not.
not
iD1
D1
+ + vD1 − • CT: 2 diodes
vs1
+ _ − vo + • FB: 4 diodes.
vs
_ Hence, CT
+ io
vs2 experienced
_ + vD2 − only one diode
iD2
volt-drop per
D
Center-tapped
C d/ 2 half-cycle
mid-point
For both circuits, • Conduction
⎧Vm sin ωt 0 ≤ ωt ≤ π losses for CT
vo = ⎨ is half.
⎩Vm sin ωt π ≤ ωt ≤ 2π
Average (DC) voltage :
π • Diodes ratings
1 2Vm
π∫
Vo = i (ωt )dωt =
Vm sin = 0.637Vm for CT is twice
π than FB
0
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 32
Dr Zainal Salam
Bridge waveforms

iD1

io
D1 D3
is
+ +
vs vo
_ _
D4
Full Bridge D2

Vm v
s

π 2π 3π 4π
Vm
v
o

vD1 vD2

-Vm
vD3 vD4
-
io
Vm

iD1 iD2

iD3 iD4

i
s

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 33

Dr Zainal Salam
Center-tapped waveforms
is iD1
D1
+
vs1 + vD1 −
+ _ − vo +
vs +
_ vs2 io
_ + vD2 −

Center-tapped
iD2 D
2

Vm vs

π 2π 3π 4π
Vm
vo

vD1

-2Vm

vD2

-2Vm io

iD1
iD2

is

Dr Zainal Salam
io

iD1
is 1 3 +
+ vR +
vs _
_ + vo
vL _
4 2 _

vs

π ωt

iD1 , iD2

iD3 ,iD4

io

vo

is

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 35

Dr Zainal Salam
Approximation with large L
U i Fourier
Using F i Series,
S i
∞ Contains DC
vo (ωt ) = Vo + ∑Vn cos(nωt + π ) terms and even
n = 2, 4... harmonics
where the DC term (average
( value)
l )
2Vm
Vo =
π
and the harmonics terms
2Vm ⎛ 1 1 ⎞
Vn = ⎜ − ⎟
π ⎝ n − 1 n + 1⎠
The DC curent
V
Io = o
R
The harmonic currents :
V Vn
In = n =
Z n R + jnωL
As n increases, Vn harmonic decreases. (Zn increases)
Thus I n decreases rapidly very increasing n.
If ωL is large enough, it is possible to drop all
the harmonic terms, i.e. :
V 2V
i(ωt ) ≈ I o = o = m , for ωL >> R,
R πR
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 36
Dr Zainal Salam
A i te currentt
Approximat
Vo 2Vm Power factor =Po/S
Io = = ,
R πR =Io2R/(Vsrms.Isrms)
2
(
I RMS = I o + ∑ I n , RMS
2
)= I o
Average diode current
IDave= Io/2
I /2
Power delivered to the load :
Rms diode current=
2 2
Po = I RMS R = I oDc R IDrms = Irms/√2

vs

π ωt

iD1 , iD2

iD3 ,iD4

io

vo

is

Dr Zainal Salam
Examples

## Given a bridge rectifier has an AC source

Vm= 100 V at 50 Hz, and R-L load with
R = 100 Ω , L = 10 mH,
mH determine:-
determine:

## a) the average voltage and current in the load

b) the first two higher order harmonics of
c) the load rms current and the power
d) Power factor
e) Average and rms diode current

P 110
Pg:110

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 38

Dr Zainal Salam
Solution

a)) Average
g current
= Vo/ R = (2Vm/π)/R = 0.64 A

## b) First two harmonic voltage, n = 2, 4

V2 = 2Vm/ π(1/1 – 1/3) = 42.4 V
V4= 2Vm/ π(1/3 – 1/5) = 8.5 V

## Two higher order current harmonics

I2 = V2/Z2 = 42.4/(R + j2 πfL.2) = 0.42 A
I4 = V4/Z4 = 8.5 /(R + j2 πfL.4) = 0.08 A

## c) Power absorbed by the load

P = Irms2.R

2 2
⎛ I2 ⎞ ⎛ I4 ⎞ 3.39 2 3.39 2
Irms = Io + ⎜
2
⎟ +⎜ ⎟ = ( 6. 4) 2 + ( ) +( ) = 6.81
⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 2 2

Dr Zainal Salam

T1

iD1
T3

io
is
+ +
vs vo
_ _

T4 T2
Io = ?

## Average (DC) voltage :

π
1 Vm
Vo = ∫ V sin (ωt )dωt = [1 + cos α ]
πα π
m

RMS Voltage
π 2
1
Vo, RMS = ∫ [V sin (ωt )] dωt
πα
m

## 1 α sin (2α ) ⎡ π − α sin2α ⎤

= Vm − + = Vm ⎢ + ⎥
2 2π 4π ⎣ 2π 4π ⎦
The power absorbed by the R load is :
2
Vo RMS
Po =
R
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 40
Dr Zainal Salam
Waveforms

Vs

Vo,
Io

α π+α 2π+α
T1,T2 T3,T4
on on
Ig1, ig2

Ig3.ig4

Vm Vo
Vo = (1 + cosα ) and Io =
π R

## Sketch source current

SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 41
Dr Zainal Salam
io

iD1
is 1 3 +
vR
+ +
vs
_
_ vo
+
_
vL
4 2 _

io
To
α π β π+α 2π improve
Vo, insert
vo d d
diode
T1, T2 T3, T4
ON ON FWD
across
Discontinuous mode
π+α
io
α π β 2π

vo

α α+π

Continuous mode

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 42

Dr Zainal Salam
Discontinuous mode
Analysis
A l i similar
i il to controlled
ll d half
h lf wave with
ih

⎛V ⎞ [
i (ωt ) = ⎜ m ⎟ ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) − sin(α − θ )e −(ωt −α ) ωτ
⎝ Z ⎠
]
for α ≤ ωt ≤ β
Z = R 2 + (ωL) 2
⎛ ωL ⎞ L
and θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ ; τ =
⎝ R ⎠ R
For discontinous mode, need to ensure :
β < (α + π ) Condition 1
Note that β is the extinction angle and
must be solved numerically with condition :
io ( β ) = 0

## The boundary between continous and

di
discontino
i us current moded is h β in
i when i
the output current expression is (π + α ).
For continous operation current at
ωt = (π + α ) must be greater than zero.
zero
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 43
Dr Zainal Salam
Continuous mode
i(π + α) ≥ 0
sin(π + α − θ) − sin(α − θ)e −(π + α −α) ωτ ≥ 0

U i Trigonomet
Using Ti try identity
id tit :

## sin(π + α − θ) = sin(θ − α),

[ ]
sin(θ − α) 1 − e −(π ωτ) ≥ 0,

Solving for α

⎛ ωL ⎞
α = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟
⎝ R ⎠

## Thus for continuous current mode,

mode
⎛ ωL ⎞
α ≤ tan −1 ⎜ ⎟
⎝ R ⎠ Condition 2

## Average (DC) output voltage is given as :

α+ π
1 2Vm
Vo =
π ∫ Vmsin (ωt )dωt =
α
π
cosα

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 44

Dr Zainal Salam
Waveform
f – discontinuous
di i

Ig1,
ig2

Ig3,
ig4

Vm
Vo = (cos α - cos β )
π
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 45
Dr Zainal Salam
Waveform – continuous RL
load ( L >> R )
Vs

Vo

α π+ α
iT1,
iT2
T2

iT3,
iT4
is

Ig1,ig2

Ig3,ig4

2Vm Vo
Vo = cos α and Io =
π R
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 46
Dr Zainal Salam
Waveform – continuous RL load (
L >> R )- effect of insert FWD
Vs

Vo

iT1,
iT2
iT3,
iT4

is

iFWD

Ig1,ig2

Ig3,ig4

Vm
Vo = (1 + cosα )
π
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 47
Dr Zainal Salam
Vo versus alpha α

2Vm
π

2Vm
π

2Vm

π

N α V

T α I

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 48

Dr Zainal Salam
Single-phase
Single phase half controlled
bridge-rectifier
io io

iT1
T1 T1
iT1

T2
is + is D1 +
+ v + v +
+
vs R
vs R
_ vo _ vo
_ + _ +
v _ v _
D2 D1 L
T2 D2 L
_ _

## Average (DC) voltage :

π
1 Vm
Vo = ∫ Vm sin (ωt )dωt = [1 + cos α ]
π α π
RMS Voltage
π 2
1
Vo , RMS = ∫ [V i (ωt )] dωt
sin
πα
m

1 α sin (2α )
= Vm − +
2 2π 4π
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 49
Dr Zainal Salam

Vs

Vo,
Io

α
IgT1 2π+α
π+α
T1,D1 T2,D2 T1,D1
on on on
IgT2

Vm Vo
Vo = (1 + cosα ) and Io =
π R

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 50

Dr Zainal Salam
Single-phase diode groups
D1
io

D3 vp
+
vs +
_ vo
D4 _

D2 vn
vo =vp −vn

• In the top group (D1, D3), the cathodes (-) of the two
diodes are at a common potential. Therefore, the
diode with its anode (+) at the highest potential will
conduct (carry) id.

## • For example, when vs is ( +), D1 conducts id and D3

reverses (by taking loop around vs, D1 and D3).
Wh vs is
When i (-),
( ) D3 conducts,
d D1 reverses.

## • In the bottom group, the anodes of the two diodes

are at common p potential. Therefore the diode with
its cathode at the lowest potential conducts id.

## • For example, when vs (+), D2 carry id. D4 reverses.

When vs is (-)
(-), D4 carry id. D2 reverses.
reverses

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 51

Dr Zainal Salam
Three-phase full-wave rectifiers
iD1 D1
+ van - io
ia iD3 D3

+ vbn - iD4 D5
n ib vpn
+
iD5 vo
+ vcn -
ic D2 _

D4
30 o

Vm

vp
Vm

vn

## vab vac vbc

6-pulses
vo =vp - vn rectifier
D1 D1 D3
D3 D5
D6 D2 D2 f = 300 Hz
D4 D4

0 60 o π 2π 3π 4π
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 52
Dr Zainal Salam
Three-phase waveforms
• Top group: diode with its anode at the
highest potential will conduct. The other
two will be reversed.

## • Bottom group: diode with the its cathode at

the lowest potential will conduct. The other
two will be reversed.

## • For example, if D1 (of the top group)

conducts, vp is connected to van.. If D6 (of the
bottom group) conducts, vn connects to vbn .
All other diodes are off.

vo=vp-vn

## • For peak of the output voltage is equal to

the peak of the line to line voltage vab .

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 53

Dr Zainal Salam
Three-phase, average voltage
vo
vo

π/3
Vm, L-L
D1 D2
D1,D2
D2,D3

0 vac vbc
π/3 2π/3

## Considers only one of the six segments. Obtain

its average over 60 degrees or π 3 radians.

Average voltage :

2π 3
1
π 3 π∫3
Vo = Vm , L − L sin(ωt )dωt

3Vm , L − L Draw di
D diode
d
= [− cos(ωt )] 2π 3
π 3 currents with
3Vm , L − L
= = 0.955Vm , L − L = 1.65Vmphase
π
Note that the output DC voltage component of
a three - phase rectifier is much higher than of a
single - phase, less ripple, easier filter designed compared to
single
g - pphase

Dr Zainal Salam
120 o

120 o

ID1-iD4

## Diode current & Line current

current (phase a) for L >> R
2
2 p Io R
Ia = I b = Ic = I o rms ; pff = =
3 S 3Vlrms.Ilrms
1 1
iDave = I o ; iD rms = I o rms
3 3
D
Determine
i max PIV diode
di d
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 55
Dr Zainal Salam
3-Phase Current Waveform-
L>>R

## • Output current is assumed to be DC , L>>R

L R
• Line current (rms) & power factor

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 56

Dr Zainal Salam
Three-phase half-wave
rectifiers

D1

D2

D3

vo

120o

150 o
1
Vo =
2π ∫V m sin ωt dωt = 0.827Vm
30 o
3
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 57
Dr Zainal Salam
Three-phase full-wave controlled
rectifier
T1

+ van - io
T3

+ vbn -
T5 vpn
n
+
+ vcn - vo
T2 _

T6 vnn

T4

Vm

vo

p

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 58

Dr Zainal Salam
Controlled, three-phase
waveforms
l d

## CCM - α < 60o ; DCM -α > 60o ;

Vo = 0 V at α = 120o

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 59

Dr Zainal Salam
Controlled, three-phase
waveforms
l d

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 60

Dr Zainal Salam
Controlled, three-phase

V =0
Vo

## Note: α < 60 o Vo always

y +ve,, α > 60 o, Vo ggoes
negative(RL load) (Can be overcame by FWD diode)
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 61
Dr Zainal Salam
Controlled, three-phase
waveforms L>>R
waveforms,

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 62

Dr Zainal Salam
Controlled rectifier, effects on
power factor as α varies

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 63

Dr Zainal Salam
Controlled, three-phase
waveforms with α=90 degree

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 64

Dr Zainal Salam
Output voltage of controlled
three phase rectifier
From the previous Figure, let α be the
delay angle of the SCR.

## Average voltage can be comp uted as :

( 2π 3 ) +α
1
Vo =
π 3 ( π
∫ V
α
3) +
m, L − L i (ωt )dωt
sin(

⎛ 3Vm , L − L ⎞
= ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⋅ cos α = 1.654Vmphase cos α
π
h
⎝ ⎠
• EXAMPLE: A three-phase controlled rectifier has
an input voltage of 415V RMS at 50 Hz. The load
R = 10 Ω.
Ω Determine the delay angle required to
produce current of 50 A.

Sol:
Vo=Io.R = 1.654Vmphasecosα = 50x10
α = cos-1(500/(1.654x415x√2/√3)= 26.77o

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 65

Dr Zainal Salam
EXAMPLE
Q1. Consider an uncontrolled single-phase full wave diode
rectifier
ifi with
i h series
l d The
Th supply
l voltage
l is
i given
i
as 340 sin (314t) V.
a) By assuming the load inductance is large enough, sketch
the waveform of
i) Output
O t t voltage,
lt Vo
ii) Diode current iD1, iD2, iD3 and iD4
iii) Input supply current, is

## b) If R-L load are 10 Ω and 100 mH respectively, and the

instantaneous voltage across the load is given as

v o (t) = Vo + ∑ Vn cos(nwt + π)
n = 2,4
24

where 2Vm ⎛ 1 1 ⎞
Vn = ⎜ − ⎟
π ⎝ n − 1 n + 1 ⎠
i)) Derive the average
g output
p voltage,
g , Vo
ii) Calculate the average load current, Io
iii) Calculate the amplitude of harmonic voltage, Vn for n = 2, 4
iv) Calculate the amplitude of harmonic current, In for n = 2, 4
v) Calculate the load current in rms
vi) Calculate power factor

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 66

Dr Zainal Salam
Q2. a) Draw the circuit diagram of a single-phase
controlled full-wave rectifier using four power devices
with resistive load connected to it.it Assuming the input
voltage of the rectifier is v (t) = Vmsin(ωt) and the delay
angle is α,
i) Sketch the load voltage and current waveforms
ii) Derive the equations for the average load voltage and
current.

## b) Consider using the rectifier as DC supply to a highly

inductive load (R = 2.4 Ω and L = 0.6 H) which keeps the
load current smooth and ripple-free. The rectifier is
supplied from 1414 Vrms, 50 Hz supply.

## i)) Sketch the load voltage

g waveform and show that the
relationship between the average load voltage and the
delay angle α is (2Vm/π) cos α.

i(a)

## ii) If the load requires a current of 450 A, calculate the

delay angle that will give this value. (α = 31.96 degree)

## iii) Prove that the load current is continuous.

(test : α < tita) -- CCM
iv) Determine the power absorbed by the load.
( P = 486kW)
v) Explain how the power absorbed by the load is
SEE 4433
increased by including Dr. Awang / diode. ( test : New
a freewheeling 67
Dr Zainal Salam
P = 577.8 kW)
Q3.a) State 2 reason why full-wave rectifier is
preferable to half-wave rectifier.
(3 marks)
b) Referring to figure below, and assuming the
inductor is very large,
i)) sketch the waveforms of vs, iT1, iT2,,VT1,,is, igg1,
ig2, and vo for one complete cycle.
(9 marks)
ii) Derive the expression rectifier output voltage vo
(6 marks)
c) Given the source voltage vs = 340 sin314t V, and
load resistor R and inductor L is 10 Ω and 40 mH.
Determine whether the load current is in continuous
or discontinuous mode of conduction, if the delay
angle α is fired at 30o and 75o.
(7 marks)
d) If a freewheeling diode is connected across the
load, sketch the vo, iT1,iT2, diode current id, and
supply current is.

iT1 + vT1 -

T1
ig1
is

L R

vs
- vo +

iT2 T2 ig2

## SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / 68

Dr Zainal Salam
Q4. a) Explain what is the extension angle in a
single phase half-wave rectifier with R-L load.
Sketch the necessary diagram/waveform to support
the explanation.

## b) Describe the functions and operation of a free-

wheeling diode in a single-phase half-wave rectifier
with R-L load. Sketch the necessary
y
diagram/waveform to support the explanation

## c) A three-phase controlled bridge rectifier with a

series R-L load has a per/phase supply voltage of
240 Vrms, 50 Hz . The load is R = 10 Ω and L = 10
mH. Calculate the firing angle, α, if the required
output current is 45 A.
( α = 36.73 o)

Dr Zainal Salam