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Business

Communications
Assignment # 1
Assignment # 1

Business Communication (525)


Semester: Spring 2010 – MBA

SUBMITTED TO: MRS. TASLEEM KIANI

SUBMITTED BY: AH524979

Date: 28thAugust, 2010


Table of Contents
Question # 1: ................................................................................................................................................. 1
THE SEVEN C’S OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION .................................................................................................. 1
C O M P L E T E N E S S ................................................................................................................................. 1
C O N C I S E N E S S .................................................................................................................................... 4
C O N S I D E R A T I O N ............................................................................................................................... 6
C O N C R E T E N E S S ................................................................................................................................. 9
C L A R I T Y ............................................................................................................................................ 12
C O U R T E S Y ........................................................................................................................................ 14
C O R R E C T N E S S ................................................................................................................................. 16
Question # 2(a):........................................................................................................................................... 18
THE CONCEPT OF CULTURE ............................................................................................................................ 18
CULTURAL VARIABLES .................................................................................................................................. 20
N A T I O N A L C U L T U R A L V A R I A B L E S ............................................................................................. 20
I N D I V I D U A L C U L T U R A L V A R I A B L E S .......................................................................................... 23
Question # 2(b): .......................................................................................................................................... 27
PERSONAL ETHICS ....................................................................................................................................... 27
F A M I L Y I N F L U E N C E S P E R S O N A L E T H I C S ( P E O P L E ) ............................................................ 28
R E L I G I O U S B E L I E F S I M P A C T P E R S O N A L E T H I C S ( R E L I G I O N ) ........................................... 28
C U L T U R E A F F E C T S E T H I C A L N O R M S ( C U L T U R E ) .................................................................. 28
E X P E R I E N C E C A N S H I F T Y O U R E T H I C S ( L A W ) ..................................................................... 28
I N T E R N A L / P E R S O N A L R E F L E C T I O N ( P H I L O S O P H Y ) ......................................................... 29
Question #3:................................................................................................................................................ 29
VARIOUS CHALLENGES THAT BUSINESSES FACE IN HANDLING NEW TECHNOLOGIES .................................................. 29
C H A N G I N G T E C H N O L O G I E S I N T H E N E W W O R L D ................................................................... 29
T E C H N O L O G Y A C C E P T A N C E I N P A K I S T A N I S C E N A R I O ......................................................... 30
T Y P E S O F C O M M U N I C A T I O N B A R R I E R S ................................................................................... 30
A D O P T I N G N E W T E C H N O L O G I E S – R I S K S I N P A K I S T A N ..................................................... 31
F I V E B I G G E S T C H A L L E N G E S I N P A K I S T A N ............................................................................... 32
M U L T I N A T I O N A L S I N P A K I S T A N ................................................................................................ 33
D E V E L O P A N I N F O R M A T I O N T E C H N O L O G Y C H A N G E M A N A G E M E N T P R O G R A M .......... 33
Question #4(a):............................................................................................................................................ 36
EXCHANGE RATE ......................................................................................................................................... 36
FLUCTUATIONS IN EXCHANGE RATES ................................................................................................................ 37
REPORT: .................................................................................................................................................... 38
P R O B L E M S T A T E M E N T .................................................................................................................. 38
E F F E C T S O F E X C H A N G E F L U C T U A T I O N S O N B U S I N E S S ........................................................ 38
F O R E I G N E X C H A N G E R I S K M A N A G E M E N T .............................................................................. 39
C O N C L U S I O N ................................................................................................................................... 41
Question #4(b): ........................................................................................................................................... 41
SOLICITED LETTER ........................................................................................................................................ 41
D I S A D V A N T A G E S T O T H E S O L I C I T E D L E T T E R ......................................................................... 41
UNSOLICITED LETTER.................................................................................................................................... 42
GUIDELINES THAT SHOULD BE ABSORBED DURING WRITING THESE LETTERS ............................................................. 42
G U I D E L I N E S F O R W R I T I N G U N S O L I C I T E D L E T T E R S ............................................................. 42
G U I D E L I N E S F O R W R I T I N G S O L I C I T E D L E T T E R S ................................................................... 43
Question #5(a):............................................................................................................................................ 44
PROPOSAL ................................................................................................................................................. 44
B U S I N E S S C O M M U N I C A T I O N ....................................................................................................... 44
P R O P O S A L I N C O M M U N I C A T I O N ................................................................................................ 45
S Y S T E M I N P A K I S T A N ................................................................................................................... 46
KINDS OF PROPOSAL .................................................................................................................................... 47
Question #5(b): ........................................................................................................................................... 49
ORGANIZATIONAL PLAN FOR MESSAGE USING DIRECT APPROACH ........................................................................ 49
D I R E C T A P P R O A C H ........................................................................................................................ 49
NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION...................................................................................................................... 50
C U L T U R A L D I F F E R E N C E S I N N O N - V E R B A L C O M M U N I C A T I O N ........................................... 52
REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................... 57
Business Communication (525) – Assignment # 1
Question # 1:

To compose effective written or oral message, one must apply certain communication principles.
These principles provide guidelines for choice of content and style of presentation called the seven C’s.
Explain each in detail with appropriate examples.

Answer:

THE SEVEN C’S OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

To compose effective written or oral message, one must apply certain communication principles.
These principles provide guidelines for choice of content and style of presentation adapted to the
purpose and receiver of your message, called the seven C’s. These seven C’s are:

1. Completeness

2. Conciseness

3. Consideration

4. Concreteness

5. Clarity

6. Courtesy

7. Correctness

The seven C’s of communication are applicable to all forms of communication, from mere
utterances and sentences to complete documents or presentations. They can be applied to both verbal
and written communication. To some extent the principles overlap because they are based on a common
concern for the audience, whether that audience consists of listeners or readers.

COMPLETENESS

The message should be complete to bring desirable results. It should include everything the reader
needs for the reaction you desire. You must know what information our reader wants or needs. You
should be able to know the reader's background viewpoint needs attitudes and emotions.

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Business Communication (525) – Assignment # 1
1. Provide all necessary information.
2. Answer all questions asked.
3. Give something Extra, when Desirable.

Completeness offers various benefits. It helps in bringing out the desired results without extra cost
other number of messages. It also helps in building goodwill and a sense of concern for other party as
both the reader and sender may have different background, culture, viewpoint, needs and experience.

A) PROVIDING ALL NECESSARY INFORMATION

It means to provide entire information keeping in mind the readers point of view for their better
understanding. It can be done by answering all WH questions i.e. who, what, when, where, why and
other essentials like how?

B) ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS ASKED

A reply or reaction to a incomplete reply is most likely to be unfavorable. Not answering all the
questions builds an image of being careless or trying to hide some weak spots, leading to question on
our tact’s and honesty.

C) GIVE SOMETHING EXTRA, WHEN DESIRABLE

It refers to providing some extra information related to the question asked by the opposite party.
Giving a satisfactory reply is the main issue which would attract the opposite party for an interaction.
For example if a new member in your society wants to know about the place where the next meeting
will be held? So your reply should not only consist of the place where the meeting would be held it
should also consist of other information relevant to the meeting like at what time, where, when,
objective behind the meeting should be mentioned and an invitation to him in the end will make the
reader more eager to attend the meeting.

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Business Communication (525) – Assignment # 1
EXAMPLE OF USAGE OF COMPLETENESS FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

Incomplete letter to a new savings depositor:

Thank you for the confidence you have shown us by the account you recently opened. All our
facilities are at your disposal, and anytime we can be of service, please call on us. Our appreciation is
best expressed by our service being of to you.

Revised, complete letter to the new savings depositor:

Thank you for the confidence you have shown in us by opening the savings account. Our goal is to
make all our services available to you both helpful and pleasant.

Your account offers you the following benefits:

• YOUR PASSBOOK DEPOSITS EARN 7% interest compounded half-yearly


• BETTER-THEN-CHECKING facility helps you make online transactions and even 24 hour
ATM (Automatic Teller Machine)

You are most welcome to come in whenever we can assist you. Please consider this association as
your financial head-quarters for your savings and borrowing needs. Waiting eagerly to see you in our
premises

In a complete message, the audience has everything they need to be informed and, if applicable, take
action.

• Does your message include a "call to action", so that your audience clearly knows what you
want them to do?
• Have you included all relevant information – contact names, dates, times, locations, and so
on?

Bad Example

Hi everyone,
I just wanted to send you all a reminder about the meeting we're having tomorrow!
See you then,
Chris
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Business Communication (525) – Assignment # 1
This message is not complete, for obvious reasons. What meeting? When is it? Where? Chris has left
his team without the necessary information.

Good Example

Hi everyone,
I just wanted to remind you about tomorrow's meeting on the new telecommuting policies. The
meeting will be at 10:00 a.m. in the second-level conference room. Please let me know if you can't
attend.
See you then,
Chris

CONCISENESS

Business executives are dead-busy. They don't have time to go through unnecessarily lengthy
messages. The writer is also a loser if he writes wordy messages because it involves more time and
money to type and read. Conciseness makes the message more understandable and comprehensible

1. Eliminate wordy Expressions.


2. Include only relevant material.
3. Avoided unnecessary Repetition.

Conciseness refers to saying whatever we want in fewest in possible words without sacrificing the
other C qualities. A concise message saves time and expense for both sender and receiver. Conciseness
refers to elimination of unnecessary words and inclusion of interesting topics for the recipients.

A. ELIMINATING WORDY EXPRESSIONS

It refers to replacing of long wordy expressions by shorter terms of same meaning and avoiding
overusing empty phrases and limiting the use of passive voice

Example:

Situation 1

• Wordy: At this time


• Concise: Now

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Business Communication (525) – Assignment # 1
Situation 2

• Wordy: She bought desk that are of executive type


• Concise: She bought executive-type desks

B. INCLUDE ONLY RELEVANT MATERIAL

The effective message should not only omit unnecessary word expression but also irrelevant
material. It can be done in the following manner:

1. Stick to the purpose of the message.


2. Delete irrelevant words and rambling sentences
3. Avoid long introductions, unnecessary explanation, excessive adjective
4. Omit obvious information to the receiver

Example:

• Wordy: We hereby wish to let you know that our company is pleased with the confidence
you have reposed in us.
• Concise: We appreciate your confidence.

C. AVOID UNNECESSARY REPETITION

Sometimes repetition is necessary for emphasis but when same thing is repeated two or three times without
any reason the message becomes wordy and boring. These can be done by sticking to the following points.

• Use of shorter name i.e. for example if once you have mentioned Tomas College of Commerce and
Economics once, you can write Tom.com instead of such a long name in later.
• Use pronouns or acronyms or initials rather then repeating long names i.e. for example you should
write ICC instead of writing International Cricket Council again and again.
• Cut out all needless expressions and repetition of phrases of sentences

When you're concise in your communication, you stick to the point and keep it brief. Your audience
doesn't want to read six sentences when you could communicate your message in three.

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Business Communication (525) – Assignment # 1
• Are there any adjectives or "filler words" that you can delete? You can often eliminate words
like "for instance," "you see," "definitely," "kind of," "literally," "basically," or "I mean."
• Are there any unnecessary sentences?
• Have you repeated the point several times, in different ways?

Bad Example

Hi Matt,
I wanted to touch base with you about the email marketing campaign we kind of sketched out last
Thursday. I really think that our target market is definitely going to want to see the company's
philanthropic efforts. I think that could make a big impact, and it would stay in their minds longer
than a sales pitch.
For instance, if we talk about the company's efforts to become sustainable, as well as the charity
work we're doing in local schools, then the people that we want to attract are going to remember our
message longer. The impact will just be greater.
What do you think?
Jessica

This email is too long! There's repetition, and there's plenty of "filler" taking up space.

Good Example

Watch what happens when we're concise and take out the filler words:

Hi Matt,
I wanted to quickly discuss the email marketing campaign that we analyzed last Thursday. Our
target market will want to know about the company's philanthropic efforts, especially our goals to
become sustainable and help local schools.
This would make a far greater impact, and it would stay in their minds longer than a traditional
sales pitch.
What do you think?
Jessica

CONSIDERATION

Consideration refers to you attitude sympathy the human touch and understanding of human nature.
Consideration means the message with the receiver in mind. You should try to visualize your readers their desires
problems emotions circumstances and possible reaction to your request.

1. Focus on you instead I & We


2. Show reader benefit or interest in reader

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Business Communication (525) – Assignment # 1
3. Emphasize

Consideration means preparing every message keeping the message receiver in mind; Being considerate
means you don’t loose your temper, you do not accuse or charge them without facts, in other sense
consideration covers other six C’s of effective communication

A. FOCUSING ON “YOU” INSTEAD OF “I” AND “WE”

The message should focus on how message receivers will be benefited, what they would receive and
what they need to know should be emphasized. Many people have ideas of individual gain for better
standard of living.

Example:

• We-attitude: I am delighted to announce you that we will be extending our hours to make
shopping more convenient.
• You-attitude: You will be able to shop in evenings with the extended hours.

B. SHOWING AUDIENCE BENEFITS OR INTEREST IN THE RECEIVER

If possible you must show how your receivers will benefit from whatever the message asks or
announces. Receiver will be more likely to react favorably and do what do you suggest if you show that
benefits are worth the effort and cost you are asking them.

C. EMPHASIZE POSITIVE, PLEASANT FACTS

A third way to show consideration for your receivers is to accent the positive. This means stressing what
can be done instead of what cannot be done, and focusing onwards your recipient can consider
favorably.

Example:
Situation 1:

• Unpleasant: We don’t refund if the returned item is soiled or unsalable.


• Pleasant: We refund when the returned item is clean and resalable.

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Business Communication (525) – Assignment # 1

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Business Communication (525) – Assignment # 1
Situation 2:

• Unpleasant: When you travel on company expense, you will not receive approval for first
class fare.
• Pleasant: When you travel on company expense, your approved fare is for tourist class

When your communication is coherent, it's logical. All points are connected and relevant to the main
topic, and the tone and flow of the text is consistent.

Bad Example

Traci,
I wanted to write you a quick note about the report you finished last week. I gave it to Michelle
to proof, and she wanted to make sure you knew about the department meeting we're having this
Friday. We'll be creating an outline for the new employee handbook.
Thanks,
Michelle

As you can see, this email doesn't communicate its point very well. Where is Michelle's feedback on
Traci's report? She started to mention it, but then she changed the topic to Friday's meeting.

Good Example

Hi Traci,
I wanted to write you a quick note about the report you finished last week. I gave it to Michelle
to proof, and she let me know that there are a few changes that you'll need to make. She'll email you
her detailed comments later this afternoon.
Thanks,
Michelle

Notice that in the good example, Michelle does not mention Friday's meeting. This is because the
meeting reminder should be an entirely separate email. This way, Traci can delete the report feedback
email after she makes her changes, but save the email about the meeting as her reminder to attend. Each
email has only one main topic.

CONCRETENESS

The business writing should be specific definite unambiguous and vivid rather than vague and general The
following guidelines lead to concreteness.

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Business Communication (525) – Assignment # 1
1. Use specific facts and figures
2. Put action in your verb
3. Choose vivid image building words.

Concreteness refers to being more specific, definite, and vivid rather than and general and repetitive.
The main benefit of being concrete is obvious that the receiver knows exactly what is required or
desired. The other benefit of being concrete is that the reply might be in the same way that may be
interrupted by you as the receiver.

A. USING SPECIFIC FACTS AND FIGURES

Whenever possible use specific, exact, precise statement or figure instead of general words which helps
in making your message more concrete.

Examples:

• General, Indefinite: She’s a brain; Concrete, Precise: Her percentage have increased from 84% in
S.S.C to 88% in H.S.C
• General, Indefinite: Eastern Europe is making progress in obtaining investments; Concrete,
Precise: In 1990, investments in Eastern Europe were about US $30 million; today that figure has
increased by 12%.

But sometimes when you don’t know the exact figures and want to be concrete you can write as “half
the committee was present”

B. PUT ACTION IN YOUR VERBS

Verbs can bring your concreteness back to being alive and more dynamic. Use of verbs especially the
active verbs make your sentence more Specific, Personal and Concise. Even the passive verbs are more
useful sometimes when you want to avoid any Personal or accusing comments.

Examples:

• “The Principal Has decided” is more specific then “A decision has been made”.
• “You will note” is both personal and specific than “It will be noted”.

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Business Communication (525) – Assignment # 1
C. SELECTION OF MORE VIVID AND IMAGE-BUILDING WORDS

This section refers to the use of language or words which are capable of creating an atmosphere in
the mind of the reader that he imagines himself, being, in that situation rather than using words which
would bounce over the gray matter. The inclusion of vivid words also helps in creating a scenario that
the writer or speaker has a wider scope of imagination instead having an image of sticking to the basics.

Examples:
No Literal and dull More vivid and image-builder

• His work in group was exemplary He could be called the “The spark plug of the group”
• The results are very good this year and are expected to be very good next year.
• The results this year have been excellent and we expect them to touch the mountain in the
coming year.

When your message is concrete, then your audience has a clear picture of what you're telling them.
There are details (but not too many!) and vivid facts, and there's laser like focus. Your message is solid.

Bad Example

Consider this advertising copy:

The Lunchbox Wizard will save you time every day.

A statement like this probably won't sell many of these products. There's no passion, no vivid detail,
nothing that creates emotion, and nothing that tells people in the audience why they should care. This
message isn't concrete enough to make a difference.

Good Example

How much time do you spend every day packing your kids' lunches? No more! Just take a
complete Lunchbox Wizard from your refrigerator each day to give your kids a healthy lunch AND
have more time to play or read with them!

This copy is better because there are vivid images. The audience can picture spending quality time with
their kids – and what parent could argue with that? And mentioning that the product is stored in the
refrigerator explains how the idea is practical. The message has come alive through these details.

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Business Communication (525) – Assignment # 1
CLARITY

Clarity demands that the business message should be correct concise complete concrete and with
consideration

1. Use the right level of language


2. Proper punctuation make the writing clear
3. Check accuracy of fact figure & Words

Getting the meaning from your head to the reader’s head accurately is the purpose of clarity. Of course,
you know it is not simple. We all carry around our own unique interpretations, ideas, thinking,
experiences associated with the words.

A. USE THE RIGHT LEVEL OF LANGUAGE

Clarity is achieved in part through a balance between precise words and familiar words. Defining the
above sentence, example, although it is appropriate to use technical terms and business jargon's in
professional institutions but they need to be avoided when communicating with a person who is not
acquainted with the terminology.

Example:

• Possibly unfamiliar: Assessed valuation; Familiar to the layperson: Property value for tax
purposes.
• Possibly unfamiliar: Charge to your principal (banking); Familiar to the layperson: Increase the
balance of your loan.
• Possibly unfamiliar: Buyouts; Familiar to the layperson: Purchase by other company.
• Possibly unfamiliar: People plying on skywalk; Familiar to the layperson: People moving on
over bridge

B. PROPER PUNCTUATION MAKE THE WRITING CLEARS

In this important characteristics to consider are length unity and coherence.

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Business Communication (525) – Assignment # 1
• Length: Generally short sentences are preferred, the suggested average sentence length should be
about 17-20 words, because longer sentence may cause lack of concentration in sentence.
• Unity: In a sentence whether it is simple, compound or complex the link i.e. the unity matters
which means to have one main idea traveling through the entire conversation. Every sentence or
word must be closely related to each other.

C. CHECK ACCURACY OF FACT FIGURE & WORDS (COHERENCE )

Coherence in sentences means the words should be correctly placed or arranged so that ideas clearly
reflect the intended meaning.

• Emphasis: It refers to the quality that gives force to important parts of the sentences and
paragraphs. The writer must know when and where the emphasis is required which helps in
making the letter more clear along with other C qualities

When writing or speaking to someone, be clear about your goal or message. What is your purpose in
communicating with this person? If you're not sure, then your audience won't be sure either.

To be clear, try to minimize the number of ideas in each sentence. Make sure that it's easy for your
reader to understand your meaning. People shouldn't have to "read between the lines" and make
assumptions on their own to understand what you're trying to say.

Bad Example

Hi John,
I wanted to write you a quick note about Daniel, who's working in your department. He's a great
asset, and I'd like to talk to you more about him when you have time.
Best,
Skip

What is this email about? Well, we're not sure. First, if there are multiple Daniels in John's department,
John won't know who Skip is talking about.

Next, what is Daniel doing, specifically, that's so great? We don't know that either. It's so vague that
John will definitely have to write back for more information.

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Business Communication (525) – Assignment # 1
Last, what is the purpose of this email? Does Skip simply want to have an idle chat about Daniel, or is
there some more specific goal here? There's no sense of purpose to this message, so it's a bit confusing.

Good Example

Let's see how we could change this email to make it clear.

Hi John,
I wanted to write you a quick note about Daniel Kedar, who's working in your department. In
recent weeks, he's helped the IT department through several pressing deadlines on his own time.
We've got a tough upgrade project due to run over the next three months, and his knowledge and
skills would prove invaluable. Could we please have his help with this work?
I'd appreciate speaking with you about this. When is it best to call you to discuss this further?
Best wishes,
Skip

This second message is much clearer, because the reader has the information he needs to take action.

COURTESY

Courtesy is more important and advantageous in business writing than it is in face to face
communication or conversation. Courteous message strengthen present relations and make new friends.
It is a goodwill building.

1. Answer your mail promptly


2. Be sincerely tactful thoughtful and appreciative
3. Use expressions that show respect

True courtesy involves being aware not only of the perspective of others but also their feelings. It is
merely politeness and mechanical insertions of “please” and “thank-you”.

A. BEING SINCERELY TACTFUL, THOUGHTFUL AND APPRECIATIVE

• Tact: Though few people are intentionally waiting for someone to argue, so being tactful avoids
any cause of discourtesy and avoiding any negative feedback from the sender. Example:
“Clearly, you did not read my latest fax” can be written as “Sometimes my wordings are not
precise; let me try again”.

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Business Communication (525) – Assignment # 1
• Thoughtfulness and Appreciation: It means bringing a thought in the entire conversation and
appreciating the reply from the other party.

B. USE EXPRESSIONS SHOWING RESPECT

No reader wants to receive message that offends. This can be done by eliminating irritating expressions
and Questionable humor because humor to one person may be disgust for another as everyone has
different sense of humor.

C. ANSWER YOUR MAIL PROMPTLY

Another requirement for courtesy is the use of nondiscriminatory language that reflects
equal treatment of people regardless of their gender, race, age and physical features. Some of the
examples are given below:

Situation 1

• Questionable: Each customer will have the new changes noted on his bill.
• More desirable: Customers will have the changes noted on their bill.

Situation 2

• Questionable: Our criteria are firm; he is to be a scholar, he is to be a good teacher.


• More desirable: Our criteria suggest he or she is supposed to be a scholar and a good teacher.

Courteous communication is friendly, open, and honest. There are no hidden insults or passive-
aggressive tones. You keep your reader's viewpoint in mind, and you're empathetic to their needs.

Bad Example

Jeff,
I wanted to let you know that I don't appreciate how your team always monopolizes the
discussion at our weekly meetings. I have a lot of projects, and I really need time to get my team's
progress discussed as well. So far, thanks to your department, I haven't been able to do that. Can
you make sure they make time for me and my team next week?
Thanks,
Phil

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Business Communication (525) – Assignment # 1
Well, that's hardly courteous! Messages like this can potentially start officewide fights. And this email
does nothing but create bad feelings, and lower productivity and morale. A little bit of courtesy, even in
difficult situations, can go a long way.

Good Example

Hi Jeff,
I wanted to write you a quick note to ask a favor. During our weekly meetings, your team does
an excellent job of highlighting their progress. But this uses some of the time available for my team
to highlight theirs. I'd really appreciate it if you could give my team a little extra time each week to
fully cover their progress reports.
Thanks so much, and please let me know if there's anything I can do for you!
Best,
Phil

What a difference! This email is courteous and friendly, and it has little chance of spreading bad feelings
around the office.

CORRECTNESS

To be correct in communication the following principles should be borne in mind.

1. Use the correct level of language


2. Include only facts words and figures
3. Maintain acceptable writing mechanics
4. Apply the following qualities
5. There should be proper grammar punctuation spelling and paragraphing

At the core of the correctness is the proper use of grammar, punctuations and spelling. A message
may be perfect grammatically and mechanically but still insult or lose a customer.

A. USING RIGHT LEVEL OF LANGUAGE

There are different levels of languages which may be formal, informal, and substandard.
Formal writings are usually associated with the scholarly writing, legal documents, and other documents
where formality is the style in demand.

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Business Communication (525) – Assignment # 1
Examples:
Formal and Informal Approach

• More Formal: Participate. Less Formal: Join


• More Formal: Interrogate. Less Formal: Question

More Acceptable and Sub stand

• Substandard: Can’t hardly, More Acceptable: Can hardly


• Substandard: I regardless, More Acceptable: regardless

B. CHECKING ACCURACY OF FIGURES, FACTS, AND WORDS

Many a times it is impossible to convey the message directly from the sender’s head to
the receivers head. So this can be done to an extent by including figures and facts like as follows:

1. Verifying your statistical data


2. Double-checking your totals
3. Avoid guessing of laws that have an impact on sender or receiver
4. Determine whether a fact have changed over a time.

Other factor is the inclusion of words that don’t confuse for example the following will help in clearing
this topic.

Example 1: Accept-Except: Here accept means to receive and except means to omit.

Example 2: Biannually-Biennially: Biannually means 2 times a year and biennially mean every 2 years.

C. MAINTAINING ACCEPTABLE WRITING MECHANICS

This topic relates to the proper use of words and spellings. But in today’s world writing have been more
easier, since, spell-checkers and various kinds of word formatting are available

When your communication is correct, it fits your audience. And correct communication is also error-
free communication.

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Business Communication (525) – Assignment # 1
• Do the technical terms you use fit your audience's level of education or knowledge?
• Have you checked your writing for grammatical errors? Remember, spell checkers won't
catch everything.
• Are all names and titles spelled correctly?

Bad Example

Hi Daniel,
Thanks so much for meeting me at lunch today! I enjoyed our conservation, and I'm looking
forward to moving ahead on our project. I'm sure that the two-weak deadline won't be an issue.
Thanks again, and I'll speak to you soon!
Best,
Jack Miller

If you read that example fast, then you might not have caught any errors. But on closer inspection,
you'll find two. The first error is that the writer accidentally typed conservation instead of conversation.
This common error can happen when you're typing too fast. The other error is using weak instead of
week. Again, spell checkers won't catch word errors like this, which is why it's so important to proofread
everything!

Question # 2(a):

Define the concept of culture. Also describe the national cultural variables and individual cultural
variables with examples.

Answer:

THE CONCEPT OF CULTURE

Culture refers to the behavioral characteristics typical of a group. This definition implies that
communications, oral and nonverbal, within a group also are typical of that group and are often unique.
There is not one aspect of human life that is not touched and altered by culture. This means personality,
how people express themselves (including shows of emotion), the way they think, how they move, how
problems are solved, how their cities are planned and laid out, how transportation systems function and
are organized, as well as how economic and government systems are put together and function. It is the
least studied aspects of culture that influence behaviour in the deepest and most subtle ways.

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Culture refers to the following Ways of Life, including but not limited to:

a. Language: the oldest human institution and the most sophisticated medium of expression.
b. Arts & Sciences: the most advanced and refined forms of human expression.
c. Thought: the ways in which people perceive, interpret, and understand the world around them.
d. Spirituality: the value system transmitted through generations for the inner well-being of human
beings, expressed through language and actions.
e. Social activity: the shared pursuits within a cultural community, demonstrated in a variety of
festivities and life-celebrating events.
f. Interaction: the social aspects of human contact, including the give-and-take of socialization,
negotiation, protocol, and conventions.

When we discuss communication and culture, we should be aware of the total spectrum of
communication including language, non-verbal communication, customs, perceived values, and
concepts of time and space. Do all tourists identify with Canadian traditions and values? Likely not. But
the more interesting question is: Why not? The answer lies in the simple fact that most tourists come
from different cultures: some vastly different like those from Japan and China, others less different, such
as tourists from Eastern Canada or the United States. Even if tourists share the same language, they may
have much different customs and values.

What happens when people from different cultures interact face-to- face? One way to appreciate the
impact of cultural differences is to look in the mirror. When Americans and Canadians travel to other
countries, they look for Cokes, steaks and hamburgers and the same amenities in hotels and other
accommodations that they are used to at home. While the host country may offer an authentically
different culture, which is one of the reasons people travel, North Americans tourists are notorious for
wanting the comforts of home wherever they may be. In many third world countries, North Americans
seek out joint venture hotels to enjoy North American food and lodging and to be served by people who
speak English. Strangely, what we expect for ourselves in travel is not deemed to be reasonable when
we’re the hosts dealing with tourists from other countries.

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CULTURAL VARIABLES

The message sender and the receiver, both are affected by external and internal stimuli. When
communicating with business people in a foreign country, you must realize that overall national and
individual cultural differences within the cultures further affect those stimuli.

Country I
Country IV Country II

Major Cultural overlap

Core
Similarities

Little Cultural overlap

Country III

NATIONAL CULTURAL VARIABLES

An entire country may have a series of cultural norms; individual ethnic groups within that country
may accept most of those norms as well as adding their own. National cultural variables are:

a. Education
b. Law and Regulations
c. Economics
d. Politics
e. Religion
f. Social Norms
g. Language

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CULTURAL VARIABLES

National Individual
Variables Variables

Education

Time

Law and Regulations

Space

Economics
Message Food Message
Senders Receivers
Politics

Acceptable Dress

Social Norms

Manners

Language

Decision Making

Overlapping Cultural Variables

A. EDUCATION

Management education-including training in business communication-is more prevalent in the US


than in other countries. Some countries have no academic courses in communication training. Asian and
Chinese managers have less formal education than US managers. Keeping China as an example;
Chinese managers lack extensive education. In relation to its size, Chine does not have many institutions
of higher education. China is an agrarian economy, over 800million people live in the countryside and
69% of the labor force is agricultural. Education, according to some earlier Chinese leaders, was not
required in such an environment. So whenever communicating with such country, it should be kept in
mind that the manager should have the knowledge about the technicalities also, because his education
won’t matter but his experience will.

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B. LAW AND REGULATIONS

Making mistakes in Communication is easy in a foreign country. You or your legal department must
be aware of strictness to the law or simply meeting the letter of the law. In both the developed and
developing nations, various government regulations affect business communications and the sale of
products. For instance, cigarettes- is restricted in Europe; also money spent on advertising is limited.
Other countries such as France, Mexico and the Province of Quebec, also have a restriction on the use of
foreign language in advertisements. In Iran Fashion magazines are not allowed and women are meant to
wear modest clothes or veils. So whenever communicating with different countries, their rules and
regulations should be kept in mind and communication should be conducted according to those
regulations.

C. ECONOMICS

Ability of capital and transportation and the standard of living per capital vary from nation to nation.
The opportunity to borrow money, the rate of inflation and the exchange rates influence business and a
country’s ability to communicate concerning that business. For instance, Under the US enterprise
system, competitors set their own prices, in contrast, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
sets oil prices.

D. POLITICS

Politics of different nations is different. Even concepts of democracy will vary as interpreted in
Korea, the Philippines or Great Britain. Indeed, the sweeping political changes in Eastern Europe and its
altered concepts of government will affect future business relations. Even the events in Tiananmen
Square affected individual and business contacts with China; more changes will certainly occur in the
future. All such events affect communication, understanding of a country and a company’s willingness
to do business in an unclear political environment.

E. RELIGION

Be specifically careful of religious beliefs within foreign countries. Although some basic beliefs
overlap, there are major differences that, if not understood, can result even personal harm. In connection
to the religion, there is great need for tolerance. Buddhism, Hinduism and Muslim religions are found in

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many parts of the world. These three religions forbid consumption of alcohol; thus no liquor is served at
business meetings/affairs. Religious holidays and months also affect international communication,
interrupting work schedules or delaying responses to requests. Religion can affect the status of women
too, their position within an economy and even their buying patterns and habits of dress. To
communicate well internationally, it also pays to understand the diversity patterns within one’s own
country.

F. SOCIAL NORMS

National environmental constraints- education, law and regulations, economics, politics, religion-
affect a nation’s social norms. In many countries a male line of family profoundly influences some
business decisions. Then the family and how its members relate to one another-decisions, buying
patterns, pooling of resources, special interests-affects behavior and business communication.

G. LANGUAGE

An important constraint that undergirds all the preceding variables is language. Obviously, unless
both sender and receiver understand a common language, the opportunities for successful business
communication are significantly limited. Knowing the language of you host country is the most
significant contributor on a personal and business level. English is a world language- and to a major
extent the language of business. But you will do a better job overseas if you know some basic
vocabulary of your host country.

INDIVIDUAL CULTURAL VARIABLES

All people value their individual freedom. Often this freedom is expressed in one’s own ethnic
diversity. On the micro and more personal level, are differences in verbal and nonverbal cues, expressed
through varying concepts of time, individual speech, food, acceptable dress, manners at home and at
work, decision making patterns and other non-verbal variations.

Individual cultural variables are:

a. Time
b. Space

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c. Food
d. Acceptable Dress
e. Manners
f. Decision Making
g. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication

A. TIME

Time is an important variable in communication. People of different nations have different concepts
about time, for instance, people in Latin America and the Middle East treat time more casually then
do the Americans, who normally prefer promptness. Germans are time-precise; rarely does one
have to wait for an appointment in Germany.

Similarly, in some cultures, business people take afternoon naps, close shops and postpone timings
for business meetings and dinners etc. Like in Pakistan, shops and all the businesses take gap for the
Jumma prayers, and in Saudi Arabia businesses are closed in all the prayers timings. One should
plan the meeting according to the cultural time of others.

Even when referring to seasons of a year, countries differ. Some speak of the rainy and dry season,
some think of summer, winter, autumn and fall. When writing a date and time at the end or
beginning of a business letter one should keep in mind the time variable- In Great Britain 9’o clock
is referred as 900 hours and in Pakistan it is 9:00 am. It should not take too long to recognize which
is the time-conscious culture and which is the one less concerned with precision in time. Knowing
cultural perceptions of time helps you understand why some responses are slow-by your standards.

B. SPACE

Space and environment is another very important factor that can greatly affect the communication.
Americans demand more room-buffer space- between themselves and others when speaking. To
some cultures, Americans who do not stand close seem cold and aloof. Conversely, some cultures
consider those who stand close to you as intrusive, rude, pushy and overbearing. In some cultures,
like the one of Germans, meetings are held in closed doors where as some cultures prefer out door,
i.e, meetings at restaurant etc. Some cultures prefer round table, some prefer rectangle and some
like to sit in groups. Therefore, while communicating, the space should be kept in mind.

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C. FOOD

It may be a good idea prior to visiting your host country to visit various ethnic restaurants in your
home country. Then you’ll have an initial idea as to the kinds of foods available: how they are
served, fixed, or eaten. For instance, Pork is forbidden in the Middle Eastern countries but is a part
of Asian diet and that of many other countries; beef is hard to find in India, veal is plentiful in
Europe and rice is ever present in Hong Kong and China.

In Asia, dark and light teas are national drinks. Buddhism, Hinduism and Muslim religions are
found in many parts of the world and they forbid consumption of alcohol; thus no liquor is served at
business meetings/affairs.

D. ACCEPTABLE DRESS

It is better to ask about the mode of dress for an occasion in your law host country, than to risk
making an embarrassing mistake. In America business males wear the business suit whereas women
wear dresses or tailored suits. And in great measure that “uniform” is common throughout the
world, even in Eastern Europe as it adopts more capitalistic methods. Some British fellows wear the
bowler along with a dark suit and carry with a tie. In Islamic countries, women wear modest clothes
and cover their heads with head scarves.

E. MANNERS

Some cultural anthropologists suggest that you observe children in foreign cultures, because by
watching them you learn the behavioral habits of elders. Children shake your hand in Germany, hug
you in Italy, and often stay in the background in India. Infact, the ritual of the greeting and the
farewell is more formal overseas with children and adults. You bring a gift when visiting most
homes in Europe. If you bring flowers you avoid gifts of red roses in Germany, or white
chrysanthemums in France, Belgium, and Japan. Adopting the manners of a country may mean a 2-
3 hours lunch in Europe is acceptable, if you can call up your patience. Be prepared to sit close
together in Asia: twelve people at a whether small round table, eating chopsticks, is not unusual.

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F. DECISION MAKING

Patience above all is needed in intercultural communication, in doing business with other countries
are typecast as moving too quickly in asking for a decision. Give more thought to inductive
communication. Americans get to the point quickly, i.e. take decisions and make plans quickly –
unlike the Germans who take time and do group consensus and then moves towards a decision.

G. VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION

Verbal Communication: Regardless of culture, a kind of verbal sparring occurs when strangers
meet, each seeking to determine which topics are acceptable and non controversial. Additionally,
the tone of voice of one’s initial words can influence your initial perception of whether the meeting
is positive or negative. Even the oral phrase “How would you like to” can have either a direct or an
indirect meaning; it could be a command or a question. In Australia it is taken as a request and not a
question, in US it’s a question. We judge people to a great extent by their voice. Some people
native languages demand many tonal variations, giving the impression to a nonnative of loudness
even arrogance.

Nonverbal Communication: A handshake is a traditional form of greeting in West. Facial


expressions vary across cultures. You could get the wrong impression when some Filipinos smile
and laugh when underneath this behavior they are angry. Or, the inscrutable facial expression of the
Japanese does not suggest disinterest, whether an unwillingness to make public one’s inner
thoughts. A myriad of nonverbal symbols exists for every culture, even in sub cultures. Knowing
the major desirable and undesirable cues helps knowing both intended and unintended
communication errors.

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Question # 2(b):

Your personal ethics are shaped by five major influences. Describe each in detail.

Answer:

PERSONAL ETHICS

Personal ethics act as the foundation for your moral compass; the internal guide that tells you what’s
right and wrong. They drive your actions and, to a certain extent, your emotions, on a daily basis. But
where do they come from? And why do people who appear similar sometimes have completely different
sets of personal ethics?

You may not realize that the ethical principles you’ve built your life on are not an established set of
rules handed to you at birth. They grow and develop with you over time and many things influence how
they’re crafted. The five major influences of personal ethics are:

a. Family influences (People)


b. Religious beliefs (Religion)
c. Culture
d. Experience (Law)
e. Personal Reflection (Philosophy)

Religion

Philosophy People
Personal
Ethics

Law
Culture

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FAMILY INFLUENCES PERSONAL ETHICS (PEOPLE)

While your parents can’t dictate your morality, they are typically the first to voice and demonstrate
ethical boundaries for you. Most parents consider it one of their critical jobs to instill a strong sense of
right and wrong in their children. When parents tell their children that stealing is wrong, they are
building a foundation for their child’s personal ethics. How parents behave has a strong impact as well.
Children absorb the actions of their family, which contributes heavily to their sense of morality.

RELIGIOUS BELIEFS IMPACT PERSONAL ETHICS (RELIGION)

Religious beliefs have a unique impact on personal ethics. In general, religion allows people to accept an
established set of moral rules. By following these spiritual laws, people feel they are behaving ethically.
Religion often promises rewards in the afterlife as motivation for following the “rules”. Interestingly,
religion can inspire all kinds of acts, including violence. Some devout followers can come to embrace an
ethical code that allows for incredible cruelty to be done in the name of a greater spiritual being.

CULTURE AFFECTS ETHICAL NORMS (CULTURE)

Culture can dictate the ethical norms that people are used to and come to expect. The culture you live in
may impact your ethical code more than you even realize, simply because it surrounds you. The customs
and traditions of the society you inhabit become ingrained in your psyche, and the ethics of the group
are generally accepted. Racism, gender discrimination and other forms of prejudice can become an
accepted part of a person’s ethical standards when surrounded by people who do it and allow it.

EXPERIENCE CAN SHIFT YOUR ETHICS (LAW)

The events that happen in your life can also impact your ethics. Emotion and personal understanding
may cause a powerful shift in beliefs. For example, many people claim to be against the death penalty.
However, if a loved one is murdered, they may find themselves feeling differently when looking into the
eyes of the person responsible. Codes of ethics of various professions, such as accounting, law, medicine
etc requires to be followed.

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INTERNAL/ PERSONAL REFLECTION (PHILOSOPHY)

Personal ethics are also developed by our feelings. When we do something that is against our moral
code, we feel bad, guilty or ashamed. Likewise, when we do something that fits into our ethical idea of
“right” we feel good, proud or happy. This causes a sort of immediate feedback for creating our moral
standards and making ethical decisions.

The concept of personal ethics is incredibly complicated. It develops from a variety of factors and
deserves in-depth exploration.

Question #3:

Describe the various challenges that businesses face in handling new technologies in managing their
information for greatest productivity inside and outside the organization.

Answer:

VARIOUS CHALLENGES THAT BUSINESSES FACE IN HANDLING NEW TECHNOLOGIES

The organizations face great challenges when they opt to change and try new technologies in
managing their information. The basic issue that arouse when new technology is implemented is of
training of the employees of the organization. On the first place, the employees do resist the change in
any case because they do not understand that the change is for their betterment and to make their
processes easy to operate by introducing new and advance technologies.

CHANGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE NEW WORLD

Today, one of the subjects that is been taught in universities for the business administration students
is Change Management. This training or course is for the organization development practitioners who
are actually the trainers and provide services to different organizations for bringing change for better in
the organization. One thing that we should always keep in mind is that the change should not be for the
purpose of change only. Sometimes what happen is like the organizations try to adopt new technologies
of new ways of working just because they wish to change. But this is harmful for both the organization
and the employees.

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TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE IN PAKISTANI SCENARIO

In a country like Pakistan the people are reluctant to change. One reason is the new technologies are
not easily understood by the employees due to lack of I.T knowledge and less awareness of high-tech
equipments. Technologies if not understood properly by the employees also create an instinct of
dissatisfaction in their mind and this is one of the biggest issues if we look on to the new technology
adaptations in the human resource management perspective. At any point in the communication process
a barrier can occur. Barriers keep us from understanding others ideas and thoughts. Barriers can appear
at any point of the communication loop.

TYPES OF COMMUNICATION BARRIERS

There are two types of Barriers:

a. Internal
b. External

1. INTERNAL BARRIERS

Example of internal barriers are fatigue, poor listening skills, attitude toward the sender or the
information, lack of interest in the message, fear, mistrust, past experience, negative attitude, problem at
home, lack of common experience, and emotions.

2. EXTERNAL BARRIERS

Example of external barrier includes noise, distractions, email not working, and bad phone
connection.

When communicating watch out barriers. Monitor the actions of the receivers. What is body
language; check to make sure the message receiver received is the one sent ask questions and listen.
Because of rapidly changing technology can development, a business managers now have to know
something about information technology in order to manage it as effectively as a manager manage
people and products.

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ADOPTING NEW TECHNOLOGIES – RISKS IN PAKISTAN

There are several risks involved in adopting new technologies in organizations working in Pakistan.

Following challenges are faced by businesses in handling new technologies:

 Risk of failure
 Heavy investments
 Risk of non-acceptance
 Risk of commercial failure of product
 Risk of non transformation of technology into an acceptable product.

In the beginning of the information explosion, this was not true, technical specialist and consultants
(commonly known as OD practitioners in Pakistan) handle all the necessary detail and problems. But
with a chain brought about by a personal computer and individual access to information to anywhere in
the world information technology in now in everyone's business. Additional changes and of all
requirements in computer literacy even entry level position and changing individuals work demand and
expectations. All these factors may generate more suggests as the amount and speed of available
information eliminates the time for reflection that borders, slower system allowed. A fit into this little, a
manager will need to understand and manage the transitions facing you as a manager in business
operations. According to summary such as the problem is not so much technical since the technology
itself has become increasingly easier to use, but other organization and because new structures must be
set to manage information in the world for ever change it by it. Information Technology: it impacts all
individuals in organization, from data entry clerk to decision making managers, through to top
executives. These impacts range from setting new standards for communication on an organizational
basis to dynamic changes which technological advances are having on the workforce. However, these
often dramatic changes can cause a type of 'shock' to many workers; some how reject any kind of
change, and other who do not feel comfortable with the 'new wave' of technological advances.

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FIVE BIGGEST CHALLENGES IN PAKISTAN

CORPORATE CULTURE

Corporate organization and department culture in Pakistan all flows from the top down. The written and
unwritten rules, policies and philosophy of a manager or the organization all eventually find their way
into the attitudes and performance of almost everyone in the organization. One of the critical things to
remember when dealing with people in Pakistan is: you get the behavior you reward. If the culture
directly or indirectly rewards a certain type of attitude or behavior, you are, by your actions or inactions,
probably reaffirming that these are acceptable. If you want to change behavior of a workforce of any
country especially Pakistan, you must first evaluate the culture that is in place that may be rewarding the
type of behavior you are getting but don't necessarily want.

COMMUNICATION STYLE

Rumors, gossips, memos, emails, meetings, individual counseling sessions and bulletin boards all have
one thing in common - they communicate information - some more effectively and timely than others. If
communication in an Pakistani organization is all top-down, you can be assured that you are not in touch
with the realities of your organization, the marketplace, your customers or suppliers.

ORGANIZATION DIRECTION

One of the biggest challenges Pakistani managers face today is effectively communicating corporate
direction with clarity and consistency to all employees who have a right and need to know. Most
organizations do a poor job of this at best. One way to find out what your people believe is to conduct an
anonymous survey of attitudes, perceptions and opinions.

DECISION MAKING

Many managers in Pakistan make decisions that other employees will either have to implement or that
will affect them. If these decisions are made without bottom-up feedback, you can guarantee that the
outcome of the decisions will be less than desired or expected.

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FEEDBACK MECHANISMS

Employees want to know how they are doing - whether poorly or well. Failure to give them the feedback
they need is to keep them in the dark regarding the assessment of their performance and how and where
they need to improve.

MULTINATIONALS IN PAKISTAN

New technologies have either made the business operations and communication quite easy or they
have made them tough to do in traditional ways. Newer technologies are giving some industries edge
over the others using older technologies. So it is becoming more and more compulsory to keep oneself
quite auto update about technologies to remain in the business and make operational edge over the
others. But there are a number of problems which the businesses are also facing with the new
technologies. The first problem is that after implementation of the new technology the HR creates
problems for the company. Company has to provide the skills to the employees to use the technology,
which can be again costly for the company. You can take the example of Pakistan where there are a
number of multinational companies which have the problems in hiring people skilled in using new
technologies.

DEVELOP AN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY CHANGE MANAGEMENT


PROGRAM

The purpose of the Change Management Program (CMP) is to assure that the negative impact of
changes to a company’s Information Technology system is minimized by using a standardized process
of governance. Some changes are not optional. If, for example, the bar code standard is changing, you
must adapt; if a tax withholding structure changes, you must have a change. Nevertheless, all changes of
this kind are still subject to governance.

It must never be the case that ad-hoc changes are made to the system or to procedures without some
oversight. This idea must originate with senior management and be passed down, with no exceptions, to
everyone in the company. Without backing at the highest level, the CMP is a useless waste of time and
money. With proper backing, this program will save your company from some very costly errors.

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DEVELOP A REQUEST FOR CHANGE (RFC)

This may originate from problem management where an issue, or a series of related issues, is
identified and a mitigating change is necessary to prevent (or minimize) future effects. The RFC may
also originate as a result of a business decision that will require some modification (add, delete, change)
to the supporting technology. An RFC may also be necessary due to outside influences (i.e.
governmental regulations or changes made by business partners).

OBTAIN BUSINESS CHANGE ACCEPTANCE

The decision to make a change is typically a business decision where costs vs. benefits are weighed.
Even in situations where the change is strictly infrastructure oriented (component or system failure) the
decision to spend money resides with the business, not with the IT department. There are occasions
when procedures are developed in advance to preauthorize changes such as emergency system
maintenance, but regardless of the timing of the authorization, the decision still rests with the business
management.

INITIATE THE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

Development of the change (including testing) is an IT-guided function. In the event of an


emergency change (server is down) those functions are typically predetermined. When a new system is
to be developed, there is a collaborative effort between the business users and the IT team. The systems
are designed by IT, the design is approved by the business partners (users), developed by IT, tested by a
combination of IT and the users, and the final product is approved by both. Careful attention must be
given to ancillary effects the new change may have on existing systems

PASS THE CHANGE MANAGEMENT GATE

The Change Advisory Board (CAB) reviews all changes before they can be put into production.
Normally, the CAB will consist of a group of people with different perspectives, backgrounds and areas
of expertise. Their function is to review the change from a process and governance standpoint to assure
that all foreseeable risks have been identified and mitigated, and that compensatory techniques are in

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place for any elements of exposure (things that could go wrong). The development team and the change
sponsor will present the change to the CAB. Evaluation of risk will be the focus. Implementation
strategies, communication to affected stakeholders, backout plans and post-implementation monitoring
are elements on which the CAB is required to focus. The CAB is not responsible for determining if the
change is appropriate – that decision has already been made. The CAB is also not responsible for
determining if the change is cost effective. Again, that is strictly a business decision.

IMPLEMENT THE CHANGE

If the CAB does not approve the change, the reasons are listed (this is always because certain risks
have not been mitigated or communications have not been planned) and the development team will be
given time to fix those issues and reschedule a meeting before the CAB. If the change is approved, the
implementation is scheduled. It is not normally the case that the CAB is represented at implementation
although it is possible that some members of the CAB have expertise that is necessary during the
implementation, but they will not be present as official CAB representatives, but rather as subject matter
experts (SME). How the change is implemented, the checklist and steps, are predefined and were
presented to and approved by the CAB. The entire process must be thoroughly documented and the
approved process must be precisely followed.

REPORT THE RESULTS

Either the change was implemented successfully with no issues, the change was implemented with
issues that were corrected during implementation, the change was implemented with issues that were
deemed acceptable, issues arose that were unacceptable and the change was rolled back, or in the worst
case the change was implemented with unacceptable issues and could not be rolled back. Whatever the
result, that is documented and returned to the CAB. The CAB is then responsible for distributing that
information to the stakeholders and for storing and maintaining those results in the Change Management
system (that may either be an automated database or a paper filing system, but the documents must be
maintained for audit purposes).

LINK PROBLEM MANAGEMENT TO CHANGES

Issues that arise should be compared to the CAB documentation of changes so any unanticipated
adverse effects of a change can be isolated. It is often the case that undesirable effects of a change are
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not noticed immediately, but are identified by the emergence of problems in ancillary systems. For
example, the addition of several fields to a database might not have a direct negative effect on the users
but could impact network performance that would be apparent to other users who are not directly
involved with the modified system.

PERIODICALLY AUDIT THE CMP

At least once each year an audit of the CMP should be conducted to assure that all change
documentation is maintained and available. Every change approval document should be examined to
assure that the proper signatures are in place and that the results of the implementation are properly
documented.

Question #4(a):

You are working in a company which has been dealing in foreign exchange. Your company has seen
the effects of recent exchange fluctuations and its impact on business. Your managing director has asked
for your advice in the matter and requested for a brief report on the subject. Write such report.

Answer:

EXCHANGE RATE

The exchange rate (also known as the foreign-exchange rate, forex rate or FX rate) between two
currencies specifies how much one currency is worth in terms of the other. It is the value of a foreign
nation’s currency in terms of the home nation’s currency. For example an exchange rate of 91 Japanese
yen (JPY, ¥) to the United States dollar (USD, $) means that JPY 91 is worth the same as USD 1. The
foreign exchange market is one of the largest markets in the world. By some estimates, about 3.2 trillion
USD worth of currency changes hands every day. The spot exchange rate refers to the current exchange
rate. The forward exchange rate refers to an exchange rate that is quoted and traded today but for
delivery and payment on a specific future date.

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Business Communication (525) – Assignment # 1
FLUCTUATIONS IN EXCHANGE RATES

A fluctuation in exchange rates is the change in an exchange rate. If the British pound is worth $2 on
Monday and $1.80 on Tuesday, a (somewhat dramatic) currency fluctuation has occurred. Currency
fluctuations happen constantly and occur for all floating currencies.

For example, if demand for a particular currency is high because investors want to invest in that
country's stock market or buy exports, the price of its currency will increase. Just the opposite will
happen if that country suffers an economic slowdown, or investors lose confidence in its markets.

A market based exchange rate will change whenever the values of either of the two component
currencies change. A currency will tend to become more valuable whenever demand for it is greater than
the available supply. It will become less valuable whenever demand is less than available supply (this
does not mean people no longer want money, it just means they prefer holding their wealth in some
other form, possibly another currency).

Increased demand for a currency is due to either an increased transaction demand for money, or an
increased speculative demand for money. The transaction demand for money is highly correlated to the
country's level of business activity, gross domestic product (GDP), and employment levels. The more
people there are unemployed, the less the public as a whole will spend on goods and services. Central
banks typically have little difficulty adjusting the available money supply to accommodate changes in
the demand for money due to business transactions.

The speculative demand for money is much harder for a central bank to accommodate but they try to
do this by adjusting interest rates. An investor may choose to buy a currency if the return (that is the
interest rate) is high enough. The higher a country's interest rates, the greater the demand for that
currency. It has been argued that currency speculation can undermine real economic growth, in
particular since large currency speculators may deliberately create downward pressure on a currency by
shorting in order to force that central bank to sell their currency to keep it stable (once this happens, the
speculator can buy the currency back from the bank at a lower price, close out their position, and thereby
take a profit).

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REPORT:

PROBLEM STATEMENT

The company has been dealing in foreign exchange since last few years, and is passing through a hard
time because of the effects of recent exchange fluctuations. The business has been affected badly as it
had to suffer from a major cash outflow. Due to the business contracts with the sellers, it had to pay
more for the currencies that were taken for less, and similarly the custom duty VAT etc that is directly
linked with such currencies had to be paid more. In short the business suffered from an extreme
Exchange Risk.

EFFECTS OF EXCHANGE FLUCTUATIONS ON BUSINESS

Currency and Political risks are often the main risks that are feared in any business. Currency Risks is
generally associated with adverse currency movements that negatively affect purchasing or pricing
power. Merchants that accept and hold foreign currency lose purchasing power when the value of that
foreign currency falls against their home currency. Meanwhile, businesses that offer goods and services
overseas are unfavorably affected by increasing domestic currency values that raise the prices for
exports. Whereas, in Political Risks all international operators are challenged by political risks, which
impede the flow of global business. Exchange rates for domestic currency have a bilateral cause and
effect relationship with the home government. First, political unrest and instability will cause currency
values from that particular nation to fall. Second, the nation's citizenry will pressure leadership to action
if they feel that foreign exchange and trade are not being coordinated effectively. The upheaval may
result in trade wars, excessive taxes on international commerce or the outright seizure of foreign assets.

Exchange Fluctuations can have many affects on business; some of them are listed below;

 Due to fluctuations in the currency market, foreign currency risk has been a major concern in the
abilities to trade overseas. The Exchange fluctuations can threaten our ability to trade overseas.
 Exchange fluctuations can cause increase in shipping costs (26 per cent) and the payment of
additional import and export duties (24 per cent) as significant threats to the cross border trade.
 Currency fluctuations can negatively impact on the profitability up to 42 per cent.
 Uncertainty in the foreign exchange market can hamper the ability to plan for the future

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 Businesses make payments in foreign currency on an ad hoc basis, any fluctuation in the foreign
currency would affect the business dealing directly or indirectly

FOREIGN EXCHANGE RISK MANAGEMENT

We are in a new economic era where all the businesses have to work even smarter in order to gain a
competitive advantage. It is important that smaller importers and exporters up their game when it comes
to managing their finances, including the area of foreign currency risk management. It is impossible to
eliminate all risks, but negative exchange outcomes can be anticipated and managed effectively by
individuals and corporate entities. It can be achieved by becoming familiar with the typical foreign
exchange risks, demanding hard currency, diversifying properly and employing hedging strategies.

Risk aversion in the forex is a kind of trading behavior exhibited by the foreign exchange market when a
potentially adverse event happens which may affect market conditions. This behavior is caused when
risk averse traders liquidate their positions in risky assets and shift the funds to less risky assets due to
uncertainty. In the context of the forex market, traders liquidate their positions in various currencies to
take up positions in safe haven currencies, such as the US Dollar. Sometimes the choice of a safe haven
currency is more of a choice based on prevailing sentiments rather than one of economic statistics. An
example would be the Financial Crisis of 2008. The value of equities across world fell while the US
Dollar strengthened. This happened despite the strong focus of the crisis in the USA.

Stop Losses should be activated when

 Critical levels in the rate being monitored are reached, which clearly tell that the view held has
been proven wrong.
 The factors/ assumptions behind a view either change or are proven wrong.
 The Exposure Manager should be accorded flexibility to set appropriate Stop-Losses for each
trade.
 The Exposure Manager should, however, make sure he has set a stop-loss for positions he enters
into, on an a priori basis.

Stop Loss is nothing but a commitment to reverse a decision when the view is proven to be wrong.

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HARD CURRENCY

Foreign exchange risk can be minimized by demanding that all transactions are settled in hard currency.
Hard currency is associated with the industrialized, group of seven (G7) nations. The G7 is made up of
the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy and Japan. The currencies
employed are the U.S. dollar, Canadian dollar, British pound, Euro and Yen. Hard currency values are
relatively stable as they are associated with strong economies and political regimes that protect
individual rights.

DIVERSIFICATION

All currencies fluctuate in value over time. Diversification allows people and businesses to neutralize
the risks of holding currency that deteriorates in value, by carrying competing currency that is gaining in
value. Doing business within several different countries, converting profits into separate foreign
currency reserves and/or coordinating cash flow with basic hedging strategies are ways to achieve
diversification.

HEDGING STRATEGIES

Currency futures contracts trade at the Chicago Board of Trade. Hedging strategies related to foreign
exchange are executed to smooth currency fluctuations by anticipating and locking in exchange rates.
Financial managers hedge against currency risks with futures contracts and currency swaps.

Currency futures are contracts entered into by traders that set a fixed foreign exchange rate between
currencies into the future. Currency swaps allow separate parties to switch the principal and interest
payments upon debt that is denominated in one currency for that of another. Lenders use currency swaps
to ensure that loans do not lose value. Borrowers use currency swaps to hedge against the risk of loans
becoming more expensive to pay off in foreign currency.

Of course, hedging strategies carry the opportunity cost risk of losing out on currency movements that
are actually favorable.

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CONCLUSION

We are in a new economic era where all the businesses have to work even smarter in order to gain a
competitive advantage. It is important that smaller importers and exporters up their game when it comes
to managing their finances, including the area of foreign currency risk management. In order to reduce
the affects of foreign exchange fluctuations on a Business, the managers or decision makers should
make a Foreign Exchange Risk Management plan.

Question #4(b):

Differentiate between solicited and un-solicited letters. What guidelines should be observed for
writing these letters?

Answer:

SOLICITED LETTER

A solicited letter is written when a former employer, professor or person you've had a business
relationship is asked by you if they will write you a letter of reference sometime in the future.

Normally if they consent to do so, you should assume they will write you a good letter which highlights
all of your real qualities and glosses over any imperfections you may have. When you get the job
interview and are told that you will be hired providing your references are good, you give the name and
phone number or email address of the person(s) who agreed to write the letter and they are contacted by
the prospective employer directly and the person who solicited the letter (i.e. the one who asked the
employer if they'd write a letter sometime in the future), never sees it.

DISADVANTAGES TO THE SOLICITED LETTER

There are disadvantages to the solicited letter. In a professor-student relationship, the professor and
student have similar research interests (it was why the student did research with the professor in the first
place). Unfortunately, no one wants to graduate a student whose career overshadows their own. As a
result, it might take some time for someone who has gotten past the interview stage to determine that
one of his/her reference letter writers is damage their future prospects by writing uniformly nasty things

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about them or their abilities. Where 3 letters are required, it can require a lengthy process of elimination
of first one reference, then another, and finally a 3rd. until it can be determined who is having a
damaging effect on your future job or career prospects.

UNSOLICITED LETTER

An unsolicited letter of reference is a letter of reference that tends to be seen as quite unbelievable.
People arrive at a job with a letter in hand that they may have written themselves and it is such a
glowing tribute to their work ethic and persistence in the face of insurmountable obstacles that you're
unable to ascertain if you're not in the presence of the messiah.

GUIDELINES THAT SHOULD BE ABSORBED DURING WRITING THESE LETTERS

As a simple guideline, it is better to contact someone who is acquainted with your work who is not in
direct competition for funding, grants and the like to write a solicited letter of reference than someone
who will turn the exercise into a series of disappointing job refusals.

The writer of the letter should attempt to insure the recipient that he will write a good letter, I've had
situations arise when after going back to someone who said they'd write a good letter and I'd received a
job refusal based on their letter alone, claimed they write "balanced" letters. This was the same professor
who told his undergraduate students that getting a "B" in his course was like getting an "A" in someone
else's course. A "B" on your transcript is still a "B". Nobody knows or cares about the personal standards
of the grader except the grader themselves. Hence, be cautious.

Most companies will not accept an unsolicited letter of reference. Arriving for a job with one in hand is
not your guarantee of much more than ridicule from a prospective employer.

GUIDELINES FOR WRITING UNSOLICITED LETTERS

1. Letters that we write without any inquiry are called unsolicited letters. Tips to write unsolicited
sales letters are following;
2. Your first sentence should be attention getting. Remember that your reader will not go to the
middle of the letter of he feels that your first paragraph is boring.

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3. In your second paragraph, include some statements to make your reader realize the need of the
thing that you are offering.
4. Tell him how you are different from the other services or goods providers in market.
5. In your last paragraph, you should tell them an easy action. What your reader should do to buy
your product or services.

GUIDELINES FOR WRITING SOLICITED LETTERS

1. Solicited letters are generally written in response to some specific inquiry. Tips to write solicited
sales letters are following;
2. Mention in your first paragraph what reader has inquired from you.
3. You should give complete and accurate answer of whatever has been asked.
4. After telling your reader all required information, you can include in your letter some
information to let him inform about some of the products that you think that he or she is not
aware.
5. You need to follow any business format of letter writing. We shall suggest you to use Block
Head format.

NOTE:

• At the end of both letters, mention your name.


• Type the letter under letter head of your organization.
• Type your letter and print it on quality paper. Especially in unsolicited letters people see it.
• Proofread your letter at least once to make sure that your letter persuades the reader enough to
contact you.

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Question #5(a):

What do you understand by word “proposal” in communication? Describe different kinds of


proposals?

Answer:

PROPOSAL

A proposal is defined as a formal description of the creation, modification or termination of a contract.


A proposal may serve as the blueprint for a future agreement and may be accepted or rejected by the
entity or entities that receive it. In other words, a proposal is a description of the work you will complete
on a project. The details included in a proposal depend on the project's scope and who will read the
document. Typically, organizations advertise a need for proposals and consultants or organizational
developers respond to the need. However, as a manager, you may determine that a problem exists, and
therefore, propose solutions to an organization. In this case, one must first convince the agency that the
problem exists before proposing his/her solutions.

BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

Business communication is the communication between the people in the organization for the purpose of
carrying out business activities. It may be oral, verbal, written etc..

A business can flourish when all objectives of the organization are achieved effectively. For efficiency
in an organization all the people (inside and outside) of the organization must be able to convey their
message properly. The exchange of ideas and understanding within and outside the organization to
achieve the business goals is known as business communication.

Any business writer can write emails, memos, and letters - correspondence that communicates clearly
and has impact. But that is not the actual business communication that prevails in the business world.
Business people do not pay heed to the ethics of business communication. Many write emails as
thoughts occur to them and send emails without revising the words into coherent messages. As a result,
business writing is at times fragmented, incomplete, and full of careless language errors.

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PROPOSAL IN COMMUNICATION

A business proposal is a written scheme from a seller to a prospective customer. The main purpose is to
fulfill the requirements of a client. A proposal includes a company's profile as well as its products and
services offered. An entrepreneur mentions profile and other components to convince a prospective
client about the benefits of his products and services for a client. A proposal also aims to demonstrate
the credibility and authenticity of a company and its products and services to win a client's confidence.
A good proposal has the potential to portray a company unique and credible that gives an edge over its
competitors.

ELEMENTS

One should consider few vital points while drafting business proposals for a company. An entrepreneur
should know his clients very well before writing a proposal. You should undergo extensive study about
your targeted clients. One should be well aware of the needs, wants or requirements of a potential client.
This knowledge is valuable as it can assist you to address the immediate need of a client. It helps you to
maintain the focus of your proposal.

CLIENT’S PERSPECTIVE

A proposal should clearly define a business problem and provide a solution to this problem. You should
write from a client's perspective and not mention about the benefits of your products and services in the
beginning. In other words, one should first focus on a client's problems.

OFFER AN OPPORTUNITY

After focusing the client’s problem one can offer an opportunity to a client for finding a solution to his
problems. You should persuade the customer so that he can find solution to his dilemma by using your
products and services. A person can do so by giving a number of reasons. The reasons supported by
facts make a proposal appear authentic. A company's profile is also essential to mention. Executive
Summary contains the profile of a company in which one can mention nature, vision and goals of a
company.

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Mention about the credentials

One should also mention about the credentials, past projects and certification that gives authenticity to a
company. There should be section containing the description of deliverables. A management plan is also
a part of good business proposal that describes the plan of allocation of resources and major milestones.

FLAWLESS DOCUMENTATION

One should prepare a flawless document that is devoid of any grammatical error. The print of the
document sent to a client should appear lucid. Any grammatical or printing error in the document can
diminish the opportunities of acceptance of your proposal. Its effective use can bring you the best
results.

Good communication skills require:

1. An understanding of one's audience and the subtle interactions between writer and reader.
2. Organizational skills to methodically progress through the necessary stages of a project (e.g.,
writing a proposal)
3. Certain basic communication (writing/speaking) skills, i.e., a facility with the basic elements of
transmitting information clearly.

SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN

The task of writing a grant proposal in response to a specific set of instructions is used to illustrate the
analysis and responses necessary to complete a major written communication project. The concept of
focusing on and writing for the reader (in this case, the proposal reviewer) is emphasized. Although
good communication skills affect life-styles, productivity, and economics in our society, the
communication skills of the American pubic are sorely lacking even among people with high levels of
education because students receive little training in these skills in the United States educational system
but not in Pakistani system unfortunately. However, such skills can be taught to younger students as well
as to adults.

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KINDS OF PROPOSAL

There are many types of proposal including RFP (Request for Proposal), informal proposal, business
proposal, marketing proposal, project proposal, sales proposal, research proposal, grant proposal, book
proposal, and speculative proposal.

Some require us to respond in very specific ways; e.g., an RFP requires detailed responses to
particular questions. Grant proposals may be similar, where applicants must complete specific forms.

The Top 5 Proposal Types that people seek help with online are:

• Grant Proposals - For funding proposals to all levels of government.


• Business Proposals - For all types of business proposals
• Technical Proposals - Research, academic, business and government
• Project Proposals - For all types of projects - all sectors
• Sales Proposals - For all types of products and services

In addition to the above list of most popular proposal types, Construction proposals, Training
proposals, Thesis proposals, Book proposals, Technical proposals, Show proposals, Building proposals,
Development proposals, Network proposals, Event proposals, Idea proposals, Exhibition proposals,
Design proposals, Sponsorship proposals, Museum proposals, Show proposals and more also helps in
writing.

No doubt there are other types of proposals as well. These are just the ones that I noticed that people
who were coming to my websites have been looking for information on.

There are many different types of proposal requests created by organizations for a variety of
purposes. Proposal requests are useful when attempting to negotiate the terms of providing a service or
requesting resources for operational or project needs. A proposal request is most often used to secure a
contract with another organization or to obtain funding for a specific purpose.

The most common form of a proposal request is a solicited request, also known as a request for
proposal, or RFP. This type of proposal request may be advertised in a local or industrial publication by
an entity to directly request vendors to send in written proposals. This type of proposal request is often

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seen in the construction industry when building and design firms may request construction bids be
submitted by a particular deadline.

Another form of proposal request is the unsolicited variety, in which the organization does not ask
for bids to be placed. The unsolicited request for proposal may be a standing order in which other
potential vendors or providers must always submit a request before any contractual agreement can be
considered. Unsolicited requests for proposals are most often in the form of sales proposals or grant
proposals that must be submitted before any action can commence.

In some cases, if the organization is seeking additional funding or agreements with another entity,
such as a government agency or a supplier, repeat or renewal requests for proposal may be required
periodically. This type of RFP ensures that the organization can continue to benefit from the resources
provided by another for a certain period of time. The repeat or renewal request for proposal is a written
record of transactions and agreements made between the organizations.

An additional form of RFP is the business proposal in which one company agrees to perform a
specific service or provide a product to another for a certain price. Each company has a particular way of
writing and executing a business proposal. Generally, the writing of the proposal is managed by the sales
executive team or the administrative support team at the company then submitted in accordance with the
other party’s demands.

When an organization opts to make a change to a request for proposal or contract, this is most often
handled by writing and submitting a request for amendment to the contract. The proposal amendment
lists the change to the contract in black and white so that both parties are in agreement for legal
purposes. The amended contract including the proposal changes then replaces the existing contract.

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Question #5(b):

Write short notes on the following:

a. Organizational plan for message using direct approach


b. Nonverbal Communication

Answer:

ORGANIZATIONAL PLAN FOR MESSAGE USING DIRECT APPROACH

Your choice of organizational plan depends on a number of factors: how you expect your reader or
listener to react to your message, how much this person knows about the topic or situation, and what his
or her cultural conventions are.

For letters and memo, you can choose one of four basic organizational plans: the direct-request, good-
news, bad-news, or persuasive-request plan. The first two plans use the direct approach, which begins
with the main idea; the last two plans use the indirect approach, which states the main idea later.

All these plans are flexible, guide only, not rigid rules. Your own judgment must help you decide the
best organization and content of your message, taking into consideration your audience’s view,
conventions, knowledge, and culture.

DIRECT APPROACH

Use the direct approach when the audience is receptive to your message. When you think your reader or
listener will have a favorable or neutral reaction to your message, you can use the direct approach. You
begin with the main idea or best news. After the opening, you include all necessary explanatory details
in one or several paragraphs and end with an appropriate, friendly closing.

Use direct request plan when the main purpose of your message is to make a request that requires less
persuasion; use the good-news plan to grant requests, announce favorable or neutral information, and
exchange routine information within or between companies. The direct- request and good-news plans
have three basic parts.

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Direct-Request Plan Good-News Plan
1. Main idea 1. Best news or main idea
a. Request, main statement, assertion,
recommendation, question
b. Reason, if desirable
2. Explanation 2. Explanation
a. All necessary and desirable details a. All necessary and desirable details
and data and data
b. Numbered questions, if helpful b. Resale material
c. Easy reading devices c. Educational material
d. Sales promotion material

3. Courteous close, with motivation to action 3. Positive, friendly close, including, if


a. Clear statement of action desired appropriate:
b. Easy action, dated when desirable a. Appreciation
c. Appreciation and good will b. Clear statement of action
c. Appreciation and desired, if any
d. Easy action, dated when desirable
e. Offer of further help, reader benefits

NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION

A handshake is a traditional form of greeting in West. Facial expressions vary across cultures. You
could get the wrong impression when some Filipinos smile and laugh when underneath this behavior
they are angry. Or, the inscrutable facial expression of the Japanese does not suggest disinterest, whether
an unwillingness to make public one’s inner thoughts. A myriad of nonverbal symbols exists for every
culture, even in sub cultures. Knowing the major desirable and undesirable cues helps knowing both
intended and unintended communication errors.

Definition “nonverbal communication involves those nonverbal stimuli in a communication setting that
are generated by both the source [speaker] and his or her use of the environment and that have potential
message value for the source or receiver [listener]. Basically it is sending and receiving messages in a

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variety of ways without the use of verbal codes (words). It is both intentional and unintentional. Most
speakers / listeners are not conscious of this. It includes — but is not limited to:

 touch
 glance
 eye contact (gaze)
 volume
 vocal nuance
 proximity
 gestures
 facial expression ? pause (silence)
 intonation
 dress
 posture
 smell
 word choice and syntax
 sounds (paralanguage)

Broadly speaking, there are two basic categories of non-verbal language:

• nonverbal messages produced by the body;


• nonverbal messages produced by the broad setting (time, space, silence)

WHY IS NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION IMPORTANT?

Basically, it is one of the key aspects of communication (and especially important in a high-context
culture). It has multiple functions:

 Used to repeat the verbal message (e.g. point in a direction while stating directions.
 Often used to accent a verbal message. (e.g. verbal tone indicates the actual meaning of
the specific words).
 Often complement the verbal message but also may contradict. E.g.: a nod reinforces a
positive message (among Americans); a “wink” may contradict a stated positive
message.

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 Regulate interactions (non-verbal cues covey when the other person should speak or
not speak).
 May substitute for the verbal message (especially if it is blocked by noise, interruption,
etc) — i.e. gestures (finger to lips to indicate need for quiet), facial expressions (i.e. a
nod instead of a yes).

Note the implications of the proverb: “Actions speak louder than words.” In essence, this underscores
the importance of non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication is especially significant in
intercultural situations. Probably non-verbal differences account for typical difficulties in
communicating.

CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION

a. GENERAL APPEARANCE AND DRESS

All cultures are concerned for how they look and make judgements based on looks and
dress. Americans, for instance, appear almost obsessed with dress and personal
attractiveness. Consider differing cultural standards on what is attractive in dress and on what
constitutes modesty. Note ways dress is used as a sign of status?

b. BODY MOVEMENT

We send information on attitude toward person (facing or leaning towards another), emotional
statue (tapping fingers, jiggling coins), and desire to control the environment (moving towards or
away from a person).

More than 700,000 possible motions we can make — so impossible to categorize them all! But
just need to be aware the body movement and position is a key ingredient in sending messages.

c. POSTURE

Consider the following actions and note cultural differences:

• Bowing (not done, criticized, or affected in US; shows rank in Japan)


• Slouching (rude in most Northern European areas)
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• Hands in pocket (disrespectful in Turkey)
• Sitting with legs crossed (offensive in Ghana, Turkey)
• Showing soles of feet. (Offensive in Thailand, Saudi Arabia)
• Even in US, there is a gender difference on acceptable posture?

d. GESTURES

Impossible to catalog them all. But need to recognize:

• incredible possibility and variety and


• an acceptable in one’s own culture may be offensive in another.

In addition, amount of gesturing varies from culture to culture. Some cultures are animated;
other restrained. Restrained cultures often feel animated cultures lack manners and overall
restraint. Animated cultures often feel restrained cultures lack emotion or interest.

Even simple things like using hands to point and count differ.

Pointing : US with index finger; Germany with little finger; Japanese with entire hand (in fact
most Asians consider pointing with index finger to be rude)

Counting: Thumb = 1 in Germany, 5 in Japan, middle finger for 1 in Indonesia.

e. FACIAL EXPRESSIONS

While some say that facial expressions are identical, meaning attached to them differs. Majority
opinion is that these do have similar meanings world-wide with respect to smiling, crying, or
showing anger, sorrow, or disgust. However, the intensity varies from culture to culture. Note
the following:

• Many Asian cultures suppress facial expression as much as possible.


• Many Mediterranean (Latino / Arabic) cultures exaggerate grief or sadness while most
American men hide grief or sorrow.
• Some see “animated” expressions as a sign of a lack of control.
• Too much smiling is viewed in as a sign of shallowness.
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• Women smile more than men.

f. EYE CONTACT AND GAZE

In USA, eye contact indicates: degree of attention or interest, influences attitude change or
persuasion, regulates interaction, communicates emotion, defines power and status, and has a
central role in managing impressions of others.

• Western cultures — see direct eye to eye contact as positive (advise children to look a
person in the eyes). But within USA, African-Americans use more eye contact when
talking and less when listening with reverse true for Anglo Americans. This is a possible
cause for some sense of unease between races in US. A prolonged gaze is often seen as a
sign of sexual interest.
• Arabic cultures make prolonged eye-contact. — believe it shows interest and helps them
understand truthfulness of the other person. (A person who doesn’t reciprocate is seen as
untrustworthy)
• Japan, Africa, Latin American, Caribbean — avoid eye contact to show respect.

g. TOUCH

Question: Why do we touch, where do we touch, and what meanings do we assign when
someone else touches us?

Illustration: An African-American male goes into a convenience store recently taken over by
new Korean immigrants. He gives a $20 bill for his purchase to Mrs Cho who is cashier and
waits for his change. He is upset when his change is put down on the counter in front of him.

What is the problem? Traditional Korean (and many other Asian countries) don’t touch
strangers., especially between members of the opposite sex. But the African-American sees this
as another example of discrimination (not touching him because he is black).

Basic answer: Touch is culturally determined! But each culture has a clear concept of what
parts of the body one may not touch. Basic message of touch is to affect or control — protect,
support, disapprove (i.e. hug, kiss, hit, kick).

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• USA — handshake is common (even for strangers), hugs, kisses for those of opposite
gender or of family (usually) on an increasingly more intimate basis. Note differences
between African-Americans and Anglos in USA. Most African Americans touch on
greeting but are annoyed if touched on the head (good boy, good girl overtones).
• Islamic and Hindu: typically don’t touch with the left hand. To do so is a social
insult. Left hand is for toilet functions. Mannerly in India to break your bread only with
your right hand (sometimes difficult for non-Indians)
• Islamic cultures generally don’t approve of any touching between genders (even hand
shakes). But consider such touching (including hand holding, hugs) between same-sex to
be appropriate.
• Many Asians don’t touch the head (Head houses the soul and a touch puts it in jeopardy).

Basic patterns: Cultures (English , German, Scandinavian, Chinese, Japanese) with high
emotional restraint concepts have little public touch; those which encourage emotion
(Latino, Middle-East, Jewish) accept frequent touches.

h. SMELL

• USA — fear of offensive natural smells (billion dollar industry to mask objectionable
odors with what is perceived to be pleasant ) — again connected with “attractiveness”
concept.
• Many other cultures consider natural body odors as normal (Arabic).
• Asian cultures (Filipino, Malay, Indonesian, Thai, Indian) stress frequent bathing — and
often criticize USA of not bathing often enough!

i. PARALANGUAGE

• Vocal characterizers (laugh, cry, yell, moan, whine, belch, yawn). These send different
messages in different cultures (Japan — giggling indicates embarrassment; India – belch
indicates satisfaction)
• Vocal qualifiers (volume, pitch, rhythm, tempo, and tone). Loudness indicates strength
in Arabic cultures and softness indicates weakness; indicates confidence and authority to
the Germans,; indicates impoliteness to the Thais; indicates loss of control to the

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Japanese. (Generally, one learns not to “shout” in Asia for nearly any reason!). Gender
based as well: women tend to speak higher and more softly than men.
• Vocal segregates (un-huh, shh, uh, ooh, mmmh, humm, eh, mah, lah). Segregates
indicate formality, acceptance, assent, uncertainty.

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REFERENCES

Effective Business Communications by Herta A Murpgy, Herbert W. Hildebrandt and Jane P Thomas

http://www.wikihow.com

http://effective-communicationskill.blogspot.com

http://personaldevelopment.suite101.com

http://www.blurtit.com

http://www.wikipedia.com

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