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Perforating Technology
Introduction
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Contents
1. Brief introduction

2. New DP charges

3. HEPF technology
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Brief introduction
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 Why Perforating?

• Casing and cement isolating wellbore.

• Establish fluid communication.

• Production operating proceeds.


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Compact
Compactlayer
layer

Hole
Hole

Invaded
Invadedzone
zone Virgin
Virginzone
zone
Cement
Casing
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Perforating Types

Wireline conveyed perforating(WCP)


Wireline casing perforating
Through tubing perforating (TTP)

Tubing conveyed perforating (TCP)


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Wellhead control equipment
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Advantages of WCP

.Easy to operate.

•Use of the safety detonator.

•Big OD perforating guns.

•Cheap and easy for short intervals.


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Disadvantages of WCP

•Overbalance perforating

• H2S & CO2 wells

• Deviated wells

• High pressure wells


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TTP Perforating

Brief Introduction

●Charges are closed in the


carrier
●The charge lock is opened
● The gun is fired
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TCP Applications
• Long-interval perforating

• H2S & CO2 wells

• Deviated wells

• TCP-testing

• High pressure wells

• Reperforating
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Features of TCP

•Formation protection.
•Clean debris.
•Big size guns.
•Conceivable length of guns
•Operation safety.
•Combination with testing
•Saving operating time.
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TCP or WCP

Choice dependent on:


– Kind of completion:Natural, fractured,
sand control, and remedial
– Interval length
– Rig cost
– Post perforating testing
– Under balanced
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Example 1

Wireline casing perforating

Country : Sudan
Well structure: 7 " casing
Completion fluid: water
Gun type: 5 " expendable steel hollow carrier
Phasing: 90
Shot density: 16spm
Perforating length:43.5m
Qty of lubricators: 4
Total runs: 10
Well depth: about 2300m
Total operating time:24 hrs
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Example 2

Through tubing perforating


Country : Iran
Well structure: 9 5/8 " casing(0-2499.5m)
7 " casing(2360.5m-3805.0m)
gun type: 2 1/8" exposed spiral guns
Phasing: 90
Shot density: 13spm
Perf. length: 28.3m
Environment: 4% H2S, High power radar,
110kV power line
Safety : safety adapter
Result : successful
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Example 3

Tubing conveyed perforating (TCP)

Country : Sudan
Well structure: 7 " casing
Comp. fluid: water
Gun type: 5 " expendable steel hollow carrier
Phasing: 90
Shot density: 16spm
Well depth: 2500m
Perf. length: 73.5m, 105m including spacer.
Result : all charges shot
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Example 4

Dual casing perforating

Country : Sudan
Well structure: 9 5/8 " casing and 13 3/8 " casing
Comp. fluid: water
Gun type: 5 " expendable steel hollow carrier
Phasing: 90
Shot density: 16spm
After perf. Great bubble
Test conclusion:oil.
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New DP Charges
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1MD-1 Perforator
1. Casing O.D. : 7 〞
2. Gun O.D. : 5 1/2 〞
3. Gun type: high strength steel pipe, retrievable
4. Phasing: 90 °
5. Shot density(spm): 12
6. Explosive: RDX
7. Explosive weight (g): 45
8. Temperature rating:163 ℃ /2h
9. Pressure rating (Mpa):70
10.EH in concrete target : 0.56 〞
11.Penetration in concrete target: 41.4 〞
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1MD-2 Perforator

1. Casing O.D. : 7 〞
2. Gun O.D. : 5 〞
3. Gun type: high strength steel pipe, retrievable
4. Phasing: 90 °
5. Shot density(spm):12
6. Explosive type: RDX
7. Explosive weight (g): 45
8. Temperature rating:163 ℃ /2h
9. Pressure rating (Mpa):70
10.EH in concrete target : 0.50 〞
11.Penetration in concrete target: 37.8 〞
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1MD-3 Perforator

1. Casing O.D. : 5 1/2 〞


2. Gun O.D. : 4 〞
3. Gun type: high strength steel pipe, retrievable
4. Phasing: 90 °
5. Shot density(spm):16
6. Explosive type: RDX
7. Explosive weight(g): 39
8. Temperature rating:163 ℃ /2h
9. Pressure rating (Mpa):70
10.EH in concrete target : 0.48 〞
11.Penetration in concrete target: 33.7 〞
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Effect of new DP charges

production before reperf. production after reperf. effect


well
fluid (t/d) fluid (t/d) fluid (%)
Xinwei # 8.50 13.10 54.12
Mingce # 5.10 6.90 35.29
Xinwei ## 6.30 12.30 95.24
Wei # 3.00 9.50 216.67
Mingce # 18.90 32.80 73.54
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Limitation of Conventional Perf.

1.Penetration and shot density

2. compaction damage

3. Residual energy
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HEPF Technology
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Meaning of HEPF

HEPF-High Energy Perforating and Fracturing


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Principle of HEPF

1. Charges and propellant in the same gun


2. Charges are detonated.
3. Propellant is fired
4. High pressure generate
5. Fracturing would be realized.
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Characteristics of HEPF

1. Two different types of energy


2. Overcoming the restriction of critical conditions
3. Removing compaction damage .
4. Utilizing the residual energy of explosion.
5. Simple process and convenient operation
6. Safety operating and Economical costs
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Performance of HEPF

1. Fracture length on target surface : 2500mm


2. Fracture width on target surface: 5.3mm
3. Fracture width on target side: 3mm
4. Pressure rating: 80Mpa
5. Temperature rating : 177 ℃
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HEPF Products
gun size
perforator type charge type shot density (spm) propellant type conveyance
(mm)

TY-89-P DP36RDX 89 13/16 G/P wireline/ tubing

TY-89-G DP36HMX 89 13/16 G/P wireline/ tubing

TY-102-P41 DP41RDX 102 13/16 G/P wireline/ tubing

TY-102-G41 DP41HMX 102 13/16 G/P wireline/ tubing

TY-102-P44 DP44RDX 102 13/16 G/P wireline/ tubing

TY-102-G44 DP44HMX 102 13/16 G/P wireline/ tubing

TY-114-P DP44RDX 114 13/16 G/P wireline/ tubing

TY-114-G DP44HMX 114 13/16 G/P wireline/ tubing

TY-127-P DP44RDX 127 13/16 G/P wireline/ tubing

TY-127-P DP44HMX 127 13/16 G/P wireline/ tubing


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Example 5 -HEPF

Area: Tarim
Completion: reperforating
Well no: Lun south #
Before HEPF:no commercial oil since 1993
After HEPF: test rate 25t/d in 1999
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Example 6 -HEPF

Well area: Kazakstan


Perforating depth : 3865m
Total interval : 52 m
Perforating type:TCP
Propellant quantity:1260g/m
Expected production: 70t/d
Completion result: 120t/d
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