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ekè;fed fo|ky;

ikB~;p;kZ
2011
[k.M&
[k.M&1
eq[; fo"k;

o"kZ 2011 esa gksus okyh cksMZ ijh{kk (d{kk&X) ds fy,


d{kk&IX ds 'kSf{kd l=k 2009&2010 ls izHkkoh

dsUnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ


f'k{kk dsUnz] 2 leqnk; dsUnz] izhr fogkj] fodkl ekxZ
fnYyh&110092
© dsUnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ

ekpZ] 2010

izfr;k¡ % 3000

ewY; % 55-00 #-

fVIi.kh % cksMZ ds ikl ikB~;Øe o ikB~;fooj.k esa tc Hkh vko';d le>k tk,] la'kksfèkr djus dk vfèkdkj lqjf{kr jgsxkA
fo|ky;ksa ls vis{kk dh tkrh gS fd os lacafèkr ijh{kk vkSj 'kSf{kd l=k ds fy, fuèkkZfjr ikB~;Øe o ikB~;&iqLrdksa
dk dM+kbZ ls vuqikyu djsaA fdlh Hkh ifjorZu dh vuqefr ugha gSA

izdk'kd % lfpo] dsUnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ]


f'k{kk dsUnz] 2 lkeqnkf;d dsUnz] izhr fogkj]
fnYyh&110092

eqnzd % uoizHkkr fizfVax izsl


A&123] lSDVj A&4 Vªksfudk flVh (xkft-)

2
ikB~;p;kZ dks v|ru djuk ,d lrr izfØ;k gS vr% cksMZ izR;sd o"kZ la'kksf/kr ikB~;Øe izdkf'kr djrk
gSA fo|ky;ksa rFkk fdlh fof'k"V o"kZ dh cksMZ dh ijh{kk ds fy, rS;kjh dj jgs fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds fy, ;g vfuok;Z
gS fd os mDr o"kZ ds fy, cksMZ }kjk fuèkkZfjr ikB~;Øe] ikB~;fooj.k o iqLrdksa dk vuqlj.k djsAa ,d ckj
fuèkkZfjr gksus ij fdlh Hkh izdkj dk ifjorZu vuqK;s ugha gSA vr% leLr lacfa èkrksa dks n`<+rk ls ijke'kZ
fn;k tkrk gS fd os lacfa èkr o"kZ ds fy, fuèkkZfjr ikB~;Øe dks viuh tkudkjh o iz;ksx ds fy, dsUnzh;
ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ ds eq[;ky; ls vFkok blds {ks=kh; dk;kZy;ksa ls [kjhnsAa visf{kr ewY; rFkk Mkd [kpZ
dh visf{kr jkf'k ds lkFk vkns'k eq[;ky; ds HkaMkjh@HkaMkj ikyd ¼izdk'ku½ vFkok vapy ds {ks=kh; dk;kZy;
tSlh Hkh fLFkfr gks dks Hkstk tk ldrk gSA ikBdksa dks ;g Hkh ijke'kZ fn;k tkrk gS fd os bl izdk'ku
ds var esa fn, x;s fooj.k dks ns[k ysAa {ks=kh; o fons'kh Hkk"kkvksa esa ikB~;Øe vkSj dksl]Z vyx ls izdkf'kr
[k.M&2 esa fn, x;s gSAa ;g Hkh ,d lewY; izdk'ku gSA

3
4
vuqØe

Hkkx I % ik=krk rFkk vè;;u dh ;kstuk


1- ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa dh ik=krk 9
2- ijh{kk dh ;kstuk vkSj mÙkh.kZrk ekunaM 17
3- vè;;u dh ;kstuk 23
Hkkx II % ikB~;Øe
1- fganh ikB~;Øe&^,* 29
fganh ikB~;Øe&^ch* 38
2- English–Communicative 46
English–Language and Literature 59
3- xf.kr 67
4- foKku 76
5- lkekftd foKku 84
6- vfrfjDr fo"k; 99
7- vkarfjd ewY;kadu ds fo"k; 128
8- iwoZ O;kolkf;d f'k{kk 128
9- dk;Z f'k{kk 130
10- dyk f'k{kk 144
11- 'kkjhfjd vkSj LokLF; f'k{kk 152
12- fo'ks"k izkS<+ lk{kjrk vfHk;ku ds fy, <kapk 160
fo'ks"k izkS<+ lk{kjrk vfHk;ku&1
vU; lwpuk

5
6
[k.M&1
ik=krk ,oa vè;;u dh ;kstuk

7
8
1- ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa dh ik=krk
fo|ky; esa fo|kfFkZ;ksa dk izos'k] fo|kfFkZ;ksa dk LFkkukarj.k@izoztu ¼ekbxzs'ku½

1- izos'k % lkekU; 'krs±


1-1- ^fo|ky;* esa fdlh Hkh d{kk esa izo's k pkgus okyk fo|kFkhZ d{kk esa izo's k ds fy, dsoy rHkh ik=k gksxk@gksxh]
;fn tc og
(i) Hkkjr esa ekè;fed f'k{kk ds fdlh vU; ekU;rk izkIr cksMZ ls vFkok bl cksMZ ls ekU;rk izkIr vFkok mlls
lac) fo|ky; esa i<+ jgk gks(
(ii) mlus ,slh vgZd vFkok led{k vgZd ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ dh gks tks mls ml d{kk esa izo's k ds fy, ik=k cukrh
gks(
(iii) jkT;@la?k jkT; {ks=k dh ljdkj }kjk fuèkkZfjr vk;q lhek ¼U;wure rFkk vfèkdre½ vis{kkvksa dks iwjk djrk
gks vkSj ml LFkku ij ykxw gks tgk¡ fo|ky; fLFkr gSA
(iv) fuEufyf[kr dks izLrqr djs
¼d½ fiNyh laLFkk ds vè;{k }kjk gLrk{kfjr vkSj izfrgLrk{kfjr fo|ky; NksM+us dk izek.k&i=k@LFkkukUrj.k
izek.k i=k(
¼[k½ vgZd vFkok led{k vgZd ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ gksus ds leFkZu esa mldk nLrkost( vkSj
¼x½ tUefrfFk ds izek.k ds :i esa tUe ,oa e`R;q ds jftLVªkj tgk¡ dgha fo|eku gks] }kjk tkjh tUefrfFk
izek.ki=kA

Li"Vhdj.k
¼d½ ,sls O;fDr dks tks fdlh ,slh laLFkk esa v/;;u dj jgk gks] tks bl cksMZ vFkok fdlh vU; ekU;rk izkIr
ekè;fed f'k{kk ds cksMZ }kjk vFkok lacfa èkr LFkku ds jkT;@la?k jkT;&{ks=k ljdkj }kjk ekU;rk izkIr ugha
gks ,slh laLFkk esa igys v/;;u ds izek.k i=k ds vkèkkj ij fo|ky; dh fdlh Hkh d{kk esa izo's k ugha
fn;k tk,xkA
¼[k½ ^vgZd ijh{kk* dk vFkZ gS ,d ,slh ijh{kk ftlds mÙkh.kZ djus ij fo|kFkhZ ,d fo'ks"k d{kk esa izo's k djus
dk ik=k curk gks vkSj ^led{k ijh{kk* dk vFkZ gS ekè;fed f'k{kk ds fdlh ekU;rk izkIr cksM@Z Hkkjrh;
fo'ofo|ky; }kjk vFkok ,sls cksM@Z fo'ofo|ky; ls lac)
a vFkok ekU;rk izkIr laLFkk }kjk lapkfyr ijh{kk
ftls bl cksMZ }kjk lapkfyr led{k ijh{kk dh ekU;rk nh xbZ gks vFkok bl cksMZ ls lac) fdlh ^fo|ky;*
}kjk ;g ijh{kk yh xbZ gksA
1-2- bl cksMZ ls lac) fo|ky; dks NksM+dj fons'k esa ,d fo|ky; ls izotu djus okyk dksbZ Hkh fo|kFkhZ izo's k ds
fy, rc rd ik=k ugha gksxk tc rd fd bl cksMZ ls ,sls fo|kFkhZ ds lacèa k esa ik=krk izek.ki=k izkIr ugha fd;k
gksA cksMZ ls ik=krk izek.ki=k izkIr djus ds fy,] tgka izo's k ysuk gS] ml fo|ky; dk izèkkukpk;Z ekeys dk iwjk
fooj.k rFkk viuh fVIif.k;ks@a flQkfj'kksa ds lkFk laxr nLrkost cksMZ dks izLrqr djsxkA ik=krk izek.ki=k cksMZ

9
}kjk rHkh tkjh fd;k tk,xk tc cksMZ lar"q V gks tkrk gS fd vè;;u dk ikB~;Øe vkSj mÙkh.kZ ijh{kk bl cksMZ
dh ln`'k d{kk ds led{k gSA
1-3- ,sls O;fDr dks bl cksMZ ls lac) fo|ky; dh fdlh Hkh d{kk esa izo's k ugha fn;k tk,xk tks fu"dklu dh ltk
ds vèkhu gks vFkok cksM@Z fo'ofo|ky;@fo|ky; ls fu"dkflr fd;k x;k gks vFkok fdlh cksM@Z fo'ofo|ky; }kjk
fdlh Hkh dkj.k ls ijh{kk esa 'kkfey gksus ls oafpr fd;k x;k gksA
1-4- fdlh Hkh fo|kFkhZ dks fdlh Hkh fo|ky; esa fdlh vxyh mPp d{kk esa izo's k vFkok izkUs ufr ugha nh tk,xh
tc rd fd mlus 'kSf{kd l=k ds vkjaHk esa ftl d{kk esa izo's k fy;k Fkk] ml d{kk ds vè;;u dk fu;fer ikB~;Øe
iwjk ugha dj fy;k gks] vkSj lacfa /kr 'kSf{kd l=k dh lekfIr ij mlus og ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ u dj yh gks] ftlds
vk/kkj ij vxyh d{kk esa izkUs ufr ds fy, mldh ;ksX;rk curh gksA
1-5- ds-ek-f'k-oks ds vè;{k@jkT;@la?k jkT; {ks=k f'k{kk vfèkfu;e esa ifjHkkf"kr l{ke izkfèkdkjh dh iwoZ vuqefr ds
fcuk fdlh Hkh fo|kFkhZ dks vxLr ds 31osa fnu ds ckn cksMZ ds lkFk lac) fo|ky; esa d{kk ukSoha vkSj mlls
Åij dh d{kkvksa esa izo's k ugha fn;k tk,xkA 31 vxLr ds ckn izo's k dh vuqefr ds fy, vifjgk;Z dkj.kksa
dk fo'ks"k mYys[k djrs gq, vkosnu i=k fo|ky; ds izèkkukpk;Z ds ekè;e ls fn;k tk,xkA ijh{kk ds fy, mls
ik=k cukus ds fy, cksMZ dh ijh{kk mifofèk ds vuqlkj vH;FkhZ dks d{kk IX rFkk X ds fy, mifLFkfr dh visf{kr
izfr'krrk iwjh djuh gksxhA ,sls ekeyksa esa tgka cksMZ }kjk ifj.kke nsjh ls ?kksf"kr fd, tkus ds dkj.k vH;FkhZ
mPprj d{kk esa fu;r frfFk rd izo's k ugha ys ldk rks ,slh vuqefr dh vko';drk ugha gksxh] c'krs± fd vH;FkhZ
us ifj.kke ?kksf"kr gksus ds 15 fnu ds vanj izo's k ds fy, vkosnu fd;k gksA

2- izos'k % fof'k"V vis{kk,a


2-1- d{kk VIII rd ¼vFkkZr~ d{kk VIII vkSj mlls uhps½ ds izo's k dks ml fo|ky; ds LFkku ij ykxw jkT;@la?k 'kkflr
ljdkj ds vkns'kks]a fofu;eks]a fu;eksa }kjk fofu;af=kr fd;k tk,xkA
2-2- fo|ky; esa d{kk IX ds fy, izo's k dsoy ,sls fo|kFkhZ dks fn;k tk,xk ftlus bl cksMZ vFkok fdlh ekU;rkizkIr
cksMZ ls lac) laLFkk ls d{kk VIII dh ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ dh gks vFkok ftl jkT;@la?k 'kkflr {ks=k esa ,slh laLFkk
fLFkr gS] ogk¡ ds ljdkjh f'k{kk foHkkx }kjk bls ekU;rk nh xbZ gksA

d{kk X esa izns'k


2-3- D;ksfa d ekè;fed Lrj ij fuèkkZfjr ikB~;Øe nks o"khZ; ,dhÑr ikB~;Øe gS] d{kk X esa lhèks izo's k ugha fn;k
tk,xkA ijarq fo|ky; esa d{kk X esa izo's k ,sls fo|kFkhZ ds fy, [kqyk jgsxk ftlus
¼d½ d{kk IX ds fy, vè;;u dk fu;fer ikB~;Øe iwjk fd;k gks(
¼[k½ cksMZ ls lac) laLFkk dh d{kk IX dh ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ dh gks( vkSj
¼x½ ,sls fo|kFkhZ dks ftlus d{kk IX ds fy, vè;;u dk fu;fer ikB~;Øe iwjk fd;k gks vkSj bl cksMZ
ls vFkok Hkkjr esa fdlh vU; ekU;rk izkIr cksMZ ls lac)@ekU;rk izkIr laLFkk ls d{kk IX dh ijh{kk
mÙkh.kZ dh gks] fo|ky; esa d{kk X esa rHkh izos'k fn;k tk ldrk gS tc mlds ekrk&firk dk LFkkukUrj.k
gqvk gks vFkok mldk ifjokj ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij cnyh gqvk gks rFkk fo|kFkhZ us lacafèkr
cksMZ ds f'k{kk izkfèkdkfj;ksa }kjk izfrgLrk{kfjr LFkkukUrj.k izek.ki=k vkSj vad rkfydk izLrqr dh
gksA

10
,sls izo's k ds ekeys esa fo|kFkhZ ds izo's k ysus ds ,d ekg ds vanj fo|ky; dks cksMZ ls dk;ksÙZ kj vuqeksnu
ysuk gksxkA

3- izos'k izfØ;k
(i) lacfa èkr jkT; ljdkj@dsUnzh; fo|ky; laxBu@uoksn; fo|ky; lfefr tks Hkh gks] }kjk fuèkkZfjr :i esa ^fo|ky;*
}kjk izo's k jftLVj dk j[k&j[kko fd;k tk,xk ftlesa ^fo|ky; esa izo's k ysus okys izR;sd fo|kFkhZ dk uke
ntZ fd;k tk,xkA
(ii) fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks muds izo's k ysus ij Øekad la[;k vkcafVr dh tk,xh vkSj izR;sd fo|kFkhZ dh fo|ky; esa
jgus ds lai.w kZ le; ds nkSjku ;g Øekad la[;k cuh jgxhA fdlh vofèk esa vuqifLFkfr ds ckn ;fn fo|kFkhZ
fo|ky; esa ykSVrk gS rks mldh ewy izo's k la[;k iqu% xzg.k dh tk,xhA
(iii) ;fn fo|ky; esa izo's k ds fy, vkosnu djus okyk fo|kFkhZ fdlh vU; fo|ky; esa i<+k gks] rks izo's k jftLVj
esa mldk uke ntZ djus ls igys mlds fiNys fo|ky; ls ijh{kk mifu;eksa esa fn, x, izk:i esa fo|ky;
NksM+us ds izek.k&i=k dh izekf.kr izfrfyfi izLrqr djuh pkfg,A
(iv) LFkkukUrj.k izek.k&i=k ds vuqlkj fo|kFkhZ ftl d{kk ds fy, gdnkj gS mlls mPp d{kk esa fdlh Hkh ekeys
esa fo|kFkhZ dks izo's k ugha fn;k tk,xkA
(v) cksMZ dh ijh{kk ds fy, fo|kFkhZ dk uke Hkst fn, tkus ds ckn l=k ds nkSjku mls ,d ^fo|ky;* ls nwljs
esa izot
z u dh vuqefr ugha nh tk,xhA bl 'krZ esa NwV dsoy fo'ks"k ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa vè;{k }kjk gh nh
tk ldrh gSA
(vi) l=k ds var esa viuk fo|ky; NksM+us okys fo|kFkhZ dks vFkok ftls l=k ds nkSjku fo|ky; NksM+us dh vuqefr
nh tkrh gS] lHkh ns; /ku jkf'k;ksa dk ml fo|kFkhZ dks Hkqxrku djus ij fo|ky; NksM+us ds izek.k&i=k dh
,d izekf.kr izfrfyfi nh tk,xhA vuqfyfi Hkh tkjh dh tk ldrh gS ;fn laLFkk ds v/;{k lar"q V gks
tkrs gSa fd ewy izfr [kks gks xbZ gS fdarq mlds Åij ^nwljh izfrfyfi* vo'; vafdr fd;k tk,xkA
(vii) ;fn ,d fo|kFkhZ cksMZ dh ,slh laLFkk ls tks cksMZ ls lac) ugha gks cksMZ ls lac) fo|ky; esa izo's k ysuk
pkgrk gS] rks ,sls fo|kFkhZ dks ijh{kk mifu;eksa esa fn, x, izk:i esa fufnZ"V izkfèkdkjh }kjk fofèkor~
izfrgLrk{kfjr LFkkukUrj.k izek.k&i=k izLrqr djuk gksxkA
(viii) ;fn fo|kFkhZ ds ekrk&firk vFkok laj{kd vFkok Lo;a fo|kFkhZ }kjk] ;fn fo|ky; esa izo's k ds le; fo|kFkhZ
o;Ld gks] fo|kFkhZ ds dSfj;j ls lacfa èkr fn, x, fooj.k esa rF;ksa dks tkucw>dj xyr :i esa fn[kk;k
x;k ik;k tk, rks laLFkk dk ize[q k jkT;@la?k 'kkflr {ks=k ds f'k{kk vfèkfu;e ;k dsUnzh; fo|ky; laxBu@uoksn;
fo|ky; lfefr dh fu;ekoyh ds mica/kksa ds vuqlkj] tSlk Hkh ekeyk gks] mls ltk ns ldrk gS vkSj ekeys
dh fjiksVZ cksMZ dks nh tk,A

4- ijh{kkvksa esa izos'k


lkekU; %
,sls fdlh Hkh fo|kFkhZ dks ftls fdlh dkj.k ls fu"dkflr fd;k x;k gks vFkok ltk vèkhu gks vFkok
fo|ky; ls fudkyk x;k gks ;k fdlh ijh{kk esa 'kkfey gksus ls jksdk x;k gks] cksMZ dh fdlh Hkh ijh{kk esa cSBus
ugha fn;k tk,xkA

11
5- ijh{kk nsus ds fy, 'kS{kf.kd vgZrk,¡
vf[ky Hkkjrh;@fnYyh ekè;fed fo|ky; ijh{kk ds fy, ,d ijh{kkFkhZ dks
¼d½ cksMZ vFkok fdlh lac)@ekU;rk izkIr fo|ky; ls fefMy ¼ekè;fed½ fo|ky; ijh{kk ¼d{kk VIII½ mÙkh.kZ
gksuk pkfg, vkSj ;g ijh{kk ekè;fed fo|ky; ijh{kk ¼d{kk X½ okys o"kZ ls de ls de nks o"kZ igys
mÙkh.kZ gksuh pkfg,]
¼[k½ mijksDr ¼d½ esa mfYyf[kr ijh{kk esa vkarfjd ewY;kadu ds izR;sd fo"k; esa xzMs ^bZ* ls mPprj xzMs vftZr
djuk pkfg,( vkSj
¼x½ vè;;u ;kstuk esa fuèkkZfjr vis{kk ds vuqlkj rhljh Hkk"kk mÙkh.kZ gksuk pkfg,A

6- ijh{kkvksa ds fy, izos'k % fu;fer mEehnokj


vf[ky Hkkjrh;@fnYyh ekè;fed fo|ky; ijh{kk esa ,sls fu;fer mEehnokjksa dks izo's k fn;k tk,xk] ftUgksua s
lacfa èkr ijh{kk esa izo's k ds fy, viuk vkosnu i=k fofèkor~ izLrqr fd;k gks vkSj@vFkok mldk uke cksMZ }kjk
fuèkkZfjr rjhds esa iathÑr gks vkSj lkFk esa laLFkk@fo|ky; ds izèkku }kjk fuèkkZfjr 'kqYd ijh{kk fu;U=kd dks
Hksth gks rFkk ,sls izèkku }kjk fuEufyf[kr :i esa fofèkor~ izekf.kr djk dj Hkstk gks fd
(i) mlds ikl ijh{kk mifu;eksa esa fuèkkZfjr 'kSf{kd vgZrk,a gS]a
(ii) mlus vU; fdlh cksMZ vFkok fo'ofo|ky; dh led{k vFkok mPprj ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ ugha dh gS(
(iii) og fo|ky; dh lfØ; ukekoyh esa gS(
(iv) mlus fo|ky; esa mu fo"k;ksa esa ijh{kk mifu;eksa esa fu/kkZfjr vkSj ifjHkkf"kr v/;;u dk fu;fer v/
;;u dk ikB~;Øe iwjk dj fy;k gS] tks ml ij ykxw gksrs gSAa
(v) mldk pfj=k vkSj vkpj.k vPNk gS( vkSj
(vi) og ml ij ykxw] ijh{kk mifu;eksa ds lHkh vU; izkoèkkuksa vkSj lacfa èkr ijh{kk esa izo's k dks fu;fU=kr djus
okys cksMZ }kjk cuk;s x, vU; izkoèkkuks]a ;fn dksbZ gks] dks iwjk djrk gSA
6-1- (i) cksMZ ls lac) izR;sd fo|ky; ds fy, vfuok;Z gS fd og cksMZ ds ijh{kk mifu;eksa dk iw.kZr% vuqlj.k
djsA
(ii) cksMZ dh fdlh Hkh ijh{kk ds fy, dksbZ Hkh lac) fo|ky; u rks ,sls ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa dks tks muds jftLVj
esa ukekafdr esa ugha gS] izLrqr djus dk iz;kl djsxk u gh og viuh vlac) 'kk[kk@fo|ky; ds vH;FkhZ
dks izLrqr djsxkA
(iii) cksMZ ds ikl fo'okl djus dk dkj.k gks fd lac) fo|ky; bl èkkjk dh mièkkjk (i) rFkk (ii) dk ikyu
ugha dj jgs gS]a cksMZ n.M dk lgkjk ysxk tSlk mfpr gksA

7- vè;;u dk fu;fer ikB~;Øe


7-1- (i) ijh{kk mifu;eksa esa mfYyf[kr vfHkO;fDr ^vè;;u dk fu;fer ikB~;Øe* ls vk'k; gS d{kk XI/XII, esa
;FkkfLFkfr f'k{k.k dk;Z vkjaHk gksus ds fnu ls fxurh djds fo|ky;@cksMZ dh ijh{kk vkjaHk gksus okys ekg

12
ls igys vkus okys ekg dh izFke frfFk rd vk;ksftr d{kkvksa esa U;wure 75% mifLFkfr gksA ftu ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa
us ,sls fo"k; fy;s gS]a ftuesa iz;ksfxd 'kkfey gks] mudh iz;ksx'kkyk esa fo"k; ls lcaf/kr iz;ksxkRed dk;Z
dh dqy mifLFkfr esa ls U;wure 75% mifLFkfr ntZ djuh visf{kr gksxhA laLFkkuksa ds izèkku] ,sls ijh{kkFkhZ
dks ftlus ,slk fo"k; fy;k gS@fy;s gS]a ftles@a ftuesa iz;ksxkRed 'kkfey gSa rc rd iz;ksxkRed ijh{kk ¼vks½a
esa 'kkfey gksus dh vuqefr iznku ugha djsxa s tc rd ijh{kkFkhZ mifLFkfr ds lacèa k esa bl fu;e esa nh xbZ
vis{kkvksa dks iwjk ugha djrkA
(ii) tks ijh{kkFkhZ fiNys o"kZ dh blh ijh{kk esa vuqÙkh.kZ jgk gks vkSj ftlus d{kk IX/X esa fQj ls izo's k fy;k
gks] mlds fy, ml ijh{kk dk ifj.kke izdkf'kr fd, tkus ds ckn ds ekg dh izFke frfFk ls x.kuk djds
fo|ky;@cksMZ dh ijh{kk vkjaHk gksus okys eghus ls iwoZ ekg dh izFke frfFk rd laHkkfor mifLFkfr esa ls
75% mifLFkfr iwjh djuh vko';d gksxhA

(iii) vU; laLFkkuksa ls izotu ds ekeys esa ml jkT;@la?k 'kkflr {ks=k ds f'k{kk foHkkx }kjk ekU;rk izkIr
laLFkku@fo|ky; tgka ls ijh{kkFkhZ izotu djrk gS] esa ntZ mifLFkfr dks Hkh mifLFkfr ds visf{kr izfr'kr
dh x.kuk esa tksM+k tk,xkA
7--2-- vkarfjd ewY;kadu ds fo"k;ksa esa vko';drk mifLFkfr
(i) cksMZ ls lac) fdlh fo|ky; dk dksbZ Hkh fo|kFkhZ ijh{kk nsus dk ik=k rc rd ugha gksxk tc rd fd
mldh mifLFkfr 75% u gks vkSj ;g mifLFkfr d{kk IX/X ds vkjaHk gksus dh frfFk ls vkarfjd ewY;kdau
okys fo"k;ksa dh ijh{kk vkjaHk gksus okys ekg ls igys vkus okys ekg dh izFke frfFk rd fxuh tk,xhA
(ii) ijh{kkFkhZ dks dk;Z vuqHko dyk f'k{kk@'kkjhfjd ,oa LokLF; f'k{kk ls fpfdRlh; vkèkkj ij NwV iznku dh
tk ldrh gS] c'krs± fd de ls de lgk;d ltZu ds Lrj ds iathÑr fpfdRlk vfèkdkjh }kjk fn, x,
izek.k&i=k ds lkFk vkosnu fd;k x;k gks rFkk bls fo|ky; ds izèkku }kjk flQkfj'kksa ds lkFk vxzfs "kr
fd;k x;k gksA
(iii) vkarfjd ewY;kadu okys fo"k;ksa ds lacèa k esa mifLFkfr dh deh dks ekQ djus dk vfèkdkj vè;{k ¼ps;jeSu½
ds ikl gksxkA

8- mifLFkfr esa deh fd lacaèk esa ekiQ djus ds fu;e


(i) ;fn fdlh ijh{kkFkhZ dh mifLFkfr fuèkkZfjr izfr'kr ls de gksrh gS rks fo|ky; izèkku ml ijh{kkFkhZ dk
uke vLFkkbZ rkSj ij cksMZ dks Hkst ldrk gSA ;fn ijh{kk vkjaHk gksus ds rhu lIrkg ds Hkhrj Hkh ijh{kkFkhZ
dh mifLFkfr visf{kr izfr'kr ls de gS rks laLFkku ds izèkku }kjk bl ekeys dh tkudkjh rqjra lacfa èkr
{ks=kh; vfèkdkjh dks nh tk,xhA ;fn laLFkku ds izèkku ds vfHker ds vuqlkj ijh{kkFkhZ dk ekeyk fopkj.kh;
gS] rks os bldh flQkfj'k dsUnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ ds vè;{k ls mifLFkfr dh deh dks ekQ djkus
ds fy, lacfa èkr {ks=kh; vfèkdkjh dks ijh{kk vkjaHk ls de ls de rhu lIrkg igys izLrqr djsxa As vè;{k
tSlk mfpr le>sxa s oSlk vkns'k nsxa As fo|ky; dk izèkku mifLFkfr esa deh dks ekQ djus ds vius vuqjksèk
i=k esa fo|kFkhZ }kjk ntZ dh xbZ vfèkdre laeftr mifLFkfr dk mYys[k djsxa As mifLFkfr dh x.kuk d{kk
X dk f'k{k.k vkjaHk gksus dh frfFk ¼l=k ds vkjaHk½ ls djds] cksMZ dh ijh{kk gksus okys ekg ls igys vkus
okys ekg dh izFke frfFk rd dh tk,xhA mDr vofèk ds nkSjku ,sls ijh{kkFkhZ dh mifLFkfr dh izfr'krrk
Hkh nh tk,A

13
(ii) dsoy 15% rd dh deh dks vè;{k }kjk ekQ fd;k tk,xkA d{kk X esa 60% ls de dh mifLFkfr okys
ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa ds ekeys ij vè;{k }kjk dsoy fpfdRlk vk/kkj ij fof'k"V vlkèkkj.k ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa fopkj
fd;k tk,xk ;fn ijh{kkFkhZ dSl a j] ,M~l] Vh-ch- tSls xaHkhj jksx ls xzLr gks vFkok mls ,slh pksV yxh gks
ftlesa yEch vofèk ds fy, vLirky esa jguk visf{kr gksA
(iii) mifLFkfr esa deh ds ekeys esa ekQh ls lacfa èkr ekeyksa dks izèkkukpk;Z ;k rks viuh flQkfj'kksa ds lkFk
vFkok ekeys ij flQkfj'k u djus ds oSèk dkj.kksa ds lkFk mDr fuèkkZfjr le; lhek ds Hkhrj cksMZ dks
HkstsaxsA
(iv) fuèkkZfjr izfr'kr ls de mifLFkfr okys ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa ds ekeyksa ds lacèa k esa flQkfj'k djus ds fy, fuEufyf[kr
dks oSèk dkj.k ekuk tk,xk
¼d½ yEch chekjh(
¼[k½ ekrk@firk dh e`R;q vFkok ,slh vU; dksbZ ?kVuk ftlds dkj.k og vuqifLFkr jgk gks vkSj tks fo'ks"k
fopkj fd, tkus ds fy, mi;qDr gks(
¼x½ ln`'k xaHkhj izÑfr dk vU; dksbZ dkj.kA
¼?k½ izk;ksftr [ksy&dwn izfr;ksfxrk,a tks varj fo|ky; Lrj ls de u gks] esa izkfèkÑr izfrHkkfxrk vkSj
,u-lh-lh@,u-,l-,l- dSEi ,slh izfr;ksfxrkvksa dks ;k=kk ds fnuksa lfgr iw.kZ mifLFkfr ekuk tk,xkA

9- ik=k ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa dks jksduk


lac) fo|ky;ksa ds izèkku fdlh Hkh ekeys esa ik=k ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa dks cksMZ dh ijh{kk esa lfEefyr gksus ls ugha jkdsxa As

10- izkbosV ijh{kkFkhZ


ifjHkk"kk % ijh{kk mifu;eksa dks ns[ksAa
10--1 fnYyh ekè;fed fo|ky; ijh{kk ds fy, izkbosV ijh{kkFkhZ ds :i esa 'kkfey gksus ds fy, ik=k O;fDr %
cksMZ dh fnYyh ekè;fed fo|ky; ijh{kk esa fuEufyf[kr Js.kh ds ijh{kkFkhZ uhps mfYyf[kr 'krks± ij lacfa èkr ijh{kk
ds fy, fuèkkZfjr ikB~;fooj.k rFkk ikB~;Øe esa cksMZ dh fnYyh ekè;fed fo|ky; ijh{kk esa izkbosV ijh{kkFkhZ
ds :i esa 'kkfey gksus ds fy, ik=k gksxa s
¼d½ tks ijh{kkFkhZ cksMZ dh fnYyh ekè;fed fo|ky; ijh{kk esa vuqÙkh.kZ gq, Fks(
¼[k½ cksMZ ls lac) 'kSf{kd laLFkkuksa esa lsokjr vè;kid(
¼x½ (i) efgyk ijh{kkFkhZ tks jk"Vªh; jktèkkuh {ks=k fnYyh ds okLrfod fuoklh gSa vkSj fuEufyf[kr vfrfjDr
'krs± iwjh djrh gSa %
¼d½ fd mUgksua s mfpr fn'kk funs'Z ku ds rgr fu/kkZfjr ikB~;Øe dk izkbosV rkSj ij vuqlj.k fd;k
gS( vkSj
¼[k½ os cksMZ ls lac) ek/;fed fo|ky; esa mifLFkr gksus esa vleFkZ gks vFkok vU; ,sls dkj.k tks
mUgsa ijh{kk esa izkbosV ijh{kkFkhZ ds :i esa 'kkfey gksus ds fy, ck/; djrs gSAa

14
(ii) ,slh efgyk fo|kFkhZ dks ftlus iwoZ Lrj ij ;k d{kk esa gh fo|ky; NksM+ fn;k Fkk ml o"kZ ls iwoZ
o"kZ es]a ftlesa og ijh{kk ns jgh gksrh] ;fn mlus ek/;fed ijh{kk rd fdlh ekU;rk izkIr laLFkk
esa viuk v/;;u tkjh j[kk gksrk] futh ijh{kkFkhZ ds :i esa ijh{kk esa cSBus dh vuqefr ugha nh tk,xhA
¼?k½ 'kkjhfjd :i ls fodykax fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh lkekU; laLFkku esa ,sls fo"k;ksa esa ftuesa iz;ksxkRed izf'k{k.k ijh{kk
'kkfey ugha gS esa mifLFkr gksus esa dfBukbZ gksus ds leqfpr lcwr izLrqr djus ijA
¼M½ fu;e 20 ¼b½ fiNys o"kZ ds ,sls fu;fer mEehnokj ftlus ¼ftUgksua ½s v/;;u dk fu;fer ikB~;Øe iwjk
dj fy;k gS rFkk ftUgksua s ijh{kk esa 'kkfey gksus ds fy, vuqØekad vkcafVr dj fn;k x;k gS] fdarq tSlk
fd ijh{kk mifu;eksa fu/kkZfjr gS ds vuqlkj mifLFkfr esa deh dks NksM+dj fpfdRlk dkj.kksa ls okf"kZd ijh{kk
esa ugha cSB ik, gS]a os Hkh mrjorhZ ijh{kk esa ml o"kZ dh ijh{kk ftlesa os 'kkfey gksxa s ds fy, fu/kkZfjr
ikB~;Øe vkSj ikB~;iqLrdksa ds vuqlkj futh ijh{kkFkhZ ds :i esa iqu% 'kkfey gksus ds fy, ik=k gSAa
10--2 vf[ky Hkkjrh; ekè;fed fo|ky; ijh{kk ds fy, izkbosV ijh{kkFkhZ ds :i esa cSBus ds fy, ik=k O;fDr
%
(i) cksMZ dh vf[ky Hkkjrh; ekè;fed fo|ky; ijh{kk esa izkbosV mEehnokj ds :i esa iqu% 'kkfey gksus ds
fy, ik=k gksxkA vuqÙkh.kZ dksbZ mEehnokj mÙkjorhZ ijh{kk ysfdu mls ml o"kZ dh ijh{kk ftlesa og iqu%
'kkfey gksxk ds fy, fuèkkZfjr ikB~;Øe vkSj ikB~;iqLrdksa dk gh v/;;u djuk gksxk ftl o"kZ og ijh{kk
esa iqu% 'kkfey gks jgk@jgh gSA
(ii) cksMZ ls lac) 'kSf{kd laLFkkuksa esa lsokjr vè;kidA
(iii) fu;e 21(iii) iwoZ o"kZ ds ,sls fu;fer mEehnokj ftUgksua s v/;;u dk fu;fer ikB~;Øe iwjk dj fy;k
gS vkSj ftUgsa ijh{kk esa 'kkfey gksus ds fy, vuqØekad vkoafVr dj fn;k x;k gS fdarq ijh{kk mifu;e
esa fuèkkZfjr vuqlkj mifLFkfr esa deh dks NksM+dj fpfdRlk dkj.kksa ls okf"kZd ijh{kk esa ugha cSB ik, gS]a
os Hkh mÙkjorhZ ijh{kk esa izkbosV mEehnokj ds :i esa iqu% 'kkfey gksxa As

11- vf[ky Hkkjrh;@fnYyh ekè;fed fo|ky; ijh{kk ds fy, izkbosV ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa ds vkosnu i=k
izLrqr djus dh izfØ;k
(i) vè;kidksa ds fy, vkosnu i=kksa ij lacfa èkr jkT;@la?k 'kkflr {ks=k ds f'k{kk funs'kd izfr gLrk{kj djsxa s
vkSj vU;ksa ds vkosnu i=kksa ij cksMZ ds 'kklh fudk; ds lnL;ksa vFkok cksMZ ls lac) laLFkkuksa ds izèkku
ds izfr gLrk{kj gksxa As
(ii) ,d izkbosV ijh{kkFkhZ dks ijh{kk ds fy, fuèkkZfjr ijh{kk 'kqYd vkSj ijh{kkFkhZ }kjk gLrk{kfjr vkSj Åij
(i) esa mfYyf[kr izkfèkdkfj;ksa esa ls fdlh ,d }kjk izfrgLrk{kfjr ikliksVZ vkdkj ds rhu QksVksxkz Q ds
lkFk fuèkkZfjr :i esa vkosnu&i=k fuèkkZfjr frfFk rd lacfa èkr {ks=kh; vfèkdkjh dks izLrqr dj nsuk pkfg,A
(iii) ;fn izkbosV ijh{kkFkhZ dk vkosnu i=k fuèkkZfjr frfFk ds ckn izkIr gksrk gS rks mls fuèkkZfjr foyEc 'kqYd
dk Hkqxrku djuk gksxkA

15
(iv) tc fdlh izkbosV ijh{kkFkhZ dk vkosnu&i=k ijh{kk esa izo's k ds fy, vLohÑr dj fn;k tkrk gS] rks mlds
}kjk vnk dh xbZ ijh{kk 'kqYd vkSj foyac 'kqYd] ;fn dksbZ gks] esa ls #- 10@vnk vè;{k }kjk le;&le;
ij fuèkkZfjr jkf'k dkV dj 'ks"k /ku jkf'k mls okfil ykSVkbZ tk,xh ijUrq ,sls fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds ekeys esa
ftuds vkosnu i=k tkyh izek.k i=k izLrqr djus vFkok vkosnu i=k esa xyr fooj.k nsus ds dkj.k vLohÑr
dj fn, x, gks]a 'kqYd dh iwjh /kujkf'k tCr dj yh tk,xhA
(v) os fu;fer mEehnokj tks cksMZ vFkok vU; ekU;rk izkIr cksMZ ls lac) fo|ky; dh d{kk X esa izkUs ufr
izkIr djus esa vlQy gks x, gks]a mUgsa cksMZ dh fnYyh ekè;fed fo|ky; ijh{kk esa izkbosV ijh{kkFkhZ ds
:i esa izo's k ugha fn;k tk,xkA
(vi) izR;sd o"kZ l=k ds vkjaHk esa fo|ky; ds izèkku {ks=kh; vfèkdkjh] fnYyh dks efgyk vkSj fodykax fo|kfFkZ;ksa
dh ,d lwph Hkstxas s ftUgsa d{kk IX esa jksdk x;k gS] vkSj ml lwph esa fo|kFkhZ dk uke] tUefrfFk mlds
firk vFkok vfHkHkkod dk uke rFkk fuokl ds LFkku dk mYys[k gksxkA
(vii) efgyk izkbosV ijh{kkFkhZ dks izk;ksfxd dk;Z ds lkFk foKku fo"k; ysus dh vuqefr ugha gksxh tc rd fd
mUgksua s cksMZ ls lac) fdlh laLFkk esa fu;fer ikB~;Øe iwjk u fd;k gks vkSj cksMZ dh larfq "V ds vuq:i
,slk izek.k&i=k izLrqr u fd;k gksA rFkkfi] bl 'krZ ds gksrs gq, Hkh ,sls izek.k&i=k ds fcuk Hkh mUgsa izk;ksfxd
dk;Z ds lkFk x`g&foKku fo"k; fn;k tk ldrk gSA
(viii) izkbosV vH;fFkZ;ksa dks mudh ijh{kk ds fy, ,slk fo"k; ¼Hkys gh ijh{kk ds fy, og fo"k; ekU;rk izkIr
gks½ ysus dh vuqefr ugha gksxh tks lac) laLFkkuksa esa ugha i<+k;k tk jgk gksA

16
2- ijh{kk dh ;kstuk vkSj mÙkh.kZrk ekunaM
2--1 lkekU; 'krs±
(i) cksMZ }kjk lapkfyr vf[ky Hkkjrh;@fnYyh ekè;fed fo|ky; ijh{kkvksa ds fy, ijh{kk ;kstuk vkSj mÙkh.kZrk
ekunaM le;&le; ij fuèkkZfjr fd, tk,axAs
(ii) d{kk IX dh ijh{kk Lo;a fo|ky;ksa }kjk vkarfjd :i ls lapkfyr dh tk,xhA
(iii) d{kk X dh lekfIr ij cksMZ cká ijh{kkvksa dk lapkyu djsxkA
(iv) d{kk X dh ijh{kk cksMZ }kjk d{kk X ds fy, le;&le; ij fu/kkZfjr ikB~;fooj.k ij vk/kkfjr gksxhA
(v) iz'ui=kksa dh la[;k] ijh{kk dh vofèk vkSj izR;sd fo"k;@iz'ui=k ds fy, ijh{kk dk le; vkSj vad okf"kZd
ikB~;p;kZ esa fofufnZ"V fd, tk,axAs
(vi) ijh{kk lS)kfUrd vkSj izk;ksfxd nksuksa :iksa esa lapkfyr gksxh tks fo"k; ¼;ks½a dh izÑfr ij fuHkZj gksxh
vkSj vkcafVr vad@xzMs ikB~;p;kZ esa fd;s x, fu/kkZj.k ds vuqlkj fn;s tk,axAs
(vii) vad@xzMs izR;sd fo"k; ds fy, fn, tk,axs vkSj dqy vad ugha fn, tk,axAs
2--2 Js.khd.k ¼xzsfMax½
(i) cká fo"k;ksa esa lS)kfUrd vkSj iz;ksxkRed iz'ui=kksa dk ewY;kadu vad izkfIr ds vk/kkj ij fd;k tk,xkA
vad izkfIr ds vfrfjDr] cká ijh{kkvksa ds fo"k;ksa ds ekeys esa ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa dks tkjh vad rkfydk esa xzMs
Hkh fn;s tk,axAs vkarfjd ewY;kadu fo"k;ksa ds ekeys esa dsoy xzMs fn[kk, tk,axAs
(ii) cká ijh{kkvksa ds fo"k;ksa ds fy, ukS&fcanq iSekus ij v{kj Js.kh dk iz;ksx fd;k tk,xkA rFkkfi] d{kk
X esa vkarfjd ijh{kk ds fo"k;ksa ds fy, ewY;kadu ikap&fcanq eku vFkkZr~ ,chlhMh rFkk bZ ij fd;k tk,xkA

(iii) cksMZ dh ijh{kk ds fo"k;ksa esa izkIrkadksa ds vk/kkj ij xzMs fn, tk,axAs vkarfjd ewY;kadu ds fo"k;ksa ds ekeys
esa os fo|ky;ksa }kjk iznku fd;s tk,axAs
(iv) ekè;fed fo|ky; ijh{kk esa cká ijh{kk ds izR;sd fo"k; esa vgZrk vad 33% gksaxsA
(v) xzMs iznku djus ds fy, cksMZ lHkh mÙkh.kZ fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh jSd
a Øe esa j[ksxa s vkSj fuEufyf[kr vuqlkj xzMs
nsxa s
,&1 mÙkh.kZ ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa esa lcls Åij ds 1@8 Nk=kksa dks
,&2 mÙkh.kZ ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa esa blls fupys 1@8 Nk=k
ch&1 mÙkh.kZ ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa esa blls fupys 1@8 Nk=k
ch&2 mÙkh.kZ ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa esa blls fupys 1@8 Nk=k
lh&1 mÙkh.kZ ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa esa blls fupys 1@8 Nk=k
lh&2 mÙkh.kZ ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa esa blls fupys 1@8 Nk=k

17
Mh&1 mÙkh.kZ ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa esa blls fupys 1@8 Nk=k
Mh&2 mÙkh.kZ ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa esa blls fupys 1@8 Nk=k
b vuqÙkh.kZ ijh{kkFkhZ

fVIi.kh
¼d½ cjkcj vadksa dks izkIr djus okys vFkkZr~ VkbZ dks lek;ksftr djus ds fy, ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa ds vuqikr esa NksV&s eksVs
ifjorZu fd, tk,axAs
¼[k½ VkbZ gksus ds ekeys esa cjkcj vad izkIr djus okys lHkh fo|kFkhZ led{k xzMs izkIr djsxa As ;fn Ldksj fcanq
ij fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh la[;k dks nks [k.Mksa esa foHkkftr djus dh vko';drk gks] rks NksVs [kaM okys ijh{kkFkhZ
cM+s [kaMokys ijh{kkFkhZ dh Hkkafr gh xzMs izkIr djsxa As
¼x½ xzMs iz.kkyh dk mi;ksx mu fo"k;ksa esa fd;k tk,xk tgka mÙkh.kZ gq, ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa dh la[;k 500 ls vfèkd
gksA
¼?k½ ,sls fo"k;ksa ds lacèa k esa tgka fo"k; mÙkh.kZ djus okys ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa dh dqy la[;k 500 ls de gks] ogk¡ ij
vU; ,sls fo"k;ksa esa xzfs Max vkSj forj.k dh i)fr ds vuqlkj xzfs Max dh tk,xhA
2--3 ;ksX;rk izek.k i=k
(i) fo"k; mÙkh.kZ djus okys ijh{kkfFkZ;kas ds lcls Åij ds 0.1% ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa dks izR;sd fo"k; esa cksMZ }kjk
mRÑ"V ;ksX;rk izek.k&i=k iznku fd;s tk,ax]s c'krs± fd mUgksua s cksMZ ds mÙkh.kZrk ekunaM ds vuqlkj ijh{kk
mÙkh.kZ dh gksA
(ii) fdlh fo"k; esa mRÑ"Vrk izek.k&i=k dh la[;k] ml fo"k; esa mÙkh.kZ gksus okys ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa dh la[;k dks
gtkj ds fudVre xq.kt esa iw.kk±fdr djds fd;k tk,xkA ;fn fo"k; dks mÙkh.kZ djus okys ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa
dh la[;k 500 ls de gS rks dksbZ ;ksX;rk izek.k&i=k tkjh ugha fd;k tk,xkA
(iii) cjkcj vad izkIr djus okys fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds ekeys esa ;fn ,d fo|kFkhZ mRÑ"Vrk ;ksX;rk izek.k&i=k izkIr
djrk gS rks mlds izkIrkad cjkcj vad izkIr djus okys lHkh ;ksX;rk izek.k&i=k izkIr djsxa As
2--4 ijh{kk dh ;kstuk
(i) fuEufyf[kr fo"k;ksa esa ewY;kadu ikap&fcanqieS kus ¼vFkkZr~ ,-ch-lh-Mh- rFkk b-½ ij xzMs ds 'krks± esa Lo;a fo|ky;ksa
}kjk fd;k tk,xkA
 dk;Z vuqHko
 dyk f'k{kk
 'kkjhfjd rFkk LokLF; f'k{kk
(ii) vkarfjd ewY;kadu ds fo"k;ksa ds fy, ewY;kadu fo|kFkhZ ds fo|ky; esa lrr ewY;kadu ds nkSjku fd, x,
lap;h fjdkMZ ij vkèkkfjr gksxkA
(iii) fo|ky;ksa ls vis{kk dh tkrh gS fd os fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh miyfCèk rFkk izxfr dk fu;fer :i ls fjdkMZ j[ksAa
cksMZ }kjk bl fjdkMZ dh laeh{kk tc Hkh mfpr le>s]a dh t,xh cksMZ dh vfèklwpuk ds vuqlkj d{kk
X ds var esa fo|ky; vkèkkfjr ewY;kadu ds izek.k&i=k fo|ky;ksa }kjk tkjh fd, tk,axA s

18
(iv) vè;;u ds 'ks"k fo"k;ks]a ftudk mYys[k mièkkjk (i) esa ugha gS dh tkap cksMZ }kjk ckgj ls dh tk,xhA
iz'ui=kks]a vadksa rFkk vofèk dk fooj.k uhps fn;k x;k gS
Ø-la - fo"k; iz'u i=kksa vfèkdre le;
dh la[;k va d vofèk
1- Hkk"kk I 1 100 3 ?kaVs
2- Hkk"kk II 1 100 3 ?kaVs
3- xf.kr 1 80** 3 ?kaVs
4- foKku 1 ¼lS)kfUrd½* 60 2½ ?kaVs
5- foKku ¼iz;ksxkRed n{krk½ 1 ¼cgqfofèk p;u izdkj½ 20 1½ ?kaVs
6- lkekftd foKku 1 80** 3 ?kaVs
7- vfrfjDr fo"k;
(i) okf.kT; ¼O;olk; ds rRo vFkok 1 100@25* 3 ?kaVs
cgh[kkrk ys[ku rFkk ys[kk'kkL=k ds rRo
vFkok fganh Vad.k ;k vaxtsz h Vad.k
(ii) isafVax 1 100 3 ?kaVs
(iii) laxhr 1 ¼lS)kfUrd½* 25 2 ?k.Vs
(iv) x`g&foKku ¼1 lS)kfUrd½* 75 3 ?kaVs
(v) bUVªkMs DVªh bUQksjes'ku VSDuksyksth 1 ¼lS)kfUrd½* 40 3 ?kaVs

** 20 ¼chl½ vad vkarfjd ewY;kadu ds fy, fu;r gSA

fVIi.kh
1- foKku ¼20 vad½] laxhr ¼75 vad½] x`g&foKku ¼25 vad ½] bUVªkMs DVªh bUQksjes'ku VsDuksyksth ¼60 vad½
ijh{kk vkSj okf.kT; fo"k; ds varxZr ,d oSdfYid fo"k; ds :i esa Vad.k ijh{kk ¼75 vad½ esa izk;ksfxd
dk;Z fo|ky; }kjk yh tk,xh vkSj izkIrdksa ds ckjs esa cksMZ dks lwfpr fd;k tk,xkA miyCèk fodYiksa rFkk
vadksa ds ckjs esa vkSj tkudkjh ds fy, lacfa èkr fo"k; ds ikB~;Øe dks ns[ksAa
2- lkekftd foKku rFkk vadxf.kr esa 20 vad vkarfjd ewY;kadu ds fy, fu;r fd, x, gSa tks cksMZ }kjk
fn, x, fn'kk&funs'Z kksa ds vuqlkj fo|ky; }kjk fn, tk,axAs
3- ekU;rk izkIr fo|ky;ksa ls fo|kFkhZ ftUgsa 'kkjhfjd fod`fr gS vFkok dk;Z f'k{kk 'kkjhfjd rFkk LokLF; f'k{kk
rFkk dyk f'k{kk esa Hkkx ysus esa vleFkZ gks] mUgsa laLFkku ds izèkku dh flQkfj'k ij cksMZ ds vè;{k }kjk
izR;sd ekeys ds egRo ds vkèkkj ij NwV iznku dh tk ldrh gSA NwV ds fy, fuosnu ds lkFk de ls de
lgk;d ltZu ds jSd a ds fpfdRlk vf/kdkjh }kjk fyf[kr izek.k izLrqr fd;k tkuk pkfg,A
4- izkbosV@i=kkpkj fo|ky; rFkk izk<S + fo|ky; }kjk izk;ksftr fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh vkarfjd ewY;kadu ds fo"k; esa
NwV nh tk,xhA
19
5- lHkh lac) laLFkkuksa ds izeq[kksa ls visf{kr gS] fd tks fo|kFkhZ 10 o"kZ ds vè;;u dk ikB~;Øe iwjk djsxa s
muds lrr rFkk O;kid ewY;kadu ds vkèkkj ij lg&KkukRed vkSj lh[kus ds vU; lacfa èkr fo"k; {ks=kksa
dks è;ku esa j[krs gq, fo|ky; vkèkkfjr ewY;kadu izek.k i=k tkjh djsAa
2--4-- 1 mÙkh.kZrk ekunaM
(i) ,d ijh{kkFkhZ cksMZ dk mÙkh.kZrk izek.k&i=k izkIr djus dk ik=k gksxk] ;fn og vkarfjd ewY;kadu
ds lHkh fo"k;ksa esa ^bZ* ls mPp xzsM izkIr djrk gS tc rd fd mls buds fy, NwV u nh xbZ gksA
,slk u gksus ij] cká ijh{kk dk ifj.kke jksd fn;k tk,xk ijarq bldh vf/kdre vof/k ,d o"kZ
gksxhA
(ii) ijh{kk esa mÙkh.kZ ?kksf"kr djus ds mís'; ls ijh{kkFkhZ dks cksMZ dh eq[; ijh{kk ds lHkh ikapksa fo"k;ksa esa vFkok
vuqijw d ijh{kkvksa esa bZ- ls mPp xzMs ¼U;wure 33% vad½ izkIr djuk gksxkA cká ijh{kk ds izR;sd fo"k;
esa mÙkh.kZ vad 33% gksaxsA
(iii) dksbZ lexz Js.kh@fof'k"Vrk@lai.w kZ ;ksx ugha fn;k tk,xkA
(iv) vfrfjDr fo"k; ysus okys ijh{kkFkhZ ds lacèa k esa fuEufyf[kr ekud ykxw gksxa s
¼d½ vfrfjDr fo"k; ds :i esa yh xbZ ,d Hkk"kk ds LFkku ij nwljh Hkk"kk yh tk ldrh gS] ;fn ijh{kkFkhZ
mlesa vuqÙkh.kZ jgrk gks c'krs± fd izfrLFkkiu ds ckn ijh{kkFkhZ us vaxt
sz h@fganh esa ls ,d Hkk"kk yh
gks] vkSj
¼[k½ izfrLFkkiu vè;;u dh ;kstuk esa fuèkkZfjr 'krks± dks iwjk djsxkA
(v) vkarfjd ijh{kk ds ,d vFkok vfèkd fo"k;ksa esa NwV izkIr ijh{kkFkhZ cká ijh{kk esa 'kkfey gksus ds
fy, ik=k gksaxs vkSj mÙkh.kZrk ekunaM esa fuèkkZfjr vU; 'krks± ds iwjk djus ij gh ifj.kke ?kksf"kr
fd;k tk,xkA
(vi) d{kk IX ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ ?kksf"kr djus ds fy, ,d ijh{kkFkhZ dks lHkh fo"k;ksa esa 33% vad izkIr djus gksxa As
ijh{kk ds izR;sd fo"k; esa mÙkh.kZ vad 33% gksxa As
2--4-- 2 vuqiwjd ijh{kk ds fy, ik=krk
;fn dksbZ ijh{kkFkhZ ,d cká ijh{kk ds ikap fo"k;ksa esa ls nks esa vuqÙkh.kZ gks tkrk gS] rks mls mu fo"k;ksa dh
vuqijw d ¼dEikVZeVas ½ ijh{kk nsuh gksxh] c'krs± fd og vkarfjd ewY;kadu ds lHkh fo"k;ksa esa mÙkh.kZ gqvk gksA
2--5 vuqiwjd ijh{kk
(i) vuqijw d ?kksf"kr ijh{kkFkhZ mlh o"kZ tqykbZ@vxLr esa vk;ksftr gksus okyh vuqijw d ijh{kk esa iqu% 'kkfey
gks ldrk gS vkSj og vxys o"kZ ekpZ@vizy S esa nwljk volj rFkk tqykbZ@vxLr esa rhljk volj ys ldrk@ldrh
gSA vkSj mÙkjorhZ vxys o"kZ ekpZ@vizy S esa pkSFks volj rFkk tqykbZ@vxLr esa ikaposa volj dk mi;ksx
dj ldrk@ldrh gSA ijh{kkFkhZ dks ^mÙkh.kZ* ?kksf"kr fd;k tk,xk c'krs± fd og vuqijw d fo"k;ksa esa vgZrk
izkIr dj ysrk gS] ftuesa og vuqÙkh.kZ Fkk@FkhA

20
(ii) ,slk ijh{kkFkhZ tks vuqiwjd ds ,d vFkok lHkh voljksa esa 'kkfey ugha gksrk vFkok vuqÙkh.kZ gks tkrk
gS] mls ijh{kk esa vuqÙkh.kZ ekuk tk,xk vkSj ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ djus ds fy, lacafèkr ijh{kk ds fy, fuèkkZfjr
ikB~;Øe rFkk ikB~; fooj.k ds vuqlkj cksMZ dh mÙkjorhZ okf"kZd ijh{kk esa lHkh fo"k;ksa esa iqu% 'kkfey
gksxkA ^eq[; ijh{kk* esa izkIr ijh{kkFkhZ ds iz;ksxkRed vad@vkarfjd ewY;kadu vad vuqiwjd ijh{kk ds
ikapos volj rd vkxs c<+k;s tk,axsA ijh{kkFkhZ ds fy, iz;ksxkRed fo"k;ksa esa iz;ksxkRed ijh{kk esa 'kkfey
gksus vFkok vuqiwjd ds ikaposa volj ds ckn ,d vkSj okf"kZd ijh{kk esa vius fiNys vad ;Fkkor~
j[kus dk fodYi jgsxkA
(iii) ekpZ ijh{kk esa vuqijw d ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa ds fy, ikB~;Øe vkSj ikB~; fooj.k ogh jgsxk tks ijh{kk esa lHkh
fo"k;ksa esa 'kkfey gksus okys ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa ds fy, ykxw gSA
(iv) vuqijw d ?kksf"kr ijh{kkFkhZ igys rks ekpZ@vizy
S esa vk;ksftr eq[; ijh{kk ¼mlh o"kZ gksus okyh½@rhljs ¼vxys
o"kZ gksus okyh½@ikaposa ¼o"kZ ds ckn vk;ksftr½ vFkok tqykbZ@vxLr esa gksus okyh vuqijw d ijh{kk esa mUgha
fo"k;ksa esa 'kkfey gksus dk ik=k gksxk ftuesa og vuqijw d j[kk x;k gSA
(v) iz;ksxkRed ijh{kk okys fo"k;ksa ds lca/k esa ;fn fdlh ijh{kkFkhZ us eq[; ijh{kk esa iz;ksxkRed ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ
dj yh gS] rks og dsoy lS)kfUrd ¼fyf[kr½ ijh{kk esa gh 'kkfey gksxk vkSj iwooZ rhZ izk;ksfxd ijh{kk esa
izkIr vadksa dks vxzfs "kr fd;k tk,xk rFkk ifj.kke ds fy, mudh x.kuk dh tk,xhA ;fn dksbZ ijh{kkFkhZ
igys izk;ksfxd ijh{kk esa vuqÙkh.kZ gks x;k gks] rks mls lS)kfUrd vkSj izk;ksfxd nksuksa ijh{kk esa 'kkfey
gksuk gksxk pkgs og fyf[kr ijh{kk igys mÙkh.kZ dj pqdk@pqdh gksA
2--6-- vuqÙkh.kZ vH;fFkZ;ksa ds lacaèk esa iz;ksxkRed vad ;Fkkor~ j[kuk
,d ijh{kkFkhZ tks ijh{kk esa izFke iz;kl esa vuqrh.kZ gks x;k gks mls cksMZ ds mÙkjorhZ okf"kZd ijh{kk esa
lHkh fo"k;ksa esa iqu% 'kkfey gksuk visf{kr gksxkA og dsoy lS)kfUrd Hkkx esa 'kkfey gksxk vkSj mlds fiNys
iz;ksxkRed vad vkxs ys tk, tk,axs vkSj x.kuk dh tk,xh] ;fn mlus iz;ksxkRed mÙkh.kZ fd;k gksA ;fn ijh{kkFkhZ
iz;ksxkRed esa vuqrh.kZ gks x;k gS rks mls lS)kfUrd vkSj iz;ksxkRed nksuksa esa 'kkfey gksuk gksxkA ;fn og izFke
iz;kl ds ckn rhu yxkrkj o"kks± esa ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ djus esa vlQy jgrk gS rks mls iz;ksxkRed lfgr lHkh fo"k;ksa
esa iqu% 'kkfey gksuk gksxkA
2--7-- dk;Z&fu"iknu dk lqèkkj
(i) ,d ijh{kkFkhZ ftlus cksMZ dh ekè;fed fo|ky; ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ dh gks] og dsoy vkus okys o"kZ esa gh eq[;
ijh{kk esa ,d ;k vf/kd fo"k;ksa esa vkSj vPNs vad ikus ds fy, ijUrq ijh{kk ns ldrk gS c'krs± bl nkSjku
mlus mPp d{kk esa vè;;u ugha fd;k gks] ijUrq og izkbosV ijh{kkFkhZ ds :i esa gh ijh{kk nsxkA tks ijh{kkFkhZ
lEiw.kZ ijh{kk iqu% nsuk pkgrs gSa os fu;fer fo|kFkhZ ds :i esa Hkh ijh{kk ns ldrs gSAa ijh{kk ds fu"iknu
esa lqèkkj ds fy, 'kkfey gksus okys ijh{kkFkhZ ,sls fo"k; ¼;ks½a esa 'kkfey gks ldrs gSa ftuesa os mÙkh.kZ ?kksf"kr
gq, gSa fdarq ,sls fo"k; esa ugha ftlesa os vuqrh.kZ ?kksf"kr gq, gksAa
(ii) izk;ksfxd ijh{kk okys fo"k; ¼fo"k;ksa½ esa izkIrkad esa lqèkkj ds fy, ijh{kk nsus okys ijh{kkFkhZ dks dsoy
lS)kfUrd ijh{kk nsuh gksxh vkSj blds fy, izk;ksfxd ijh{kk ds fiNys izkIrkdksa dh gh x.kuk dh
tk,xhA

21
(iii) izn'kZu esa lqèkkj ds fy, ijh{kk nsus ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa dks lqèkkj ijh{kk ds vad izfrfcfEcr djus okyh vad rkfydk
gh tkjh dh tk,xhA
2--8 i=kkpkj fo|ky; ds fo|kFkhZ
(i) ekè;fed fo|ky; ijh{kk ds fy, i=kkpkj fo|ky; ds fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks ijh{kk ;kstuk esa fuèkkZfjr 'krZ ds
vuqlkj nks Hkk"kk,a ysuk visf{kr gksxh fdarq xf.kr rFkk foKku ds LFkku ij x`g&foKku rFkk okf.kT; ysus
dh vuqefr gksxhA
(ii) ekè;fed fo|ky; ijh{kkvksa ds fy, fnYyh ls ckgj ds i=kkpkj fo|ky; ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa dks izk;ksfxd dk;Z
okys fo"k; ysus dh vuqefr ugha gksxhA
2--9 LikfLVd] us=kghu] fMLysfDld rFkk 'kkjhfjd :i ls fodykax fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks NwV
fMLysfDld] LikfLVd ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa rFkk n`'; o Jo.k v{kerk okys ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa dks nks esa ls ,d vfuok;Z
Hkk"kk ds vè;;u dk fodYi gSA ;g Hkk"kk cksMZ }kjk fuèkkZfjr rhu Hkk"kk lw=k dh lexz Hkkouk ds vuq:i gksuh
pkfg,A ,d Hkk"kk ds vykok fuEufyf[kr fo"k;ksa esa ls pkj fo"k; ysus gSa % xf.kr] foKku] lkekftd foKku]
nwljh Hkk"kk] laxhr] isfa Vax] x`g&foKku] ifjp;kRed lwpuk izk|
S ksfxdh rFkk okf.kT; ¼cgh[kkrk ys[ku vkSj ys[kk'kkL=k
ds rRo½
2--10-- ijh{kk mifu;e
ijh{kk esa 'kkfey gksus ds fy, 'ks"k 'krks± dk fu/kkZj.k le;&le; ij cksMZ dh ijh{kk mifu;eksa esa fd;k
tk,xkA

22
3- vè;;u dh ;kstuk
3--1-- vè;;u ds fo"k;
v/;;u fo"k;ksa esa fuEufyf[kr 'kkfey gSa
¼1½ vkSj ¼2½ fuEufyf[kr esa ls nks Hkk"kk,a
fganh] vaxt
sz h] vlfe;k] caxyk] xqtjkrh] dUuM+] d'ehjh] ejkBh] ey;kye] ef.kiqjh] mfM+;k] iatkch flaèkh]
rfey] rsyxq] mnw]Z ysIpk] fyac]q HkwfV;k] laLÑr] vjch] Qkjlh] Ýspa ] teZu] iqrxZ kyh] :lh] Lisfu'k] usikyh]
frCcrh vkSj fetks ¼Ñi;k fVIi.kh (i), (ii) rFkk (iii) Hkh ns[ksa½A
¼3½ xf.kr
¼4½ foKku
¼5½ lkekftd foKku
¼6½ dk;Z f'k{kk vFkok iwo&Z O;kolkf;d f'k{kk
¼7½ dyk f'k{kk
¼8½ 'kkjhfjd ,oa LokLF; f'k{kk
3--2 vfrfjDr fo"k;
fo|kFkhZ vfrfjDr fo"k; ds :i esa fuEufyf[kr esa ls ,d fo"k; ys ldrs gS]a %
nks vfuok;Z Hkk"kkvksa ds vfrfjDr Hkk"kk ¼vè;;u fo"k;ksa ds :i esa yh xbZ½
vFkok
okf.kT;] isfa Vax] laxhr] x`g&foKku vFkok vkjafHkd lwpuk izk|
S ksfxdhA

fVIif.k;ka
(i) ;g vis{kk dh tkrh gS fd lHkh fo|kfFkZ;ksa us d{kk VIII rd rhu Hkk"kkvksa dk vè;;u fd;k gksxkA
tks fo|kFkhZ d{kk VIII esa rhljh Hkk"kk mÙkh.kZ ugha dj lds vkSj d{kk IX esa izksUur gks x;s gSa mudh
d{kk VIII ds fy, fuèkkZfjr ikB~;iqLrdksa vkSj mlh ikB~;Øe ls d{kk IX ds var esa lacafèkr fo|ky;
}kjk ijh{kk yh tk,xhA tks fo|kFkhZ d{kk IX ds var esa Hkh rhljh Hkk"kk mÙkh.kZ djus esa vleFkZ gksa
mUgsa d{kk X esa ,d vU; volj fn;k tk ldrk gSA dksbZ Hkh fo|kFkhZ d{kk X ds var esa cksMZ dh
ekè;fed fo|ky; ijh{kk esa 'kkfey gksus ds fy, ik=k rc rd ugha gksxk tc rd mlus rhljh Hkk"kk
mÙkh.kZ ugha dj yh gksA
(ii) tSlk fd mijksDr fVIi.kh (i) esa mfYyf[kr gS] yh xbZ rhu Hkk"kkvksa esa ls fganh vkSj vaxt
sz h nks Hkk"kk,a vfuok;Z
gksuh pkfg,A fganh vkSj vaxtsz h dk v/;;u de ls de d{kk VIII rd fd;k tkuk vfuok;Z gSA
(iii) d{kk IX rFkk X esa vè;;u dh tkus okyh nks Hkk"kkvksa esa ls fganh vkSj vaxt sz h ,d Hkk"kk vfuok;Z gksuh
pkfg,A ifj.kke Lo:i fganh vkSj vaxt
sz h nksuksa Hkk"kk;sa ,d gh le; yh tk ldrh gSAa fo|kFkhZ dh vyx&vyx

23
i`"BHkwfe dks è;ku esa j[krs gq, fganh vkSj vaxtsz h nksuksa ekeyksa esa d{kk IX vkSj X ds fy, nks ikB~;Øe
fn;s x;s gSAa ,d fo|kFkhZ vfHkO;fDr'khy&vaxt sz h ¼fo"k; dksM 101½ vFkok vaxt sz h Hkk"kk vkSj lkfgR; ¼fo"k;
dksM 184½ esa ls pqu ldrk gSA mlh izdkj fganh esa ,d fo|kFkhZ fganh&, vFkok fganh&ch esa ls ,d pqu ldrk
gSA
3--3 f'k{k.k le;
;g ekurs gq, fd ,d 'kS{kf.kd lIrkg esa 40&40 feuV ds 45 ihfj;M gksrs gS]a izfr lIrkg ihfj;Mksa dk
O;kid forj.k bl izdkj gksxk
fo"k; d{kk X ds fy, izLrkfor ihfj;M
Hkk"kk I 7
Hkk"kk II 6
xf.kr 7
foKku 9
lkekftd foKku 9
dk;Z f'k{kk vFkok iwo&Z O;kolf;d f'k{kk 3+3*/6

¼Ñi;k i`"B 109 dks Hkh ns[ks½a


dyk f'k{kk 2
'kkjhfjd ,oa LokLF; f'k{kk 2
* fo|ky; le; ds ckgj dk izR;kf'kr le;

fVIi.kh
ikB~;Øe cukrs le; ;g vuqeku yxk;k x;k gS fd Nqfê;ks]a lkoZtfud vodk'kksa vkSj vU; vkdfLedrkvksa
dks ns[krs gq, okLrfod f'k{k.k ds fy, izR;sd l=k esa U;wure 30 lIrkgksa dk okLrfod f'k{k.k le; miyCèk
gksxkA rnuqlkj bdkbZ;ksa vkSj mi&bdkbZ;ksa esa ihfj;Mksa dk forj.k fd;k x;k gS tks ,d lq>ko ds :i esa gSA
fo|ky; izR;sd fo"k;@{ks=k esa ihfj;Mksa dh lai.w kZ la[;k ogh j[krs gq, O;fDrxr bdkbZ;ksa esa muds izklafxd egRo
ds vuqlkj ihfj;Mksa dh vfèkd vFkok de la[;k fu;r dj ldrs gSAa izR;sd ;wfuVokj bdkbZ egRo ij vadksa
dk forj.k vkns'kkRed gS vr%mlesa ifjorZu ugha fd;k tk,xkA
3-- 4 fo'ks"k izkS<+ lk{kjrk vfHk;ku ¼lkYM½
Hkkjr ljdkj ds jk"Vªh; lk{kjrk fe'ku ds mís';ksa ds vuqlj.k esa ;fn vko';d le>sa rks cksMZ }kjk fo|kfFkZ;ksa
ds tu vkos"Vu ds ekè;e ls fo'ks"k mik; ds :i esa 'kSf{kd l=k 1991&92 ls d{kk IX rFkk X ls 'kq: djds
fo'ks"k izk<S + lk{kjrk dk;ZØe viuk;k x;k gSA bls fo'ks"k izk<S + lk{kjrk vfHk;ku ¼lkYM½ dgk x;k gS lkYM dks
fuèkkZfjr ikB~;p;kZ dk vfuok;Z vax cuk;k x;k gS vkSj dk;Z vuqHko esa vko';d ?kVd ds :i esa 'kkfey fd;k
x;k gSA lkYM ds <kaps ds ckjs esa ifjf'k"V ^,* esa crk;k x;k gSA

24
3--5 fo'ks"k izkooèkku
èkku
3--5--1 i=kkpkj fo|ky; ds fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds fy, izkoèkku
¼d½ i=kkpkj fo|ky; ds Nk=kksa dks xf.kr rFkk foKku ds LFkku ij x`g foKku vkSj okf.kT; ysus dh vuqefr
gSA
¼[k½ fnYyh ds ckgj ds i=kkpkj fo|ky; ds Nk=kksa dks izk;ksfxd dk;Z okys fo"k; ysus dh vuqefr ugha gSA
3--5--2 n`f"Vghu ,oa cf/kj Nk=kksa ds fy, izkoèkku
n`f"Vghu vkSj cf?kj Nk=kksa ds fy, nks vfuok;Z Hkk"kkvksa esa ls ,d vfuok;Z Hkk"kk ds vè;;u dk fodYi
gSA ;g Hkk"kk i<+kbZ tkus okyh Hkk"kk] iwoZ i`"Bksa esa nh xbZ cksMZ dh Hkk"kk f'k{k.k ;kstuk dh lai.w kZ Hkkouk ds
vuq:i gksuh pkfg,A
,d Hkk"kk ds vfrfjDr fuEufyf[kr fo"k;ksa esa ls dksbZ pkj fo"k; fy, tk ldrs gSa
xf.kr] foKku lkekftd foKku] vU; Hkk"kk] laxhr] isfVax rFkk x`g foKkuA
3--6 v/;kiu dk ekè;e
cksMZ ds lkFk lac) lHkh fo|ky;ksa esa f'k{k.k dk ekè;e fganh vFkok vaxt
sz h gksxkA
fo"k; ifjorZu ds fy, fu;e
(i) fdlh Hkh fo|kFkhZ dks d{kk IX mÙkh.kZ djus ds ckn tSlk Hkh ekeyk gks mlds vè;;u ds fo"k; cnyus
dh vuqefr ugha nh tk,xhA
(ii) fdlh Hkh fo|kFkhZ dh d{kk X esa ,slk fo"k; ysus dh vuqefr ugha nh tk,xh tks mlus d{kk IX esa mÙkh.kZ
rFkk vè;;u ugha fd;k gksA
(iii) mi;qDZ r fu;eksa esa fdlh Hkh ckr ds gksrs gq, fo|kFkhZ dh vuko';d dfBukbZ dks nwj djus ds fy, fo"k;
¼fo"k;ks½a esa ifjorZu djus dh 'kfDr vè;{k ds ikl gksxh c'krs± fd ifjorZu dk ,slk fuosnu 30 flrEcj
ls igys fd;k gksA
vfrfjDr fo"k;
(i) tks fo|kFkhZ cksMZ dh ekè;fed@mPprj fo|ky; izek.k&i=k ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ dj pqdk gks] og izkbosV ijh{kkFkhZ
ds :i esa vfrfjDr fo"k; ys ldrk gS c'krs± fd vè;;u dh ;kstuk esa gks vkSj cksMZ dh ijh{kk mÙkh.kZ
djus ds Ng o"kks± ds vanj fy;k gksA Ng o"kZ ds ckn le; lhek esa dksbZ NwV ugha gksxhA vfrfjDr fo"k;
esa 'kkfey gksus dh lqfoèkk dsoy okf"kZd ijh{kk esa miyCèk gksxhA
(ii) rFkkfi] mPprj fo|ky; izek.k&i=k ijh{kk esa Ng fo"k;ksa esa 'kkfey gksus okyk ijh{kkFkhZ] tks fu;e 40-
1 (IV) ds vuqlkj ikap fo"k;ksa esa mÙkh.kZ vad izkIr djrs gq, mÙkh.kZ ?kksf"kr gks tkrk gS] mlh o"kZ tqykbZ@vxLr
esa vk;ksftr gksus okyh iwjd vuqijh{kk esa vuqÙkh.kZ fo"k; esa 'kkfey gks ldrk gSA

25
[k.M&2
vè;;u ds ikB~;Øe
28
fgana h ekr`Hkk"kk
d{kk IX-X

uoha d{kk esa nkf[ky gksus okys fo|kFkhZ dh Hkk"kk 'kSyh vkSj fopkj cks/k dk ,slk vk/kkj cu pqdk gksrk gS fd mls
mlds Hkkf"kd nk;js ds foLrkj vkSj oSpkfjd le`f) ds fy, t:jh lalk/ku eqg;S k djk, tk,¡1 ek/;fed Lrj rd vkrs&vkrs
fo|kFkhZ fd'kksj gks x;k gksrk gS vkSj mlesa cksyus] i<+u]s fy[kus lkFk&lkFk vkykspukRed n`f"V fodflr gksus yxrh gSAa Hkk"kk
ds lkSna ;kZRed i{k] dFkkRedrk/xhrkRedrk] v[kckjh le>] 'kCn dh nwljh 'kfDr;ksa ds chp varj] jktuSfrd psruk]
lkekftd] psruk dk fodkl] mlesa cPps dh viuh vfLerk dk lanHkZ vkSj vko';drk ds vuqlkj mi;qDr Hkk"kk&iz;ksx]
'kCnks ds lqfpafrr bLrseky] Hkk"kk dh fu;ec) izdf` r vkfn ls fo|kFkhZ ifjfpr gks tkrk gSA bruk gh ugh og fofHkUu
fo/kkvksa vkSj vfHkO;fDr dh vusd 'kSfy;ksa ls Hkh okfdQ+ gksrk gSA vc fo|kFkhZ dh i<+kbZ vkl&iM+kl s ] jkT;&ns'k dh lhek
dks yka?krs gq, oSf'od f{kfrt rd QSy tkrh gSA bu cPpksa dh nqfu;k esa lekpkj] [ksy] fQ+Ye rFkk vU; dykvksa ds lkFk&lkFk
i=k&if=kdk,¡ vkSj vyx&vyx rjg dh fdrkcsa Hkh izo's k ik pqdh gksrh gSAa
bl Lrj ij ekr`Hkk"kk fganh dk v/;;u lkfgfR;d] lkaLd`frd vkSj O;kogkfjd Hkk"kk ds :i esa dqN bl rjg ls
gks fd mPprj ek/;fed Lrj rd igqp ¡ rs&igqp
¡ rs ;g fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh igpku] vkRefo'okl vkSj foe'kZ dh Hkk"kk cu ldsA
iz;kl ;g Hkh gksxk fd fo|kFkhZ Hkk"kk ds fyf[kr iz;ksx ds lkFk&lkFk lgt vkSj LokHkkfod ekSf[kd vfHkO;fDr esa Hkh l{ke
gks ldsA
bl ikB~;Øe ds v/;;u ls
¼i½ fo|kFkhZ vxys Lrjksa ij viuh :fp vkSj vko';drk ds vuq:i fganh dh i<+kbZ dj ldsxa s rFkk fganh esa
cksyus vkSj fy[kus esa l{ke gks ldsxa As
¼ii½ viuh Hkk"kk n{krk ds pyrs mPprj ek/;fed Lrj ij foKku] lekt foKku vkSj vU; ikB~;Øeksa ds lkFk
lgt lac)rk ¼varlZca /a k½ LFkkfir dj ldsxa As
¼iii½ nSfud O;ogkj] vkosnu&i=k fy[kus] vyx&vyx fdLe ds i=k fy[kus] rkj ¼Vsfyxzke½ fy[kus] izkFkfedh ntZ
djkus bR;kfn esa l{ke gks ldsxa As
¼iv½ mPprj ek/;fed Lrj ij igqp
¡ dj fofHkUu iz;fq Dr;ksa dh Hkk"kk ds }kjk muesa orZeku varjlac/a k dks le>
ldsxa As
¼v½ fganh esa n{krk dks os vU; Hkk"kk&lajpukvksa dh le> fodflr djus ds fy, bLrseky dj ldsxa ]s LFkkukarfjr
dj ldsxa As
d{kk IX-X ekr`Hkk"kk ds :i esa fganh&f'k{k.k ds mís'; %
 d{kk vkB rd vftZr Hkkf"kd dkS'kyksa ¼lquuk] cksyuk] i<+uk] fy[kuk vkSj fparu½ dk mÙkjksÙkj fodklA
 l`tukRed lkfgR; ds vkykspukRed vkLokn dh {kerk dk fodklA
 Lora=k vkSj ekSf[kd :i ls vius fopkjksa dh vfHkO;fDr dk fodklA

29
 Kku ds fofHkUu vuq'kkluksa ds foe'kZ dh Hkk"kk ds :i esa fganh dh fof'k"V izdf` r ,oa {kerk dk cks/k
djkukA
 lkfgR; dh izHkkodkjh {kerk dk mi;ksx djrs gq, lHkh izdkj dh fofo/krkvksa ¼jk"Vªh;rkvks]a /keZ] fyax]
Hkk"kk½ ds izfr ldkjkRed vkSj laons u'khy joS;s dk fodklA
 tkfr] /keZ] fyax] jk"Vªh;rkvks]a {ks=k vkfn ls lcaf/kr iwokZxgz ksa ds pyrs cuh :f<+;ksa dh Hkkf"kd vfHkO;fDr;ksa
ds izfr ltxrkA
 fons'kh Hkk"kkvksa lesr xSj fganh Hkk"kkvksa dh laLd`fr dh fofo/krk ls ifjp;A
 O;kogkfjd vkSj nSfud thou esa fofo/k fdLe dh vfHkO;fDr;ksa dh ekSf[kd o fyf[kr {kerk dk fodklA
 lapkj ek/;eksa ¼fizVa vkSj bysDVªkfW ud½ esa iz;qDr fganh dh izdf` r ls voxr djkuk vkSj u,&u, rjhdksa ls
iz;ksx djus dh {kerk ls ifjp;A
 l?ku fo'ys"k.k] Lora=k vfHkO;fDr vkSj rdZ {kerk dk fodklA
 vewruZ dh ,oa vftZr {kerkvksa dk mÙkjksÙkj fodklA
 Hkk"kk esa ekStnw fgalk dh lajpukvksa dh le> dk fodklA
 erHksn] fojks/k vkSj Vdjko dh ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa Hkh Hkk"kk ds laonsu'khy vkSj rdZi.w kZ bLrseky ls 'kakfriw.kZ
laokn dh {kerk dk fodklA
 Hkk"kk dh lekos'kh vkSj cgqHkkf"kd izdf` r ds izfr ,sfrgkfld ut+fj, dk fodklA
 'kkjhfjd vkSj vU; lHkh izdkj dh pqukSfr;ksa dk lkeuk dj jgs cPpksa esa Hkkf"kd {kerkvksa ds fodkl dh
mudh viuh fof'k"V xfr vkSj izfrHkk dh igpkuA

f'k{k.k ;qfDr;k¡
ek/;fed d{kkvksa esa v/;kid dh Hkwfedk mfpr okrkoj.k ds fuekZ.k esa lgk;d dh gksuh pkfg,A Hkk"kk vkSj lkfgR; dh
i<+kbZ esa bl ckr ij /;ku nsus dh t:jr gksxh fd &
 fo|kFkhZ }kjk dh tk jgh xyfr;ksa dks Hkk"kk ds fodkl ds vfuok;Z pj.k ds :i esa Lohdkj fd;k tkuk
pkfg, ftlls fo|kFkhZ vck/k :i ls fcuk f>>d fyf[kr vkSj ekSf[kd vfHkO;fDr djus esa mRlkg dk
vuqHko djsA fo|kfFkZ;ksa ij 'kqf) dk ,slk ncko ugha gksuk pkfg, fd os rukoxzLr ekgkSy esa iM+ tk,¡A
mUgsa Hkk"kk ds lgt] dkjxj vkSj jpukRed :iksa ls bl rjg ifjfpr djkuk mfpr gS fd os Lo;a lgt:i
ls Hkk"kk dk l`tu dj ldsAa
 xyr ls lgh fn'kk dh vksj igqp
¡ us dk iz;kl gksA fo|kFkhZ Lora=k vkSj vck/k :i ls fyf[kr vkSj ekSf[kd
vfHkO;fDr djsA vxj dgha Hkwy gksrh gS rks v/;kid dks viuh v/;kiu&'kSyh esa ifjorZu dh vko';drk
gksxhA

30
 ,sls f'k{k.k&fcanv
q ksa dh igpku dh tk, ftlls d{kk es fo|kFkhZ fuajrj lfØ; Hkkxhnkjh djs vkSj v/;kid
Hkh bl izfØ;k esa mudk lkFkh cusA
 gj Hkk"kk dk viuk ,d fu;e vkSj O;kdj.k gksrk gSA Hkk"kk dh bl izdf` r dh igpku djkus esa ifjos'kxr
vkSj ikBxr lanHkksZ dk gh iz;ksx djuk pkfg,A ;g iwjh izfØ;k ,slh gksuh pkfg, fd fo|kFkhZ Lo;a dks
'kks/k drkZ le>s rFkk v/;kid bles dsoy funs'Z ku djsAa
 fganh esa {ks=kh; iz;ksxks]a vU; Hkk"kkvksa ds iz;ksxksa ds mnkgj.k ls ;g ckr Li"V dh tk ldrh gS fd Hkk"kk
vyxko esa ugha curh vkSj mldk ifjos'k vfuok;Z :i ls cgqHkkf"kd gksrk gSA
 'kkjhfjd ck/kkxzLr fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds fy, mi;qDr f'k{k.k&lkexzh dk bLrseky fd;k tk, rFkk fdlh Hkh izdkj
ls mUgsa vU; fo|kkfFkZ;ksa ls derj ;k vyx u le>k tk,A
 d{kk esa v/;kid dks gj izdkj dh fofHkUurkvksa ¼fyax] tkfr] oxZ] /keZ½ ds izfr ldkjkRed vkSj laonsu'khy
okrkoj.k fufeZr djuk pkfg,A
 ijaijk ls pys vk jgs eqgkojks]a dgkorksa ¼tSl]s jkuh :Bsxa h rks viuk lqgkx ysxa h½ vkfn ds t+fj, fofHkUu
izdkj ds iwoksxZ gz ksa dh le> iSnk djuh pkfg, vkSj muds iz;ksx ds izfr vkykspukRed n`f"V fodflr djuh
pkfg,A
 e/; dkyhu dkO; dh Hkk"kk ds eeZ ls fo|kFkhZ dk ifjp; djkus ds fy, t+:jh gksxk fd fdrkcksa es vk,
dkO;k'kksa dh laxhc) izLrqfr;ksa ds vkWfM;ks&ohfM;ks dSlVs rS;kj fd, tk,¡A vxj vklkuh ls dksbZ
xk;d@xkf;dk feys rks d{kk esa e/;dkyhu lkfgR; ds v/;kiu&f'k{k.k esa mlls enn yh tkuh pkfg,A
 o`Ùkfp=kksa vkSj Q+hpj fQ+Yeksa dks f'k{k.k&lkexzh ds rkSj ij bLrseky djus dh t:jr gSA buds izn'kZu ds
Øe esa bu ij yxkrkj ckrphr ds t+fj, flusek ds ek/;e ls Hkk"kk ds iz;ksx dh fof'k"Vrk dh igpku
djkbZ tk ldrh gS vkSj fganh dh vyx&vyx NVk fn[kkbZ tk ldrh gSA
 d{kk esa flQZ ,d ikB~;Øe dh HkkSfrd mifLFkfr ls csgrj ;g gS f'k{kd ds gkFk esa rjg&rjg dh
ikB~;lkexzh dks fo|kFkhZ ns[k ldsa vkSj f'k{kdk mudk d{kk esa vyx&vyx ekSdksa ij bLrseky dj ldsAa
 Hkk"kk yxkrkj xzg.k djus dh fØ;k es curh gS] bls iznf'kZr djus dk ,d rjhdk ;g Hkh gS fd f'k{kd
[kqn ;g fl[kk ldsa fd os Hkh 'kCndks'k] lkfgR;dks'k] lanHkZxFz k dh yxkrkj enn ys jgs gSAa bles fo|kfFkZ;ksa
es bues bLrseky djus dks ysdj rRijrk c<+xs hA vuqeq ku ds vk/kkj ij fudVer vFkZ rd igqp ¡ dj lar"q V
gksus dh txg ogs vf/kdre vFkZ dh [kkst djus dk vFkZ le> tk,¡xAs blls 'kCnksa dh vyx&vyx jaxr
dk irk pysxk] os 'kCnksa ds ckjhd vkSj varj ds izfr vkSj ltx gks ik,axAs

O;kdj.k fcnaq
fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks ekr`Hkk"kk ds lanHkZ esa O;kdj.k ds fofHkUu i{kksa dk ifjp; d{kk III ls gh feyus yxrk gSA fganh
Hkk"kk esa bu i{kksa vkSj fgUnh dh viuh Hkk"kkxr fof'k"rkvksa dh ppkZ ikB~;Øe vkSj vU; f'k{k.k&lkexzh ds le`) lanHkZ
esa dh tkuh pkfg,1 uhps d{kk VI ls X ds fy, dqN O;kdjf.kd fcanq fd, x, gSa ftUgsa d{kk ;k fofHkUu pj.kksa ds Øe
esa ugha j[kk x;k gSA

31
ljapuk vkSj vFkZ ds Lrj ij Hkk"kk dh fof'k"Vrkvksa dh ifjf/k bu O;kdjf.kd fcanv q ksa ls dgha vf/kd foLr`r gSA
os fcanq bu fof'k"Vrkvksa dk ladrs Hkj gSa ftudh ppkZ ikB ds lgt lanHkZ esa vkSj cPpksa ds vklikl miyC/k Hkk"kk;h ifjos'k
dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, dh tkuh pkfg,A
d{kk VI ls X rd ds fy, dqN O;kdj.k fcanq
 laKk] loZuke] fo'ks"k.k] fØ;k] fØ;kfo'ks"k.k
 fyax] opu] dky
 inca/k esa fyax vkSj opu dk fo'ks"k.k ij izHkko
 okD; esa drkZ vkSj deZ ds fyax vkSj opu dk fØ;k ij izHkko
 ijlxZ ^us* dk fØ;k ij izHkko
 vdeZd] ldeZd] f}deZd] izj.kkFkZd fØ;k
 ljy] la;Dq r] feJ okD;
 dr`oZ kP;] deZokP;
 leqPp;cks/kd 'kCn vkSj vU;-vfodkjh 'kCn
 i;kZ;okph] foykse] lekl] vusdkFkhZ] JqfrlefHkUukFkZd 'kCn] eqgkojs

32
1- fganh ikB~;Øe & ^,*
¼dksM la- & 002½
d{kk & 9

,d iz'ui=k % le; & 3 ?kaVs iw.kk±d 100

¼d½ vifBr x|ka'k 20


¼[k½ jpuk 15
¼x½ O;kogkfjd&O;kdj.k 15
¼?k½ ikB~;&iqLrd % f{kfrt Hkkx&1 30
iwjd&iqLrd % d`frdk Hkkx&1 10
¼M-½ ekSf[kd&vfHkO;fDr 10

[k.M d & vifBr x|ka'k 20 vad


1- nks x|ka'k % ¼i½ lkfgfR;d x|ka'k ¼300 ls 400 'kCn½ 12
2- ¼ii½ dkO;ka'k ¼250 ls 300 'kCn½ nks esa ls ,d dkO;ka'k djuk gksxkA 8
mi;qDZ r x|ka'kksa esa ls 'kh"kZd dk pquko] fo"k;&oLrq dk cks/k] Hkkf"kd fcan@q lajpuk vkfn ij vfr
y?kwÙkjkRed iz'u iwNs tk,¡xAs
[k.M [k & jpuk
3- ¼i½ ladrs fcanv
q ksa ij vk/kkfjr fdlh ,d vk/kqfud fo"k; ij yxHkx 200 'kCnksa esa fuca/k&ys[kuA 10
4- ¼ii½ laokn& ys[ku@ i=k&ys[ku 5
[k.M x & O;kogkfjd O;kdj.k 15
5- ¼i½ 'kCn&fuekZ.k ¼milxZ&izR;;½] fo'ks"k.k] fyax vkSj opu dk fo'ks"k.k ij izHkko
rFkk ijlxZ ^us* dk fØ;k ij izHkko
laKk] loZuke rFkk ¼fyax] opu] dkjd½ (2 + 2 + 2) 6
lekl
6- ¼ii½ okD; jpuk & okD; ds vax] vFkZ ds vuqlkj okD; Hksna 3
7- ¼ii½ i;kZ;okph] foykse] JqfrlefHkUukFkZd 'kCn 3
8- ¼iv½ eqgkojs & okD; iz;ksx 3

33
[k.M ?k & ikB~;&iqLrd ,oa iwjd&iqLrd 40 vad
f{kfrt ¼15+15½ 30 vad
9- ¼i½ nks esa ls fdlh ,d dkO;ka'k ij vFkZ&xzg.k lac/a kh pkj ;k ik¡p iz'u 6
10- ¼ii½ fu/kkZfjr dforkvksa esa ls pkj cks/kkRed iz'uksa esa ls rhu iz'u 3+3+3 = 9
11- ¼iii½ nks esa ls fdlh ,d x|ka'k ij vk/kkfjr vFkZ&xzg.k lac/a kh pkj ;k ik¡p iz'u 6
12- ¼iv½ x| ikBksa ij vk/kkfjr pkj esa ls rhu cks/kkRed iz'u 3+3+3 = 9

iwjd iqLrd % d`frdk Hkkx 1 10


13- ¼i½ nks esa ls ,d fuca/kkRed iz'u 4
14- ¼ii½ pkj esa ls rhu y?kwÙkjkRed iz'u 2+2+2 = 6

[kaM ¼M-½ ekSf[kd vfHkO;fDr 10 vad


lquuk
of.kZr ;k ifBr lkexzh dks lqudj vFkZxgz .k djuk orkZyki] okn&fookn] Hkk"k.k] dfork ikB 5
vkfn dks lqudj le>uk] ewY;kadu djuk vkSj vfHkO;fDr ds <ax dks tkuuk
cksyuk 5
¼i½ Hkk"k.k] okn&fookn
¼ii½ xfr] y;] vkjksg&vojksg lfgr lLoj dfork&okpu
¼iii½ okrkZyki vkSj mldh vkSipkfjdrk,¡
¼iv½ dk;ZØe&izLrqfr
¼v½ dFkk&dgkuh vFkok ?kVuk lqukuk
¼vi½ ifjp; nsuk] ifjp; izkIr djuk
¼vi½ Hkkokuqdyw laokn&okpu
okrkZyki dh n{krk,a
fVIi.kh % okrkZyki dh n{krkvksa dk ewY;kadu fujarjrk ds vk/kkj ij ijh{kk ds le; gksxkA fu/kkZfjr 10 vadksa esa ls
5 Jo.k ¼lquuk½ ds ewY;kadu ds fy, vkSj 5 okpu ¼cksyuk½ ds ewY;kadu ds fy, gksxa As
Jo.k ¼lquuk½ dk ewY;kadu
ijh{kd fdlh izklafxd fo"k; ij ,d vuqPNsn dk Li"V opu djsxkA vuqPNsn rF;kRed ;k lq>kokRed gks ldrk
gSA vuqPNsn yxHkx 200 'kCnksa dk gksuk pkfg,A ijh{kd dks lqurs&lqurs ijh{kkFkhZ vyx dkxt+ ij fn, gq, Jo.k cks/
ku ds vH;klksa dks gy dj ldsxa As vH;kl fjDr LFkku iwfrZ] cgqfodYih vFkok lR;@vlR; dk pquko vkfn fo/kkvksa es
gks ldrs gSAa izR;sd vk/ks vad ds fy, 10 ijh{k.k iz'u gksxa As
okpu ¼cksyuk½ dk ijh{k.k
1- fp=kksa ds Øe ij vk/kkfjr o.kZu % bl Hkkx esa vis{kk dh tk,xh fd ijh{kkFkhZ fooj.kkRed Hkk"kk dk iz;ksx
djsAa
34
2- fdlh fp=k dk o.kZu % ¼fp=k yksxksa ds ;k LFkkuksa ds gks ldrs gSAa ½
3- fdlh fu/kkZfjr fo"k; ij cksyuk ftlls og vius O;fDrxr vuqHko dk izR;kLej.k dj ldsA
4- dksbZ dgkuh lqukuk ;k fdlh ?kVuk dk o.kZu djukA
fVIi.kh %
1- ijh{k.k ls iwoZ ijh{kkFkhZ dks rS;kjh ds fy, dqN le; fn;k tk,A
2- fooj.kkRed Hkk"kk esa orZeku dky dk iz;ksx visf{kr gSA
3- fu/kkZfjr fo"k; ijh{kkFkhZ ds vuqHko lalkj ds gksa tSls % dksbZ pqVdqyk ;k gkL;&izlxa lqukuk] gky esa i<+h
iqLrd ;k ns[ks x, flusek dh dgkuh lqukukA
4- tc ijh{kkFkhZ cksyuk izkjaHk dj ns rks ijh{kd de ls de gLr{ksi djsAa
dkS'kyksa ds varj.k dk ewY;akdu
Jo.k ¼lquuk½ ckpu ¼cksyuk½
1- fo|kFkhZ esa ifjfpr lanHkksZ esa iz;qDr 'kCnksa vkSj inksa 1- f'k{kkFkhZ dsoy vyx&vyx 'kCnksa vkSj inksa ds iz;ksx
dks le>usa dh lkekU; ;ksX;rk gS] fdUrq lqlca ) dh ;ksX;rk iznf'kZr djrk gS fdUrq ,d lqlca ) Lrj
vk'k; dks ugha le> ikrkA ij ugha cksy ldrkA
3- NksVs lac) dFkuksa dks ifjfpr lanHkksaZ esa le>us dh 3- ifjfpr lanHkksZa esa dsoy NksVs lac) dFkuksa dks
;ksX;rk gSA lhfer 'kq)rk ls iz;ksx djrk gSA
5- ifjfpr ;k vifjfpr nksuksa lanHkksaZ es dfFkr lwpuk 5- vis{kkd`r nh?kZ Hkk"k.k esa vf/kd tfVy dFkuksa ds
dks Li"V le>us dh ;ksX;rk gSA v'kqf);k¡ djrk gS iz;ksx dh ;ksX;rk iznf'kZr djrk gS] vHkh Hkh dqN
ftlls iz"s k.k esa :dkoV vkrh gSA v'kqf);k¡ djrk gSA ftlls iz"s k.k esa :dkoV vkrh gSA
7- nh?kZ dFkuksa dh J`[a kyk dks i;kZIr 'kq)rk ls le>rk 7- vifjfpr fLFkfr;ksa esa fopkjksa dks rkfdZd <ax ls
gS vkSj fu"d"kZ fudky ldrk gSA laxfBr dj /kkjk izokg :i esa izLrqr dj ldrk gSA
,slh xyfr;k¡ djrk gS ftuls iz"s k.k esa :dkoV ugha
vkrhA
9- tfVy dFkuksa ds fopkj&fcanvq ksa dks le>us dh ;ksX;rk 9- mís'; vkSj Jksrk ds fy, mi;qDr 'kSyh dks viuk
iznf'kZr djrk gS] mís'; ds vuqdy w lquus dh dq'kyrk ldrk gS] dsoy ekewyh xyfr;k¡ djrk gSA
iznf'kZr djrk gSA

fu/kkZfjr iqLrdas %
1- f{kfrt&Hkkx 1 & ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk izdkf'kr
2- d`frdk Hkkx 1 & ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk izdkf'kr

35
fganh ikB~;Øe & ^,*
¼dksM la- & 002½
d{kk & 10

,d iz'ui=k % le; & 3 ?kaVs iw.kk±d 100

¼d½ vifBr x|ka'k 20


¼[k½ jpuk 15
¼x½ O;kogkfjd&O;kdj.k 15
¼?k½ ikB~;&iqLrd % f{kfrt Hkkx 2 40
iwjd&iqLrd % d`frdk Hkkx 2 10

[k.M & d & vifBr x|ka'k cks/k 20


1- ¼i½ lkfgfR;d x|ka'k ¼300 ls 400 'kCn½ 12
2- ¼ii½ dkO;ka'k ¼250 ls 300 'kCn½ nks esa ls ,d dkO;ka'k djuk gksxkA 8
mi;qDZ r nksuksa xa|k'kksa esa ls 'kh"kZd dk pquko] fo"k;&oLrq dk cks/k] Hkkf"kd fcnqvks @fo'ks"krkvksa
vkfn ij vfr y?kwÙkjkRed iz'u iwNs tk,axAs
[k.M & [k& jpuk % 15
3- ¼i½ ladrs & fcanv
q ksa ij vk/kkfjr fdlh vk/kqfud fo"k; ij fuac/k&ys[ku 10
4- ¼ii½ i=k&ys[ku ¼vkSipkfjd@vukSipkfjd i=k½ 5
[k.M x & O;kogkfjd & O;kdj.k 15
5- ¼i½ fØ;k Hksn % vdeZd @ ldeZd] eq[; fØ;k] lgk;d fØ;k] la;Dq r fØ;k 2
¼ii½ fo'ks"k.k vkSj fØ;kfo'ks"k.k 2
6- ¼iii½ in&ifjp; 2
7- ¼iv½ okD;&Hksn % jpuk ds vuqlkj] jpukUrj.k 3
8- ¼v½ eqgkojs vkSj yksdksfDr;k¡ & ikB~; iqLrd ds vk/kkj ij 3
9- ¼vi½ vyadkj % vuqikz l] ;ed] 'ys"k] m"kek] :id] mRiz{s kk rFkk ekuohdj.k 3

36
[k.M ?k - ikB~;&iqLrd ,oa iwjd iqLrd 50
f{kfrt 20 + 20 40
10- ¼i½ nks esa ls fdlh ,d dkO;ka'k ij vFkZ&xzg.k lac/a kh rhu iz'u 6
11- ¼ii½ dforkvksa ij vk/kkfjr fo"k;&oLrq@lan's k@thou&ewY;ks lac/a kh pkj esa ls rhu iz'u 3 + 3 + 3 = 9
12- ¼iii½ dforkvks ij ljkguk&laca /kh ik¡p y?kwÙkjkRed iz'u 1x5 = 5

13- ¼iv½ nks esa ls ,d x|ka'k ij vFkZ xzg.k lac/a kh rhu iz'u 6
14- ¼v½ x| ikBksa ij vk/kkfjr fo"k;&oLrq lac/a kh pkj esa ls rhu iz'u 3+3+3=9

15- ¼vi½ x| ikBksa ds fopkj @ lan's k ls lacfa /kr nks y?kwÙkjkRed iz'u 3+2=5

iwjd &iqLrd % d`frdk 10


16- ¼i½ ikBksa ij vk/kkfjr nks esa ls ,d fuac/kkRed iz'u 4
17- ¼ii½ ikBksa ij vk/kkfjr pkj esa ls rhu y?kwÙkjkRed iz'u 2+2+2=6

fu/kkZfjr iqLrdsa %
1- f{kfrt & Hkkx 2 ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk izdkf'kr
2- d`frdk Hkkx 2 & ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk izdkf'kr

37
f}rh; Hkk"kk ds :i esa fganh
d{kk IX-X

Hkkjr ,d cgqHkk"kh ns'k gS ftlesa cgqr&lh {ks=kh; Hkk"kk,¡ jph&clh gSAa Hkkf"kd vkSj lkaLd`frd n`f"V ls fHkUu gksus
ds ckotwn Hkkjrh; ijaijk esa cgqr dqN ,slk gS tks ,d nwljs dks tksM+rk gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd ekr`Hkk"kk ds :i e esa vyx
Hkk"kk dks i<+us okyk fo|kFkhZ tc nwljh Hkk"kk ds :i esa fganh dk pquko djrk gS rks mlds ikl vfHkO;fDr dk ,d n`<+
vk/kkj igyh Hkk"kk ds :i esa igys ls gh ekStnw gksrk gSA blhfy, NBh ls vkBoha d{kk esa lh[kh gqbZ fganh dk fodkl Hkh
og rsth ls djus yxrk gSA vkBoha d{kk rd og fganh Hkk"kk esa lquus] i<+u]s fy[kus vkSj dqN&dqN cksyus dk vH;kl dj
pqdk gksrk gSA fganh dh cky if=kdk,¡ vkSj fNViqV jpuk,¡ i<+uk Hkh vc mls vk x;k gSA blhfy, tc og uoha] nloha
d{kk esa fganh i<+xs k rks tgk¡ rd ,d vkSj fagnh Hkk"kk ds ek/;e ls lkjs ns'k ls tqM+xs k ogha nwljh vksj vius {ks=k vkSj ifjos'k
dks fganh Hkk"kk ds ek/;e ls tkuus dh dksf'k'k Hkh djsxk D;ksfa d fd'kksj o; ds bu cPpksa ds ekufld /kjkry dk fodkl
fo'o&Lrj rd igqp ¡ pqdk gksrk gSA
f'k{k.k mís';
 nSfud thou esa fganh esa le>us&cksyus ds lkFk&lkFk fy[kus dh {kerk dk fodkl djukA
 fganh ds fd'kksj&lkfgR;] v[kckj o if=kdkvksa dks i<+dj le> ikuk vkSj mldk vkuan mBkus dh {kerk
dk fodkl djukA
 vkSipkfjd fo"k;ksa vkSj lanHkksaZ es ckrphr esa Hkkx ys ikus dh {kerk dk fodkl djukA
 fagna h ds t+fj;s vius vuqHko lalkj dks fy[kdj lgt vfHkO;fDr dj ikus esa l{ke cukukA
 lapkj ds fofHkUu ek/;eksa ¼fizVa vkSj bysDVªkfW ud½ esa iz;qDr fganh ds fofHkUu :iksa dks le>us dh ;ksX;rk
dk fodkl djukA
 d{kk esa cgqHkkf"kd] cgqlkaLd`frd lnHkksaZ ds izfr laons u'khy ldkjkRed lksp cukukA
 viuh ekr`Hkk"kk vkSj ifjos'kxr Hkk"kk dks lkFk j[kdj fganh dh lajpukvksa dh le> cukukA
f'k{k.k ;qfDr;k¡ %
 f}rh; Hkk"kk ds :i esa i<+kbZ tk jgh fganh Hkk"kk dk Lrj i<+us nksuksa gh n`f"V;ksa ls ekr`Hkk"kk lh[kus dh
rqyuk es dqN eaFkj xfr ls pysxkA ;g xfr /khjs&/khjs c<+ lds] blds fy, fganh v/;kidksa dks cM+s /
khjt ls vius v/;kiu dk;ZØeksa dks fu;ksftr djuk gksxkA fdlh Hkh f}rh; Hkk"kk esa fui.kqrk izkIr
djus&djus dk ,d gh mik; gS& ml Hkk"kk dk yxkrkj jkspd vH;kl djuk&djkukA ;s vH;kl ftrus
vf/kd jkspd] lfØ; ,oa izklafxd gksus fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh Hkkf"kd miyfC/k Hkh mruh gh rst+h ls gks ldsxhA
eq[kj Hkkf"kd vH;kl ds fy, okrkZyki] jkspd dgkuh lquuk&lqukuk] ?kVuk o.kZu] fp=k&o.kZu] laokn]
okn&fookn] vfHku;] Hkk"k.k izfr;ksfxrk,¡] dfork ikB vkSj vRa;k{kjh tSlh xfrfof/k;ksa dk lgkjk fy;k
tk ldrk gSA

38
 e/;dkyhu dkO; dh Hkk"kk ds eeZ ls fo|kFkhZ dk ifjp; djkus ds fy, t+:jh gksxk fd fdrkcksa esa
vk, dkO;k'kksa dh laxhrc) izLrqfr;ksa ds vkWfM;ks&ohfM;ks dSlsV rS;kj fd, tk,¡A vxj vklkuh ls
dksbZ xk;d@xkf;dk feys rks d{kk esa e/;dkyhu lkfgR; ds v/;kiu&f'k{k.k esa mlls enn yh tkuh
pkfg,A
 o`Ùkfp=kksa vkSj Q+hpj fQ+Yeksa dks f'k{k.k&lkexzh ds rkSj ij bLrseky djus dh t+:jr gSA buds izn'kZu ds
Øe esa bu ij yxkrkj ckrphr ds t+fj, flusek ds ek/;e ls Hkk"kk ds iz;ksx dh fof'k"Vrk dh igpku
djkbZ tk ldrh gS vkSj fganh dh vyx&vyx NVk fn[kkbZ tk ldrh gSA
 d{kk es flQZ ,d ikB~;iqLrd dh HkkSfrd mifLFkfr ls csgrj ;g gS f'k{kd ds gkFk esa rjg&rjg dh
ikB~;lkexzh dks fo|kFkhZ ns[k ldsa vkSj f'k{kd mudk d{kk esa vyx&vyx ekSdks ij bLrseky ij
ldsaA
 Hkk"kk yxkrkjk xzg.k djus dh fØ;k esa curh gS] bls iznf'kZr djus dk ,d rjhdk ;g Hkh gS fd f'k{kd
[kqn ;g fl[kk ldsa fd os Hkh 'kCndks'k] lkfgR;dka'k] lanHkZxzaFk dh yxkrkj enn ys jgs gSaA blls
fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa buds bLrseky djus dks ysdj rRijrk c<+sxhA vuqeku ds vk/kkj ij fudVre vFkZ rd
igq¡pdj larq"V gksus dh txg os vf/kdre vFkZ dh [kkst djus dk vFkZ le> tk,¡xsA blls 'kCnksa dk
vyx&vyx jaxr dk irk pysxk vkSj muesa laonsu'khyrk Hkh c<+sxhA os 'kCnksa ds ckjhd varj ds izfr
vkSj ltx gks ik,¡xsA
O;kdj.k ds fcanq
d{kk IX
 o.kZ&foPNsn] orZuh % j~ us fofHkUu :i] fcanq&panfz canq] v/kZpna kz dkj] uqDrk
 rjg&rjg ds ikBksa ds lanHkZ esa 'kCnksa ds voyksdu }kjk milxZ] izR;; vkSj leku 'kCnksa dh igpkuA
 okD; ds Lrj ij i;kZ;okph] foykse vkSj vusdkFkhZ 'kCnksa dk lqfpafrr iz;ksx
 eqgkojks dk okD;ksa esa iz;ksx vkSj muds fy, mfpr lanHkZ fLFkfr;ksa dk o.kZu
d{kk X
 'kCn] in vkSj inca/k esa varj
 feJ vkSj la;Dq r okD;ksa dh lajpuk vkSj vFkZ] okD; :ikarj.k
 'kCnksa ds voyksdu }kjk laf/k dh igpku] dqN vkSj milxks]aZ izR;;ksa vkSj lekl 'kCnksa dh igpku vkSj muds
vFkZ dk vuqeku
 eqgkojksa vkSj yksdksfDr;ksa dk varj vkSj mudk iz;ksx
 okD; ds Lrj ij i;kZ;okph] foykse vkSj vusdkFkhZ 'kCnksa dk lqfpafrr iz;ksx

39
fganh ikB~;Øe & ^ch*
¼dksM la- & 085½
d{kk & 9

,d iz'ui=k % le; & 3 ?kaVs iw.kk±d 100

¼d½ vifBr x|ka'k 20


¼[k½ jpuk 10
¼x½ O;kogkfjd&O;kdj.k 20
¼?k½ Li'kZ Hkkx & 1 30
la;pu Hkkx & 1 10
¼M-½ ekSf[kd&vfHkO;fDr 10

[k.M d & vifBr x|ka'k 20


1- ¼i½ 300 ls 400 'kCnksa dk ,d x|ka'k 12
2- ¼ii½ 200 ls 300 'kCnksa dk ,d dkO;ka'k 8
mi;qDZ r x|ka'kksa esa ls 'kh"kZd dk pquko] fo"k;&oLrq dk cks/k vkSj Hkkf"kd fcanqvks@a fo'ks"krkvksa
ij vfr y?kwÙkjkRed iz'u iwNs tk,¡xAs
[k.M [k & jpuk 10
3- ¼i½ i=k&ys[ku ¼vukSipkfjd½ ekrk&firk] fe=k ;k lac/a kh vkfn dks 5
4- ¼ii½ vuqPNsn&ys[ku % le&lkef;d fo"k;ksa ij ladrs fcanv
q ksa ij vk/kkfjr 5
80 ls 100 'kCnksa dk ,d vuqPNsn
[k.M x & O;kogkfjd O;kdj.k 20
5- ¼i½ o.kZ&foPNsn] orZuh % ^j* ds fofHkUu :i] vuqLokj] vuqukfld] uqDrk ¼vkxr /ofu;k¡½ 4
6- ¼ii½ ikBksa ds lanHkZ esa milxZ] izR;; ls 'kCn&fuekZ.k 3
¼iii½ i;kZ;okph] foykse vkSj vusdkFkhZ 'kCn] okD;k'kksa ds fy, ,d 'kCn 4
7- ¼iv½ okD; ds vax] ljy okD; 3
8- ¼v½ fojke fpUgksa dk iz;ksx 3
9- ¼vi½ eqgkojs & okD; iz;ksx 3

40
[k.M ?k & ikB~;&iqLrd ,oa iwjd iqLrd
 ikB~; iqLrd % Li'kZ Hkkx&1 15 + 15 = 30

10- ¼i½ nks esa ls ,d dkO;ka'k ij vk/kkfjr rhu@pkj vFkZ&xzg.k ds iz'u 6

11- ¼ii½ dforkvksa ds fo"k;&cks/k vkSj ljkguk ij vk/kkfjr pkj esa ls rhu iz'u 3+3+3 = 9

12- ¼iii½ nks esa ls ,d x|ka'k ij v/kZ&xzg.k lac/a kh rhu ;k pkj iz'u 6

13- ¼iv½ x|&ikBksa ds fo"k;&cks/k ij vk/kkfjr pkj esa ls rhu iz'u 3+3+3 = 9

 iwjd&iqLrd % lap;u Hkkx&1 10


14- ¼v½ nks esa ls ,d fuc/kkRed iz'u 4

15- ¼vi½ pkj esa ls rhu y?kwÙkjkRed iz'u 2+2+2 = 6

[k.M M- & ekSf[kd&vfHkO;fDr 10


1 lquuk 5
of.kZr ;k ifBr lkexzh dks lqudj vFkZxgz .k djuk
okrkZyki] okn&fookn] Hkk"k.k] dfork&ikB vkfn dks lqudj le>uk] ewY;kadu djuk vkSj vfHkO;fDr ds <ax dks
tkuukA
2 cksyuk 5
¼i½ Hkk"k.k] okn&fookn
¼ii½ xfr] y;] vkjksg&vojksg lfgr lLoj dfork&okpu]
¼iii½ okrkZyki vkSj mldh vkSipkfjdrk,¡
¼iv½ dk;ZØe&izLrqfr
¼v½ dFkk&dgkuh vFkok ?kVuk lquuk
¼vi½ ifjp; nsuk] ifjp; izkIr djuk
¼vii½ Hkkokuqdy
w laokn&okpu
okrkZyki dh n{krk,¡
fVIi.kh % okrkZyki dh n{krkvksa dk ewY;kadu fujarjrk ds vk/kkj ij ijh{kk ds le; gksxkA fu/kkZfjr 10 vadksa esa 5 Jo.k
¼lquuk½ ds ewY;kadu ds fy, vkSj 5 okpu ¼cksyuk½ ds ewY;akdu ds fy, gksxa As
Jo.k ¼lquuk½ dk ewY;akdu
ijh{kd fdlh izklafxd fo"k; ij ,d vuqPNsn dk Li"V okpu djsxkA vuqPNsn rF;kRed ;k lq>kokRed gks ldrk

41
gSA vuqPNsn yxHkx 200 'kCnksa dk gksuk pkfg,A ijh{kd dks lqurs&lqurs ijh{kkFkhZ vyx dkxt+ ij fn, gq, Jo.k
cks/ku ds vH;klksa dks gy dj ldsxa As vH;kl fjDr LFkku iwfrZ] cgqfodYih vFkok le;@vlR; dk pquko vkfn fo/kkvksa
es gks ldrs gSAa izR;sd vk/ks vad ds 10 ijh{k.k iz'u gksxa As

okpu ¼cksyuk½ dk ijh{k.k


1- fp=kksa ds Øe ij vk/kkfjr o.kZu % bl Hkkx es vis{kk dh tk,xh fd ijh{kkFkhZ fooj.kkRed Hkk"kk dk iz;ksx djsAa
2- fdlh fp=k dk o.kZu % ¼fp=k yksxksa ;k LFkkuksa ds gks ldrs gS½a A
3- fdlh fu/kkZfjr fo"k; ij cksyuk] ftlls og vius O;fDrxr vuqHko dk izR;kLej.k dj ldsA
4- dksbZ dgkuh lqukuk ;k fdlh ?kVuk dk o.kZu djukA

fVIi.kh %
1- ijh{k.k ls iwoZ ijh{kkFkhZ dks rS;kjh ds fy, dqN le; fn;k tk,A
2- fooj.kkRed Hkk"kk esa orZeku dky dk iz;ksx visf{kr gSA
3- fu/kkZfjr fo"k; ijh{kkFkhZ ds vuqHko lalkj ds gks]a tSls % dksbZ pqVdwyk ;k gkL;&izlxa lqukuk] gky esa i<+h iLrd
;k ns[ks x, flusek dh dgkuh lqukukA
4- tc ijh{kkFkhZ cksyuk izkjaHk dj ns rks ijh{kd de ls de gLr{ksi djsAa

dkS'kyksa ds varj.k dk ewY;akdu


Jo.k ¼lquuk½ okpu ¼cksyuk½
fo|kFkhZ esa fo|kFkhZ esa

1- ifjfpr lanHkksaZ esa iz;qDr 'kCnksa vkSj inksa dks le>us 9- tfVy dFkuksa ds fopkj&fcanvq ksa dks le>us dh ;ksX;rk
dh lkekU; ;ksX;rk gS] fdarq lqlca ) vk'k; dks ugha iznf'kZr djrk gS] mís'; ds vuqdy w lquus dh dq'kyrk
le> ikrkA iznf'kZr djrk gSA

3- NksVs lac) dFkuksa dks ifjfpr lanHkksaZ esa le>us dh 1- dsoy vyx&vyx 'kCnksa vkSj inksa ds iz;ksx dh ;ksX;rk
;ksX;rk gSA iznf'kZr djrk gS fdarq ,d lal
q c) Lrj ij ugha cksy
ldrkA
5- ifjfpr ;k vifjfpr nksuksa lanHkkssaZ esa dfFkr lwpuk
dks Li"V le>us dh ;ksX;rk gSA v'kqf);k¡ djrk gS 3- ifjfpr lanHkksaZ esa dsoy NksVs lac) dFkuksa dk lhfer
ftlls iz"s k.k esa :dkoV vkrh gSA 'kq)rk ls iz;ksx djrk gSA

7- nh?kZ dFkuksa dh J`[a kyk dks i;kZIr 'kq)rk dks le>rk 5- vis{kkd`r nh?kZ Hkk"k.k esa vf/kd tfVy dFkuksa ds
gS vkSj fu"d"kZ fudky ldrk gSA iz;ksx dh ;ksX;rk iznf'kZr djrk gS( vHkh Hkh dqN
v'kqf);k¡ djrk gS] ftlls iz"s k.k esa :dkoV vkrh gSA

42
7- vifjfpr fLFkfr;ksa es fopkjksa dks rkfdZd <ax ls 9- mís'; vkSj Jksrk ds fy, mi;qDr 'kSyh dks viuk
laxfBr dj /kkjk&izokg izLrqr dj ldrk gSA ,slh ldrk gS] dsoy ekewyh xyfr;k¡ djrk gSA
xyfr;k¡ djrk gS ftuls iz"s k.k esa :dkoV ugha vkrhA

fu/kkZfjr iqLrdsa %
1- Li'kZ & Hkkx 1 ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh }kjk izdkf'kr
2- lap;u Hkkx 1 & ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk izdkf'kr

43
fganh ikB~;Øe & ^ch*
¼dksM la- & 002½
d{kk & 10

,d iz'ui=k % le; & 3 ?kaVs iw.kk±d 100

¼d½ vifBr x|ka'k 20


¼[k½ jpuk 10
¼x½ O;kogkfjd&O;kdj.k 20
¼?k½ ikB~;&iqLrd % Li'kZ Hkkx 2 40
iwjd&iqLrd % ¼lap;u Hkkx 2½ 10

[k.M & d & vifBr x|ka'k cks/k 20


1- ¼i½ yxHkx 300 ls 400 'kCnksa dk ,d x|ka'k 12
2- ¼ii½ yxHkx 200 ls 300 'kCnksa dk ,d dkO;ka'k 8
mi;qDZ r x|ka'kksa ij 'kh"kZdksa dk pquko] fo"k;&oLrq dk cks/k vkSj Hkkf"kd fo'ks"krkvksa ij vfr
y?kwÙkjkRed iz'u iwNs tk,¡xAs
[k.M & [k & jpuk 10
3- ¼i½ i=k&ys[ku ¼vkSipkfjd i=k½ 5
4- ¼ii½ vuqPNsn&ys[ku % ladrs fcUnqvksa ij vk/kkfjr le&lkef;d fo"k;ksa ij 80 ls 100 5
'kCnksa dk ,d vuqPNsn
[k.M x & O;kogkfjd & O;kdj.k 20
5- ¼i½ 'kCn] in vkSj inca/k esa varj] in ifjp; 4
6- ¼ii½ feJ vkSj la;Dq r okD;ksa dk :ikarj.k 4
7- ¼iii½ Loj laf/k] rRiq:"k vkSj deZ/kkj; lekl (2 + 2) 4

8- ¼iv½ eqgkojksa vkSj yksdksfDr;ksa dk iz;ksx&ikB~; iqLrd ij vk/kkfjr (2 + 2) 4

9- ¼v½ v'kq) okD;ksa dk 'kks/ku 4

& us dh v'kqf);k¡
& Øe dh v'kqf);k¡

44
[k.M ?k & ikB~;&iqLrd ,oa iwjd iqLrd 50
 ikB~;&iqLrd % Li'kZ Hkkx&2 20 + 20 = 40

10- ¼i½ nks esa ls ,d dkO;ka'k ij vk/kkfjr rhu@pkj vFkZ&xzg.k ds iz'u 6

11- ¼ii½ dforkvksa ds fo"k;&cks/k vkSj ljkguk ij vk/kkfjr pkj esa ls rhu iz'u 3+3+3 = 9

12- ¼iii½ dfork ds izfrikn~;@ lan's k ls lacfa /kr nks y?kwÙkjkRed iz'u 3+2 = 5

13- ¼iv½ nks esa ls ,d x|ka'k ij vFkZ&xzg.k lac/a kh rhu ;k pkj iz'u 6

14- ¼v½ x|&ikBksa ds fo"k;&cks/k ij vk/kkfjr pkj esa ls rhu iz'u 3+3+3 = 9

15- ¼vi½ x| ikBksa ds fopkj@lan's k ls lacfa /kr nks y?kwÙkjkRed iz'u 3+2 = 5

iwjd & iqLrd] lap;u Hkkx 2 10


16- ¼i½ nks esa ls ,d fuca/kkRed iz'u 4

17- ¼ii½ pkj esa ls rhu y?kwÙkjkRed iz'u 2+2+2 = 6

fu/kkZfjr iqLrdsa %
1- Li'kZ & Hkkx 2 ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk izdkf'kr
2- iwjd iqLrd] lap;u Hkkx 2 & ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk izdkf'kr

45
2. ENGLISH-COMMUNICATIVE
(CODE NO. 101)

This is two-year syllabus for classes IX and X. The CBSE has prepared a package for this syllabus
called Interact in English. It includes the following:

For Students For teachers


1. Main course book 1. Teacher’s book
2. Literature Reader 2. Audio cassettes
3. Work book

Interact in English has been designed to develop the student’s communicative competence in ‘English.
Therefore. content selection is determined by the student’s present and future academic. social and professional
needs.
The overall aims of the course are:
(a) to enable the learner to communicate effectively and appropriately in real-life situations.
(b) to use English effectively for study purpose across the curriculum.
(c) to develop and integrate the use of the four language skills, i.e. listening, Speaking, reading and writing.
(d) to develop interest in and appreciation of literature.
(e) to revise and reinforce structures already learnt.
(f) to develop interest in the appreciation of literature.

Teachers may kindly keep the following in mind to develop these competencies:

Creativity : Students should be encouraged to think on their own and express their ideas
using their experience, knowledge and imagination, rather than being text or
teacher dependent.
Self-monitoring Students should be encouraged to monitor their progress, space out their
learning, so students should be encouraged to see language not just as a
functional too1. hut as an important part of personal development and inculation
of values.

Teaching/Testing Objectives

READING

By the end of the course, students should be able to :


1. read silently at varying speed depending on the purpose of reading; *
2. adopt different strategies for different types of text, both literary and non-literary;
3. recognise the organization of a text;
4. identify the main points of a text;
5. understand relations between different parts of a text through lexical and grammatical cohesion devices.

* Objectives which will not be tested in a formal examination

46
6. anticipate and predict what will come next in a text;*
7. deduce the meaning of unfamiliar lexical items in a given context;
8. consult a dictionary to obtain information on the meaning and use of lexical items;*
9. analyse, interpret, infer (and evaluate*) the ideas in the text;
10. select and extract from a text information required for a specific purpose (and record it in note form.)
11. transcode information from verbal to diagrammatic form; ,
12. retrieve and synthesise information from a range of reference material using study skills such as skimming
and scanning;*
13. interpret texts by relating them to other material on the same theme (and to their own experience and
knowledge*); and . .
14. read extensively on their own.

WRITING
By the end of the course, students should be able to :
1. express ideas in clear and grammatically correct English, using appropriate punctuation and
cohesion devices;
2. write in a style appropriate for communicative purposes;
3. plan, organise and present ideas coherently by introducing, developing and concluding a topic;
4. write a clear description (e.g. of a place, a person, an object or a system);
5. write a clear account of events (e.g. a process, a narrative, a trend ()r a cause-effect relationship);
6. compare and’ contrast ideas and arrive at conclusions;
7. present an argument, supporting it with appropriate examples;
8. use an appropriate style and format to write letters (formal and informal), postcards, telegrams,
notices, messages, reports, articles and diary entries;
9. monitor. check and revise written work;
10. expand notes into a piece of writing;
11. summarise or make notes from a given text; and
12. recode information from one text type to another (e.g. diary entry to letter, advertisement to
report, diagram to verbal form)
**LISTENING
By tire end of the course, tire students should be able to :
1. adopt different strategies according to the purpose of listening (e.g. for pleasure, for general
interest. for specific information);
2. use linguistic and non-linguistic features of the context as clues to understanding and interpreting
what is heard (e.g. cohesion devices, key words, intonation, gesture, background noises);
3. listen to a talk or conversation and understand the topic and main points;
4. listen for information required for a specific purpose, e.g. in radio broadcast, commentaries, airport and

*Objectives which will not be tested in a formal examnation.


* * These objectives will not be tested in a formal examination, but will be included for
Continuous Assessl11ent in Class IX

47
railway station announcements;
5. distinguish main points from supporting details, and relevant from irrelevant information;
6. understand and interpret messages conveyed in person or by telephone;
7. understand and respond appropriately to directive language, e.g. instruction, advice, requests and
warning; and
8. understand and interpret spontaneous spoken discourse in familiar social situations.

**SPEAKING

By tile end of the course, students should be able to :


1. speak intelligibly using appropriate word stress, sentence stress and intonation patterns;
2. adopt different strategies to convey ideas effectively according to purpoe, topic and audience
(including the appropriate use of polite expressions);
3. narrate incidents and events, real or imaginary’ in a logical sequence;
4. present oral reports or summaries; make announcements clearly and confidently;
5. express and argue a point of view clearly and effectively;
6. take active part in group discussions, showing ability to .express agreement or disagreement, to
summarise ideas, to elicit the views of others, and to present own ideas;
7. express and respond to personal feelings, opinions and attitudes;
8. convey messages effectively in person or by telephone;
9. frame questions so as to elicit the desired response, and respond appropriately to questions; and
10. participate in spontaneous spoken discourse in familar social situations.

GRAMMAR

By the end of the course, students should be able to use the following accurately and appropriately in context

1. Verbs
Tenses:
present/past forms
simple/continuous forms
perfect forms
future time reference
Modals
Active and Passive voice
Subject-verb concord
*non-finite verb forms (infintives and participles)

2. Sentence Structure
Connectors

* Objective which will not be tested at Class 1)( level. They will, however, form the part of testing in Class X.
** These objectives will not be tested in a formal examiantion, but will be included for Continuous Assessment in Class IX

48
Types of sentences:
affirmative/interrogative sentences
negation
exclamations
*Types of Phrases and Clauses
finite and non-finite subordinate clauses: noun clauses
and phrases
adjective clauses and phrases
adverb clauses and phrases
Indirect speech
*Comparison
* Nominalisation

3. Other Areas,
Determiners
Pronouns
Prepositions

LITERATURE

By the end of the course., students should be able to understand, interpret, evaluate and respond to the
following features in a literary text:
1. Character, as revealed through
appearance and distinguishing features,
socio-economic background
action/events.
expression offeeli!1gs,
speech and dialogues

2. Plot/Story/Theme, emerging through main events,


progression of events and links between them;
sequence of events denoting theme.

3. Setting, as seen through


time and place,
socio-economic and cultural background, people, beliefs and attitudes.

4. Form
rhyme
rhythm
simile
metaphor. alliteration
pun
repetition

49
EXAlVDNATIONíSPECIFICATIONS
English (Communicative)
(Code No. 101)
LCLASS-IX

SEPARATE QUESTION PAPERANO ANSWER SHEET FORMAT REPLACES COMBINED


BOOKLET FORMAT FROM MARCH, 2005 EXAMINATION.

One Paper 3 Hours 100 Marks

SECTION A READING 20 Marks 40 Periods

Two unseen passages with a variety of comprehension questions including 04 marks for word-attack skills
such as word formation and inferring meaning.

1. 250-350 words in length – 08 marks

2. 400-450 words in length - 12 marks

The total length of the two passages will be between 650 and 800 words.

1. Will have a factual passage (e.g. instruction description, report etc.) or a literary passage (e.g., extract
from fiction, drama, poetry, easy or biography).

2. Will have a factual passage or a discursive passage involving opinion, (argumentative, persuasive or
interpretative text).

Only 2 will have questions on word-attack skills for 04 marks

SECTION B : WRITING 30 Marks 63 Periods

Four writing tasks as indicated below.

3 and 4 short composition of not more than 50 wards each - e.g., notice, message, 5+5 10
postcard

Important note on format and word limit:

Notice: Word limit. 50 words for body of the notice. Notice must be placed in a box. Message: Word limit: 50
words for body of the message.

Message must be placed in a box.

Postcard: Word limit: 50 ‘’ words for body of the letter. Format of postcard has to be printed in the question
paper for candidates to copy whi1e writing the answer.

5. Composition based on a verbal stimulus such as an advertisement, notice, newspaper clipping tabular
data, diary extract notes. letter or other forms of correspondence.

Word limit : 150-175 words (For letter: 150 words only for body of the letter) 10

6. Composition based on a visual stimulus such us a diagram, picture, graph, map, cartoon or flow chart.

50
Word limit: 150-175 words 10

One of the longer (10 marks) compositions will draw on the thematic content of the Main Course book.

SECTION C : GRAMMAR 20 Marks 42 Periods

Question No. 7-11

A variety of short questions involving the use of particular structures within a context (i.e., not in isolated
sentences). Test types used will include gap-filling, doze (gap filling exercise with blanks at regular intervals),
sentence completion, reordering word groups in sentences, editing, dialogue completion and sentence
transformation.

The grarmmar syllabus will be sampled each year, with marks allotted for:

Verb forms

Sentence structures

Other areas

Note: Jumbled words in reordering exercise to test syntax will involve sentences in a context. Each sentence
will be split into sense groups (not necessarily into single words) and jumbled

SECTION D : LITERATURE 30 Marks (Prose-12/Plays-8/Poetry-1 0) 65 Periods

12 and 13 : Two extracts out of three from different poems from the prescribed reader, each followed by
two or three questions to test local and global comprehension of the set text. Each extract will carry 4 marks.

Word limit: one or two lines for each answer. 4+4 8

14. One out of two questions (with or without an extract) testing appreciation and local and global’
comprehension of a poem from the prescribed Reader,

Word limit: 50-75 words 05

15. Two questions based on one of the drama texts from the prescribed Reader to test local and global ‘
comprehension of the set text.

Word limit: one or two lines for each question if an extract is given. If an extract is not given. the word
limit will be roughly 75 words.

16. One out of two questions from The drama texts based on the plot, theme, characters. 04

17. One out of two questions based on one of the prose texts from the prescribed reader t6 test global
comprehension and extrapolation beyond the set text. Word limit: 50-75 words 04

18. One out of two questions based on the prose texts from the prescribed Reader to test global comprehension
and extrapolation beyond the set text.

51
comprehension and extrapolation beyond the set text.

Word limit: 150-175 words 08

Questions will test comprehel1sion at different levels: literal, inferential and evaluative.

Prescribed Books/Materials

1. Interact in English - IX Main Course Book Revised edition Published by


CBSE

2. Interact in English IX Literature Revised edition Delhi-l 10092


Reader

3. Interact in English—IX Work Book Revised edition

4. Interact in English-IX Audio Cassette Revised edition Produced by


CBSE Delhi

Support Material:

5. Interact in English-Teacher’s Book

52
OVERALL ASSESSMENT POLICY FOR CLASS IX
(including Continuous Assessment) .
The English curriculum aims at the harmonious development of the four language skills, and thus of the
learners” communicative capacity. Teaching/testing objectives have been set for each of these skills, indicating
the level of achievement expected of the learners. However, although it is possible to assess these skills and
sub-skills, it is not possible to test all of them through a formal, time-bound examination. It is, therefore,
essential to measure the level of attainment in these skills through continuous assessinent in addition to the
formal examination.
The overall pattern of the two modes of assessment at Class IX is as follows:
1. Coninuous Assessment 60%
(a) Conversation skills 20%
(b) Assignments 20%
(c) Formal testing 20%
2. Filial Examination 40%
Promotion
In order to pass at Class IX level, a student must secure at least33% marks in continuous assessment as
well as in the final examination i.e. a student must secure at least 20 out of the 60 that represents continuous
assessment, and at least 13 out of the 40 that represents the final examination. One has to pass in continuous
assessment and final exam separately.
Continuous Assessment 60%
Continous assessment is essential to measure students’ progress in the acquisition of skills, particularly
in listening and speaking. Unless ‘listening and speaking skills are assessed, they will tend to be neglected.
These skins should be brought under continuous assessment.
Continuous assessment refers to the assessment of student’s achievement through-out the year, through
a variety of activities carried out within each school. Such activities may be formal, but in order to assess
listening and speaking skil1s, it is important that a large proportion of the marks allotted should be derived
from informal procedures. It is, therefore, recommended that marks should be allotted as follows:
Conversation skills 20%
Assignments 20%
Formal testing 20%
Total 60%
Further details are given as under:
(a) Conversation Skills-20%
Conversation skills- both listening and speaking- Assessment in this area relates to the teaching/testing
objectives for these two skills. In the skill-based approach to language learning, the importance of conversation
skills cannot be underestimated.
20 marks have been allotted for conversation skills, which may be evaluated either through informal
assessment (20 marks), or through a combination of informal assessment (10 marks) and formal assessment
(interviews) (10 marks).
(i) Informal Assessment-20% or 10%
At the end of each term, the teacher should be able to assess the level of each student’s converstion skills,

53
based on observation of their participation in the English classes. Whenever in the coursework the students
are required to discuss, role play; simulate, express a point of view etc., the teacher should monitor the
activities and quietly observe each student’s participation. It is important to stress that informal assessment
for conversation skills should be a regular, ongoing activity throughout the term. A Conversation Skill A
ssessment Scale is given below. For each skill, students may be awarded marks from 0 to 10, but specifications
are given only for bands 1,3,5,7 and 9. Using this scale. a teacher can place a student at a particular band; for
example, a student falling between bands 3 and 5 would be awarded 4 marks. and particularly deserving
students could be awarded 10 marks. Students should be informed at the beginning of the year that their class
participation will be assessed in this way.
Conversation Skills Assessment Scale
Listening Speaking
1. The learner: 1. The learner:
shows general ability to shows ability to use only
understand words and phrases in a isolated words and phrases but cannot
familiar context but cannot follow operate at connected speech level;
connected speech;
3. has ability to follow short connected 3. in familiar situation, uses only short
utterances in a familiar context; connected utterances with limited
accuracy;
5. has ability to understand explicitly 5. shows ability to use more complex- ,
stated information in both familiar and utterances with some fluency in longer
unfamiliar contexts; discourse; still makes some errors which
impede communication;
7. understands a range of longer spoken 7. organises and presents thoughts in a
texts with reasonable accuracy, and is reasonably logical and fluent. manner in
able to draw inferences; unfamiliar situations; makes errors which do
not interfere with communication;
9. shows ability to interpret complex 9. can spontaneously adopt style appropriate to
discourse in terms of points of view; purpose and audience; makes only negligible
adapts istening strategies to suit different errors.
purposes. .
(ii) Formal assessment (interview)-10%
Conversation skills may be assessed through informal assessment only, but each school may, if it wishes,
reserve 10 of the 20 marks for formal assessment (interviews). These should be held towards the end of the
year, and it is recommended that in order to allow for assessment of all the relevent skills, they should be
conducted as group interviews. Students should be organised in groups of4 or 5, and each group in turn
should engage in a discussion on a topic notified to them only ten minutes before the interview takes place.
This is to prevent rote learning of a speech by each student. During the discussion, the teacher (preferably
together with a colleague) observes the student’s performance and awards each one a mark out of 1 0
according to the assessment scale. A school may opt for individual interviews if the procedure suggested
above is not feasible.
(b) Assignments 20%
During the year, students will engage in a variety of activities based on the course material. In many a

54
case these will involve written work which may be carried out either in class or as homework. A number of
these activities are identified as suitable for continuous assessment assignments, .where the student’s
performance is recorded and counts towards his final mark for the year. 20 marks have been allotted for
these assignments.

The overall assessment policy for Class IX seeks to measure the four skills. Speaking hrs been covered
under conversation ski1ls, and is clearly not assessable through a written assignement. Listening ati1d reading,
however, can be assessed in this way, through course book activities which lead to a written product such as
notes, a table or a summary. This type of assessment, however should not be a test of writing skins. Students
should be awarded marks as objectively as possible according to the extent to which they have understood,
whether through reading or through listening. They should not be penalised in such assignments for errors in
punctuation meting or grammar. Marking of these assignments will be based on the content expected to
demonstrate comprehension and for this reason assessment scales will not be necessary.

Other assignments, however, will focus on writing skills and involve extended writing. This takes place
in writing skills activities in the Main Course Book, and in certain activities in the Literature Reader. Assessment
of written work forms an important and integral part of the overall assessment of the student’s ability in the
use of the English language. It is in this area very often that subjectivity creeps in and mars the judgement in
evaluation because of a lack of clear-cut guidelines for the teachers.

In the new curriculum for English, each student’s written work has to be assessed throughtout the year
in an informal manner. For this, it becomes essential to provide a rating scale to help teachers to make
continuous assessment objective and uniform.

It is recommended the 12 activities from the Main Course Book and Literature Reader should count as
assignments towards continuous assessment. These should be four per term-one each reading, writing and
listening; and fro Literature (sustained writing activities). The chosen assignments should vary each year, and
students should not be told-(before or after) that the marks of certain assignments wit] count towards continuous
assessment.

Throughout the year, the teacher should keep a record of marks awarded for assignments carried out
either in class or as homework, and these marks should be aggregated to provide each student’s final marks
out of20 for this component of the continuous assessment.

Final Examination at the end Class IX carries 40% marks.

55
EXAMINATION SPECIFICATIONS
English (Communicative)
(Code No. 101)
CLASS-X

SEPARATE QUESTION PAPER AND ANSWER SHEET FORMAT REPLACES COMBINED


BOOKLET FORMAT FROM MARCH, 2005 EXAMINATION.

One Paper 3 Hours 100 Marks

SECTION A READING 20 Marks 40 Periods

Two unseen passages with a variety of comprehension questions including 04 marks for word-attack skills
such as word formation and inferring meaning.

1. 250-350 words in length - 08 marks

2. 400-450 words in length - 12 marks

The total length of the two passages will be between 650 and 800 words.

1. Will have a factual passage (e.g., instruction, description, report etc.) or a literary passage (e.g., extract
from fiction, drama, poetry, essay or biography).

2. Will have a factual passage or a discursive passage involving opinion, (argumentative, persuasive or
interpretative text).

Only 2 will have questions on word-attack skills for 04 marks.

SECTION B : WRITING 30 Marks 63 Periods

Four writing tasks as indicated below:

3 and 4 Short composition of not more than 50 words each - e.g., notice, message, 5+5 10

Postcard

Important note on format and word limit:

Notice: Word limit: 50 words for body of the notice. Notice must be placed in a box.

Message: Word limit: 50 words for body of the message. Message must be placed in a box.

Post Card: Word limit: 50 words for the body ‘of the letter. Formt of postcard has to be printed in the
question paper for candidates to copy while writing the answer.

5. Composition based on a verbal stimulus such as an advertisement, notice, newspaper clipping, tabular
data, diary extract. notes, letter or other forms of correspondence.

Word limit: 150-175 words (For letter : 150 words only for body ot the letter) 10

6. Composition based on a visual stimulus such as a diagram, picture, graph, map, cartoon or flow
chart.

56
Word limit: 150-175 words 10

One of the longer (10 marks) compositions will draw on the thematic content of the Main Course book.

SECTION C: GRAMMAR 20 Marks 42 Periods

Question No. 7-11

A variety of short questions involving the use of particular structures within at context (i.e., not in isolated
sentences). Test types used will include gap-filling, cloze (gap filling exercise with blanks at regular intervals),
sentence completion, reordering word groups in sentences, editing, dialogue completion and sentence
transformation.

The grammar syllabus will be sampled each year, with marks allotted for:

Verb forms

Sentence structures

Other areas

Note: Jumbled words in reordering exercise to test syntax will involve sentences in a context. Each sentence
will be split into sense groups (not necessarily into single words) and jumbled up.

SECTIOND: LITERATURE 30 Marks (Prose-12/Plays-8/Poetry-10) 65 Periods

12 and 13 : Two extracts out of three from different poems from the prescribed reader, each followed by
two or three questions to test local and global comprehension of the set text. Each extract, will carry
4 marks.

Word limit: one or two lines for each answer. 4+4 8

14. One out of two questions (with or without an extract) testing appreciation of global or local comprehension
of a poem from the prescribed reader.

Word limit: 50-75 words 05

15. Two questions based on one of the drama texts from the prescribed reader to test local and global
comprehension of the set text.

Word limit: one or two lines for each question if an exrtract is given. If an extract is not given. the word
limit will be roughly 75 words.

16. One out of two questions from the drama tests based on theme, character, plot. (50-75 words) 04

17. One out of two questions based on one of the prose texts from 1 be prescribed reader to test global
comprehension and extrapolation beyond the set text.

Word limit: 50-75 words 04

18. One out of two questions based on the prose texts from. the prescribed reader to test global .
comprehension and extrapolation beyond the set text.

57
Word limit: 150-175 words 08

Questions will test comprehension at different levels: literal, inferential and evaluative.

Prescribed Books/Materials

1. Interact in English - IX Main Course Book Revised edition Published by


CBSE

2. Interact in English IX Literature Revised edition Delhi-l 10092


Reader

3. Interact in English—IX Work Book Revised edition

4. Interact in English-IX Audio Cassette Revised edition Produced by


CBSE Delhi

Support Material:

5. Interact in English-Teacher’s Book

58
ENGLISH - LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
(Code No. 184)
SECONDARY (CLASSES IX-X)

Background

Traditionally, language learning materials beyond the initial stages have been sourced from literature: prose
fiction and poetry. While there is a trend for inclusion of a wider range of contemporary and authentic texts,
accessible and culturally appropriate pieces of literature should playa pivotal role at the secondary stage of
education. The English class should not be seen as a place merely to read poems and stories in, but an area
of activities to develop the learner’s imagination as a major aim of language study, and to equip the learner
with commlli1icative skills to perform various language functions through speech and writing.

Objectives

The general objectives at this stage are:

 to build greater confidence and proficiency in oral and written communication

 to develop the ability and knowledge required in order to engage in independent reflection and
inquiry

 to use appropriate English to commlli1icate in various social settings

 equip learner with essential language skills to question and to articulate their point of view.

 to build competence in the different registers of English

 to develop sensitivity to, and. appreciation of, other varieties. of English, Indian Englishes, and the
culture they reflect.

 to enable the learner to access knowledge and infQrn1ation through reference skills (consulting a
diction nary / thesaurus, library, internet etc.) to develop curiosity and creativity through extensive
reading

 to facilitate self-learning to enable them to become independent learners

 to review, organise and edit their own work and work done by the peers

At the end of this stage learners will be able to do the following:

 give a brief oral description of events / incidents of topical interest.

 retell the contents of authentic audio texts (weather reports, public announcements, simple advertise
ments, short interviews, etc.)

 participate in conversations, discussions, etc. on topics of mutual interest in non-classroom situations

 narrate the story depicted pictorially or in any other non-verbal mode

 respond in writing to business letters, official communications

59
 read and identify the main points / significant details of texts like scripts of audio-video interviews,
discussions, debates etc.
 write without prior preparation on a given topic and be able to defend or explain the position
taken views expressed
 write a summary of short lectures on familiar topics by making / taking notes
 write an assessment of different points of view expressed in a discussion / debate
 read poems effectively (with proper rhythm and intonation)
 to transcode information from a graph / chart to a description / report
Language I terns
In addition to consolidating the grammatical items practised earlier, the courses at secondary level will
seek to reinforce the following explicitly:
 sequence of tenses
 reported speech in extended texts
 modal auxiliaries (those not covered at upper primary) . non-finites (infinitives, gerunds, participles)
 conditional clauses
 complex and compound sentences
 phrasal verbs and prepositional phrases
 cohesive devices
 punctuation (semicolon, colon, dash, hyphen, parenthesis or use of brackets and exclamation
mark)
Methods and Techniques
The methodology will be based on a multi-skill, activity based, learner centred approach. Care would
be taken to fulfill the functional (communicative), literary (aesthetic) and cultural (sociological) needs of the
learner. In this situation the teacher is the facilitator of learning, s(he) presents language items, contrives
situations which motivates the child to use English for the purposes of communication and expression.
Aural-oral teaching and testing is an integral feature of the teaching-learning process. The electronic and
print media could be used extensively. The evaluation procedure should be continuous and comprehensive.
A few suggested activities are :
 Role playing
 Simulating real-to-life situations
 Dramatising and miming
 Problem solving and decision making
 Interpreting information given in tabular form and schedule

60
 Using newspaper clippings

 Borrowing situations from the world around the learners, from books and from) other disciplines

 Using language games, riddles, puzzles and jokes

 Interpreting pictures / sketches / cartoons

 Debating and discussing

 Narrating and discussing stories, anecdotes, etc.

 Reciting poems

 Working in pairs and groups

 Using media inputs - computer, television, video cassettes, tapes, software packages.

61
ENGLISH - LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
(Code No. 184)
Examination Specifications
CLASS IX

One Paper 3 Hours 100 Marks

SECTION A : READING 20 Marks 30 Periods

1 & 2 Two unseen passages oftotal500 words with a variety of questions including 4 marks for vocabulary.
Only prose passages will be used. One will be factual and the other will be literary.

Passage 1 - 200 words (8 marks) - Four or five comprehension questions

Passage 2 - 300 words (12 marks) - Four or five compehension questions and two questions Oil
vocabulary: Marks for vocabulary ‘will not exceed 4.

SECTION B : WRITING 20 Marks 40 Periods

3. Letter Writing - One letter in not more than 80 words based on provided verbal stimulus 8 Marks

and context. types of letter : Informal; Personal such as to family and friends.

Formal: Letters of complaint, enquiry, request & application

4. Writing a short paragraph on a given outline/topic in about 60 words 4 Marks

5. Writing a Short writing task based on a verbal and! or visual stimulus. (diagram,

picture, graph, map, chm1, flow chart etc.) Maximum words 80 8 Marks

SECTION C : GRAMMAR 15 Marks 45 Periods

Question No. 6-11

A variety of short questions involving the use of particular structures within a context. Text types used will
include gap-filling, sentence-completion, sentence-reordering, dialogue-completion and sentence-transformation
(including combining sentences). The Grammar syllabus will ii1cludethe following areas in class IX:

1. Tenses (present with extension)

2. Modals (have to / had to, must, should, need, ought to and their negative forms)

3. Use of passive voice

4. Subject-verb concord

5. Reporting

62
(i) Commands and requests

(ii) Statements

(ii) Questions

6. Clauses:

(i) Noun clauses

(ii) Adverb Clauses of condition and time

(iii) Relative Clauses

7. Determiners, and

8. Prepositions

Note: No separate l1la~-ks allotted for any of grammatical items listed above.

SECTION D : TEXT BOOKS 45 Marks 95 Periods

Beehive - NCERT Textbook for Class IX

prose 20 Marks

12 & 13 Two extracts froIl1 different prose lessons included in Textbook (Approximately 10 Marks
100 words each) 5X2

These extracts chosen from different lessons will be literary and discursive in nature

Each extract will be of 5 marks. One mark in each extract will be for vocabulary. 4 marks in each
passage will he used for testing local and global comprehension besides a question on interpretation.

14. One out of two questions extrapolative in nature based on anyone of the prose lessons from
Textbook to be answered in about 80 words. 6 Marks

15. One question on Drama Text (local and global comprehension question) (30-40 words) 4 Marks

Poetry 10 Marks

16. One extract from a poem from the prescribed reader followed by two or three questions to test
the local and global comprehension of the set text. The extract will carry four marks. 4 Marks

17. Two out of three short answer type questions on interpretation of themes and ideas 6 Marks

Moments - NCERT Supplementary Reader for Class IX` 15 Marks

18. One out of two questions from Supplementary Reader to interpret, evaluate and analayse character,
plot or situations occurring in the lessons to be answered in about 100 words 8 Marks

63
19. One out of two very short answer type questions based on factual aspects of the lessons to be answered
in 20-30 words 3 Marks

20. One out two short answer type questions of interpretative and evaluative nature based on lessons to be
answered in 30-40 words 4 Marks

To the teachers

NOTE: Teachers are advised to :

(i) encourage classroom interaction among peers, students and teachers through activities such as
role play, group work etc.

(ii) reduce teacher-talking time to the minimum.

(iii) The up questions for discussion to encourage pupils to participate; and to marshal their ideas and
express and defend their views, and

(iv) Use scale of assessment for conversation skills for testing thy students far continuous assessment.

Besides measuring attainment” tests serve the dual purpose of diagnosing mistakes and areas of
non learning To make evaluation a true index of learners ‘ attainment each langupge ablity is to
‘be tested through l1judicious mixture of different types qf questions. In addition to the formal
examination. continuous .and comprehensive assessment is essential to measure the level-of
attainment in the four language skills and the learners’ communicative capability. Continuous
evaluation will be done through tests,’ assignments and projects.

Prescribed Books

1.

2.
Beehive - Textbook for Class IX

Moments - Supplementary Reader for Class IX } Published by NCERT,

Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi.

64
Examination Specifications
Class X

One Paper 3 Hours 100 Marks

SECTION A : READING 20 Marks 30 Periods

1 & 2 two unseen passages oftotal500 words with a variety of questions including 4 marks for vocabulary.

Only prose passages ,will be used. One will be factual and the other will be literary.

Passage 1 – 2000 words (8 marks) - Four or five comprehension questions

Passage 2 - 300 words (12 marks)-Four or five comprehension questions and two questions on vocabulary

Marks for vacabularv will not exceed 4 marks.

SECTION B : WRITING 20 Marks 40 Periods

3. Letter Writing - One letter-based on provided verbal stimulus and context. 8 Marks

Type of letter : Informal Personal stich as to family and friends. Formal: Letter of complaints, enquiries;
Requests applications.

4. Writing a Short paragraph on a given outline/topic in about 60 words 4 Marks

5. Composition : A short writing task based on a verbal and / or visual stimulus. (diagram, picture; graph,
map, chart. table. flow chart etc.) Maximum words 80 ‘ 8 Marks

SECTION A: READING 15 Marks 45 Periods

Question No. 6-11

A variety of Short questions involving the use of particular structures within a context. Test types used
will include doze. gap-filling, sentence-completion, sentence-reordering, dialogue-completion and sentence-
transformation (including combining sentences). The Grammar syllabus will include the following areas for
teaching:

1. Use of non-finites.

2. Sentence connectors: as, since, while, then, just because, just, until.

3. Clauses with what, where and how.

4. Past Tense.

5. Modals : can. could, may, must, might.

65
Note: All other area3 covered in Class IX will also be tested in Class X as this is an integrated course for this
area of learning.

SECTION D : TEXT BOOKS 45 Marks 95 Periods

First Flight - NCERT Textbook for Class X

Prose 20 Marks

12 & 13 Two extracts from different prose lessons included in Textbook


(Approximately 100 words each) 5 x 2 = 10 Marks

These extracts chosen from different lessons will be literary and discursive in nature

Each extract will be of 5 marks. One mark in each extract will be for vocabulary. 4 marks in each
passage will be used for testing local and global comprehension besides a question on interpretation.

14. One out of two questions extrapolative in nature based on anyone of the prose lessons
from Textbook to be answered in about 80 words. 6 Marks

15. One out of two questions on Drama Text (local and global comprehension
question) (30-40 words) 4 Marks

Poetry 16 10 Marks

16. One extract from a poem from the prescribed reader followed by two or three questions to test
the local and global comprehension of the set text. The extract will cary four marks. 4 Marks

17. Two out of three short answer type questions on interpretation of themes and ideas contained in
the poems to be answered in 30-40 words each. 6 Marks

Foot Prints without Feet - NCERT Supplementary Reader for Class X 15 Marks

18. One out of two questions from Supplementary Reader to interpret, evaluate and analyse character,
plot or situations occurring in the lessons to be answered in about 100 words. 8 Marks

19. One out of MO short answer type questions of interpretative and evaluative nature based on
lessons to be answered in 30-40 words 4 Marks

20. One out of two short answer type questions based on factual aspects of the lessons to be answered
in 20-30 words. 3 Marks

Prescribed Books
1.

2.
First Flight - Textbook for Class X

Foot Prints without Feet-Supplementary Reader for Class X } Published by NCERT,

Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi.

66
3- xf.kr (dksM la[;k 041)
xf.kr ds ikB~;Øe esa le;&le; ij fo"k; ds fodkl rFkk lekt dh mHkjrh vko';drkvksa
ds vuqlkj ifjorZu gq, gSAa orZeku la'kksfèkr ikB~;Øe jk"Vªh; ikB~;p;kZ :ijs[kk (NCF)–2005 ds vkèkkj
ij rFkk xf.kr f'k{k.k ij cus Qksdl lewg (Focus Group) ds funsZ'kkuqlkj cuk;k x;k gS ftlls ;g
visf{kr gS fd ;g izR;sd Js.kh ds fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh vko';drkvksa dks iw.kZ djsxkA nSfud thou dh ?kVukvksa
ls izsfjr gksdj rFkk vU; fo"k;ksa dh vko';drkvksa ls izsj.kk ysdj ladYiukvksa ds vuqiz;ksx ij fo'ks"k
è;ku fn;k x;k gSA
ekè;fed Lrj ij ikB~;Øe dk eq[; mís'; nSfud thou dh leL;k ¼iz'u½ dks gy djus dh
{kerk c<+kuk rFkk fo"k; dks ,d i`Fkd fo|k ds :i esa i<+uk gSA ,slh vk'kk dh tkrh gS fd fo|kFkhZ
chth; fofèk;ksa dk mi;ksx dj iz'uksa dks gy djus dh {kerk izkIr dj ik,xk rFkk f=kdks.kfefr ds
iz;ksx ls Å¡pkbZ rFkk nwjh ds iz'u gy dj ik,xkA la[;kvksa rFkk T;kfefr ds :iksa dk iz;ksx djrk
gqvk ifjdYiuk,¡ cuk,xk rFkk budks bl Lrj ds Kku oèkZu ls izekf.kr djsxkA izLrkfor ikB~;Øe
esa la[;k i)fr] chtxf.kr] T;kfefr] f=kdks.kfefr] {ks=kfefr] lkaf[;dh] vkys[k rFkk funsZ'kkad T;kfefr
bR;kfn dks lfEefyr fd;k x;k gSA
xf.kr dk f'k{k.k xfrfofèk;ksa }kjk djkuk pkfg,A bu xfrfofèk;ksa esa oLrq,a] ekMy] iSVªu] pkVZ]
fp=k iksLVj] [ksy] igsyh rFkk iz;ksxksa dks lfEefyr djsaA

mís'; %
ekè;fed Lrj ij xf.kr f'k{k.k ds eq[; mís'; f'k{kkfFkZ;ksa dks fuEu dkS'ky@;ksX;rkvksa dks izkIr
djkus esa lgk;d gSa
 mÙkj izkbZejh ds xf.kr Kku rFkk dkS'kyksa dks n`<+ djukA
 izsj.kk rFkk voyksdu djds xf.kr dh ewy ladYiukvksa] inksa] fu;eksa rFkk ladsrksa (Symbols) rFkk
blesa fufgr rjhdksa rFkk dkS'kyksa }kjk Kku rFkk le> izkIr djukA
 ewy chth; dkS'kyksa dk oèkZu djukA
 fdlh rF; dh mRifÙk rFkk fdlh iz'u ¼leL;k½ dks gy djus ds vUrxZr rdks± ds izokg dk
vuqHko djukA
 jpuk (Drawing) dkS'kyksa dk oèkZuA
 izkIr Kku rFkk dkS'kyksa dk iz;ksx] tgka rd gks lds] ,d ls vfèkd rjhds ds iz;ksx ls] iz'uksa
dks gy djukA
 lkspus] fu.kZ; djus] fo'ys"k.k djus rFkk Li"V rdZ djus ds fy, èkukRed ;ksX;rk dks fodflr djukA
 jk"Vªh; ,drk] i;kZoj.k j{kk] NksVs ifjokj lkekftd cqjkb;ksa dks gVkuk] fyax nqHkkZouk dks gVkus
ds fy, Kku oèkZuA

67
 vkèkqfud oSKkfud tSls dSydqysVj] dEI;wVj bR;kfn ls dk;Z djus dk dkS'ky oèkZuA
 fofHkUu {ks=kksa esa iz'uksa dk gy djus ds vkStkj :i esa lqUnj lajpukvksa rFkk iSVuZ ds fy, xf.kr
esa #fp o/kZuA
 xf.kr ds {ks=k esa ;ksxnku ds fy, egku xf.krKksa ds izfr vknj rFkk lEeku Hkko c<+kukA
 fo"k; ls lEcfUèkr izfr;ksfxrkvksa esa Hkkx ysdj fo"k; :fp fodflr ¼tkx`r½ djukA
 fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks nSfud thou esa iz;qDr xf.kr ds fofHkUu :iksa rFkk igyqvksa dh tkudkjh nsukA
 fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa xf.kr dks ,d fo"k; fo'ks"k dh rjg i<+us esa :fp tkx`r djukA

ikB~ ; Øe la j puk
d{kk IX

,d iz'u i=k le; % 3 ?k.Vs vad % 80


bdkbZ va d
I. la[;k i)fr 06
II. chtxf.kr 20
III. funs±'kkad T;kfefr 06
IV. T;kfefr 22
V. {ks=kfefr 14
VI. lkaf[;dh rFkk izkf;drk 12
;ksx 80

bZdkbZ&I % la[;k i¼fr (ihfj;M 20)


la[;k js[kk ij izkÑr la[;kvksa] iw.kk±dksa] ifjes; la[;kvksa dks fu:fir djus dh iqujko`fÙk]
lkar@vlkar vkorhZ n'keyoksa dk la[;k js[kk ij mÙkjksÙkj vkoèkZu }kjk fu:i.k] ifjes; la[;k,a vuolkuh
vkorhZ@lkar n'keyo :i esaA
bR;kfn ds mnkgj.k vuolkuh vukorhZ n'keyo esaA vifjes; la[;k,a tSls
2, 3, 5
dk vfLrRo rFkk mudk la[;k js[kk ij fu:i.k le>kuk fd izR;sd okLrfod la[;k dks la[;k js[kk
ij ,d vf}rh; fcUnq ls fu:fir fd;k tkrk gSA foykserk] la[;k js[kk dk izR;sd fcUnq ,d vkSj
dsoy ,d okLrfod la[;k dks fu:fir djrk gSA
,d fn, x, èkukRed okLrfod la[;k x ds fy, dk vfLrRo ¼n`"V izek.k ij cy½ ,d
okLrfod la[;k ds nosa ewy dh ifjHkk"kkA iw.kk±d ?kkrkad okys ?kkrkad&fu;eksa dk iqu%Lej.kA èkukRed
okLrfod vkèkkj ds lkFk ifjes; ?kkrkad ¼fo'ks"k ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds fy, ojuk] f'k{kkFkhZ dks lkekU; fu;e
lh[kus dk le; nsuk½
1
rFkk x+ y
tgka x rFkk y izkÑr la[;k,a gSa rFkk a, b iw.kk±d gSa] izdkj dh okLrfod

68
la[;k,a rFkk rFkk buls lacafèkr okLrfod la[;kvksa dk ifjes;hdj.kA

bdkbZ&II % chtxf.kr (ihfj;M 25)


1-- cgq i n
,d pj okys cgq i n dh ifjHkk"kk] blds xq . kka d ] mnkgj.k rFkk iz R ;q n kgj.k lfgr] blds in]
'kq U ; cgq i n dh ifjHkk"kk] ,d cgq i n dh ?kkr] vpj] jS f [kd] f}?kkr] f=k?kkrh cgq i n] ,d inh]
f}inh] f=kinh] xq . ku[ka M rFkk xq . kt cgq i n@lehdj.k ds 'kw U ;d ew y @'ks " kQy iz e s ; dks dFku
dh iz s j .kk rFkk mnkgj.k lfgr iw . kk± d ks a ij vkèkkfjr 'ks " kQy iz e s ; ij Kku c<+ k ukA xq . ku[k.M
iz e s ; dk dFku rFkk iz e k.kA ax2 + bx + c, a ¹ o ds xq . ku[k.M tcfd a, b, c okLrfod la [ ;k,a
gks a rFkk xq . ku[k.M iz e s ; }kjk f=k?kkr cgq i n ds xq . k[k.MA chth; O;a t dks a rFkk loZ lfedkvks a dk
Lej.k (Recall).

2-- nks pjksa ds jSf[kd lehdj.k ¼ 12 ihfj;M½


,d pj okys jSf[kd lehdj.kksa dh iqujko`fÙkA nks pj okys lehdj.k ls ifjp;A fl) djuk fd nks
pjksa okys ,d jSf[kd lehdj.k ds vuUr gy gksrs gSa rFkk bldks okLrfod Øfer ;qXe ds :i esa ys[ku
dh rfdZdrk] budks vkysf[kr djuk rFkk n'kkZuk fd ;g ,d js[kk ij vkrs fn[krs gSAa vuqikr rFkk Øekuqikr
ij vkèkkfjr rFkk okLrfod thou ls lacfU/kr loky rFkk mudk lkekU; lehdj.kksa dk chth; rFkk vkys[k
fofèk }kjk gyA

bdkbZ&III % funs'Z kkad T;kfefr (ihfj;M 9)


1-- funsZ'kkad T;kfefr
dkrhZ; ry] ,d fcUnq ds funs'Z kkad] dkrhZ; ry ls lacfa èkr uke rFkk in] ladrs u (Notation) ,d
ry esa fcUnqvksa dk vkys[k] mnkgj.k Lo:i jSf[kd lehdj.kksa dk vkys[k] lehdj.k ax+by+c=o dks y
= mx+c :i esa fy[kdj mls nks pj okys jSf[kd lehdj.kksa ds vè;k; ls tksM+ukA

bdkbZ&IV % T;kfefr (ihfj;M 6)


1-- ;wfDyM dh T;kfefr dk ifjp;
bfrgkl ;qfDyM rFkk Hkkjr esa T;kfefr] ns[ks x;s izfØ;kvksa dks Bksl xf.krh; :ikarj ifjHkk"kkvks]a
lkekU;@Li"V voèkkj.kk;s]a vfHkx`ghr@vfHkèkkj.kk,a rFkk ize;s A ;qfDyM dh ikap vfHkèkkj.kk,aA ikaposa vf/
k/kkj.kk ds rqY; dFkuA vfHkx`fgr rFkk ize;s ds lEcUèk dks iznfZ 'kr djukA
(i) nks fn, x, fofHkUu fcUnqvksa ls ,d vkSj dsoy ,d js[kk gksdj tkrh gSA
(ii) ¼fl) dhft,½ nks fofHkUu js[kkvksa esa ,d ls vfèkd fcUnq mHk;fu"B ugha gks ldrkA

69
2-- js[kk,
kk,aa rF
rFkkkk dks.k ¼ihfj;M 10½½
(i) ¼izsfjr dhft,½ ;fn ,d fdj.k ,d js[kk ij [kM+h gks rks bl izdkj cus nks vklu dks.kksa
dk ;ksx 180o gksrk gS rFkk bldk foykse]
(ii) ¼fl) dhft,½ ;fn nks js[kk,a izfrPNsfnr djsa rks 'kh"kkZfHkeq[k dks.k leku gksrs gSa(
(iii) ¼izsfjr dhft,½ tc ,d fr;Zd js[kk nks lekUrj js[kkvksa dks izfrPNsfnr djrh gS] rks laxr
dks.kksa] ,dkUrj dks.kksa] vr% dks.kksa ij ifj.kkeA
(iv) ¼izsfjr dhft,½ nh xbZ ,d js[kk ds lekUrj js[kk,a] lekUrj gksrh gSaA
(v) ¼fl) dhft,½ f=kHkqt ds rhuksa dks.kksa dk ;ksx 180o gSA
(vi) ¼izsfjr dhft,½ ,d f=kHkqt dh ,d Hkqtk dks c<+k;k tk,] bl izdkj cuk ckádks.k vUr%
lEeq[k dks.kksa ds ;ksx ds leku gSA
3-- f=kHkqtsa ¼ihfj;M 20½½
(i) ¼izsfjr dhft,½ ;fn ,d f=kHkqt dh nks Hkqtk,a rFkk mudk vkUrfjr dks.k nwljh f=kHkqt dh
nks Hkqtk,a rFkk muds vkUrfjd dks.k ds leku gksa] nks f=kHkqtsa lok±xle gksrh gSaA
¼Hkq- dks- Hkq- lok±xlerk½
(ii) ¼fl) dhft,½ nks f=kHkqtas lok±xle gksrh gSa ;fn ,d f=kHkqt ds nks dks.k rFkk mudh vkUrfjr
Hkqtk nwljh f=kHkqt ds fdUgha nks dks.kksa rFkk mudh vkUrfjr Hkqtk ds cjkcj gksaA
¼dks- eq- dks- lok±xlerk½
(iii) ¼izsfjr djuk½ nks f=kHkqtsa lok±xle gksrh gS ;fn ,d f=kHkqt dh rhuksa Hkqtk,a nwljh f=kHkqt
dh rhuksa Hkqtkvksa ds cjkcj gksA
¼Hkq- Hkq- Hkq- lok±xlerk½
(iv) ¼izsfjr djuk½ nks ledks.k f=kHkqtsa lok±xle gksrh gSa ;fn ,d f=kHkqt dk d.kZ rFkk ,d Hkqtk
nwljs f=kHkqt ds d.kZ rFkk ,d Hkqtk ds Øe'k% cjkcj gksaA
(v) ¼fl) dhft,½ ,d f=kHkqt dh nks leku Hkqtkvksa ds lEeq[k dks.k leku gksrs gSaA
(vi) ¼izsfjr dhft,½ ;fn ,d f=kHkqt ds nks dks.k cjkcj gksa] rks mudh lEeq[k Hkqtk,a Hkh cjkcj
gksrh gSaA
(vii) ¼izsfjr dhft,½ f=kHkqt dh vlekurk,a rFkk buds dks.k rFkk lEeq[k Hkqtk esa lacaèkA
4-- prq H kq Z t ¼ihfj;M 10½½
(i) ¼fl) dhft,½ ,d lekUrj prqHkqZt dks fod.kZ nks lok±xle f=kHkqtksa esa ckaVrk gSA
(ii) ¼izsfjr djuk½ ,d lekUrj prqHkqZt esa lEeq[k Hkqtk,a cjkcj gksrh gSa rFkk foykseA
(iii) ¼izsfjr djuk½ ,d lekUrj prqHkqZt ds lEeq[k dks.k leku gksrs gSa rFkk foykseA
(iv) ¼izsfjr djuk½ ,d prqHkqZt ,d lekUrj prqHkqZt gS ;fn mldh lEeq[k Hkqtkvksa dk ,d ;qXe
ijLij cjkcj vkSj lekUrj gksA

70
(v) ¼izsfjr djuk½ ,d lekUrj prqHkqZt ds nks fod.kZ ijLij lef)Hkkftr djrs gSa rFkk foykseA
(vi) ¼izsfjr djuk½ ,d f=kHkqt dh fdUgha nks Hkqtkvksa ds eè; fcUnqvksa dks feykus okyk js[kk[k.M
rhljh Hkqtk ds lekUrj gksrk gS rFkk bldk foykse
5-- {ks = kQy ¼ihfj;M 4½½
{ks=kQy dh èkkj.kk dk iqukZoyksdu] vk;r ds {ks=kQy dk iqu% Lej.k
(i) ¼fl) dhft,½ ,d gh vkèkkj ij vkSj leku lekarj js[kkvksa ds chp cus lekUrj prqHkqZtksa
ds {ks=kQy cjkcj gksrs gSaA
(vi) ¼izsfjr dhft,½ ,d gh vkèkkj rFkk leku lekUrj js[kkvksa ds chp cus f=kHkqtksa ds {ks=kQy
cjkcj gksrs gSa rFkk foykse
6-- o`Ùk ¼ihfj;M 15½½
mnkgj.kksa }kjk o`Ùk dh ifjHkk"kk rFkk o`Ùk lEcUèkh ldYiuk,a f=kT;k] ifjfèk] O;kl] thok]
pki] vkUrfjr dks.k ifjHkk"kk crkukA
(i) ¼fl) dhft,½ ,d o`Ùk dh leku thok,a o`Ùk ds dsUnz ij leku dks.k vkarfjr djrh gSa
rFkk ¼izsfjr dhft,½ bldk foykse
(ii) ¼izsfjr dhft,½ o`Ùk ds dsUnz ls thok ij Mkyk x;k yEc thok dks lef)Hkkx djrk gS
rFkk foykse] thok dks lef)Hkkftr djus ds fy, o`Ùk ds dsUnz ls [khaph xbZ js[kk thok
ij yEc gksrh gSA
(iii) ¼izsfjr dhft,½ fn, x, rhu ljs[k fcUnqvksa esa ls tkrk gqvk ,d vkSj dsoy ,d gh o`Ùk
[khapk tk ldrk gSA
(iv) ¼izsfjr dhft,½ ,d o`Ùk dh ¼vFkok lok±xle o`Ùkksa dh½ leku thok,a dsUnzksa ls lenwjLFk
gksrh gSaA
(vi) ¼fl) dhft,½ ,d o`Ùk ds ,d pki dk va'k eki pki ds lkis{k o`Ùk ds fdlh vU; fcUnq
ij ml pki }kjk cus dks.k ds va'keki dk nqxquk gksrk gSA
(vii) ¼izsfjr dhft,½ o`Ùk ds ,d gh o`Ùk [kaM esa cus dks.k cjkcj gksrs gSaA
(viii) ¼izsfjr dhft,½ ;fn nks fcUnqvksa dks feykus okyk ,d js[kk[k.M] js[kk ds ml vksj ftl
ij [kaM fLFkr gS js[kk ij fLFkr vU; nks fcUnqvksa ij ckjkcj dks.k vkUrfjr djrk gS rks
;s pkjksa fcUnq ,d gh o`Ùk ij fLFkr gksrs gSaA
(viii) ¼izfs jr Z ds lEeq[k dks.kksa ds fdlh ;qXe dk ;ksxQy 180o gksrk gSA
dhft,½ ,d pØh; prqHkqt
7-- jpuk;s a ¼ihfj;M 10½½
(i) js[kk[kaMksa rFkk dks.kksa ds lef)Hkktd rFkk 60o, 90o, 45o dks.ksa bR;kfn dh jpuk] leckgq f=kHkqtAas
(ii) f=kHkqt dh jpuk tcfd vkèkkj] vU; nks Hkqtkvksa dk ;ksx vUrj rFkk ,d vkèkkj dks.k fn;k gksA
(iii) f=kHkqt dh jpuk tc mldk ifjeki rFkk vkèkkj ds dks.k fn, gksaA

71
bdkbZ&V % {ks=kfefr (eSUlwjs'ku) (ihfj;M 4)
(i) {ks = kQy
ghjks ds lw=k ¼fcuk izek.k½ dk mi;ksx dj f=kHkqt dk {ks=kQy Kkr djuk rFkk ,d prqHkqZt
dk {ks=kQy fudkyus esa bldk iz;ksxA
(ii) i`"Bh; {ks=kQy rFkk vk;ru ¼ 10 ihfj;M½
?ku] ?kukHk] xksyk ¼vèkZ xksyk lfgr½ rFkk yEco`Ùkh; csyu@'kadq dk i`"Bh; {ks=kQy rFkk vk;ru
Kkr djukA

bdkbZ&VI % lkaf[;dh rFkk izkf;drk (ihfj;M 13)


1-- lka f [;dh
lka f [;dh dk ifjp; % vka d M+ k s a dk la x z g ] vka d M+ k s a dk iz L rq f rdj.k&lkj.khc) vka d M+ s ]
voxhZÑr@oxZÑr] naM vkys[k] vk;rfp=k ¼ifjorhZ pkSM+kb;ksa okys½] ckjEckjrk cgqHkqt] ,df=kr
vkadM+ksa dks mfpr izdkj ls izLrqr djus gsrq vkadM+ksa dk fof'k"V fo'ys"ku voxhZÑr vk¡dM+ksa dk
ekè;] ekè;d] cgqydA
2-- iz k f;drk ¼ihfj;M 12½½
bfrgkl] iz;ksx dks nksgjkuk rFkk n`"V ckjEckjrk ds ekè;e }kjk izkf;drk] vkuqHkkfod izkf;drk
ij cy ¼,df=kr rFkk ,dsfy, xfrfofèk;ksa }kjk Kku dks izsfjr djus ij vfèkd le; yxkuk
thou lEcUèkh fLFkfr;ksa rFkk lkaf[;dh ds vè;k; esa iz;ksx fd, x, mnkgj.kksa ls½
vkUrfjd ew Y ;ka d u 20 va d
xfrfofèk;ksa dk vkadyu 10 vad
izkstsDV dk;Z 05 vad
lr~ r vka d yu 05 vad
ikB~ ; Øe la j puk
d{kk X

,d iz'u i=k le; % 3 ?k.Vs vad % 80


bdkbZ va d
I. la [ ;k i)fr 04
II. chtxf.kr 20
IIII. f=kdks . kfefr 12
IV. funs Z ' kka d T;kfefr 08
V. T;kfefr 16
VI. {ks=kfefr 10
VII. lka f [;dh rFkk iz k f;drk 10

;ksx 80

72
bdkbZ&I % la[;k i¼fr (ihfj;M 15)
;qfDyM foHkktd izefs ;dk] xf.kr ds ewyHkwr ize;s dk dFku@fiNys dk;Z dh iqujko`fÙk rFkk mnkgj.kksa }kjk n`"Vkar]
ds vifjes;rk ds izek.k] lkar@vuolkuh vkofrZ esa ifjes; la[;kvksa dk izlkjA

bdkbZ&II % chtxf.kr (ihfj;M 16)


1-- cgq i n
cgqin ds 'kwU;d] f}?kkrh cgqin ds 'kwU;dksa rFkk xq.kkadksa esa lEcUèk] okLrfod xq.kkadksa okys cgqinksa
ij Hkkx fofèk fo'ks"k ij dFku rFkk lkekU; iz'uA
2-- nks pjksa okys jSf[kd lehdj.k ;qXe
nks pjksa okys jSf[kd lehdj.k ;qXe vkSj muds vkys[kh; gy@gy dh fofHkUu lEHkkoukvksa dks n'kkZrs
vkys[kh; fu:iu@vlaxrrkA
gyksa dh la[;kvksa ds fy, chth; izfrcaèk nks pjksa okys jSf[kd lehdj.kksa dk chth; gy] izfrLFkkiu
fujkdj.k rFkk frjNh xq.kk fofèk }kjk lkekU; fLFkfr;ksa ls lacfa èkr dFkuksa okys iz'u] lehdj.kksa ij vkèkkfjr
iz'u tks fd jSf[kd lehdj.k esa ifjorZuh; dks lfEefyr djsAa
3-- f}?kkr lehdj.k ¼ihfj;M 15½½
f}?kkr lehdj.k dk ekud :i A f}?kkr lehdj.k dk gy ¼okLrfod ewy½
xq.ku[k.M fofèk ls] oxZ iw.kZ djus dh fofèk ls rFkk f}?kkrh lw=k iz;ksx djus lsA fofoDrdj rFkk ewyksa
dh izÑfr dk lEcUèkA
nSfud xfrfofèk;ksa ls lacfa èkr iz'u Hkh lfEefyr fd;s tk,aA
4-- lekUrj Js.kh
lekUrj Js.kh dks i<+us dh izjs .kkA in rFkk izFke inksa ds ;ksx ds ekud ifj.kke dks fudkyus dh
fofèkA

bdkbZ&III % f=kdks.kfefr
1-- f=kdks.kferh; vuqikr
,d ledks.k f=kHkqt ds U;wudks.k dk f=kdks.kferh; vuqikrA muds vfLrRo dk izek.k ¼vPNh izdkj
ls ifjHkkf"kr½ 10o rFkk 90o ij ifjHkkf"kr vuqikrksa dh izjs .kkA 30o, 45o, 60o ds f=kdks.kferh; vuqikrksa
dk eku ¼izek.k lfgr½A vuqikrksa esa lEcUèkA
2-- f=kdks.kferh; loZlfedk,a
loZlfedk Sin2A+Cos2A=1 dk izek.k rFkk mi;ksx ¼dsoy lkèkkj.k loZlfedk,a gh yh tk,¡½A iwjd
dks.kksa ds f=kdks.kferh; vuqikrA
3-- Å¡pkbZ vkSj nwjh
Å¡pkbZ vkSj nwjh ij lkèkkj.k rFkk fo'oluh; iz'uA iz'uksa esa nks ls vfèkd ledks.k f=kHkqt u gksa rFkk
mUu;u dks.k@voueu dks.k dsoy 30o, 45o, 60o ds gksAa

73
bdkbZ&IV % funsZ'kkad T;kfefr
1-- js[kk,a ¼f}foferh; esa½
funs'Z kkad T;kfefr dh iwoZ esa dh xbZ voèkkj.kkvksa jSf[kd lehdj.k ds vkys[k lfgr] dk iqu% voyksdu]
f}?kkr cgqin ds js[kkxf.kr; n`"Vkar dh tkudkjhA nks fcUnqvksa ds chp dh nwjh rFkk vkarfjd foHkktu
lw=kA f=kHkqt dk {ks=kQyA

bdkbZ&V % T;kfefr
1- f=kHkqtsa
le:i f=kHkqt dh ifjHkk"kk] mnkgj.k rFkk foijhr mnkgj.k
1- ¼fl) dhft,½ ;fn fdlh f=kHkqt dh ,d Hkqtk ds lekUrj ,d js[kk[k.M [khapk tkrk gS rks ;g js[kk[k.M
vU; nks Hkqtkvksa dks ,d gh vuqikr esa foHkkftr djrk gSA
2- ¼izfs jr dhft,½ ;fn ,d js[kk[k.M f=kHkqt dh nks Hkqtkvksa dks ,d gh vuqikr esa foHkkftr djrk gS rks
;g js[kk[k.M rhljh Hkqtk ds lekUrj gksrk gSA
3- ¼izfs jr dhft,½ ;fn nks f=kHkqtksa esa laxr dks.k leku gks rks mudh laxr Hkqtk,a lekuqikrh gksrh gSa rFkk
nksuksa f=kHkqtas le:i gksrh gSAa
4- ¼izfs jr djs½a ;fn gks f=kHkqtksa dh laxr Hkqtk;sa lekuqikrh gksa rks laxrdks.k leku gksrs gSa rFkk nksuksa f=kHkqt
le:i gksrs gSAa
5- ¼izfs jr djs½a ;fn nks f=kHkqtksa esa laxr Hkqtkvksa dk ,d ;qXe vuqikfrd gks rFkk vkarfjd dks.k cjkcj gksa
rks f=kHkqtas le:i gksrh gSAa
6- ¼izfs jr djs½a ;fn ledks.k f=kHkqt ds ledks.k okys 'kh"kZ ls d.kZ ij yac Mkyk tkrk gS rks yac js[kk ds nksuksa
vksj ds f=kHkqt vkSj lai.w kZ f=kHkqt ijLij le:i gksrs gSAa
7- ¼fl) dhft,½ le:i f=kHkqtksa ds {ks=kQyksa dk vuqikr laxr Hkqtk ds oxks± ds vuqikr ds cjkcj gksrk gSA
8- ¼fl) dhft,½ ,d ledks.k f=kHkqt esa d.kZ dk oxZ vU; nks Hkqtkvksa ij oxks± ds ;ksxQy ds cjkcj gksrk
gSA
9- ¼fl) dhft,½ ,d f=kHkqt esa ;fn ,d Hkqtk dk oxZ vU; nks Hkqtkvksa ij oxks± ds ;ksxQy ds cjkcj gks
rks izFke Hkqtk ds lEeq[k dks.k ledks.k gksrk gSA
2-- o` Ù k
fcUnqvksa ls [khaph xbZ thok,a fcUnq dks fudVrj] fudVrj rFkk fudVrj vkus ij o`Ùk dh Li'kZ js[kk
cukukA
(i) ¼fl) dhft,½ o`Ùk ds fdlh fcUnq ij Li'kZ js[kk] Li'kZfcUnq ls gksdj tkus okyh f=kT;k ij yEc gksrh
gSA
(ii) ¼fl) dhft,½ o`Ùk ds cká fcUnq ls o`Ùk ij [khaph xbZ Li'kZ js[kkvksa dh yEckb;ka cjkcj gksrh gSAa

74
3-- jpuk,a
(i) ,d js[kk [k.M dk fn;s x, vuqikr ¼vkUrfjd½ esa foHkktuA
(ii) o`Ùk ds cká fcUnq ls o`Ùk ij Li'kZ js[kkA
(iii) nh xbZ f=kHkqt ds le:i f=kHkqt dh jpukA

bdkbZ&VI % {ks=kfefr (eSUlqjs'ku)


1-- ryh; vkÑfr;ksa dk {ks=kQy
o`Ùk ds {ks=kQy ds Kku dh izsj.kk] o`Ùk [k.M rFkk f=kT; [kaM dk {ks=kQyA ÅijksDr ryh;
vkÑfr;ksa ds {ks=kQy rFkk ifjekiA ifjfèk ij vkèkkfjr iz'u ¼o`Ùk [k.M dk {ks=kQy fudkyrs
gq, iz'uksa esa dsUnzh; dks.k dsoy 60o, 90o, 120o dk gksA leryh; vkÑfr;ksa f=kHkqt] lkekU; prqHkqt
Z
rFkk o`Ùk ls lacafèkr iz'u fy;s tk,a½
2-- i`"Bh; {ks=kQy rFkk vk;ru
fuEu esa fdUgha nks dks feykdj i`"Bh; {ks=kQy rFkk vk;ru ?ku] ?kukHk] xksy]s vèkZxksyk rFkk
yEco`Ùkh; csyu@'kadq] 'kadq dk fNUudA ,d izdkj ds èkkrq ds Bksl dks nwljs esa cnyuk rFkk
vU; feJ iz'u ¼nks ls vfèkd Bksl feJ.k ds iz'u ugha½

bdkbZ&VII % lkaf[;dh rFkk izkf;drk


1-- lka f [;dh
oxhZÑr vkadM+kas dk ekè;] cgqyd rFkk ekfè;dk ¼nks cgqyd ds iz'u u gks½a A lap;h ckjEckjrk
vkys[kA
2-- iz k f;drk
izkf;drk dh fpjizfrf"Br ifjHkk"kk] d{kk IX esa izkf;drk ls lacaèk ,d ?kVuk ij vkèkkfjr
iz'u ¼leqPp; fpUgksa dk iz;ksx ugha½A

vkarfjd ewY;kadu 20 vad


xfrfof/k;ksa dk vkadyu 10 vad
izkstsDV dk;Z 05 vad
lrr vka d yu 05 vad

izLrkfor ikB~;iqLrdsa
1- xf.kr d{kk IX dh ikB~;iqLrd ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- izdk'ku
2- xf.kr d{kk X dh ikB~;iqLrd ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- izdk'ku
3- Guidelines for Mathematics Laboratory in Schools, Class IX, CBSE Publication.
4- Guidelines for Mathematics Laboratory in Schools, Class X, CBSE Publication.

75
4- foKku (dksM la[;k 086@090)
foKku dh fo"k; oLrq dh fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa laKkukRed] HkkoukRed] ,oa fØ;kRed izHkko {ks=kksa dh
lqifjHkkf"kr ;ksX;rkvksa dks fodflr djus esa ,d egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk gksrh gSA ;g fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa l`tukRed]
vUos"k.kkRed] fo"k;fu"Brk ,oa lkSUn;Zcksèk laosnu'khyrk dh izo`fÙk esa o`f) djrh gSA
tcfd mPp izkFkfed Lrj ij ;g vis{kk dh tkrh gS fd fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks izs{k.k djus izs{k.kksa dks
lwphc) djus] vkjs[k [khapus] rkfydk,a cukus] xzkQ [khapus vkfn ds i;kZIr volj iznku fd, tkus
pkfg,] lsd.Mjh Lrj ij ;g visf{kr gS fd foKku ds lh[kus rFkk f'k{k.k esa vewfrZdj.k rFkk ek=kkRed
foospuk dks f'k{kk esa izeq[k LFkku fn;k tkuk pkfg,A ftl izdkj ;g ladYiuk fd ijek.kq rFkk v.kq
nzO; ds bekjrh [kaM gSa ftuls feydj nzO; dk mn~Hko gksrk gS] mlh izdkj leLr fo'o ds mn~Hko
dk dkj.k U;wVu dk xq#Rokd"kZ.k fu;e gSA
izLrqr ikB;Øe dh vfHkdYiuk N% O;kid ewy fo"k;ks]a vFkkZr~ Hkkstu] lkexzh] ltho txr] oLrq,a
dSls dk;Z djrh gSa] xfr'khy oLrq,a] yksx ,oa èkkj.kk,a] izkÑfrd ifj?kVuk,a rFkk izkÑfrd lalkèkuA
cgqr lh ladYiukvksa ds lekos'k ds eksg dks NksM+rs gq, ;g fo'ks"k lkoèkkuh cjrh xbZ gS fd mruh
gh ladYiuk,a j[kh tk,a ftUgsa fn, x, le;&Ýse esa vklkuh ls lh[kk tk ldsA O;kidrk ds fy,
dksbZ iz;kl ugha fd;k x;k gSA
bl Lrj ij tcfd foKku dHkh Hkh ,d lkekU; fo"k; gS] HkkSfrdh] jlk;u foKku] rFkk tho
foKku ds fo"k;ksa dk vkfoHkkZo gksus yxrk gSA fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks muds vuqHkoksa ds lkFk&lkFk foosdksa dh
foèkkvksa] tks fd bl fo"k; ds iz:ih gS] ls izfrikfnr djk;k tkuk pkfg,A

ikB~ ; Øe la j puk
d{kk X ¼lS ) ka f rd½
,d iz'u i=k le; % 2 ?k.Vs vad % 60

bdkbZ va d
I Hkks t u 05
II nzO; bldh izÑfr rFkk O;ogkj 15
III ltho txr dh O;oLFkk 13
IV xfr] cy rFkk dk;Z 20
V gekjk i;kZoj.k 07
dqy 60

76
ewy fo"k; % foKku (50 ihfj;M)
bdkbZ&I % Hkkstu ¼ 10 ihfj;M½
xq.kkRed lqèkkj rFkk izcUèku ds fy, ikniksa ,oa tUrqvksa dk tuu ,oa p;u] moZjdksa dk mi;ksx] ihM+dksa
rFkk jksxksa ls ekuo dh lqj{kk( dkcZfud [ksrhA
bdkbZ&II % nzO;&izÑfr ,oa O;ogkj ¼ 50 ihfj;M½
nzO; dh ifjHkk"kk( Bksl] nzo ,oa xSl( vfHky{k.k&vkÑfr] vk;ru] ?kuRo( voLFkk ifjorZu&laXyu ¼Å"ek
dk vo'kks"k.k½] fgehdj.k] ok"iu ¼ok"iu }kjk 'khryu½] la?kuu] ÅèoZiruA
nzO; dh izÑfr % rRo] ;kSfxd rFkk feJ.k] fo"kekaxh ,oa lekaxh feJ.k] dksykbM rFkk fuyacuA
d.kkRed izÑfr] ewy bdkb;k¡ % ijek.kq rFkk v.kq] fLFkj vuqikr dk fu;e] ijek.kq rFkk v.kq nzO;ekuA
eksy ladYiuk % eksy dk d.kksa ds nzOz ;ekuksa rFkk la[;kvksa ls lacèa k] la;kstdrk] lkekU; ;kSfxdksa ds jklk;fud
lw=kA
ijek.kq dh lajpuk % bysDVªkuW ] izkVs kWu rFkk U;wVkª uW ( leLFkkfud ,oa leHkkfjdA
bdkbZ&III % ltho txr esa la?kVu ¼ 45 ihfj;M½
tSo fofoèkrk % ikniksa ,oa tUrqvksa esa fofoèkrk&oSKkfud ukedj.k esa ewy leL;k,a( oxhZdj.k dk vkèkkj] oxks@± lewgksa
dk inkuqØe.k] ikniksa ds izeq[k lewg ¼izeq[k y{k.k½ ¼cSDVhfj;k] FkSyksÝkbVk] czk;ksQkbVk] VsfjMksÝkbVk] ftEuksLieZ
rFkk ,aft;ksLieZ½] tUrqvksa ds ize[q k lewg ¼ize[q k y{k.k½ ¼vjTtqdh la?k Non-chordates½ Qkbye rd rFkk jTtqdh
la?k (chordates) oxks± (classes) rdA
dksf'kdk thou dh ewy bdkbZ % thou dh ewy&Hkwr bdkbZ ds :i esa dksf'kdk] izkd
s fS j;ksVh rFkk ;wdfS j;ksVh
dksf'kdk,a] cgqdksf'kd tho] dksf'kdk f>Yyh rFkk dksf'kdk fHkfÙk] dksf'kdk vaxd] dksf'kdk nzO;]
ekbVksdkWfUMª;k jlèkkfu;ka] varnZO;h tkfydk (ER)] xkYth midj.k] dsUnzd] Øksekslkse ¼xw.klw=k½ ewy
la j puk la [ ;kA
Ård] va x &ra = k tho tUrq rFkk ikni Årdksa ¼tUrqvksa esa pkj izdkjksa] ikniksa esa foHkT;ksrd rFkk
LFkk;h Ård½ dh lajpuk rFkk dk;Z %
LokLF; ,oa jksx % LokLF; rFkk bldk fcxM+uk] laØked rFkk vlaØked jksx] buds dkj.k rFkk
vfHkO;fDrA lw{ethoksa }kjk QSyus okys jksx ¼ok;jl] cSDVhfj;k] izksVkstksvk½ rFkk buls cpko] mipkj
rFkk cpko ds fu;e] iYl iksfy;ks dk;ZØeA
bdkbZ&IV % xfr] cy rFkk dk;Z ¼ 60 ihfj;M½
xfr % nwjh rFkk foLFkkiu] osx( ljy js[kk ds vuqfn'k ,d leku rFkk vleku xfr] Roj.k] ,dleku xfr rFkk
,dleku Rofjr xfr;ksa ds fy, nwjh&le; rFkk osx&le; xzkQ] xzkQh; fofèk }kjk xfr ds lehdj.k] ,dleku
orqy
Z xfr dh vkjfEHkd ladYiukA
cy rFkk U;wVu ds fu;e % cy ,oa xfr] u;wVu dk xfr dk igyk fu;e] fdlh fi.M dk tM+Ro] tM+Ro ,oa
nzO;eku] laoxs ] cy ,oa Roj.kA laoxs laj{k.k fu;e dh vkjafHkd èkkj.kk] fØ;k ,oa izfrfØ;k cyA
xq#Rokd"kZ.k % xq#Rokd"kZ.k] xq#Rokd"kZ.k dk lkoZf=kd fu;e] i`Foh dk xq#Rokd"kZ.k cy ¼xq#Ro½] xq#Roh;&Roj.k]
nzO;eku ,oa Hkkj] eqDr iruA

77
Iyou % iz.kksn ,oa nkc] vkfdZeMht dk fl)kar] mRIykourk] vkisf{kd ?kuRo dh vkjafHkd èkkj.kkA
dk;Z] ÅtkZ ,oa 'kfDr % cy }kjk fd;k x;k dk;Z] ÅtkZ] 'kfDr] xfrt ,oa fLFkfrt ÅtkZ] ÅtkZ laj{k.k fu;eA
èofu] èofu dh izÑfr rFkk fofHkUu ekè;eksa esa bldk lapj.k] èofu dh pky] euq";ksa esa Ük`O;rk dk ifjlj] ijkèofu]
èofu dk ijkorZu] izfrèofu rFkk lksukj
ekuo d.kZ dh lajpuk ¼dsoy Jo.k i{k½
bdkbZ&V % gekjk i;kZoj.k ¼15 ihfj;M½
HkkSfrd lEink % ok;q] ty rFkk e`nk
'olu] ngu rFkk rki dks la;r j[kus ds fy, ok;q] ok;q dh xfr rFkk Hkkjr ds Hkw&Hkkx esa o"kkZ ykus esa bldh
HkwfedkA
ok;q] ty rFkk e`nk izn"w k.k ¼laf{kIr izLrkouk½] vktksu ijr esa fNnz rFkk blds dkj.k laHkkfor {kfr;kaA
izÑfr esa tSo&Hkw jklk;fud pØ.k % ty] vkWDlhtu] dkcZu] ukbVªkt
s uA

izk;ksfxd dk;Z
iz;ksxksa dh lwph ¼ihfj;M 40½½
1- (a) lkèkkj.k ued] phuh rFkk fQVdjh dk ty esa okLrfod foy;u cukukA
(b) e`nk] pkd ikmMj rFkk ckjhd jsr dk ty esa fuyEcu cukukA
(c) LVkpZ dk ty esa rFkk vaMs dh lQsnh dk ty esa dksykWbM cukdj buds chp foHksnu
(i) ikjnf'kZrk] (ii) fQYVj lacèa kh ekun.M] (iii) LFkkf;Ro ds vkèkkj ij djukA
2- yksg jsru rFkk lYQj ikmMj dk mi;ksx djds (a) feJ.k] (b) ;kSfxd cukuk rFkk buds chp foHksnu
(i) fn[kkoV vFkkZr~ lekaxh ,oa fo"kekaxh] (ii) pqEcd ls O;ogkj] (iii) dkcZu Mkb lYQkbM ¼,d foyk;d½
ls O;ogkj] (iv) Å"ek dk O;ogkj ds vkèkkj ij djukA
3 fuEufyf[kr jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k,a dk;kZfUor djds muds iz{s k.k fjdkMZ djukA izR;sd izdj.k esa lfEefyr
vfHkfØ;k ds izdkj dks Hkh igpkuukA
(i) dkWij lYQsV ds tyh; foy;u ds lkFk yksgs dhA
(ii) ok;q esa eSXuhf'k;e dk nguA
(iii) ruq lY¶;wfjd vEy ds lkFk ftad dhA
(iv) ySM ukbVªVs dks xje djus ijA
(v) tyh; foy;u ds :i esa lksfM;e lYQsV rFkk cksfj;e DyksjkbM ds chpA
4- èofu ds ijkorZu ds fu;eksa dk lR;kiu djukA
5- dekuhnkj rqyk rFkk ekid flfy.Mj }kjk fdlh Bksl ¼ty ls l?ku½ dk vkisf{kd ?kuRo Kkr djukA

78
6- fdlh Bksl dks iw.kZr%
(a) lkèkkj.k ty
(b) vfryo.kh; ty esa iw.kZr% Mqcksus ij Hkkj esa gqbZ vkHkklh dHkh rFkk Bksl }kjk foLFkkfir ty ds Hkkj
ds chp lacèa k Kkr djuk ¼de ls de nks fHkUu Bkslksa ds }kjk½A
7- 'khryu ds le; xje ty dk rki ekiuk rFkk rki&le; xzkQ [khapukA
8- rkfur Mksjh@fLyadh ls lapfjr fdlh LiUn dk osx Kkr djukA
9- (a) I;kt dh f>Yyh] (b) ekuo diksy dksf'kdkvksa ds vfHkjaftr vLFkk;h vkjksg cukuk rFkk vius iz{s k.kksa
dks fjdkMZ djds buds ukekafdr vkjs[k [khapukA
10- rS;kj LykbMksa dk iz{s k.k djds ikniksa esa e`nrw d rFkk n`<+krs d( tUrqvksa esa is'kh rUrqvksa rFkk raf=kdk dksf'kdkvksa
dh igpku djuk rFkk buds ukekafdr vkjs[k [khapukA
11- ÅèoZikru }kjk ckyw] lkèkkj.k ued rFkk veksfu;e DyksjkbM ¼;k diwj½ ds feJ.k ls mlds vo;oksa dks
i`Fkd djukA
12- cQZ dk xyukad rFkk ty dk DoFkukad Kkr djukA
13- (a) fn, x, [kk| inkFkZ ds uewus esa LVkpZ] (b) nky ds uewus esa vifeJd esVfS uy nkyksa dh mifLFkfr dk
ijh{k.k djukA
14- Likbjksxkbjk@,sxkSfjdl] ekWl@QuZ] ikbul ¼;k rks uj'kadq vFkok eknk 'kad½q rFkk fdlh vko`rchth ikni
ds vfHky{k.kksa dk vè;;u djukA buds vkjs[k [khapuk rFkk buds lacfa èkr oxks± dh igpku ds nks y{k.k
fy[kukA
15- dspa v
q k] dkWdjksp] vfLFky eNyh rFkk i{kh ds fn, x, izfrn'kZ dk iz{s k.k djds vkjs[k [khapuk rFkk izR;sd
izfrn'kZ ds fy, (a) blds Qkbye ¼la?k½ dk ,d fof'k"V y{k.k (b) blds vkokl ds lanHkZ esa bldk ,d
vuqdfw yr y{k.k fjdkMZ dhft,A

ewY;kadu i¼fr
cgqfodYih izdkj ds iz'uksa dh fyf[kr ijh{kk ¼fo|ky; vkèkkfjr½ % 20 va d
iz;ksfxd ijh{kk ¼fo|ky; vkèkkfjr½ % 20 va d

79
ikB~;Øe lajpuk
d{kk X ¼lS ) kfUrd½

,d iz'u i=k le; % 2 ?k.Vs va d


bdkbZ va d
I jklk;fud inkFkZ 18
II ltho txr 16
III fo|qrèkkjk ds izHkko 10
IV izdk'k 08
V izkÑfrd lalkèku 08
dqy 60
bdkbZ&I % jklk;fud inkFkZ izÑfr rFkk O;ogkj ¼55 ihfj;M½
vEy] {kkj rFkk yo.k % Ht ,oa pH v/;;u iznku djus ds inksa esa bldh ifjHkk"kk,a lkekU; xq.k] mnkgj.k
rFkk mi;ksx] pH Ldsy dh ladYiuk] ¼ykWxksgk; ls lacfa /kr ifjHkk"kk vko';d ugha½ nSfud thou esa pH dk egRo]
lksfM;e gkbMªkDW lkbM cukuk ,oa mi;ksx] fojatd pw.kZ] csfdax lksMk] èkkou lksMk rFkk isfjl IykLVjA
jklk;fud vfHkfØ;k,a % jklk;fud lehdj.k] leqdrs jklk;fud lehdj.k] larfq yr jklk;fud lehdj.k ls
rkRi;Z jklk;fud vfHkfØ;kvksa ds izdkj % la;kstu] fo;kstu ¼vi?kVu½] foLFkkiu] f}foLFkkiu] vo{ksi.k]
mnklhdj.k] vip;u rFkk vip;u ¼vkWDlhtu rFkk gkbMªkt s u dh o`f) rFkk Ðkl ds inksa es½a A
èkkrq,a rFkk vèkkrq,a % èkkrqvksa ,oa vkèkkrqvksa ds lkekU; xq.k] lfØ;rk Js.kh] vk;fud ;kSfxdksa dk cuuk ,oa
xq.k] ewyHkwr èkkrqdehZ; izfØ;k,a] la{kkj.k rFkk blls cpkoA
dkcZu&;kSfxd % dkcZu ds ;kSfxdksa esa lgla;ksth vkcUèk] dkcZu dh loZrkse[q kh izÑfr] dh letkrh; Js.kh] izdk;kZRed
lewgksa ¼gstkstu] ,sYdksgkWy] ,sfYMgkbM] dhVksu] dkoksfZ Dlfyd vey ,sYjhu] ,sYdkbu½ okys dkcZu ds ;kSfxdksa uke
i)fr] izdk;kZRed lewg] larI` r rFkk vlarI` r gkbMªkd s kcZuksa esa vUrj] ,FkkukWy rFkk ,FkkukWbd vEy ¼dsoy xq.k
rFkk mi;ksx½] lkcqu rFkk viektZdA
rRoksa dk vkorhZ oxhZdj.k % dkcZu ds ;kSfxdks ds jklk;fud xq.k/keZ ¼ngu] vkWDlhdj.k] ladyu] izfrLFkkiu
vfHkfØ;k,a½ vkèkqfud vkorZ lkj.kh] xq.kèkeks± esa Js.khdj.k ¼la;kstDrk] ijek.kq lkbt] /kkfRod ,oa v/kkfRod
xq.k/keZ ½
bdkbZ&II % ltho txr ¼50 ihfj;M½
tSo izfØ;k,a % ltho izk.kh] iks"k.k dh ewy ladYiuk] 'olu] ikniksa rFkk tUrqvksa esa ogu ,oa mRltZu
ikniksa rFkk tUrqvksa esa fu;a=k.k ,oa leUo; % ikniksa esa vuqorZuh xfr;k¡] ikni gkWeksuZ ksa dh izLrkouk] tUrqvksa
esa fu;a=k.k ,oa leUo;% raf=kdk ra=k] ,fPNd&vuSfPNd rFkk izfrorhZ fØ;k] jklk;fud leUo;] tUrq gkWeksuZ A
tuu % ikni rFkk tUrqvksa esa tuu ¼vySfa xd rFkk ySfa xd½] tuu LokLF; ifjokj fu;kstu dh vko';drk rFkk
bldh fofèk;ka] lqjf{kr ;kSu lacèa k cuke HIV/AIDS xHkZèkkj.k rFkk efgykvksa dk LokLF;A
vkuqoaf'kdrk ,oa fodkl % vkuqofa 'kdrk] eaMy dk ;ksxnku&y{k.kksa dh oa'kkxfr ds fu;e fyax fu/kkZj.k laf{kIr
ifjp;] fodkl dh ewy voèkkj.kk rFkk izek.kA
80
bdkbZ&3 % fo|qr èkkjk ds izHkko ¼ 35 ihfj;M½
foHkokUrj rFkk fo|qr èkkjk] vkse dk fu;e] izfrjksèk] dkjd ftu ij fdlh pkyd dk izfrjksèk fuHkZj djrk
gSA izfrjks/kdrk izfrjksèkdksa dk Js.khØe la;kstu] izfrjksèkdksa dk ik'oZ la;kstu( èkkjk dk Å"eh; izHkko] rFkk
blds nkSjku nSfud thou esa vuqi;z ksx 'kfDr] P, V, I rFkk R esa vUrZlca èa kA
fo|qr/kkjk ds pqEcdh; izHkko % pqEcdh; {ks=k] {ks=k js[kk,a] èkkjkokgh rkj ds dkj.k pqEcdh; {ks=k] èkkjkokgh
dq.Myh vFkok ifjukfydk ds dkj.k pqEcdh; {ks=k esa j[ks èkkjkokgh pkyd ij cy] ¶ysfeax dk oke gLr fu;e]
oS|qr pqEcdh; izjs .k] izfs jr foHkokUrj] izfs jr èkkjk] ¶ysfeax dk nf{k.k fu;e] fn"V èkkjk] izR;korhZ èkkjk] AC dh
vko`fÙk] DC dh rqyuk esa AC ds ykHk] ?kjsyw fo|qr ifjiFkA
bdkbZ&IV % izdk'k
ofØr i`"Bksa ij izdk'k dk ijkorZu] xksyh; niZ.kksa }kjk izfrfcac cuuk] in oØrk dsUnz] eq[; v{k] eq[; Qksdl]
Qksdl nwjhA niZ.k lw=k ¼O;qRifÙk ugha pkfg,½] vkoèkZuA
viorZu] viorZu ds fu;e] viorZukad
xksyh; ySl
a ksa }kjk izdk'k dk viorZu] xksyh; ysl
a ksa }kjk izfrfcac cuukA ysl
a lw=k ¼O;qRifÙk ugha pkfg,½ vkoèkZu]
ysl
a dh {kerk] ekuo us=k esa ysla dk dk;Z] n`f"V nks"k ,oa mudk fujkdj.k] xksyh; niZ.kksa rFkk ysl
a ksa ds vuqi;z ksxA
fizTe ls gksdj izdk'k dk viorZu] izdk'k dk fo'ys"k.k] izdk'k dk izdh.kZu nSfud thou esa vuqi;z ksx
bdkbZ&V izkd`frd lalk/ku
izkÑfrd lalkèkuksa dk izc/a ku% izkÑfrd lalkèkuksa dk izcèa ku] izkÑfrd lalkèkuksa dk U;k;laxr mi;ksx ,oa laj{k.k]
ou rFkk oU; thou] dks;ys rFkk isVkª fs y;e dk laj{k.k] izkÑfrd lalkèkuksa ds laj{k.k ds fy, yksxksa dh Hkkxhnkjh
ds mnkgj.kA
{ks=kh; i;kZoj.k % cM+s ckaèk % ykHk rFkk lhek,a] fodYi ;fn dksbZ gS rks] ty laxgz .k] izkÑfrd lalkèkuksa dk
laiks"k.kA
ÅtkZ ds òksr % ÅtkZ ds fofHkUu :i] ÅtkZ ds fofHkUu ikjEifjd rFkk xSj ikjEifjd òksrksa dh vksj ladrs u(
thok'eh b±èku] lkSj ÅtkZ] ck;ksxl
S ] ious]a ty rFkk Tokjh; ÅtkZ] ukfHkdh; ÅtkZ] uohdj.kh; cuke vuohdj.kh;
ÅtkZ òksrA
gekjk i;kZoj.k % ikfjra=k] i;kZoj.kh; leL;k,a vkstksu J;] vif'k"Vksa dk mRiknu budk gy] tSo fuEuhdj.kh;]
vtSo fuEuhdj.kh;] inkFkZA
izk;ksfxd dk;Z

iz;ksxksa dh lwph vad % 40 (20 + 20) (ihfj;M 40)


1- pH i=k@lkoZtfud lalp
w d }kjk fuEufyf[kr uewuksa ds pH Kkr djuk
(i) ruq gkbMªkDs yksfjd vEy
(ii) ruq NaoH foy;u
(iii) ruq ,Fkkuksbd vEy foy;u

81
(iv) uhacw dk jl
(v) ty
(vi) ruq lksfM;e ckbdkcksuZ Vs foy;u
2- (i) fyVel foy;u ¼uhyk@yky½
(ii) ftad èkkrq
(iii) Bksl lksfM;e dkcksuZ Vs ds lkFk vEyksa rFkk {kkjksa ¼tSls HCl rFkk NaOH½ dh vfHkfØ;kvksa }kjk buds
xq.kksa dk vè;;u djukA
3- (a) vory niZ.k
(b) mÙky ysl
a dh Qksdl nwjh buds }kjk fdlh nwjLFk oLrq ds izfrfcac izkIr djds Kkr djukA
4- dkap dh vk;rkdkj ifêdk ls gksdj xeu djus okyh fdlh izdk'k fdj.k dk xeu iFk [khapukA vkiru
dks.k rFkk fuxZr dks.k ekiuk ,oa izkIr ifj.kke dh O;k[;k djukA
5- fdlh izfrjksèkd ds fljksa ds chp foHkokUrj (V) dh blls izokfgr fo|qr èkkjk (I) ij fuHkZjrk dk vè;;u
djuk rFkk bldk izfrjksèk Kkr djukA V rFkk I ds chp xzkQ Hkh [khapukA
6- Js.kh Øe esa la;ksftr nks izfrjksèkdksa dk rqY; izfrjksèk Kkr djukA
7- ik'oZ Øe esa la;ksftr nks izfrjksèkdksa dk rqY; izfrjksèk Kkr djukA
8- jaèkzkas dks n'kkZus ds fy, fdlh iÙks dh f>Yyh dk vLFkk;h vkjksg.k cukukA
9- iz;ksxkRed :i esa ;g n'kkZuk fd izdk'k la'ys"k.k ds fy, izdk'k vko';d gSA
10- iz;ksxkRed :i esa ;g n'kkZuk fd 'olu fØ;k esa dkcZu Mkb vkWDlkbM mRlftZr gksrh gSA
11- rS;kj LykbMksa dh lgk;rk ls (a) vehck esa f}[k.Mu rFkk (b) ;hLV esa eqdy
q u n'kkZukA
12- fd'kfe'kksa }kjk ty vo'kks"k.k izfr'krrk Kkr djukA
13- fuEufyf[kr jklk;fud vfHkfØ;kvksa dk oxhZdj.k
¼d½ la;kstu vfHkfØ;k
¼[k½ fo;kstu vfHkfØ;k
¼x½ foLFkkiu vfHkfØ;k
¼?k½ f} foLFkkiu vfHkfØ;k esa djukA
(a) ty dh fcuk cq>s pwus ij fØ;kA
(b) Qsjl lYQsV fØLVyksa ij Å"ek dh fØ;kA
(c) dkWij lYQsV foy;u esa j[kh yksgs dh dhysAa
(d) lksfM;e lYQsV rFkk csfj;e DyksjkbM foy;u ds chp vfHkfØ;kA

82
14- ¼d½ fuEufyf[kr foy;uksa ij Zn, Fe, Cu rFkk Ac èkkrqvksa dh fØ;k dk vè;;u djuk
(i) ZnSO4 ¼tyh;½ (ii) FeSO4 ¼tyh;½
(iii) CuSO4 ¼tyh;½ (iv) Al2(SO4)3 ¼tyh;½
¼[k½ mijksDr ifj.kke ds vkèkkj ij Zn, Fe, Cu rFkk Al èkkrqvksa dks budh ?kVrh lfØ;rk ds Øe esa
O;ofLFkr djukA
15- ,slhfVd vEy ¼,Fkkuksbd ,flM½ ds fuEufyf[kr xq.kksa dk vè;;u djuk
(i) xaèk (ii) ty esa foys;rk
(iii) fyVel ij izHkko (iv) lksfM;e ckbdkcksuZ Vs ds lkFk vfHkfØ;k

ewY;kadu i¼fr
ckg~; ijh{kk ¼cksMZ }kjk vk;ksftr cgqfodYih izdkj ds iz'uksa dh fyf[kr ijh{kk½ 20 va d
fo|ky; vkèkkfjr izk;ksfxd ijh{kk 20 va d

izLrkfor ikB~;iqLrdsa
1- foKku d{kk IX ds fy, ikB~;iqLrd ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- izdk'ku
2- foKku d{kk X ds fy, ikB~;iqLrd ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- izdk'ku
3- Assessment of Practical Skills in Science–Class IX–CBSE Publication.

4- Assessment of Practical Skills in Science–Class X–CBSE Publication.

83
5- lkekftd foKku (dksM la[;k 087)
rdkZèkkj
lkekftd foKku fo|ky;h f'k{kk ds ekè;fed Lrj rd ,d vfuok;Z fo"k; gSA ;g lkekU; f'k{kk
dk vfHkUu vax gSA ;g i;kZoj.k dks lexz :i ls le>us esa Nk=kksa dks enn nsrk gS vkSj O;kid ifjn`';
rFkk vuqHko vkèkkfjr mfpr ekuoh; n`f"Vdks.k dks fodflr djrk gSA ;g vfr egRoiw.kZ gS D;ksafd
;g mUgsa lqf'kf{kr o ftEesnkj ukxfjd ds :i esa fodflr djus esa enn nsrk gS] rkfd os jk"Vª fuekZ.k
vkSj fodkl dh izfØ;k esa izHkkfor <ax ls ;ksxnku ns ldsaA
lkekftd foKku ds ikB~;Øe dh fo"k;oLrq eq[;r% Hkwxksy] bfrgkl] ukxfjd 'kkL=k vkSj vFkZ'kkL=k
ls yh xbZ gSA dqN va'k lekt'kkL=k vkSj okf.kT; fo"k;ksas ls Hkh fy, x, gSaA ;s lHkh fo"k; ,d&nwljs
ls tqM+s gksus ds lkFk lekt ds ckjs esa dky vkSj LFkku ds lanHkZ esa O;kid >k¡dh izLrqr djrs gSaA
izR;sd fo"k; dh viuh&viuh fof'k"Vrk,¡ lekt dks vyx&vyx n`f"Vdks.k vkSj lexz :i ls le>us
esa Nk=kksa dks enn nsrh gSaA

mís';
bl ikB~;Øe ds eq[; mís'; gSa %
 dky vkSj LFkku ds lanHkZ esa ekuoh; lektksa esa vk, ifjorZuksa vkSj fodkl dh izfØ;kvksa dks
le>ukA
 Nk=kksa dks vuqHkwfr djkuk fd ifjorZu dh izfØ;k yxkrkj gksrh jgrh gS vkSj dksbZ Hkh ?kVuk ;k
leL;k ,dkdh ugha gksrh oju~ og dky vkSj LFkku ds lanHkZ esa O;kid gksrh gSA
 bfrgkl] Lora=k Hkkjr ds jk"Vªh; fodkl ds y{; vkSj uhfr;ksa rFkk lalkj esa gks jgs fodkl ls
tqM+h ifjorZuksa dh izfØ;k ds lanHkZ esa ledkyhu Hkkjr dh le> fodflr djukA
 Hkkjr ds Lora=krk laxzke] blds vkn'kZ] ewY;ksa vkSj ns'k ds lHkh oxks± rFkk izns'kksa ds yksxksa }kjk
blesa fd, x, ;ksxnku dh tkudkjh djkukA
 Hkkjrh; lafoèkku esa nh xbZ ekU;rkvksa dk lEeku djuk vkSj yksdrkaf=kd lekt esa izHkkoh ukxfjdksa
ds :i esa viuh Hkwfedk vkSj ftEesnkjh ls fuHkkukA
 Hkkjr ds lexz i;kZoj.k] blds lkFk dh tk jgh ikjLifjd fØ;k vkSj mldk yksxksa ds Hkkoh
thou dh xq.koÙkk ij iM+us okys izHkko dh xgu tkudkjh djkukA
 Hkkjr dh Hkwfe vkSj yksxksa ds chp fofoèkrk rFkk blesa fufgr ,drk dks le>uk vkSj mldk lEeku
djukA
 Hkkjr dh izkÑfrd vkSj lkaLÑfrd fojklr dh fo'kkyrk vkSj fofoèkrk dk lEeku djuk ,oa
mlds laj{k.k dh vko';drk dks le>ukA
 ledkyhu Hkkjr dh fodkl lacaèkh fofoèk izfØ;kvksa ls tqM+h i;kZoj.kh;] vkfFkZd ,oa lkekftd
leL;kvksa ,oa pqukSfr;ksa dh le> dks c<+kok nsukA

84
 Nk=kksa ds Kku] cksèk vkSj n{krkvksa dks fodflr djus esa lg;ksx nsuk ftlls os O;fDrxr vkSj
lewg esa ledkyhu lekt dh fofoèk pqukSfr;ksa dk lkeuk dj ldsa vkSj leqnk; esa izHkkoh <ax
ls Hkkx ysrs gq, vkRefo'okl ds lkFk rukoeqDr thou thus dh dyk lh[k ldsaA
 O;k[;kvksa] fopkjksa] lwpukvksa vkSj vk¡dM+ksa ds rdZiw.kZ ,oa oLrqfu"B fo'ys"k.k vkSj ewY;kadu }kjk
tk¡p&iM+rky dh vknr Mkyuk ftlls Nk=kksa esa oSKkfud LoHkko fodflr gks ldsA
 vkykspukRed fparu] ekSf[kd ,oa n`'; :i nksuksa esa izHkkoh vfHkO;fDr] nwljksa ds lkFk lg;ksx]
igy djuk vkSj nwljksa dh leL;kvksa ds funku gsrq usrR` o iznku djuk tSlh 'kSf{kd ,oa lkekftd
n{krkvksa dk fodkl djukA
 oS;fDrd] lkekftd] uSfrd] jk"Vªh; ,oa vkè;kfRed ewY; tSls lHkh xq.kksa dk fodkl djuk] tks
,d O;fDr dks izHkkoh :i ls euksokafNr ,oa feyulkj cukrs gSaA

ikB~ ; Øe la j puk
d{kk&IX

le; % 3 ?k.Vk vad % 80+20


bdkbZ va d ihfj;M
I. Hkkjr rFkk ledkyhu fo'o-I 18 40
II. Hkkjr&Hkwfe vkSj yksx 20 45
III. yks d rka f =kd jktuhfr -I 18 40
IV. vFkZ'kkL=k dk Kku 16 40
V. vkink izca/ku 8 25
vkarfjd ewY;kadu 80
I. ijh{kk ¼jpukRed rFkk lekdfyr½ 10
II. fu;r dk;Z ¼d{kk dk x`g½ 05
III. izkstsDV dk;Z 05

bdkbZ&1 % Hkkjr ,oa ledkyhu fo'o&I (40 ihfj;M)


fo"k; mís ' ;
igys nks mi[k.Mksa esa izR;sd ls dksbZ nks fo"k; rFkk  bl [k.M ds izR;sd fo"k; ¼Fkhe½ esa fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks
rhljs mi[k.M esa ls fdlh ,d fo"k; dk vè;;u dj Hkk"k.kksa ds m)j.k] jktuhfrd ?kks"k.kkvksa ,oa O;aX;
ldrs gSaA fp=kksa dh jktuhfr ls] iksLVj i=k ,oa mRdh.kZu
mi[k.M 1-- 1 % ?kVuk,¡ vkSj izfØ;k,¡ ls ifjfpr djkuk vkSj bu izdkj ds lk{;ksa ls vFkZ
fudkyuk lh[kukA
bl bdkbZ dk dsUnz fcUnq mu rhu ?kVukvksa vkSj
izfØ;kvksa ij gS ftuls vkèkqfud fo'o dh igpku gSA
izR;sd ,d fHkUu izdkj dh jktuhfr dk izfrfufèkRo

85
fo"k; mís ' ;

djrk gS vkSj ,d fo'ks"k izdkj dh 'kfDr;ksa ds la;kstu  fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks lEcfUèkr O;fDr;ksa ds ukeksa ls fofHkUu
dk HkhA igyh ?kVuk dk lacaèk mnkjokn rFkk iztkra=k izdkj ds fopkjksa ls ftUgksaus ØkfUr dks izksRlkfgr
ds fodkl ls gS] ,d dk lektokn ls vkSj ,d dk fd;k] vkSj foLr`r 'kfDr;ksa ls] ftUgksua s bls :ikUrfjr
nksuksa iztkra=k rFkk lektokn ds udkj ¼[k.Mu½ ls gSA fd;k] muls ifjfpr djkukA
1-- Ýka f llh Øka f r %
 ØkfUr;ksa ds bfrgkl dh [kkst esa fyf[kr] ekSf[kd
¼d½ izkphu jktraa=k vkSj mlds ladVA
o n`'; lkexzh dk iz;ksx fdl izdkj gks ldrk
¼[k½ lkekftd 'kfDr;k¡ tks Økafr ds fy, mÙkjnk;h gS] Li"V djukA
FkhaA
¼x½ fofHkUu Økafrdkjh lewg vkSj le; ds fopkjA  :lh ØkfUr ds vè;;u ls lektokn ds bfrgkl
¼?k½ fojklr dks [kkstukA
2-- :lh ØkfUr %
¼d½ tkj dk la d V  blesa lfEefyr O;fDr;ksa ds ukeksa ls ifjp; djkuk
¼[k½ 1905 ls 1917 ds chp lkekftd vkUnksyuksa rFkk mu fofHkUu izdkj ds fopkjksa ls fo|kfFkZ;ksa
dh izÑfr] dks ifjfpr djkuk ftuls ØkfUr dh izjs .kk feyhA
¼x½ izFke fo'o;q) rFkk lksfo;r jkT; dh uhao]
 vkèkqfud fo'o dh jktuhfr dks u;k :i nsus esa
¼?k½ fojklr ukthokn dks rdZlaxr egRo ij ppkZ djukA
3-- ukthokn dk mn;
¼d½ lkekftd yks d ra = k dk mn;]  ukth usrkvkssa ds Hkk"k.kksa o ys[kksa ls fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks
¼[k½ teZuh esa ladV] ifjfpr djkukA
¼x½ fgVyj dk 'kfDr izkIr djus dk vkèkkj]
¼?k½ ukthokn ds fl)kUr ¼fopkjèkkjk½]
¼p½ ukthokn dk izHkko

mi[k.M 1-2 vFkZO;oLFkk,¡ rFkk thfodk,¡


 vkèkqfud jkT;ksa ds xBu ls] lhekadu ls] LFkkuc)rk
bl [k.Mksa ds fo"k;ksa esa gekjk dsUnz fcUnq bl ckr dh izfØ;k ls] pkjkxkgksa ds fldqM+us ls rFkk cktkjksa
ij gksxk fd fofHkUu lkekftd lewgksa us ledkyhu ds izlkj ls ;g lkspuk fd vkèkqfud fo'o esa
fo'o esa gksuos kys ifjorZuksa dk lkeuk fdl izdkj fd;k i'kqpkj.k ,oa i'kqpkjd lekt dk D;k gksrk gSA
vkSj muds thou ds Åij bu ifjorZuksa dk D;k izHkko
iM+ k A  fofHkUu LFkkuksa ij i'kqpkj.k lektksa ds Hkhrj gksus
4-- vkèkqfud fo'o esa i'kqpkjd okys fofHkUu izdkj ds fodkl dks bafxr djukA
¼d½ i'kqpkj.k thou dh ,d jkg]
¼[k½ i'kqpkj.k ds fofHkUu izdkj
 mifuos'khdj.k dk fofHkUu LFkkuksa esa oU; lekt
¼x½ mifuos'kokn ,oa vkèkqfud jkT;ksa esa i'kqpkj.k ij rFkk oSKkfud Ñf"k ds iM+s izHkko dks le>ukA
dh D;k fLFkfr gSA
dsl vè;;u % ,d vejhdk vkSj ,d vÝhdk ds  fo'ks"k fonzksgksa ds vè;;u ls oU; lektksa dh
i'kqpkjd lewgksa ij fo'ks"k :i lsA lkekftd rFkk lkaLÑfrd thou dh ppkZ djukA

86
fo"k; mís ' ;

5-- oU; lekt ,oa mifuos'kokn %  ekSf[kd ijaijk,¡ fdl izdkj tutkfr;ksa ds fonzksgksa
¼d½ ou rFkk thfodkvksa esa vkilh lEcUèk ds vuqlèa kku esa iz;qDr gks ldh gS]a bUgsa le>ukA
¼[k½ mifuos'kokn ds vUrxZr oU; lekt esa ifjorZu
ds l vè;;u % nks oU;&vkUnksyuksa ij dsfUnzr %
,d mifuos'kd Hkkjr esa ¼cLrj½ vkSj ,d baMksufs 'k;k esAa
6-- Ñf"k vkSj [ksfrgj lekt  fofHkUu izfØ;kvksa ds ckjs esa crkuk ftuls vkèkqfud
¼d½ fofHkUu izdkj dh Ñf"k vkSj [ksfrgj lekt fo'o esa Ñf"k&:ikUrj.k gks tk,A
ds izknqHkkZo dk bfrgkl  le>uk fd fd fdl izdkj Hkkjr esa Ñf"k O;oLFkk
¼[k½ vkèkqfud fo'o esa xzkeh.k vFkZO;oLFkkvksa esa nwljs ns'kksa ls fHkUu gSA
ifjorZ u
ds l vè;;u % dsUnz fcUnq&xzkeh.k ifjorZuksa vkSj  fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks voxr djkuk fd cM+s Lrj ij Ñf"k
xzkeh.k lektksa ds :iksa esa oS"kE; ¼vejhdk esa cM+s Lrj NksVs Lrj ij mRiknu] >we [ksrh fofo/k fl)kUrksa
ij xsgw¡ rFkk dikl dh Ñf"k dk foLrkj] baXySaM esa ij dk;Z djrs gSa vkSj muds fHkUu&fHkUu bfrgkl
xzkeh.k vFkZO;oLFkk rFkk Ñf"k ØkfUr vkSj vkSifuosf'kd gSaA
Hkkjr esa fuEu Lrj ij [ksfrgj mRiknu½
mi[k.M 1-3 laLÑfr] vfLrRo rFkk lekt
 ;g lq>kuk fd [ksyksa dk Hkh bfrgkl gS vkSj og
bl bdkbZ ds vUrxZr fofHkUu fo"k; fopkj djsaxs
jktuhfrd 'kfDr vkSj opZLo ls tqM+k gqvk gSA
fd dSls laLÑfr ds eqíksa dks ledkyhu fo'o fuekZ.k
ls tksM+k tk ldrk gSA
7-- [ks y vkS j jktuhfr %  fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks fØdsV dh dqN ,slh dgkfu;k¡ crkuk
fØdsV dh dgkuh] ftudk ,sfrgkfld egRo gSA
¼d½ fØdsV dk vaxzsth [ksy ds :i esa mn;A
¼[k½ fØdsV ,oa mifuos'koknA
¼x½ fØdsV jk"Vªh;rk rFkk mifuos'ku dh lekfIrA  ;g crkuk fd oL=kksa ¼igukoksa½ dk Hkh bfrgkl gS
8-- oL=k ¼igukos ½ vkS j la L Ñfr;k¡ vkSj ;g fdl izdkj lkaLÑfrd igpku ls tqM+k
¼d½ igukos esa ifjorZuksa dh y?kqdFkk gqvk gSA
¼[k½ mifuos'kd Hkkjr esa igukos ij okn&fookn
¼x½ Lons'kh o [kknh vkUnksyuA  Li"V djkuk fd igukok fdl izdkj xgu lkekftd
mi[k.M 1-4 ekufp=k dk;Z (2 vad) yM+kb;ksa dk dsUnz fcUnq jgk gSA

bdkbZ&2 % HkkjrµHkwfe vkSj yksx (ihfj;M 45)

fo"k;&oLrq mís';
1-- Hkkjr % fLFkfr] mpkop] lajpuk] ize[q k Hkw&vkÑfrd  ize[q k LFky :iksa ds y{k.k ,oa muesa fufgr HkwoK
S kfud
bdkb;k¡ A lajpuk( mudk fofoèk 'kSyksa vkSj [kfutksa ls lEcUèk
rFkk e`nk izdkjksa dh izÑfr le>ukA
2-- tyok;q % tyok;q dks izHkkfor djus okys dkjd(  tyok;q dks izHkkfor djus okys fofoèk dkjdksa dks
ekulwu bldh fo'ks"krk,¡] o"kkZ vkSj rkieku dk igpkuuk vkSj vius ns'k esa tyok;q dh fofoèkrk

87
fo"k;&oLrq mís';
forj.k] _rq,¡] tyok;q ,oa ekuo thou vkSj mldk yksxksa ds thou ij iM+us okys izHkko
dh O;k[;k djukA
 ekulwu ds egRo vkSj mldh ,drkdkjh Hkwfedk
dh O;k[;k djukA
3-- viokg ra = k % izeq[k ufn;k¡ ,oa lgk;d ufn;k¡]  ns'k ds unh ra=kksa dh tkudkjh djuk vkSj ekuo
>hysa ,oa leqn]z ns'k dh vFkZO;oLFkk esa ufn;ksa dh lekt ds fodkl esa ufn;ksa dh Hkwfedk dh O;k[;k
Hkwfedk] ufn;ksa dk izn"w k.k ,oa unh&izn"w k.k fu;af=kr djukA
djus ds mik;A
4-- iz k Ñfrd ouLifr % ouLifr ds izdkj] forj.k]  ns'k esa fofoèk izdkj ds isM+&ikSèkksa vkSj tho&tUrqvksa
Å¡pkbZ ds vuqlkj cnyko] laj{k.k dh vko';drk dh fo'ks"krkvksa rFkk forj.k dh tkudkjh djukA
,oa mlds fofoèk mik;A
 vius ns'k dh tSo&fofoèkrk esa fnypLih ysuk vkSj
5-- oU; izk.kh % ize[q k tkfr;k¡] mudk forj.k] laj{k.k mlds laj{k.k dh vko';drk dks le>ukA
dh vko';drk ,oa mlds fofoèk mik;A
6-- tula [ ;k % vkdkj] forj.k] vk;q&fyax la?kVu]  tula[;k ds vleku forj.k dk fo'ys"k.k djuk
tula[;k ifjorZu vkSj blesa izokl dh fuèkkZjd vkSj ns'k dh vR;fèkd tula[;k ds fy, fpUrk
Hkwfedk] lk{kjrk] LokLF;] O;kolkf;d lajpuk vkSj djukA
jk"Vªh; tula[;k uhfr( tula[;k ds misf{kr fd'kksj  yksxksa ds fofoèk O;olk;ksa dks tkuuk vkSj tula[;k
oxZ dh fo'ks"k vko';drk,¡A ifjorZu ds fofoèk dkjdksa dh O;k[;k djukA
 jk"Vªh; tula[;k uhfr ds fofoèk vk;keksa dh O;k[;k
djuk vkS j mis f {kr fd'kks j oxZ dh fo'ks " k
7-- ekufp=k dk;Z ¼¼4 vad½ vko';drkvksa dks Li"V djukA

ifj;kstuk dk;Z@fØ;kdyki
(i) Nk=k vius&vius izns'k ds _rqvksa ls lacafèkr xhr] u`R; ] R;ksgkj] Hkkstu vkfn dh tkudkjh dj
ldrs gSa vkSj ;g Hkh ekywe dj ldrs gSa fd Hkkjr ds vU; izn's kksa dh bu lcesa D;k lekurk gSA
(ii) vius {ks=k ds isM+&ikSèkksa vkSj tho&tUrqvksa ls lEcfUèkr lkexzh ,d=k dj ldrs gSaA blesa {ks=k
dh ladVkiUu tkfr;ksa dh lwph gksuh pkfg, vkSj mUgsa cpkus ds mik; ls tqM+h lwpuk gksuh pkfg,A
(iii) iksLVj % unh iznw"k.k] ouksa ds {kj.k vkSj ikfjfLFkfrdh vlUrqyu ij iksLVj cukukA

bdkbZ &3 % yks d rka f =kd jktuhfr&I (ihfj;M 40)

fo"k;&oLrq vfèkxe&mís ' ;


1-- yksdrU=k D;k gS\ yksdrU=k D;ksa\  yksdrU=k dks ifjHkkf"kr djus gsrq ladYiukRed
dkS'ky dks fodflr djukA
yksdrU=k dks ifjHkkf"kr djus gsrq fofHkUu rjhds
dkSu ls gSa\ vkèkqfud ;qx esa yksdrU=k gh lcls  fdu ,sfrgkfld izfØ;kvksa ,oa 'kfDr;ksa }kjk yksdrU=k

88
fo"k;&oLrq vfèkxe&mís ' ;
yksdfiz; 'kklu D;ksa cu x;k gS\ yksdrU=k ds fodflr gqvk( bldh le> j[kukA
fodYi D;k gS\a D;k yksdrU=k vU; miyCèk fodYiksa  yksdrU=k ds lkekU; iwokZxzgksa ds fo#) yksdra=k
ls Js"B gS\ D;k izR;sd yksdrU=k dh ,d tSlh ds j{kk dop dks fodflr djukA
laLFkk,¡ ,oa ekU;rk,¡ gksrh gSa\
 Hkkjr esa yksdra=k dh izÑfr rFkk p;u ds ,sfrgkfld
vuqHkwfr dks fodflr djukA
 lafoèkku fuekZ.k dh izfØ;k ls voxr gksukA
2-- Hkkjr esa yksdrU=k dk fuekZ.k
 lafoèkku ds fy, vknj rFkk laoSèkkfud ekU;rkvksa
Hkkjr ,d yksdrU=k D;ksa rFkk dSls cuk\ Hkkjrh; ds fy, iz'kalk dk fodkl djukA
lafoèkku ds fuekZ.k dh izfØ;k dSlh Fkh\ Hkkjrh;
lafoèkku dh izeq[k fo'ks"krk,¡ D;k gSa\ Hkkjr esa  lafoèkku ,d thoar nLrkost gS ftlesa ifjorZu
yksdrU=k ds yxkrkj :ikadu ,oa iqu%:ikadu ds vkrs gSa bl rF; dks igpkuukA
fuekZ.k dh izfØ;k dSls tkjh gS\  rq y ukRed nyh; jktuhfr ds ekè;e ls
izfrfuè;kRed yksdrU=k ds fopkj ls ifjfpr gksukA
3-- yksdrU=k esa pqukoh jktuhfr  gekjh fuokZpu O;oLFkk ls lqfofnr gksuk rFkk bls
p;u djus ds dkj.kksa dks tkuukA
ge izfrfufèk;ksa dk pquko D;ksa rFkk dSls djrs gS\a
gekjs ;gk¡ jktuhfrd nyksa esa izfrLièkkZ D;ksa gS\  pquko vk;ksx ds egRo dks igpkuukA
pqukoh jktuhfr esa ukxfjdksa dh Hkkxsnkjh esa ifjorZu  dsUnzh; ljdkj dh lajpukvksa dk voyksdu djukA
dSls vk;k gS\ Lora=k ,oa fu"i{k pquko fdl izdkj
 laln rFkk bldh izfØ;kvksa ls lqxzkfgr gksukA
lqfuf'pr fd, tk ldrs gSa\
 ukeek=k dh rFkk okLrfod dk;Zdkfj.kh ds dk;ks±
4-- la l nh; yks d rU=k dh la L Fkk,¡
ds chp vUrj djukA
ns'k fdl izdkj 'kkflr gksrk gS\ gekjs yksdrU=k
 dk;Zdkfj.kh dh lalnh; foèkkf;dk ds izfr tokcnsgh
esa laln D;k djrh gS\ Hkkjr ds jk"Vªifr] izèkkuea=kh
dh lalnh; O;oLFkk dks le>ukA
rFkk efU=kifj"kn~ }kjk D;k Hkwfedk fuHkkbZ tkrh gS\
budk ikjLifjd lEcUèk D;k gS\  ukxfjdksa ds vius vfèkdkjksa ds izfr tkx:drk dk
fodkl djukA
 ekSfyd vfèkdkjksa ls voxr gksuk o muds izfr
iz'kalk dk Hkko j[kukA

5-- yksdrU=k ds ukxfjdksa ds vfèkdkj  bu vfèkdkjksa dks fØ;kfUor djus] rFkk okLrfod
lafoèkku esa vfèkdkjksa dh vko';drk D;ksa gS\ Hkkjrh; thou dh ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls oafpr fd, tkus ds
lafoèkku ds vUrxZr ukxfjdksa }kjk dkSu ls ekSfyd rjhdksa dh igpku djukA
vfèkdkjkas dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS\ ukxfjdksa ds  U;kf;d O;oLFkk rFkk egRoiw.kZ laLFkkvksa tSls loksPZ p
ekSfyd vfèkdkjksa dh j{kk U;k;ikfydk }kjk fdl U;k;ky;] mPp U;k;ky;ksa rFkk jk"Vªh; ekuo vfèkdkj
izdkj dh tkrh gS\ U;k;ikfydk dh LorU=krk fdl vk;ksx ls ifjfpr gksukA
izdkj lqfuf'pr dh tkrh gS\

89
bdkbZ&4 % vFkZ'kkL=k dk Kku&I
¼ihfj;M 40½½
fo"k;&oLrq mís ' ;
1-- ikyeiqj dh vkfFkZd dgkuh % ikyeiqj ds vkfFkZd  ,d xk¡o dh dkYifud dgkuh ds }kjk cPpksa dks
ysu&nsu vkSj 'ks"k fo'o ds lkFk bldh ijLij dqN ewyHkwr vkfFkZd ladYiukvksa ls ifjfpr djkukA
fØ;k,¡] ftuds }kjk mRiknu dh ladYiuk ¼mRiknu
ds rhu dkjdksa] Hkwfe] Je vkSj iw¡th lfgr½ ls
ifjfpr djk;k tk ldrk gSA
2-- la l kèku ds :i es a ekuo % ekuo fdl izdkj  tula[;k lEcUèkh dqN ladYiukvksa ls ifjp; vkSj
lalkèku@ifjlEifÙk curs gSa( iq#"kksa o fL=k;ksa }kjk jk"Vªh; fuekZ.k esa ifjlEifÙk ds :i esa yksxksa dh
dh tkus okyh vkfFkZd fØ;k,¡] fL=k;ksa }kjk fd, Hkwfedk ds izfr cPpksa dks laosnu'khy cukukA
tkus okys vnÙk dk;Z] ekuoh; lalkèkuksa dh xq.koÙkk]
LokLF; vkSj f'k{kk dh Hkwfedk] ekuoh; lalkèku ds
vuqi;ksx ds :i esa csjkstxkjh] lkèkkj.k :i esa
blds lkekftd o jktuSfrd izHkkoA
3-- Hkkjr esa xjhch ,d pqukSrh % xjhc dkSu gS ¼,d  xjhch dks ,d pqukSrh ds :i esa le>uk vkSj blds
xzkeh.k vkSj ,d 'kgjh mnkgj.k dk vè;;u½ lwpd] izfr fo|kFkhZ dks laosnu'khy cukukA
fujis{k xjhch ¼ladYiuk ds :i esa ugha cfYd dqN  xjhch nwj djus esa ljdkj }kjk dh xbZ igy dk
ljy mnkgj.kksa }kjk½ yksx xjhc D;ksa gksrs gSa] egRoA
lalkèkuksa dk vleku forj.k] ns'kksa dh chp rqyuk]
xjhch nwj djus ds fy, ljdkj }kjk fd, x,
mik;A
4-- [kk| lqj{kk % [kk|kUu ds òksr % ns'k essa [kk|kUuksa  thou dh ewyHkwr vko';drkvksa dks ,d vkfFkZd
dh fdLe vrhr esa vdky vkRe&fuHkZjrk dh fo"k; ds :i esa cPps ds lUeq[k izLrqr djukA
vko';drk [kk| lq j {kk es a ljdkj dh
Hkwfedk [kk|kUuksa dh vfèkizkfIr xksnkeksa esa vukt  [kk| vkiwfrZ lqfuf'pr djus esa ljdkj dh Hkwfedk
dh cgq y rk vkS j Hkq [ kejh lkoZ t fud forj.k dk ewY;kaduA
iz.kkyh [kk| lqj{kk eas lgdkjh lfefr;ksa dh Hkwfedk
¼[kk|kUu] nwèk vkSj lfCt;ksa dh jk'ku dh nqdkusa]
lgdkjh nqdkus]a nks ;k rhu mnkgj.kksa dk vè;;u½

lq>kokRed fØ;k,¡@vuqns'k
fo"k; oLrq & 1 % fofHkUu dkexkjksa vkSj fdlkuksa }kjk dh tkus okyh fØ;kvksa ds vkSj mnkgj.k nsaA
la[;kRed leL;kvksa dks Hkh 'kkfey fd;k tk ldrk gSA
xk¡oksa ds fooj.k ds dqN rjhds izsepUn] ,e-,u- Jhfuokl vkSj vkj-ds-ukjk;.k dh jpukvksa esa miyCèk
gSaA budk mYys[k fd;k tk ldrk gSA
fo"k;&oLrq&2 % csjkstxkjh ds izHkkoksa dk foospu djsaA
90
fL=k;ksa }kjk dh tkus okyh lHkh fØ;kvksa dks 'kkfey fd;k tkuk pkfg, ;k ugha bl ij okn&fooknA
D;k Hkh[k ek¡xuk vkfFkZd fØ;k gS\ foospu djsAa D;k tula[;k de djuk ;k ifjokj dk vkdkj NksVk
djuk vko';d gS\ foospu djsaA
fo"k;&oLrq % 4
dqN [ksrksa esa tkdj muesa mxk, x, [kk|kUuksa dk C;kSjk izkIr djsaA
ikl dh jk'ku dh nqdku ls ogk¡ miyCèk oLrqvksa dk C;kSjk izkIr djsaA
,d fu;fer cktkj ds vgkrs esa tkdj ogk¡ gksus okys lkSnksa dk voyksdu djsa vkSj ogk¡ oLrq,¡ dgk¡
ls vkrh gSa vkSj dgk¡ tkrh gSa] bldk C;kSjk izkIr djsaA

bdkbZ&5 % vkink izcaèku (ihfj;M 25)


(i) ekuo fufeZ r vkink,¡ % ukfHkdh;] tSfod ,oa jklk;fud
(ii) lkekU; la d V % jksdFkke ,oa U;wuhdj.k
(iiii) leq n k; vkèkkfjr vkink iz c a è ku

izLrkfor ikB~;iqLrdsa
1- Hkkjr ,oa ledkyhu fo'o bfrgkl ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk izdkf'kr
2- ledkyhu Hkkjr&Hkwxksy ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk izdkf'kr
3- yksdrkaf=kd jktuhfr ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk izdkf'kr
4- vFkZ'kkL=k ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk izdkf'kr
5- vkvks pysa ,d lqjf{kr Hkkjr dh vksj] Hkkx-II, lh-ch-,l-bZ- }kjk vkink izc/a ku ij izdkf'kr ikB~;iqLrd

ikB~ ; Øe dh la j puk
d{kk&X ¼lS ) kfUrd½

le; % 3 ?k.Vk vad % 80+20


vka r fjd ew Y ;ka d u ds

bdkbZ va d ihfj;M
I. Hkkjr rFkk ledkyhu fo'o-II 22 55
II. Hkkjr&lalk/kku ,oa mudk fodkl 22 50
III. yksdrkaf=kd jktuhfr-II 18 40
IV. vFkZ'kkL=k dk Kku-II 18 45
vkarfjd ewY;kadu 80
I. ijh{kk ¼jpukRed rFkk lekdfyr½ 10
II. fu;r dk;Z ¼d{kk dk x`g½ 04
III. izkt
s Ds V dk;Z 06

91
bdkbZ&1 % Hkkjr vkSj ledkyhu fo'o-II (ihfj;M 45)
fo"k; mís ' ;

fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks igys nks mi[k.Mksa esa izR;sd ls dksbZ


nks nks Fkhe pquuh gS rFkk rhljs mi[k.M esa ls dsoy  bl fo"k; ds vUrxZr 1830 ds ckn ds le; esa
,d Fkhe pquuh gSA jk"Vªokn ds mn; ds :iksa dh ppkZ gksxhA
izFke mi[k.M dh rhljh Fkhe lHkh ds fy, vfuok;Z
gS rFkk 'ks"k nks esa ls dksbZ ,d Fkhe pqu ldrs gSaA
¼dqy feykdj rhuksa mi[k.Mksa esa ls dsoy ik¡p Fkhe  ;wjksi jk"Vªokn rFkk mifuos'k fojksèkh jk"Vªokn esa
pquuh gS½ vkilh lacaèk vkSj vUrj lacaèkh ppkZ gksxhA
mi[k.M % 1-1 % ?kVuk,¡ vkSj izfØ;k,¡  ;wjksi rFkk vU; ns'kksa esa jk"Vª jkT;ksa dk fopkj fdl
1-- ;wjksi esa jk"Vªokn % izdkj lkekU; gks x;k] bldh ppkZA
¼d½ 1830 ds n'kd esa ;wjksi eas jk"Vªokn dk mn;A
 Ýkalhlh mifuos'kokn ,oa bUMks pkbuk rFkk fczfV'k
¼[k½ T;wlsis eSfRluh rFkk vU; ds fopkjA
¼x½ iksys.M] gaxjh] bVyh] teZuh rFkk xzhl ds mifuos'kokn esa vUrj Li"V djukA
vkUnksyuksa dh lkekU; fo'ks"krk,¡A
 baMks pkbuk esa mifuos'k fojksèkh la?k"kZ ds fofHkUu
2-- b.Mks pkbuk esa jk"Vªoknh vkUnksyu % Hkkjro"kZ esa
pj.kksa dh :ijs[kk crkukA
jk"Vª o kn ds mn; ds dkjd
¼d½ b.Mkspkbuk esa Ýkalhlh mifuos'koknA  Hkkjr vkSj baMks pkbuk ds jk"Vªh; vkUnksyuksa esa
¼[k½ Ýkal ds fo#) la?k"kZ ds pj.kA vUrj ls fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks ifjfpr djkb,A
¼x½ QkufnUg Qax] Qku cksbZ pkÅ] U;wu ,d~
 lfou; voKk vkUnksyu ds vkèkkj ij Hkkjrh;
D;ksd ds fopkjA
jk"Vªokn dh fo'ks"krkvksa ij ppkZA
¼?k½ f}rh; fo'o;q) rFkk eqfDr la?k"kZ ¼p½ vejhdk
vkSj nwljk b.Mkspkbuk ;q)A
 fofHkUu lkekftd vkUnksyuksa dh izÑfr dk fo'ys"k.k
3-- Hkkjr esa jk"Vªokn % lfou; voKk vkUnksyu djukA
¼d½ izFke fo'o ;q)] f[kykQr rFkk vlg;ksxA
¼[k½ ued lR;kxz g A  fofHkUu jktuSfrd nyksa ds rFkk vU; O;fDr;ksa ds
¼x½ fdlkuks a s ] Jfedks a rFkk vkfnokfl;ks a ds fo'ks"kdj xkaèkhth ds fopkjksa ls fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks
vkUnks y uA ifjfpr djkukA
¼?k½ fofHkUu jktuhfrd nyksa dh xfrfofèk;k¡A
 vkS|ksfxdhdj.k ds fHkUu&fHkUu izfr:iksa ¼iSVuZ½ dh
mi[k.M 1-- 2 % vFkZO;oLFkk,¡ rFkk thfodk,¡ ppkZ djkuk ftuesa ls ,d vkSifuosf'kd ns'k esa
4- 1850 ds n'kd ls 1950 ds n'kd ds nkS j ku nwljk mifuos'k ds Hkhrj gksA
vk|ksfxdhdj.k
¼d½ fczVus o Hkkjr ds vkS|ksxhdj.k ds :i esa oS"kE;A
¼[k½ gLrf'kYi vkS j vkS | ks f xd mRiknu rFkk  mRiknu ds fofHkUu {ks=kksa ¼lSDVj½ esa vkilh lEcUèkksa
vkSipkfjd ,oa vukSipkfjd {ks=kksa esa lEcUèkA ij izdk'k MkyukA
¼x½ Jfedksa dh thfodk] dsl v/;;u % fczVus ,oa
Hkkjr
92
fo"k; mís ' ;

5-- uxjhdj.k rFkrFkkk ukxfjd thou  nks fHkUu lanHkks± esa 'kgjhdj.k dk vUrj Li"V
¼d½ 'kgjhdj.k ds izdkj djuk] cEcbZ vkSj yanu dks dsUnz fcUnq j[kdj
¼[k½ izolu ,oa uxjksa dk fodkl] 'kgjhdj.k vkS j vkS | ks x hdj.k dh ,d&nw l js ds
¼x½ lkekftd ifjorZu rFkk 'kgjh thou] iwjd ds :i esa ppkZ djukA
¼?k½ O;kikjh] eè;oxhZ] Jfed rFkk 'kgjh xjhcA
ds l vè;;u % mUuhloha vkSj chloha 'krkCnh esa
yanu rFkk cEcbZ ¼eqEcbZ½
6-- O;kikj rFkk oS'ohdj.k %  n'kkZuk fd oS'ohdj.k dk bfrgkl cgqr yEck gS
¼d½ mUuhloha o izkjafHkd chloha 'krkCnh esa fo'o vkSj mlds izfØ;k esa vk, ifjorZuksa ij Hkh izdk'k
cktkj dk izlkj o la?kVu] Mkys a A
¼[k½ nks fo'o;q)ksa ds chp O;kikj ,oa vFkZO;oLFkk]
 LFkkuh; vFkZO;oLFkkvksa ij oS'ohdj.k ds ifj.kkeksa
¼x½ 1950 ds n'kd ds i'pkr~ ifjorZu]
dk fo'ys"k.k djukA
¼?k½ oS'ohdj.k ls thfodk i)fr;ksa esa izHkko]
dsl v/;;u % ;q)ksijkUr 1945 ls 1960 ds n'kd  fofHkUu lkekftd oxks± us oS'ohdj.k dk vuqHko
rd vUrjkZ"Vªh; vFkZO;oLFkkA fdl izdkj fd;k gS( bl ij ppkZA
mi[k.M 1-3 laLÑfr] igpku ,oa lekt  eqn.z k laLÑfr ,oa fopkjksa ds izlkj ds lEcUèk ij
7-- eqnz.k laLÑfr rFkk jk"Vªh;rk ppkZA
¼d½ ;wjksi esa eqnz.k dk bfrgkl
 fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks egRoiw.kZ ?kVukvksa vkSj eqíksa ls lEcfUèkr
¼[k½ mUuhloha 'krkCnh esa Hkkjr esa izl
s dk fodkl
fp=k] dkVwZu] izpkj lkfgR; vkSj lekpkjksa i=kksa esa
¼x½ eqnz.k laLÑfr] yksdokn fookn ,oa jktuhfr vk, okn&fooknksa ls ifjp; djkukA
8-- miU;kl dk bfrgkl %
¼d½ if'pe esa miU;kl dk ,d 'kSyh ds :i esa  Li"Vhdj.k djuk fd ys[kksa ds Lo:iksa dk fo'ks"k
vkfoHkkZo bfrgkl gS vkSj os lekt esa ,sfrgkfld ifjorZuksa
¼[k½ miU;kl ,oa vkèkqfud lekt esa ifjorZuksa esa dks rFkk mu ifjorZuksa ds dkj.kksa dks Li"V djrs
vkilh lEcUèk] gSaA
¼x½ mUuhloha 'krkCnh ds Hkkjr esa izkjafHkd miU;kl]
¼?k½ nks ;k rhu ys[kdksa dk vè;;uA  ,sls ys[kdksa ds fopkjksa ls ftudk lekt ij xgjk
mi[k.M 1-4 ekufp=k dk;Z (2 vad) izHkko iM+k gks] fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks ifjfpr djkukA

bdkbZ&2 % Hkkjr&lalkèku ,oa mudk fodkl (ihfj;M 40)


fo"k;&oLrq mís ' ;
1-- la l kèku % izdkj&izkÑfrd ,oa ekuoh;] lalkèku  lalkèkuksa ds egRo vkSj muds foosdiw.kZ mi;ksx
fu;kstu dh vko';drkA rFkk laj{k.k dh vko';drk dks le>ukA
2-- izkÑfrd lalkèku % Hkw&lalkèku] e`nk ds izdkj vkSj
forj.k] Hkw f e mi;ks x dk cnyrk iz k :i] Hkw f e
fuEuhdj.k vkSj laj{k.k ds mik;A

93
fo"k;&oLrq mís ' ;
3-- ou ,oa oU; tho lalkèku % izdkj vkSj forj.k]  vius i;kZoj.k esa ouksa vkSj oU; thoksa ds egRo
isM+&ikSèkksa vkSj tho&tUrqvksa dk {kj.k] ouksa ,oa dks le>us ds lkFk&lkFk lalkèkuksa ds vo{k; ds
oU; thoksa dk laj{k.k rFkk cpkoA izfr tkx:d gksukA
4-- Ñf"k % Ñf"k ds izdkj] izeq[k Qlysa] 'kL; izk:i]  Ñf"k ds fofHkUu izdkjksa dks igpkuuk vkSj [ksrh dh
izkS|ksfxdh; vkSj laLFkkxr lqèkkj] mudk izHkko] fofoèk fofèk;ksa ij ppkZ djuk] izeq[k Qlyksa dk
Ñf"k dk jk"Vªh; vFkZO;oLFkk esa ;ksxnku] jkstxkj {ks=kh; forj.k crkuk vkSj lkFk gh o"kkZ dh izof` Ùk
,oa mRiknuA vkSj 'kL; izk:i ds chp lacaèk le>kukA
 Ñf"k esa izk|
S ksfxdh; vkSj laLFkkxr lqèkkj ls lacfa èkr
cukbZ xbZ ljdkj dh uhfr;ksa dks Li"V djukA
 jk"Vªh; vFkZO;oLFkk esa Ñf"k ds egÙo dks Li"V
djukA
5-- ty lalkèku % òksr] forj.k] mi;ksx] cgq&mís'kh;  lalkèku ds :i esa ty ds egRo dks le>uk vkSj
ifj;kstuk,¡] ty nqyZHkrk] ty laj{k.k ,oa izcaèku lkFk gh mlds foosdiw.kZ mi;ksx vkSj laj{k.k dh
dh vko';drk] o"kkZ ty laxgz .k ¼,d dsl vè;;u tkudkjh fodflr djukA
lfgr iz L rq r djuk½
6-- [kfut lalkèku % [kfutksa ds izdkj] forj.k] mi;ksx  [kfutksa ds fofoèk izdkj] mudk vleku forj.k
vkSj [kfutksa dk vkfFkZd egRo vkSj laj{k.kA vkSj muds foosdiw.kZ mi;ksx dh vko';drk dks
Li"V djukA
7-- ÅtkZ lalkèku % ÅtkZ lalkèkuksa ds izdkj&ijaijkxr  fofHkUu iz d kj ds ija i jkxr vkS j xS j &ija i jkxr
vkSj xSj&ijaijkxr] forj.k mi;ksx vkSj laj{k.kA lalkèkuksa vkSj muds mi;ksx ij ppkZ djukA
8-- fofuekZ.k m|ksx % izdkj] LFkkfud forj.k] jk"Vªh;  jk"Vªh; vFkZO;oLFkk esa m|ksxksa ds egRo vkSj lhfer
vFkZO;oLFkk essa m|ksxksa dk ;ksxnku] vkS|ksfxd izn"w k.k {ks=kksa esa gh m|ksxksa ds ladUs nz.k ifj.kkeLo:i {ks=kh;
rFkk i;kZoj.k fuEuhdj.k] fuEuhdj.k dh jksdFkke vlekurk dks Li"V djukA
ds mik;A ¼,d dsl vè;;u lfgr izLrqr djuk½  ;kstukc) vkS|ksfxd fodkl dh vko';drk vkSj
lrr~ iks"k.kh; fodkl esa ljdkj dh Hkwfedk dks
le>ukA
9-- ifjogu] la p kj vkS j O;kikj
 fujUrj fldqM+rs fo'o eas ifjogu ,oa lapkj ds
egRo dks Li"V djukA
 ns'k ds vkfFkZd fodkl esa O;kikj dh Hkwfedk vkSj
10-- ekufp=k dk;Z ¼ 4 va d ½ mlds cnyrs Lo:i dh O;k[;k djukA

ifj;kstuk dk;Z@fØ;kdyki
1- Hkkjr ds fofHkUu izns'kksa esa xzkeh.k {ks=kksa ds fof'k"V edkuksa vkSj yksxksa ds diM+ksa ds fp=k Nk=k
,d=k djsa vkSj tk¡psa fd mudk {ks=k dh tyok;q n'kkvksa vkSj mPpkop y{k.kksa ls D;k lacaèk gSA

94
2- xk¡okas esa viukbZ tkus okyh flapkbZ dh fofHkUu fofèk;ksa vkSj xr nl o"kks± esa vk, 'kL; izk:i
esa ifjorZu ij Nk=k laf{kIr fjiksVZ fooj.k rS;kj djsaA
3- b'rgkj % (i) LFkkuh; ty iznw"k.k] (ii) ouksa dk fuEuhdj.k] (iii) xzhu gkml izHkko ij iksLVj
,d=k djuk ;k cukukA
uks V % blh rjg dksbZ vkSj fØ;kdyki fy;k tk ldrk gSA

bdkbZ &3 % yks d rka f =kd jktuhfr&II

fo"k;&oLrq mís ' ;


1-- yksdrU=k esa lÙkk dh lk>snkjh dh ;a=kkofy;k¡ %  Hkkjrh; ifjn`'; esa jktuhfrd izfr;ksfxrk rFkk
yksdrU=k esa lÙkk dh D;ksa rFkk dSls lk>snkjh dh lkekftd erHksnksa ds lEcUèkksa dk fo'ys"k.k djukA
tkrh gS\ la?kkRed i)fr esa 'kfDr foHkktu] Hkkjr
 Hkkjrh; yksdrU=k ds le{k lEiznk;okn }kjk j[kh
esa] fdl izdkj jk"Vªh; ,drk esa lgk;d jgk gS\
fodsUnzhdj.k us fdl lhek rd vius mís'; dks xbZ pqukSfr;ksa dks le>uk rFkk fo'ys"k.k djukA
izkIr fd;k gS\ yksdrU=k dSls fofHkUu lkekftd  jktuhfr esa tkfr vkSj u`tkrh; ij iM+us okys ;ksX;
lewgksa dks lek;ksftr djrk gSA rFkk fu;ksZx izHkkoksa dks le>ukA
2-- yks d rU=k dh dk;Z & iz . kkyh % D;k yksdra=k dh  jktuhfr ij fyax ifjis{k dk fodklA
dk;Z&'kSyh esa foHkktu vUrfuZfgr gS\ tkfr dk
 fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks yksdrU=k esa dsUnzhÑr 'kfDr dh
jktuhfr ij rFkk jktuhfr dk tkfr ij D;k izHkko
lk>snkjh ls voxr djkukA
jgk gS\ fyax foHkktu us jktuhfr dks fdl izdkj
ds lkaps esa <kyk gS\ lkEiznkf;d foHkktu fdl  O;kid rFkk lkekftd 'kfDr dh lk>snkjh ds ;U=kksa
izdkj yksdrU=k dks izHkkfor djrs gSa\ dh dk;Z & iz . kkyh dks le>ukA
 la?kkRed izkoèkkuksa rFkk laLFkkvksa dk fo'ys"k.kA
 xzkeh.k rFkk 'kgjh {ks=kksa esa ubZ iapk;rh jkt lEcUèkh
laLFkkvksa dks le>ukA
3-- yksdrU=k esa izfr;ksfxrk rFkk la?k"kZ % fdl izdkj  yksdrU=k dh O;kidrk esa la?k"kZ dh egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk
la?k"kZ] yksdrU=k dks lkekU; yksxkssa ds i{k esa <kyrs dks le>ukA
gS\a jktuhfrd ny izfr;ksfxrk rFkk fooknksa esa D;k
 yksdrU=kksa esa nyh; O;oLFkk dk fo'ys"k.kA
Hkwfedk fuHkkrs gSa\ Hkkjr esa dkSu&dkSu ls izeq[k
jk"Vªh; ,oa {ks=kh; ny gSa\ jktuhfr esa lkekftd  ns'k esa izeq[k jktuhfrd nyksa ls voxr djkukA
tu&vkUnksyu egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk D;ksa fuHkkrs gSa\
 lkekftd tu vkUnks y uks a rFkk xS j &jktuhfrd
nyh; laxBuksa dk fo'ys"k.kA
 yks d rU=kks a dh dk;Z & i)fr ls lEcfUèkr dfBu
iz'uksa ds ewY;kadu ls voxr gksukA

95
fo"k;&oLrq mís ' ;
4-- yksdrU=k ds ifj.kke % D;k yksdrU=k dks mlds  Hkkjrh; yksdrU=k ds fdUgha eq[; vk;keksa ds dkS'ky
ifj.kkeksa ds vkèkkj ij vkadk tk ldrk gS\ D;k dks le>uk tSls fodkl lqj{kk] rFkk turk dk
yksdrU=kksa ds lkekU;r;k ifj.kkeksa dh vis{kk dh vkRelEekuA
tk ldrh gS\ D;k Hkkjr esa yksdrU=k ls ,sls
ifj.kkekssa dh vis{kk gSa\ D;k yksdrU=k Hkkjr dh  Hkkjr esa yksdrU=k ds fujUrj cus jgus ds dkj.kksa
turk ds fy, fodkl] lqj{kk rFkk vkRe&lEeku dks tkuukA
yk ik;k gs\ Hkkjr esa yksdrU=k dks cuk, j[kus  Hkkjrh; yksdrU=k ds l'kDr ,oa fucZy òksrksa esa
esa fdldk ;ksxnku gS\ vUrj djukA
5-- yksdrU=k ds le{k pqukSfr;k¡ % D;k yksdrU=k dk  yksdrU=k dks l'kDr cukus esa fofHkUu lkèkuksa dk
fopkj detksj iM+ jgk gS\ Hkkjr esa yksdrU=k ds vuqfpUruA
le{k dkSu&lh pqukSfr;k¡ gSa\ yksdrU=k dks fdl
 lfØ; rFkk lka>h ukxfjdrk dks izksRlkfgr djukA
izdkj lqèkkjk rFkk xgjkbZ esa mrkjk tk ldrk gS\
Hkkjrh; yksdrU=k dks l'kDr cukus esa vke ukxfjdksa
dh D;k Hkwfedk visf{kr gS\

bdkbZ&4 % vFkZ'kkL=k dk Kku&II


¼ihfj;M 40½½

fo"k;&oLrq mís ' ;


1-- fodkl dh dgkuh % fodkl dh ijEijkxr èkkj.kk]  dqN lef"V vFkZ'kkL=k ls lacaf/kr ladYiukvksa ls
jk"Vªh; vk; vkSj izfr O;fDr vk;] jk"Vªh; vk; ifjp; djukA
dh la o ` f )] fodkl ds orZ e ku lw p dks a dk  cPps dks gekjs ns'k esa O;kid ekuoh; fodkl ds
vkykspukRed ewY;kadu ¼izfr O;fDr vk;] f'k'kq ewykèkkj ds izfr laons u'khy cukukA O;kid ekuoh;
e`R;q nj] fyax nj vkSj vk; o LokLF; ds vU; fodkl ds vUrxZr vk; esa o`f)] vk; dh ctk;
lwpd½ LokLF; o 'kSf{kd fodkl dh vko';drk] LokLF; o f'k{kk esa lqèkkj vkrs gSaA
ekuoh; fodkl ds lwpd ¼ljy o laf{kIr :i es½a  cPpksa ds eu esa ;g iz'u mBkuk fd D;k ,d jk"Vª
bl fo"k; oLrq ds vè;;u gsrq rhu jkT;ksa ¼dsjy] ds fy, dsoy vk; esa o`f) gh i;kZIr gSA
iatkc vkSj fcgkj½ ds dsl vè;;u dk iz;ksx djsa  yksxksa dks f'k{kk dSls iznku dh tk, vkSj os D;ksa
;k blds fy, dqN ns'k pquas ¼Hkkjr] phu] Jhyadk vkSj dSls LoLFk jgsaA
vkSj ,d fodflr ns'k½
2-- Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk esa lsok {ks=kd dh Hkwfedk %  jkstxkj ds volj iznku djus okys eq[; {ks=kd
lsok {ks=kd D;k gksrk gS\ ¼mnkgj.k½ % ns'k esa vk; ds ckjs esa voxr djkukA
o jkstxkj dk l`tu djus esa lsok {ks=kd dk egRo  ljdkj D;ksa vkSj dSls ,sls egRoiw.kZ {ks=kd esa fuos'k
¼dqN dsl vè;;uksa dh lgk;rk ls½] Hkkjr esa lsok djrh gS] blds izfr ikBdksa dks laons u'khy cukukA
{ks=kd dh o`f)] fo'o dks lsok iznku djus esa eq[;
òksr ds :i esa Hkkjr] lkoZtfud fuos'k dh

96
fo"k;&oLrq mís ' ;
vko';drk] f'k{kk o LokLF; tSlh egRoiw.kZ ewyHkwr
lqfoèkkvksa dh HkwfedkA
 eqnzk dh ladYiuk dks ,d vkfFkZd ladYiuk ds
3-- eqnzk vkSj foÙkh; iz.kkyh % vFkZO;oLFkk esa eqnkz dh
:i esa ifjp;A
Hkwfedk] ,sfrgkfld mn~xe] cpr vkSj lk[k ds fy,
vkSipkfjd o vukSipkfjd foÙkh; laLFkk,¡&lkekU;  nSfud thou esa foÙkh; laLFkkvksa dh Hkwfedk ds izfr
ifjp;] jk"Vª h ;Ñr O;kikfjd cS a d tS l h ,d tkx:drk iS n k djukA
vkSipkfjd laLFkk vkSj dqN vukSipkfjd laLFkk,¡
pqusa] LFkkuh; egktu] Hkw&Lokeh] Lo&lgk;d lewg]
fpV QaM vkSj futh foÙkh; dEifu;k¡A
4-- Hkwe.Myhdj.k % Hkwe.Myhdj.k D;k gS\ ¼dqy ljy  cPpksa dks bl ckjs esa dqN tkudkjh nsa fd ,d
mnkgj.k½ Hkkjr dks Hkw e .Myh; dS l s vkS j D;ks a fo'ks"k vkfFkZd rF; muds okrkoj.k vkSj nSfud
cuk;k tk jgk gS\ 1991 ls igys dh fodkl&uhfr] thou dks dSls izHkkfor dj jgk gSA
m|ksxksa ij ljdkj dk fu;a=k.k % foLr`r fooj.k
ds fy, diM+k m|ksx dk mnkgj.k] vkfFkZd lqèkkj
1991] lqèkkj ds vUrxZr viukbZ xbZ uhfr ¼iw¡th]
izokg ljy cukukA izokl] fuos'k izokg( Hkwe.Myhdj.k
ij fofHkUu ifjisz{; vkSj blds fofHkUu {ks=kksa ij
izHkko] Hkwe.Myhdj.k ds jktuhfrd izHkkoA
5-- miHkksDrk tkx:drk % miHkksDrk dk 'kks"k.k dSls  cPps dks ,d miHkksDrk ds :i esa mlds vfèkdkjksa
fd;k tkrk gS ¼,d ;k nks ljy dslksa dk vè;;u½ vkSj drZO;ksa ds izfr tkx:d djukA
miHkksDrk ds 'kks"k.k ds dkjd] miHkksDrk dks vfèkd  cktkj esa 'kks"k.k ls cpus ds dkuwuh mik;ksa ls
tkx:d gksuk] miHkksDrk laj{k.k esa ljdkj dh ifjfpr djkukA
HkwfedkA

lq>kokRed fØ;k,¡
fo"k; oLrq 2 % lsok {ks=kd dh fØ;kvksa ds cgqr ls mnkgj.k nsukA la[;kRed mnkgj.kksa o fp=kksa vkfn
dk iz;ksx djsa
fo"k;&oLrq 3 % cSadksa] egktuksa vkSj vkfn&O;olkf;;ksa ls feyuk vkSj mu fofHkUu fØ;kvksa ij d{kk
esa fopkj&foe'kZ djuk tks vkius cSadksa esa ns[kh gSaA lg&lgk;d lewgksa dh lHkkvksa esa Hkkx ysuk vkSj
ogk¡ fopkj fd, x, eqíksa dks lquukA
fo"k; oLrq 5 % fofHkUu oLrqvksa vkSj lsokvksa ds fy, miyfCèk ekudksa ds ^yksxks* Logo ,d=k djsAa ikl
ds miHkksDrk U;k;ky; esa tk,¡ vkSj ogk¡ dh dk;Zokgh ij d{kk esa fopkj foe'kZ djsaA v[kckjksa vkSj
miHkksDrk U;k;ky;ksa ls miHkksDrk 'kks"k.k ds ekeys ,d=k djsaA

97
bdkbZ&5 % vkink izcaèku ¼ihfj;M 25½½

1- lwukeh
2- lqjf{kr fuekZ.k dh dk;Z&i)fr;k¡A
3- [krjs esa thfor jgus dk dkS'kyA
4- vkink ds nkSjku oSdfYid lapkj iz.kkfy;k¡A
5- mÙkjnkf;Ro esa HkkxhnkjhA

fu/kZfjr ikB~;iqLrdsa
1- Hkkjr ,oa ledkyhu fo'o&II ¼bfrgkl½ ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk izdkf'kr
2- ledkyhu Hkkjr&II ¼Hkwxksy½ ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk izdkf'kr
3- yksdrkaf=kd jktuhfr&II ¼jktuhfr foKku½ ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk izdkf'kr
4- vkfFkZd fodkl dk Kku&II ¼vFkZ'kkL=k½ ,u-lh-bZ-vkj-Vh- }kjk izdkf'kr
5- vkvks feydj pysa ,d lqjf{kr Hkkjr dh vksj Hkkx 3 lh-ch-,l-bZ- }kjk vkink izc/a ku ij izdkf'kr
ikB~ ; iq L rd

98
6- vfrfjDr fo"k;
¼d½ laxhr
fuEufyf[kr esa ls fdlh ,d dks fy;k tk ldrk gS ¼fgUnqLrkuh ;k dukZVd½
1- fgUnqLrkuh laxhr xk;u ¼cksdy½
2- fgUnqLrkuh laxhr&jkxkRed ok|
3- fgUnqLrkuh laxhr&rky ok|
4- dukZVd laxhr&xk;u ¼oksdy½
5- dukZVd laxhr&jkxkRed ok|
6- dukZVd laxhr&rky ok|

(I) fgUnqLrkuh laxhr xk;u ¼oksdy½ ¼dksM la- 034½½


d{kk&
d{kk&9
2 ?kaVs
fl)kUr 25 va d
iz ; ks x 75 va d
68 ihfj;M

fl¼kar
1- Hkkjrh; laxhr dk laf{kIr bfrgklA
fuEufyf[kr dh ifjHkk"kk,¡ %
laxhr] ukn] Loj&'kq) foÑr ¼dksey] rhoz½ LFkku ¼eUnz] eè;] rkj½] vkjksg] vojksg] jkx] y;]
rky] le rkyh] [kkyh] ek=kk] vkorZuA

izk;ksfxd (202 ihfj;M)


1- ¼d½ jk"Vª xku 75 va d
¼[k½ pkj yksd ;k tutkrh; xhr
¼x½ pkj HkfDr xhr ¼Hktu½
¼?k½ rhu ns'k HkfDr xhr
¼³½ lkeqnkf;d xk;u ¼nks xhr½
¼p½ ewy Lojksa dh igpku
2- fuEufyf[kr jkxksa esa vkjksg] vojksg] idM+ vkSj nqr [;ky ;eu] HkSjo] Hkwikyh dqN rkuksa ds lkFkA
3- gkFk }kjk rky nsrs gq, rhu rky] dgjok] nknjk >irky ds Bsdksa dk lLoj ikBA
4- fofHkUu rkyksa esa c) vkB rky c) vyadkjA
99
d{kk&10
2 ?kaVs
fl)kUr 25 va d
iz ; ks x 75 va d

fl¼kar (68 ihfj;M)


1- rkuiqjk dh cukoV vkSj feykus dh fof/k dk KkuA
2- ia- fo".kq fnxEcj vkSj ia- oh-,u- Hkkr[kaMs }kjk fuèkkZfjr dh xbZ Lojfyfi i)fr dk KkuA
3- oknh] leoknh] vuqoknh] fooknh] vkyki dh ifjHkk"kkA
4- ukV~; 'kkL=k vkSj laxhr jRukdj dk laf{kIr fooj.kA

izk;ksfxd (202 ihfj;M)


1- lkeqnkf;d xk;u
¼d½ fofHkUu {ks=kh; Hkk"kkvksa esa nks xhr
¼[k½ ,d VSxksj xhr
2- fuEufyf[kr jkxksa esa vkjksg] vojksg] idM+ vkSj nqr [;ky % dkQh] [kekt] lkjax vkSj ns'k ¼lkèkkj.k izLrqrhdj.k
dqN rkuksa ds lkFk½
lanHkZ iqLrdsa%
1- ia- oh ,u- Hkkr[kaMs }kjk fyf[kr Øfed iqLrd ekfydk
2- ia- oh ,u- iVoèkZu }kjk fyf[kr jkx&foKkuA

(II) fgUnqLrkuh laxhr ¼jkxkRed ok|½ ¼dksM la- 035½½


d{kk&9
2 ?kaVs
fl)kUr 25 va d
iz ; ks x 75 va d
68 ihfj;M

fl¼kar
1- Hkkjrh; laxhr ds bfrgkl dh :ijs[kk
2- fuEufyf[kr dh ifjHkk"kk,a %
laxhr] ukn] Loj&'kq) foÑr ¼dksey&rhoz½] LFkku ¼eUnz] eè;] rkj½] vkjksg] vojksg] jkx] y;]
rky] le] rkyh] [kkyh] ek=kk] vorZuA
100
izk;ksfxd (202 ihfj;M)
1- fuEufyf[kr ok|ksa esa ls ,d esa fuiq.krk %
(i) flrkj] (ii) ljksn] (iii) ok;fyu (iv) fny:ck ;k bljkt] (v) ck¡lqjh] (vi) esUMksfyu] (vii) fxVkjA
2- ¼d½ jk"Vª xku dh èkquA
¼[k½ pkj èkquas vkSj fofHkUu {ks=kksa dh pkj yksd èkquAas
3- fuEufyf[kr jkxksa esa vkjksg] vojksg] idM+ vkSj nzqr xr % ;eu] HkSjo vkSj Hkqikyh] dqNs rksM+kas ds lkFk
4- gkFk }kjk ctkrs gq, rhu rky] dgjok] nknjk vkSj >irky ds Bsdksa dk izLrqrhdj.kA
fl)ka r d{kk&
d{kk&10 25 va d
iz ; ks x 75 va d
68 ihfj;M
fl¼kar
1- fuEufyf[kr ok| ;a=kksa esa ls fdlh ,d dh lajpuk vkSj feykus dh fof/k dk KkuA
(i) flrkj] (ii) ljksn ](iii) ok;fyu] (iv) fny:ck ;k bljkt] (v) ck¡lqjh] (vi) esUMksfyu] (vii) fxVkjA
2- ia- oh-Mh- iyqLdj vkSj ia- oh-,u- Hkkr[kaMs }kjk fuèkkZfjr Lojfyfi i)fr dk KkuA
3- oknh] leoknh] vuqoknh] fooknh] vkykiA
4- ukV~; 'kkL=k vkSj laxhr jRukdj dk laf{kIr fooj.kA

izk;ksfxd
1- fofHkUu rkyksa esa vkB rky&c) vyadkjA
2- fuEufyf[kr jkxksa esas vkjksg&vojksg] idM+ vkSj nzqr xr ¼jtk[kkuh xr½ % lkèkkj.k izLrqrhdj.k vkSj dqNd
s
rksM+kas ds lkFk dkQh] [kekt] lkjax vkSj ns'kA

lq>k;h xbZ lanHkZ iqLrdsa %


1- ^laxhr ekxZ* ¼Hkkx&1½ Jh ,l canksikè;k;] ok.kh eafnj] lCth eaMh fnYyh&7
2- ^forr~ ok| f'k{kk* Jh ,l- cUnksikè;k;] ok.kh eafnj] lCth eaMh] fnYyh&7
3- izk-s nscq pkSèkjh] ,ou ifCy'klZ] 'kkgnjk] fnYyh }kjk fyf[kr ^flrkj rFkk bldh rduhd*A

101
III fgUnqLrkuh laxhr ¼rky&ok|½ ¼dksM la- 036½½
d{kk&
d{kk&9
fl)ka r 25 va d
iz S f DVdy 75 va d
68 ihfj;M

fl¼kar
1- Hkkjrh; laxhr ds bfrgkl dh :ijs[kkA
2- fuEufyf[kr dh ifjHkk"kk %
laxhr] ukn] Loj&'kq)] foÑr ¼dksey&rhoz½ jkx] y;] rky] ek=kk] foHkkx] le] rkyh] vkorZu] nqxuq ] frxqu]
pkSxquA

izk;ksfxd 202 ihfj;M


laxr ds fo'ks"k lanHkZ ds lkFk pqfuank rky ok| ¼rcyk ;k i[kkot½ dks ctkus esa n{krk izkIr djus ds fy,A
1- gkFk dh Fkkiksa ds lkFk vkSj ok|ksa ij lkèkkj.k foLrj.k ds lkFk rhu rky dgjok] nknjk izLrqr djus dh
;ksX;rkA
2- ,dy laxhr ds lkFk laxrA

d{kk&
d{kk&10
2 ?kaVs
fl)ka r 25 va d
iz ; ks x 75 va d
68 ihfj;M

fl¼kar
1- ok|ksa ¼rcyk ;k i[kkot½ dh lajpuk vkSj mls Loj esa feykus dh fof/k dk KkuA
2- ia- fo".kq fnxEcj iyqLdj vkSj ia- oh-,u- Hkkr[kaMs }kjk fuèkkZfjr rkyfyfi i)fr;ksa dk KkuA
3- vkorZu] Bsdk] ygjk] vken] eksgjk] frgkbZ dh ifjHkk"kkA
4- ukV~;'kkL=k vkSj laxhr jRukdj dk laf{kIr fooj.kA

izk;ksfxd 202 ihfj;M


1- ewy cksy] rk] èkk] fru vkSj fèku] èkk fd uk fr] fèk] fèk uk vkSj fr] fr] uk] fèk] fèk] xk] frj] fdr] rw]
uk d Ùkk vkfn dk lgh mPpkj.kA

102
2- ok|ksa ij ctkbZ tk jgh ;k xkbZ tk jgh xhrjpuk dh rky dks igpku djus dh ;ksX;rkA
3- gkFk dh Fkkiksa }kjk rky izLrqr djus vkSj ok|ksa ij foLrkj ds lkFk >irky] :id vkSj ,drky dk Bsdk
ctkus dh ;ksX;rkA

lq>k;h xbZ lanHkZ iqLrdsa


1- Jh Hkxor 'kj.k] laxhr gkFkjl }kjk ^rky 'kkL=k*A
2- ia- Ñ".k jko 'kadj iafMr }kjk fyf[kr ^rcyk oknu f'k{kkA*

(IV) dukZVd laxhr xk;u ¼dksM la- 031½½


d{kk&
d{kk&9
2 ?kaVs
lS ) ka f rd 25 va d
iz ; ks f xd 75 va d
68 ihfj;M
lS ) ka f rd
1- fuEufyf[kr ifjHkk"kkvksa dk Kku
laxhr] ukn] Loj] Loj LFkkue] vkjksg] vojksg] Jqfr] rky] y;] vyadkj] LFkk;h] xzg] èkkrq] ekrq] 'kq) ,oa
foÑr Loj] iwokZx]a mÙkjkax] oknh] laoknh] vuqoknh] fooknh] le] vfrr] vukxr] vU; Loj] jkxA
2- fuEufyf[kr jkxy{k.kksa dh :ijs[kk
ek;kekyoxkSy] eksgue~] dY;k.kh] fcygjh] eygjhA
3- fuEufyf[kr laxhfrd :iksa ds y{k.k
xhre~] Lojtkfr
4- fuEufyf[kr rkyksa dk ewy Kku
vkfn] :ide] pkiq
5- iqjUnjnkl vkSj R;kxjktk dh thouh lfgr Hkkjrh; laxhr ds bfrgkl dh :ijs[kkA

izk;ksfxd 202 ihfj;M


1- lkeqnk;fd xk;u 75 va d
¼d½ jk"Vªh; xku
¼[k½ fdlh Hkh {ks=k ds ikap yksd ;k tutkfr xhr tks o"kZ ds le; vkSj lacfa /kr volj dks n'kkZrs gksAa
2- Jqfr 'kqf) vkSj LFkku 'kqf) ds fy, Loj&laoèkZu vH;kl] ek;kekyoxkSy esa lIr rky vyadkjA

103
3- laf{kIr jkxy{k.k lfgr fuEufyf[kr jkxksa dk vkjksg.k ,oa vojksg.k& ek;kekyoxkSy] eksgue~ eygjh] fcygjh]
dY;k.kh
4- rEcqjs vkSj e`nxa e ds lkFk ljy nsojukek] xhre~] Lojtkfr ,oa ljy Hktu xk;uA
5- rky & vkfn] :ide ,oa pkiqA

d{kk&
d{kk&10
dukZVd laxhr (xk;u)
68 ihfj;M
lS ) ka f rd 25 va d
iz k ;ks f xd 75 va d
lS)kfUrd
)kfUrd
1- rEcwjs dh lajpuk dk ewy KkuA
2- cgÙkj esydÙkkZ i)fr dk laf{kIr KkuA
3- dukZVd laxhr dh Lojfyfi i)fr ds fpUgksa ,oa izrhdksa ds iz;ksx dk lkekU; KkuA
4- fuEufyf[kr jkxksa ds laf{kIr jkx y{k.k& gal/ofu] 'kadjkHkj.ke~ dkEcksth] fganksye] vkHkksxhA
5- o.kZe~ tfrLoje~] d`fr ds y{k.kksa dk v/;;uA

izk;ksfxd 202 ihfj;M


75 va d
1- lkeqnk;fd xk;u
pkkj HkfDr xhr] ljy ukekokfy;k¡ Hkkjr ds lar dfo;ksa }kjk jfpr Hktu
2- fuEufy[kr jkxksa ds jkxy{k.k&
dY;k.kh] dkEcksth] 'kadjkHkj.ke~ fganksye~] vkHkksxhA
3- lIrrky vyadkjksa }kjk Loj vkSj y; dk mfpr KkuA
ek;kekyoxkSy esa vyadkj ,oa vU; lk/kkj.k lIrdA
4- rEcwjs vkSj e`nxa e~ ds lkFk ,d fnO;uke dhrZu] ,d tkfr Loje~ ,oa de ls de nks ljy d`fr;k¡A
5- y; dh nks voLFkkvksa esa ,d vkfn rky o.kZeA~
6- dukZVd laxhr dh Lojfyfi i)fr ds fl)karksa dk mnkgj.k lfgr izn'kZuA

104
(V) dukZVd laxhr ¼jkxkRed ok|½ ¼dksM la- 32½½
d{kk&
d{kk&9
fl)ka r 25 va d
iz ; ks x 75 va d
68 ihfj;M

fl¼kar
1- fuEufyf[kr dh O;k[;k dhft, %
laxhre] ukn] Loj] LojLFkku] vkjksgu] vojksgu] vkorZu] Jqfr] LFkk;h] xzg ;k ,MqIiq] èkkrq] ekrq] le] dky
;k y; dh voLFkk,a 'kq) Loj] foÑr Loj] laxfr] iwokZx] mÙkkax] oknh] leoknh] fooknh] vuqoknh vrhr]
vukxr] vU; LojA
2- fuEufyf[kr jkx y{k.k :ijs[kk
ek;kekyoxksy] 'kadjkHkjue] dY;k.kh gElèofuA
3- laxhr ds xhre] Lojtfr] :iksa ds y{k.kA
4- rky % vkfn] :ide vkSj pkiqA
5- iqjUnjnkl vkSj R;kxjktk dh thouh lfgr Hkkjrh; laxhr ds bfrgkl dh :ijs[kkA

izk;ksfxd 202 ihfj;M


75 va d
1- fuEufyf[kr ok| ;a=kksa esa ls dksbZ ,d %
¼d½ oh.kk] ¼[k½ ok;fyu] ¼x½ ckaljq h] ¼?k½ xksVoq kn;e
2- ok| ;a=kksa ds fo|fFkZ;ksa dks lkeqnkf;d xk;u dh Lohd`fr nh tk, vFkok ikB~;Øe ds jkxksa ij vk/kkfjr
lqxe ,oa yksd/kquksa ds oknu dh Lohd`fr nh tk,aA
3- ek;kekyoxkSy esa lIr rky vyadkjA
4- ikB~;Øe esa fuèkkZfjr jkxksa dk foLr`r oknuA
5- laxhr jpuk,a %
nks xhre] y; dh nks voLFkkvksa esa ,d Lojtfr vkSj ,d vkfn rky oj.keA

d{kk&
d{kk&10
2 ?kaVs
fl)ka r 25 va d
iz ; ks x 75 va d
fl¼kar
1- p;u fd, x, ok| ;a=k dh lajpuk vkSj feykus dh fof/k ¼V~;fw uax½ dk ewy KkuA
2- cgÙkj esydrkZ ;kstuk dh :ijs[kkA

105
3- dukZVd laxhr esa Lojkad.kA
4- eksgue] dY;k.kh] dEHkkSth] HkSjoh ds jkx y{k.kA
5- dhrZue vkSj Ñfr] laxhr :iksa ds y{k.kA

izk;ksfxd
1- fl)kar esa fuèkkZfjr jkxksa dks ctkukA
2- ok| ;a=kksa dh V~;fw uax
3- laxhr jpuk,¡ % Loj dh nks voLFkkvksa esa vrk&rky oj.keA
4- lkèkkj.k dhjrue vkSj lkèkkj.k ÑfrA

lq>kbZ xbZ lanHkZ iqLrdsa %


izk-s lEckewfrZ }kjk ¶yw;V ^ckalqjh*
,l- Ñ".kkewfrZ }kjk fyf[kr E;wftdy baLVª;ew Vas l
~ vkWQ bafM;k ¼Hkkjrh; laxhr ok|½

(VI) dukZVd laxhr ¼rky&ok|½ ¼dksM la- 33½½


d{kk&
d{kk&9
fl)ka r 2 ?ka V s 25 va d
iz ; ks x 75 va d
68 ihfj;M
fl¼kar
1- fuEufyf[kr dh O;k[;k dhft, %
laxhr] ukn] Loj] LojLFkku] vjksgu] vojksgu] vkorZ] Jqfr] LFkk;h] xzg ;k ,MqIiq] èkkr] ekrq] le] dky
;k y; dh voLFkk,a] 'kq) Loj] foÑr] Loj] laxfr] iwokZx] mÙkjax] oknh] leoknh] vuqoknh] fooknh] vrhr]
vukxr] vU; LojA
2- fuEufyf[kr ds jkx y{k.k dh :ijs[kk %
ek;kekyoxkSy] 'kadjkHkjue] dY;k.kh] galèofuA
3- xhre] Lojtfr vkSj oj.ke laxhr :iksa ds y{k.kA
4- rky vkfn] :ide vkSj pkiqrkyA
5- iqjUnjnkl vkSj R;kxjktk dh thouh lfgr Hkkjrh; laxhr ds bfrgkl dh :ijs[kkA

106
izk;ksfxd
,dy izn'kZu ,oa laxr e`nxa e dks ctkus esa fuiq.krk izkIr djusA ?kVe] dUthjk vkSj eksjflax tSls vU;
dqNs rky ok|ksa ds j[k&j[kko vkSj ctkus dk Hkh Kku izkIr djukA
1- lkeqnkf;d xk;u esa Hkkx ysukA
2- y; dks mfpr Kku ,oa mlds fodkl ij fo'ks"k /;ku nsuk
3- fofHkUu rkyksa ds fy, lksyqdVs V~ q izLrqr djukA
d{kk&
d{kk&10
2 ?kaVs
fl)ka r 25 va d
iz ; ks x 75 va d
68 ihfj;M
fl¼kar
1- ok| ;a=k dh lajpuk vkSj feykus dh fof/k dk Kku
2- p;u fd, x, ok| ;a=kksa ij muls lacfa èkr izfofèkdrkvksa ds fy, lksyd
q Vs V~ q dks lgh vkSj Li"V :i ls
izLrqr djukA
3- dukZVd laxhr Lojfyfi i)fr ds fl)karA
4- dhrZue vkSj Ñfr :iksa dk fooj.k eksgue~] dY;k.kh] dEckSth] jkxksa ds y{k.kA
5- izLrqr fd;s x;s xk;u ,oa oknu laxhr ds fl)karksa dk ewy KkuA

izk;ksfxd (202 ihfj;M)


1- y; dh fofHkUu voLFkkvksa esa lksyd
q ksVl
q dks lgh :i esa izLrqr djukA
2- ok| ;a=k feykus dh fof/k
3- vkfn rky] :id rky vkSj pkiq rky esa vadksa vkSj eksgjksa dks ctkus dh ;ksX;rkA
4- ljy rkyksa esa la{ksi esa ruh vkoZrue~ ctkukA

lq>k;h xbZ lanHkZ iqLrdsa


1- izk-s ih- lkEckewfrZ }kjk fyf[kr % ^ijd'ku baLVª;ew Vas l ,aM y; ok|A*
2- ,e vkj nqjjS kt }kjk fyf[kr e`nxa LocksfèkuhA

107
([k) isfVax (dksM la- 049)
d{kk 9
3 ?kaVs

,d iz'u i=k 100 vad 270 ihfj;M


(i) oLrq fp=k.k 50
fuf'pr n`f"V fcUnq ls jaxksa esa nks ;k rhu oLrqvksa ds lewg dk vè;;u djukA
bl lewg esa lfCt;ka] csy&cwVs vkSj izfrfnu mi;ksx esa vkus okyh oLrq,a 'kkfey gks ldrh gSA
(ii) isfUly vkSj L;kgh esa thou rFkk izÑfr ls nzqr js[kk&fp=k ¼Ldspst½ rS;kj dukA 20
(iii) o"kZ ds nkSjku fd, x, ikap pqfuank dk;ks± dks 'kkfey djrs gq, Qkby izLrqr djukA 30
d{kk 10
,d iz'u i=k 3 ?kaVs 270 ihfj;M 100 vad

Le`fr ls fp=k.k
thou ij vkèkkfjr fn, x, fo"k;ksa ij ¼ikuh@iksLVj@isLVy½ jaxksa esa lkèkkj.k fp=k la;kstu rS;kj djukA

(x) okf.kT;
fVIi.kh % fuEufyf[kr rhu fo"k; {ks=kksa esa ls dksbZ ,d fo"k; fd;k tk ldrk gS %
1- O;kikj ds rRo
;k
2- iqLrikyu ¼cqd dhfiax½ vkSj ys[kk'kkL=k ds rRo
;k
3- Vad.k vaxtsz h ;k fgUnh

1-- O;kikj ds rRo ¼dksM la- 154½½


mís'; % bl iz'u i=k dk mís'; O;olk; ds fofHkUu igyqvksa dk izkjafHkd Kku miyCèk djkuk gSA
d{kk&
d{kk&9
,d iz'u i=k 3 ?kaVs vad 100 ihfj;M 270
I. izLrkouk lacèa kh % O;olk; dk vFkZ vkSj {ks=k 05 12
II. forj.k ds ekè;e % Fkksd O;kikjh vkSj QqVdj O;kikjh ds izdkj 20 54
vkSj dk;Z

108
III. O;kolkf;d ysu&nsu dh eky dk Ø; ,oa foØ;] miHkksDrkvksa rd
igqapus dh fofèk;ksa]
fØ;k&fof/k % iwNrkN rFkk Hkko] ewY;lwph] fufonk,a] vuqeku
,oa izLrko] foØ; dh lkèkkj.k 'krs±] xq.koÙkk]
ewY;] iSfdax] oLrq lkSaiuk] LokfeRo dk vUrj.k
vkSj Hkqxrku] chtd dh rS;kjh] MsfcV uksV
vkSj ØsfMV uksVA
IV. O;kolkf;d ,ts a V ,tsaV ds izdkj vkSj muds dk;Z] deh'ku ,tsaV] 20 54
vk<+fr;k ,oa nyky] ifj'kksèk ¼Msy&ØsMj½
,tsasV] Ø; i=k ,oa foØ; i=k] foØ; fooj.k
dh rS;kjhA
V. HkaMkj.k ,oa HkaMkj&laHkkyuk % vFkZ] iz;kstu] dk;Z ,oa izdkj 15 42
VI. eky dk ifjogu % jsy] lM+d] leqnz vkSj ok;q ;krk;kr] 20 54
rq y ukRed xq . k
¼;wfuV VI o VII½

VII. chek % ches ds lkekU; fl)kar % izkjafHkd tkudkjh


d{kk&
d{kk&10
,d iz'u i=k 3 ?kaVs 100 va d
I. dk;kZy; dk fu;fer LFkkfir O;olk; ds fofHkUu foHkkx] vkus okyh vkSj 20 54
dk;ZØe ckgj tkus okyh Mkd dk O;ogkj] Qkby dk;Z
vkSj lwph cukus dh fofèk;ka] izfrfyfi vkSj vuqfyfi
rS;kj djus dh fofèk;kaA
II. O;olkf;d i=kkpkj ,d vPNs O;kolkf;d i=k dh vfuok;Zrk,a 20 54
,oa izdkj] iwNrkN djus] Hkko izkIr djus] vkns'k
¼vkMZj½ nsus] gokyk nsus] lykg ,oa f'kdk;r lacaèkh
lkèkkj.k O;kolkf;d i=k fy[kukA
III. cSad cSad ds dk;Z] [kkrksa ds izdkj o mudk lapkyu] cSad 20 54
Mªk¶V] ;k=kh pSd] Mkd?kj cpr cSadA
IV. fofue; lkè;&i=kd izÑfr] pSd ds izdkj] cspku ¼i`"Bkadu½] js[kkadu] pSd 20 54
dk vLohÑr gksukA
V. fofue; i=k izdkj] lacafèkr i{k] fofue;&lkè;rk] cspku] vLohÑr 20 54
gksuk] izfrKk&i=k ,oa gqf.M;kaA
;k

109
2-- iqLr ikyu ¼cqd dhfiax½ vkSj ys[kk 'kkL=k ds rRo ¼dksM la- 254½½
,d iz'u i=k 3 ?kaVs 100 vad ihfj;M
mís'; % bl iz'ui=k dk eq[; mís'; fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks ekSfyd
fl)karksa dks le>us esa l{ke cukuk vkSj fn, x,
vkadM+ksa ls lkèkkj.k ys[kk cfg;ka vkSj fjdkMZ rS;kj
djus vkSj j[kus dh ;ksX;rk dk fodkl djuk gSA
I. iz L rkouk iqLr ikyu ¼cqd&dhfiax½ dh vko';drk] iqLrikyu 14 38
ds mís'; o ykHkA
II. vkèkkjHkwr voèkkj.kk,a ysu&nsu dk f}i{kh; igyw vkSj ys[kk lehdj.k] ys[kk 14 38
lehdj.k ij ysu&nsu dk izHkko] O;kikj vfLrRo dh
voèkkj.kkA
III. [kkrksa dk Lo:i vkSj [kkrksa dk oxhZdj.k] MsfcV vkSj ØsfMV ds fu;e 14 38
Ms f cV&Øs f MV ds fu;e izek.kd o mlds lgk;d izys[kksa dh rS;kjhA
IV. jks t ukepk jkstukeps dh vko';drk] jkstukepk izfof"V;ka] 14 38
lgk;d cfg;kaA
V. [kkrk cgh ifjHkk"kk ,oa egRo] jkstukepk vkSj [kkrkcgh esa 14 38
lacèa k] [krkSuh dk vFkZ] ysu&nsuksa dh [krkSuh ds fy,
ekxZn'khZ fu;e] [kkrksa dk 'ks"k fudkyukA
VI. udn ys u ns u dk jksdM+ cgh dh vko';drk] jksdM+&cgh ds izdkj 15 40
ys[kk o [krkSuh y?kq jksdM+&cgh vkSj is'kxh iz.kkyh] tuZy fo'ks"kA
VII. ryiV mís';] fofèk;ka o lhek,a 15 40

d{kk&
d{kk&10
,d iz'u i=k 3 ?kaVs 100 va d ihfj;M
I. vafre [kkrs lkèkkj.k lek;kstuksa ds lkFk ,dy O;kikjh dk O;kikj 20 54
[kkrk] ykHk&gkfu [kkrk o fLFkfr fooj.k rS;kj djukA
II. cSad lekèkku fooj.k mi;ksfxrk vkSj rS;kj djukA 20 54
¼cSad dkWye rFkk dVkSrh lfgr jksdM+ cgh rS;kj djuk½
III. fofue; i=k fofue; i=k vkSj izfrKk i=k dh izÑfr vkSj mi;ksx] 20 54
fofue; i=k dks cês ij Hkqukuk] vofèk ls iwoZ Hkqxrku
djuk] vLohÑr gksuk vkSj uohuhdj.k lacaèkh ysu nsu
dk ys[kk djukA
IV. v'kqf);ksa ,oa 'kksèku v'kqf);ksa ds izdkj o muds 'kksèku dh izfof"V;kaA 20 54
V. ew Y ;Ðkl mís'; ,oa fofèk;ka LFkk;h fd'r fofèk ,oa Øekxr 20 54
Ðkl fofèk

110
3-- Vad.k ¼vaxzsth o fgUnh½ dksM la- ¼¼354½½
rhoz vkS|ksxhdj.k vkSj lapkj ds 'kh?kzxkeh lkèkuksa ds dkj.k Je&cpr lkèkuksa dk mi;ksx c<+
jgk gSA Vad.k ,d vR;fèkd lkekU; Je&cpr midj.k ds :i esa mi;ksx eas yk;k tkus okyk lkèku
gS ftls nwjLFk uxjksa esa Hkh iz;ksx esa yk;k tkrk gSA fodkl'khy ns'kksa esa tgka ij Je cpr dh vU;
vR;kèkqfud midj.k miyCèk ugha gSa bldh laxrk vkSj c<+ tkrh gSA dsUnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ us
^Vad.k vaxt sz h ;k fgUnh* ds fo"k; dks ekè;fed Lrj ij vfrfjDr ¼oSdfYid½ fo"k; ds :i esa 'kkfey
djus dk fu.kZ; fy;k gSA bl dne ls vè;;u dh ;kstuk dk;ksZUeq[kh vkSj vko';drk vkèkkfjr cu
xbZ gSA

mís'; %
Vad.k lh[kus okyksa dks Vadd dh jpukra=k dks le>us esa lgk;rk djukA
Vad.k lh[kus okyksa ds Vad.k ds rjhdksa dks le>us esa lgk;rk djukA
izwQ&lqèkkj esa iz;ksx gksus okys izrhd fpUgksa dks tkuus gsrq lh[kus okys dh lgk;rk djukA
fo"k; ds mfpr izn'kZu ds fy, ekftZu] lSfVax djuk] dkxt dks eè; esa j[kuk vkSj rkfydk
cukus tSls dk;ks± ls ;ksX;rk izkIr djus esa l{ke cukukA
rhozrk vkSj 'kq)rk ds lkFk Vad.k djus vkSj LVsfUly dkVus dk Kku izkIr djus gsrq lh[kus
okys dh lgk;rk djukA

d{kk&
d{kk&9
,d lS)kafrd iz'u i=k 2 ?kaVs va d 25 68 ihfj;M
dqath iVy ¼dh cksMZ½ dk Kku
Vad.k dh fofèk;ka vkSj fl)kar
Vad.k dh Li'kZ i)fr
Vadd ds jpukra=k o blds fofHkUu iqtks± dh tkudkjh
Vadd dk vuqj{k.kA
,d iz;ksxkRed iz'u i=k 10 feuV va d 30 202 ihfj;M
1-- xfr ijh{kk ¼¼15 'kCn izfr feuV½
¼vaxzsth esa yxHkx 150 'kCnksa ;k fgUnh esa 120 'kCnksa dk lkèkkj.k ifjPNsnA mlh ifjPNsn dks
nksgjk;k tk,xk ;fn le; ls iwoZ lekIr gks tkrk gSA½
2-- ifj'kq)rk ijh{kk vad 45 le; % 40 feuV
sz h vkSj fgUnh esa 10 'kCn izfr feuV dh nj ls yxHkx 400 'kCnksa dk ,d lkèkkj.k ifjPNsn½
¼vaxt

111
d{kk&
d{kk&10
,d lS)kafrd iz'u i=k 2 ?kaVs vad 25 68 ihfj;M
Vad.k e'khu ¼Vadd½ ds egRoiw.kZ iqtks± ds dk;Z
i=kksa vkSj rkfydk ds izLrqrhdj.k esa ekftZx lSV djus] dkxt dks eè; esa j[kus] 'kh"kZ vkSj mi'kh"kZ vkfn
ds ckjs esa izkjafHkd KkuA
LVsfUly dkVus vkSj ¶Y;wM dks lgh <ax ls iz;ksx esa ykus ds ckjs esa
izQ
w esa xyfr;ka Bhd djus ds fpUg
ekud ladrs k{kj
xfr c<+kus lacèa kh vH;klA
,d iz;ksxkRed iz'u i=k 1 ?kaVk vad 75 202 ihfj;M
¼d½ lrr~ fo"k;oLrq xfr vkSj ifj'kq)rk ijh{kk vad 30 le; % 10 feuV
¼vaxtsz h esa 30 'kCn izfr feuV dh nj ls 300 'kCnksa dk vkSj fgUnh esa 25 'kCn izfr feuV dh nj ls 250
'kCnksa dk ,d ifjPNsnA mlh ifjPNsn dks nksgjk;k tk,xk ;fn le; ls iwoZ lekIr gks tkrk gSA½
¼[k½ rkfydk cukus lacaèkh ijh{kk vad 45 le; % 40 feuV
¼,d rkfydkc) fooj.k ftlesa {kSfrt :i esa vkSj mèokZèkj :i esa 3&4 xquk ls vfèkd LraHk u gksA fganh
Vad.k ds fy, Hkh ;gh ykxw gSA½
;k
¼x½ i=k dk Vad.k vad 45 le; % 40 feuV
¼yxHkx 200 'kCnksa dk vaxt
zs h ;k fgUnh esa ,d lkèkkj.k i=k dk Vad.k djuk½
Z r dk;ks± dks vkjaHk djus ds chp 10 feuV dk le;
fVIi.kh % Vad.k e'khu ¼Vadd½ dk Bhd djus vkSj mi;qd
fn;k tk,xkA

112
(?k) x`g foKku (dksM la[;k 064)
mís'; %
 Lo;a ds fy, ,d dq'ky izcaèk gsrq fd'kksjksa dks vko';d Kku vkSj fuiq.krk iznku djukA
 ?kjsyw dk;Zdykiksa lacaèkh lHkh izfØ;kvksa ds ckjs esa oSKkfud lwpuk miyCèk djkuk vkSj vko';d
dk;Z dq'kyrk iznku djukA
 vkRefuHkZjrk ds fy, visf{kr dq'kyrk izkIr djus gsrq fd'kksjksa dks volj iznku djukA
 mPp f'k{kk@fodflr izf'k{k.k lacaèkh Hkfo"; ikB~;Øeksa esa izos'k ysus ds fy, visf{kr Kku vkSj
fuiq.krk izkIr djus ds fy, fd'kksjksa dks rS;kj djukA
d{kk&
d{kk&9
,d fyf[kr i=k 3 ?kaVs 75 va d
,d iz;ksxkRed i=k 3 ?kaVs 25 va d
lS)kkfUrd

bdkbZ&1 % x`g foKku dh ladYiuk rFkk vè;;u {ks=k 5


bdkbZ&2 % ifjokj&lekt dh ,d bdkbZ 10
ifjokj dk vkdkj rFkk izdkj] ifjokj ds izdkj esa ifjorZu ds dkj.k] ifjokj ds vkdkj dk lnL;ksa
ds dY;k.k ij izHkko] ifjokj dks fufoZ?u pykus esa lnL;ksa dh HkwfedkA

bdkbZ&3 % Hkkstu rFkk LokLF; ls mldk lacaèk 10


Hkkstu] LokLF; iks"k.k] iks"kd rRo rFkk larqfyr Hkkstu dh ifjHkk"kk] Hkkstu ds dk;Z (i) ÅtkZ iznku
djuk] (ii) 'kjhj dk fodkl rFkk iqufuZekZ.k] (iii) jksxksa ls j{kk] (iv) 'kjhj ds dk;ks± ij fu;a=k.k] (v)
euksoSKkfud larqf"V] (vi) lkekftd dk;Z] Hkkstu rFkk LokLf; esa ijLij lacaèkA

bdkbZ&4 % Hkkstu idkus dh fofèk;ka


mckyuk] Hkki ls idkuk] izs'kj dqfdax] ryuk] Hkwuuk rFkk lsduk lHkh dk laf{kIr o.kZu rFkk Hkkstu
ds fy, mi;qDrrkA

bdkbZ&5 % ?kj ds dk;Z 10


lqj{kkRed rFkk lkekftd dk;kZRed ?kj dh fo'ks"krk,a lqj{kk] jks'kuh] ok;q dk vkokxeu] 'kksj] LoPNrk
¼dwMs+] xans ikuh] ey dk fuiVku rFkk vklikl dh lQkbZ dk laf{kIr½ o.kZuA

113
bdkbZ&6 % ?kj esa lqj{kk 10
jlksbZ ?kj rFkk Luku?kj esa nq?kZVukvksa ls cpko] dVuk] fxjuk] tyuk] fctyh dk >Vdk yxuk] tgjhykiu b±èku
dk lqjf{kr iz;ksx] dVus tyus] pksV yxus] >qylus] >Vdk yxus] fNy tkus o fdlh tho }kjk dkVs tkus ij
izkFkfed fpfdRlk djuk] tgjhykiu rFkk tarv q ksa dk dkVukA

bdkbZ&7 % cktkj esa miyCèk oL=k 14


lwr o rarq dh ifjHkk"kk] yackbZ rFkk mRifÙk ds vkèkkj ij lwrksa dk oxhZdj.k] èkkxk cukuk lfEeJ.k oL=kksa ds
fuekZ.k dh izfØ;k cquuk ¼fofHkUu izdkj dh cqukbZ] lknh] cqukbZ Vfcy cqukbZ rFkk lkfVu cqukbZ½] QSfYVax rFkk
fufVax] rarv
q ksa dh fo'ks"krk,a yackbZ] etcwrh] ueh lks[kus dh {kerk] rkidh laokgdrk] izR;LFkrk ,oa ypd] rki
dk izHkko] dhM+kas rFkk QaQnw h dk izHkko] vey rFkk {kkj dk izHkkoA

bdkbZ&8 % oL=kksa dk p;u 6


oL=kksa ds p;u dks izHkkfor djus okys dkjd %
(i) diM+s ls lacafèkr dkjd ¼rarv
q ksa ds xq.k] diM+s dh lajpuk½
(ii) O;fDr lacafèkr dkjd vk;q] dk;Z] volj] QS'ku] vkdkj vkSj vkjkeA
(iii) vU; dkjd ewY; rFkk tyok;q

iz;ksxkRed dk;Z
iz;ksxkRed dk;Z % 20+5 (l=kh; dk;Z) 25
1- vius ifjokj ds izdkj] vkdkj rFkk lnL;ksa dh Hkwfedk dk fujh{k.k djks rFkk lHkh lnL;ksa ds fdlh ,d
fnu ds dk;Zdykikas dk fooj.k rS;kj djksA
2- fofHkUu fofèk;ksa ls rS;kj fd, x, Hkkstu ds Lokn] :i rFkk jax dk vè;;u djksA
3- fofHkUu fofèk;ksa dk iz;ksx djds Hkkstu rS;kj djksA
4- vius ?kj esa jks'kuh ds izcèa k] ok;q ds vkokxeu] vklikl ds okrkoj.k rFkk xans ikuh ds fuiVku dh fofèk
dk fujh{k.k djks rFkk mldk fjdkMZ rS;kj djksA
5- lqj{kk dh n`f"V ls fdlh nq?kZVuk ls cpko dh n`f"V ls vius ?kj dk vè;;u djks rFkk mlesa lqèkkj ds fy,
lq>ko nksA
6- fuEu nq?kZVukvksa esa izkFkfed lgk;rk iznku djus dk vH;kl djks&dV tkuk] fNy tkuk] ty tkuk] >qyluk
rFkk tkuojksa ¼thoks½a dk dkVukA
7- cktkj esa miyCèk diM+kas ds uewus ,df=kr djks rFkk diM+kas dh dher ¼oSdfYid½ etcwrh] vkÑfr rFkk
mi;qDr ds vkèkkj ij rqyukRed lkfj.kh cukvksA
8- ngu ijh{k.k rFkk vkdkj dh lgk;rk ls rarq dh igpku djksA

114
d{kk&
d{kk&10
,d fyf[kr i=k 3 ?ka V s 75 va d
,d iz;ksxkRed i=k 3 ?kaVs 25 va d
lS ) kka f rd

bdkbZ&1 %
cPpksa essa fodkl o o`f) ds fl)kUr] tUe ls rhu o"kZ dh vk;q rd o`f) o fodkl cPpksa esa 'kkjhfjd] xR;kRed]
lkekftd] HkkokRed rFkk Hkk"kk;h fodkl ds egRoiw.kZ pj.k% cPpksa dh 'kkjhfjd] lkekftd rFkk HkkoukRed
vko';drk,aA 10

bdkbZ&2 %
rhu o"kZ rd ds cPpksa ds thou esa iqLrdks]a laxhr] dforkvks]a [ksyks]a jsfM;ks] Vsyhfotu rFkk ohfM;ks dh Hkwfedk
4

bdkbZ&3 % [ksy
[ksyksa dk vFkZ] tUe ls rhu o"kZ dh vk;q rd cPpksa ds fy, [ksy dh vko';drk rFkk mlds izdkj]
[ksyksa dh fo'ks"krk,a lfØ;] fuf"Ø;] LokHkkfod] xaHkhj rFkk vUos"k.kkRedA 5
cPpksa ds fy, [ksy lkexzh [ksy lkexzh dh fo'ks"krk,a

bdkbZ&4 % [kk| rRo (iks"kdrk)


dkckst
Z ] izkVs hu] olk] [kfut yo.k&yksgk] dSfY'k;e rFkk vk;ksMhu] foVkfeu&foVkfeu ,-ch-ch-ch] lh rFkk Mh
ds dk;Z] izkfIr lkèku ,oa deh ds y{k.k] Hkkstu idkrs le; [kk| rRoksa dh gkfu] [kk| rRoksa dks u"V gksus ls
cpkuk rFkk [kk| rRoksa esa ikSf"Vdrk dh o`f) djukA 7
bdkbZ&5 % vkgkj vk;kstu
vkgkj vk;kstu dh ladYiuk vko';drk rFkk vkgkj vk;kstu dks izHkkfor djus okys dkjd vk;q] fyax] tyok;q]
O;olk;] 'kkjhfjd vko';drk,a] ifjokj ds lnL;ksa dh la[;k] ifjokj dk vkfFkZd Lrj] [kk| inkFkks± dh miyCèkrk]
ifjokj dh ijaijk,a] lnL;ksa dh #fp;ka rFkk voljA
[kk| oxZ ¼vkbZ-lh-,e-vkj- }kjk izLrkfor ikap oxZ½ larqfyr Hkkstu ds vk;kstu esa [kk| oxks± dk iz;ksx] vkbZ-
lh-,e-vkj- }kjk izLrkfor [kk| rRoksa dh nSfud vko';drkA 6
bdkbZ&6 % [kk| LoPNrk rFkk [kk| HkaMkj.k dh fofèk;ka %
[kk| inkFkks± dks rS;kj djrs le; LoPNrk ds fu;e rFkk 'kh?kz u"V gksus okys] èkhjs u"V gksus okys rFkk u"V u
gksus okys [kk| inkFkks± ds HkaMkj.k dh fofèk;kaA 6
bdkbZ&7 % ikfjokfjd lalkèku
lalkèkuksa ds izdkj ekuoh; lalkèku ¼ÅtkZ] le;] Kku rFkk ;ksX;rk½] HkkSfrd lalkèku ¼èku] HkkSfrd oLrq,a rFkk
lkoZtfud lalkèku½] lkekU; lalkèkuksa dh fo'ks"krk,a] lalkèkuksa dk mfpr mi;ksx] O;fDrxr rFkk lkewfgdA 6

115
bdkbZ&8 % èku dk izcaèku 6
ikfjokfjd vk;] O;; rFkk cpr ,oa fuos'k dk egRoA

bdkbZ&9 % miHkksDrk f'k{kk


miHkksDrk ds vfèkdkj o drZO;] miHkksDrk dh leL;k,sa O;kikfj;ksa dh dqpkysa ewY;ksa esa fHkUurk] fuEu xq.koÙkk
feykoV] uki&rksy ds nks"kiw.kZ midj.k] oLrqvksa dk miyCèk u gksuk] xyr lwpuk,a] ekudhÑr oLrqvksa dk vHkko]
vlR; foKkiu]
miHkksDrk lwpuk ds òksr ekudhdj.k fpUg] yscy] iSdt s ] foKkiu] ipsAZ 6
bdkbZ&10 % oL=kksa dh ns[kHkky
?kj esas oL=kksa dh lQkbZ o ifjlTtk ds fy, izfrfnu iz;ksx esa yk;s tkus okys inkFkZ] ?kj eas oL=kksa dh ns[kHkky&èkCcs
NqM+kuk ¼fofèk rFkk è;ku nsus ;ksX; ckrs½a ] diM+s èkksuk] rFkk oL=kksa ¼lwrh] js'keh] Åuh rFkk Ñf=ke rarqvksa ls cus
oL=k½ dk HkaMkj.kA 14

bdkbZ&11 % oL=kksa dh xq.koÙkk dh tkap


flys&flyk, oL=kksa dh dkjhxjh] nthZ ls flyk, x, oL=k] oL=kksa ds yscy i<+ukA 5
d{kk X
iz;ksxkRed 20+5 ¼l=kh; dk;Z½¾
¾25
1- tUe ls rhu o"kZ dh voLFkk ds fdlh cPps dh 'kkjhfjd o xR;kRed fo'ks"krkvksa dk fujh{k.k djks rFkk
mldk fooj.k fy[kksA
2- 1&3 o"kZ ds cPpksa dh [ksy fØ;kvksa dks ns[kksA mudh #fp;ksa rFkk [ksy lkexzh dh fo'ks"krkvksa dh lwph
cukvksA
3- 0&3 o"kZ dh vk;q ds cPps ds fy, ,d f[kykSuk cukvksA
4- iks"kd rRoksa esa o`f) ds mik;ksa dk iz;ksx djds [kk| inkFkZ rS;kj djksA
5- cph iM+h O;FkZ oLrqvksa dk iz;ksx djds dksbZ mi;ksxh oLrq cukvksA
6- cktkj esa ns[kh gqbZ fdUgha ikap dqpkyksa dh lwph cukvksA
7- fuEu ewyHkwrksa Vkadksa rFkk lhouksa dk vH;kl djks dPpk] cf[k;k] rqjikbZ rFkk NksVk dPpk lhouA
8- lkèkkj.k èkCcs NqMk+ uk lCth dk èkCck] isVa ] cky isu L;kgh] fyifLVd] jDr] tax] pk; rFkk dkQh dk èkCckA
9- lwrh] js'keh] Åuh rFkk Ñf=ke rarq ls cus oL=kksa dh èkqykbZ o ifjlTtk djksA
10- ,d flys flyk;s oL=k dh xq.koÙkk dh tkap djksA
11- ,d flys&flyk;s oL=k dk yscy i<+kAs
uksV % fo|kFkhZ o"kZ Hkj ds izk;ksfxd l=kh; dk;Z dk fjdkMZ j[ksaxsA
lanHkZ iqLrdsa
1- gkse lkbal&ysMh bjfou dkfyt ds LVkQ }kjk izdk'kd] yksxa eSu ubZ fnYyhA
2- jk"Vªh; eqDr fo|ky; ch&31 ch dSyk'k dkWyksuh }kjk lEikfnr rFkk fcØh gsrq izLrqr x`g foKku ds 1&6
rd iz{s k.kA

116
vfrfjDr Hkk"kk,¡
fuEufyf[kr esa ls dksbZ ,d Hkk"kk] vfuok;Z oxZ ds vUrxZr pquh xbZ Hkk"kkvksa ds vfrfjDr] vfrfjDr tkudkjh ds fy,
v/;;u dh ;kstuk ns[ksa % fgUnh] vaxt sz h] vleh] caxkyh] HkwfV;k] xqtjkrh] dUuM] d'ehjh] fyacw ysIpk] ejkBh] ey;kye]
mfM+;k] iatkch] fla/kh] rfey] rsyxq ]w mnw]Z laLÑr] vjch] ijf'k;u] Ýspa ] teZu] jf'k;u] Lisfu'k] usikyh] iqrxZ kyh] frCcrh]
fetksA
uksV % bu Hkk"kkvksa ds fy, ikB~;Øe ,oa ikB~;iqLrdsa ek/;fed fo|ky; ikB~;p;kZ ds Hkkx&2 esa vfuok;Z
Hkk"kk oxZ ds vUrxZr fn, x, lEcfU/kr Hkk"kk ds ikB~;Øe ds leku gksaxhA

(M-) lwpuk izk|


S ksfxdh ds ewy vk/kj (dksM la[;k 165)
f'k{k.k mís'; %
lkekU;
1- lwpuk izk|
S ksfxdh ds ewy fu;eksa ls ifjfpr djuk
2- lwpuk fu:i.k ,oa lalk/ku ds midj.kksa ds mi;ksx ds fy, ewyHkwr n{krk fodflr djuk
3- mRikndrk ,oa xq.krk esa o`f) ds fy, lwpuk lalk/ku midj.kksa dk mi;ksx djuk

fof'k"V
1- laKkukRed {ks=k % Kku vkSj vocks/ku
lwpuk izk|
S ksfxdh ds midj.kksa dk ewy vocks/ku fodlfr djuk
2- dk;kZRed ¼lkbdkseksVj½ izHkko {ks=k & dq'kyrk
lwpuk lalk/ku] midj.kksa dk mi;ksx djus dh dq'kyrk fodflr djukA
3- izof` Ùk izHkko {ks=k % O;fDro fo'ks"kd
lg;ksx dh Hkkouk ls dk;Z djus] lajpukRed izLrqrhdj.k ,oa vfHkdyu ds uhfrijd fl)kUrksa ds izfr
fu"Bk dh vknr fodflr djukA
d{kk IX
ihjh,M vad
bdkbZ fooj.k lS ) kfUrd iz k ;ks f xd lS ) kfUrd iz ; ks f xd
1- lwpuk izkS|ksfxd ds ewy fu;e 10 0 10 0
2- lwpuk lalk/ku midj.k 35 20 30 10
3- lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh ds vuqiz;ksx 30 20 30 10
4- lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh dk lkslkbVh l l?kn`u 5 0 10 0
80 40 80 20
60 lS)kfUrd + 20 Mcl
117
d{kk X
ihjh,M vad
bdkbZ fooj.k lS ) kfUrd iz k ;ks f xd lS ) kfUrd iz ; ks f xd
1- lwpuk izkS|ksfxd ds ewy fu;e 10 0 10 0
2- lwpuk lalk/ku midj.k 35 20 30 10
3- lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh ds vuqiz;ksx 30 20 30 10
4- lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh dk lkslkbVh l l?kn`u 5 0 10 0
80 40 80 20
60 lS)kfUrd + 20 Mcl
d{kk X

lS ) kfUrd

S ksfxdh ds ewy fu;e (Basics of Information Technology)


bdkbZ&1 % lwpuk izk|
izk|
S ksfxfd;ksa dk vfHklj.k %
dEI;wVj] lapkj vkSj vUrfoZ.k; izk|
S ksfxfd;k¡

vfHkdyu izk|
S ksfxdh
dEI;wVj iz.kkyh %
dEI;wVj dh fo'ks"krk,] dEI;wVj iz.kkyh ds vo;o & CPU eseksjh] Hk.Mkj.k ;qfDr;ka rFkk I/O ;qfDr;ka

eseksjh %
izkFkfed ¼RAM ,oa ROM) rFkk f}rh;d eseksjh

eseksjh ds ek=kd %
ckbV] fdyksckbV] esxkckbV] fxxkckbV] VsjkckbV

I/O ;qfDr;ka %
dh cksM]Z ekml] fizUVj] tks;kfLVd] LdSuj ekbØksQksu] OCJ, MICR ykbV isu] ckj dksM jhMj] fMftVy dSejk]
Lihdj] IykWVj

Hk.Mkj.k ;qfDr;ka %
gkMZ fMLd] CD ROM, DVD, Blu Ray, isu@¶yS'k Mªkbo] eseksjh fLVd

lkÝVos;j ds izdkj %
flLVe lkW¶Vos;j ¼izpkyu iz.kkyh½] ,Iyhds'ku lkW¶Vos;j ¼lkekU; iz;kstu½
118
,Iyhds'ku lkWÝVos;j %
oMZ izkl
s fs lax] LizMS 'khV] izt
s Us Vs'ku] MkVk csl izcU/ku] fof'k"V iz;kstu ,Iyhds'ku

lkÝVos;j %
ys[kk izc/ku] vkj{k.k iz.kkyh] HR izcU/ku] mifLFkfr iz.kkyh] isjksy iz.kkyh] Ldwy bUosUVjh dUVªky
s iz.kkyh] fcfyax
iz.kkyh] rFkk ;wVhfyVh lkW¶Vos;j ¼fMLd@QksYMj@Qkby izcU/ku] ok;jl] LDSuj@Dyhuj] ,ukfØI'ku@fMfØI'ku
midj.k½

lapkj izkS|ksfxdh (Communication Technologies) %


dEI;wVj usVofd±x CAN, Man, VAN baVjusV bUVjLisl

ok;MZ usVofd±x izkS|ksfxdh %


mnkgj.k lek{kh dscy] bZFkjusV dscy] vkIVhdy Qkbcj ¼izdkf'kd rUrq½

ok;jysl usVofd±x izkS|ksfxdh %


mnkgj.k CY;w VwFk] bUÝkjsM rFkk WiFi

vUrfoZ"k; izkS|ksfxdh (Content Technologies) %


MkVk] lwpuk rFkk eYVhehfM;k ¼fiDpj@best] vkfM;ks] ohfM;ks ,suhes'ku½

bdkbZ % lwpuk lalk/ku midj.k (Information Processing Tools)%

izpkyu iz.kkyh %
izpkyu iz.kkyh dh ewy ladYiuk,a rFkk blds izdk;Z ¼MS foUMks] GNU Linux½

fo.Mks ls ifjp; %
ekml ,oa ewfoax vkbdkWuksa dk LØhu ij dk mi;ksx djuk] esjk dEI;wVj] fjlkbfdy fcu] VkLd ckj LVkVZ&ehuw
rFkk ehsuw lsyDs 'ku] fdlh ,Iyhds'ku dks pykuk] iz.kkyh dk fnukad ,oa le; lsV djuk] Qkbyksa QksYMjks vkSj MkbjsDVjh
ns[kus ds fy, fo.Mks ,DlIyksj] Qkbyks ,oa QksYMjksa dk iqu% ukedj.k] fo.Mks [kksyuk&cUn djuk fefuekbt+] jhLVksj] rFkk
fo.Mkst dk eSDlhlkbt :i] fo.Mks ds ewy vo;o] MsLdyki] Ýse] VkbfVy ckj] ehuw ckj LVsVl ckj] LØkSy ckj ¼{kSfrt
vkSj Å/okZ/kj½ ekml dk lh/kk cVu mi;ksx djuk] 'kkVZdV iSnk djuk] csfld fo.Mks] ,lsljht+] uksV iSM] dSydqyVs j]
oMZiMS ] fDyicksMZ mi;ksx djukA

vkWfQl VwYl %
oMZ izkslsflax Vwy%

oMZ izkl
s l
s j ls ifjp;] fdlh MkWD;weUS V dks l`ftr o lqjf{kr djuk] fdlh MkWD;weUS V dk lEiknu o QkWefZs Vax]
119
VSDLV LVkby (BIU), QksUV Vkbi lkbt] jax ifjorZu] VSDLV&lsj[s k.k] ykbu ds lkFk iSjkxzkQ QkesfZ Vax vFkok iSjkxzkQ
Lisflax] ghMlZ RkFkk QwVlZ dks tksM+uk] ist ij uEcj Mkyuk] xzkej rFkk LiSfyax dh tkap dh ;wVhfyfVht dk mi;ksx]
lc fLØIV vkSj lqij fLØIV dk mi;ksx] fizUV fizO;q] fdlh MkWD;weUS V dks fizVa djukA
izrhdksa dh izfof"V djuk] fDYi vkVZ vkSj fiDpj] ist lSfVax] cqyVs vkSj uEcfjax] ckWMjZ vkSj jksfMax] QkWeVZs isUVj]
QkbUM vkSj fjIysl] lkj.kh dh izfof"V] ifDr;ksa o LrEHkksa dh izfof"V vkSj gVkuk] ekftZu lsYl] fLifyax lsYl]
vkWVks QkWeVZs mi;ksx djuk] esy etZ] ljy xf.krh; O;tdksa dk mi;ksx] jSd ifjorZuA

izstsUVs'ku Vwy %

izt
s Us Vs'ku xzkfQDl ls ifjp;] LykbM 'kkst dh /kkj.kk dk vocks/ku LykbM ds ewy vo;u] fofHkUu izdkj ds
LykbM ysvkmV] fdlh izt s Us Vs'ku dk l`tu vkSj mls lqjf{kr djuk] fdlh LykbM ds fofHkUu O;w] ukWey s O;w] LykbM
lkWVjZ O;w vkSj LykbM 'kks] fdlh LykbM dk lEiknu rFkk QkWefZs Vax] 'kh"kZd og mi'kh"kZd tksM+uk] VSDlV cSdxzkm.M]
okVjekdZ] ghMjlZ vkSj QqVlZ] LykbMks dh uEcfjax djukA
Qkbyksa ls fiDpjksa dh izfof"V] lkbM bQSDV lfgr VSDLV o fiDpj ,suhesV djuk] VsDlV ckWDl fiDpj
rFkk LykbMks dk Vkbfea x djuk] Vkbfea x dk fjglZ y ] DyhikVZ ls fiDpjks a dk lew g hdj.k ,oa
folew g hdj.kA

LizSM'khV Vwy %

LizMS 'khV Vwy ls ifjp;] odZ cqd ,oa odZ'khV dh /kkj.kk] fdlh odZ'khV dks l`ftr ,oa lqjf{kr djuk] fdlh
LizMs 'khV ds lkFk dk;Z djukA

vkWVksfQy ds mi;ksx }kjk odZ'khV ls la[;kvks]a VsDlV] fnukad@le;] fdlh odZ'khV dk lEiknu ,oa QkesfZ Vax
ftlesa VSDlV dk laj{k.k] jax] vkeki] QksUV ifjorZu lfEefyr gks( lsYl] iafDr;ka rFkk LrEHk dh izfof"V ,oa
gVkuk] lw=k] lw=k esa izpkydksa (+-*/) dk mi;ksx djds fdlh lsy esa lw=k dh izfof"V djuk] vkisfld lanHkhZdj.k
rFkk fefJr lnqHkhZdj.k fdlh odZ'khV dks fizUV djukA

ljy lkf[;dh; Qyukas SUM ( ), AVERAGE ( ), MAX ( ), IFO ¼la;Dq r dFkuksa ds fcuk½ dk mi;ksx]
odZ'khV esa lkj.kh;ksa dh izfof"V] fofHkUu izdkj & ykbu] ikbZ] LdSVj] ckj rFkk {ks=kQy ds pkVks± dk fdlh odZ'khV
esa ,EcsfMaxA

bdkbZ III lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh ,Iyhds'ku

fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks ;g ijke'kZ fn;k tkrk gS fd os oMZ izkl


s fs lax izt
s Us Vs'ku rFkk LizMS 'khV dk mi;ksx djds fuEufyf[kr
{ks=kksa esa dk;Z djsa

120
izHkko {ks=k (Domains)
MkWdew US Vs'ku
 esy etZ QkWey
Z @buQkWey
Z i=k
 fjiksVZ fy[kuk
 cgqHkk"kh; c/kkbZ i=k@dkMZ
 iskLVj cukuk

izt
s US Vs'ku
 Ldwy eSxthu
 i;kZoj.k ¼ÅtkZ cpkvks½ rFkk izn"w k.k ¼oSf'od m"e.k½
 mRikn foKkiu
 ikB~;Øe ls foKku ,oa lkekftd foKku dh fo"k; oLrq
 ok;jysl vfHkdjyu dh vksj >qdko

fo'ys"k.k izLrqfrdj.k
 fo|kFkhZokj rFkk fo"k;okj vadks lfgr fo|ky;@d{kk dk ijh{kk ifj.kke
 fØdsV Ldksj dk fjdkMZ
 ekSle & Hkfo";ok.kh fjiksVZ
uksV % mijksDr fo"k;ksa ij lSEiy MkWdeq US V~l@izt
s US Vs'ku@LizMS 'khV CBSE CD ROM ij miyC/k djk;h x;h gSA

f'k{kdksa ls fuosnu gS fd os oMZ izkl


s fs lax] izt
s US Vs'ku rFkk LiSMz 'khV ds fy, dqN vU; izpfyr lkW¶Vos;jks]a tks fgUnh vkSj
vFkok vU; Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa dk iks"k.k djrs gks]a dk d{kk esa fun'kZu djsAa

bdkbZ IV lwpuk izk|


S ksfxdh dk lkslkbV ls la?kVu %

lwpuk izk|
S ksfxdh esa lwpuk dh lkfgfR;d pksjh] xksifu;rk] lqj{kk] rFkk lR;fu"Bk] ckSf)d LokfeRo vf/kdkj]
dSfj;jA

izk;ksfxd
izk;ksfxd iz'u i=k ijh{kk vof/k va d ihfj,Mks dh la[;k
1 2 ?kUVs 20 40

121
(v) gLrkfl) vuqHko
izk;ksfxd iz'u i=k dk fMtkbu
izk;ksfxd ijh{kk dk lapkyu djus ds fy, CBSE }kjk igys ls lsV fd;k gqvk dksbZ iz'u i=k iznku ugha fd;k
x;k gSA ijh{kdksa dks ;g yphyk iu izkk;ksfxd ijh{kk ls lq/kkj dh n`f"V ls mUgsa vkSj vf/kd Lora=krk iznku
djds fn;k x;k gSA

ekdZ fo|ky; dh iz;ksx'kkyk esa miyC/k lalk/kuksa ,oa lqfo/kkvksa dks /;ku esa j[kdj gh ijh{kk dk lapkyu fd;k
tk ldsA rFkkfi] ikB~;Øe] vad foHkktu ,oa ijh{kk ls lapkyu ds vk/kkj ij CBSE }kjk foLr`r funs'Z k iznku
fd, x, gSAa ijh{kdksa dks ;g ijke'kZ fn;k tkrk gS fd os iz'u i=k Lohd`r ikB~;p;kZ ,oa vad foHkktu ds
vuqlkj gh lsV djsAa

Øe la[;k dq ' kyrk va d

I izpkyu iz.kkyh ij dk;Z 2


II oMZ iz k s l s f la x 3
III iz t s U Vs ' ku 3
IV LiS M 'khV 4

I izpkyu iz.kkyh ij dk;Z


Qkbyks@a QksYMjksa ij uhps fn, x, ewy iz.kkyh izpkyuksa esa ls dqN dk ijh{k.k
 l`tu
 iqu% ukedj.k
 dkWih@dV@isLV
 gVkuk (Delete)
 uksV iSM@VSDLV ,MhVj@oMZ iSM@isUV ls lacfa /kr vkns'k (Command)
II oMZ izkslsflax
fuEufyf[kr {ks=kksa dk ijh{k.k djus ds fy, fdlh MkWdew US V dk l`tu djuk
 VSDlV ,oa iSjkxzkQ lEiknu rFkk QkWefZs Vax
 ist rFkk iSjkxzkQ lsfVax
 fiDpj rFkk oMZvkVZ izfof"V

122
III iztsUVs'ku
fuEufyf[kr {ks=kksa dk ijh{k.k djus ds fy, 4 LykbMksa ds lkFk fdlh iztUs Vs'ku dk l`tu djuk gSA
 LykbMksa dk lEiknu rFkk QWkesfZ Vax
 fiDpj rFkk lkmUMksa dh izfof"V
 lkmUM bQsDVksa ds lkFk fiDpj rFkk VsDLV ,suhesV djuk

IV LiSM
fuEufyf[kr {ks=kksa dk ijh{k.k djus ds fy, ,d LiSM'khV dk l`tu djuk gSA
 lsyksa rFkk MkVk dk QWkesfZ Vax
 izdk;Z o lw=k ¼vkisfld] ijx rFkk fefJr lanHkZ½
 pkVZ
mÙkj iqfLrdk ds lkFk MkWdqeUS Vks@a LizMS 'khVksa ds fizUV vkmV Hkh yxkrs gSAa ¼4 vad½

(B) lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh vuqiz;ksx fjiksVZ Qkby


fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks 12 fo"k;ksa ij oMZ izkfs lflax Vwy] iztUs Vs'ku Vwy rFkk LizMS 'khV Vwy dk mi;ksx djds okLrfod thou
ds fu;r dk;ks±@iztUs Vs'kuksa dk lekos'k djrs gq, lwpuk izk| S ksfxdh vuqi;z ksx fjiksVZ Qkby cukuh gS %
 4 oMZ izkl
s fs lax MkWdqeUS V
 4 iztUs Vs'ku
 4 LizMS 'khV xzkQ@pkVZ lfgr ¼4 vad½

(C) ekSf[kd iz'u


d{kk IX ds ikB~;Øe ds fdlh Hkh Hkkx ls iz'u iwNs tk ldrs gSAa

d{kk X

lS ) kfUrd

bdkbZ&I % lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh ds ewy fu;e


bUVjusV %
oMZokbM osc] osc ljoj] osc lkbV] osc ist] osc czkmtj] Cyk¡x] U;wt xziq ] HTML, osc ,Mªl
s ] bZey s ] URL,
s ,Mªl
HTTP

bUVjusV ij miyC/ lsok,a %


lwpuk iqu% izkfIr@lq/kkj] usV ij O;fDr;ksa dk irk yxkuk rFkk [kpZ batu }kjk lkbVksa dh fLFkfr irk yxkuk]
FTP, Qkbyksa dh nks nwjLFk lkbVksa ls MkmuyksM rFkk viyksM djukA

123
osc lsok,a %
pSV] bZey
s ] ohfM;ksa dkWUQjsfa lax] bZ yfu±x] bZ cSfdax] bZ 'kkWfiax] bZ&vkj{k.k] bZ&xzqi lks'ky usV ofdZxa A

bdkbZ&II % lwpuk izkslsflax Vwy


vkWfQl Vwy
MkVk csl izcU/ku Vwy] MkVkcsl dh ewy /kkj.kk ,oa vko';drk] MkVkcsl dk l`tu] izkbejh dh lsV djuk] fdlh
MkVkcsl esa MkVk dk izfof"V] {ks=kksa dks tksM+uk ,oa gVkuk] fjdkMks± dks tksM+uk ,oa gVkuk] MkVk dk oS/khdj.k] {ks=k
lkbt] fMQkYV oSY;w] oS/khdj.k&fu;e] oS/khdj.k VsDLV] Required] Allow, Zero langth

lwpuk fu:i.k fof/;ka


gkbij VSDLV ekdZvi ySXa ost ¼HTML½
HTML ds mi;ksx }kjk osc ist fMtkbfuax ls ifjp;] fdlh HTML MkWde
q US V dk l`tu ,oa mls lqjf{kr djuk]
fdlh osc czkmtj ¼bUVjusV ,DlyksjV] eksftyk Qk;jQkWDl] vksijk] ,Iiy lQkjh] usVLdsi usohxsVj] xwxy Økse½
ds mi;ksx }kjk fdlh osc ist rd igqpa uk] HTML ds vo;o] dUVsuj ,oa [kkyh vo;o] fuEufyf[kr vo;oksa
dk mi;ksx djds osc istksa dks fMtkbu djukA

HTML, HEAD, TITLE, BODY ¼xq.k@fo'ks"krk,a % BACKGROUND, BGCOLOR, TEXT, LINK


ALINK, VLINK, LEFTMARGIN, TOPMARGIN), FONT ¼xq.k@fo'ks"krk,a] COLOR, SIZE,
FACE) BASE FONT ¼xq.k@fo'ks"krk,a% COLOR, SIZE, FACE) CENTER BR ¼czd
s ½] HR ¼{kSfrt :y]½
xq.k@fo'ks"krk,a% SIZE, WIDTH, ALIGN, NOSHADE, COLOR) COMMENTS ¼fVIif.k;ksa ds fy,
H1, H6 ¼'kh"kZd½] P ¼iSjkxzkQ½ B ¼cksYM½] I ¼bVsfyd½] U ¼vUMjykbu½] UL rFkk OL ¼vØfer lwph rFkk Øfer
lwph xq.k@fo'ks"krk,a % VkbZi LVkVZ½] LI ¼fyLV vkbVi½] IMG vo;oksa dk mi;ksx djds izfrfcEcksa dks tksM+uk
¼xq.k@fo'ks"krk,a( SRC, WIDTH, HEIGHT, ALT, ALIGN), lqijfLØIV % SUP rFkk lcfLØIV SUB; lkj.kh
tksM+uk% TABLE TR, ID ROWS AND COLUMNS)

osc istksa ds chp vkUrfjd ,oa ckg~; Ja[kyu] fdlh ,Udj vo;o ds Ja[kyu dk egRo ¼xq.k@fo'ks"krk,a% NAME,
HREF, TITLE, ALT)

XML ls ifjp;] fuEufyf[kr ds lanHkZ esa XML rFkk HTML ds chp vUrj

MkVk i`Fkdu] MkVk 'ks;j djuk] MkWdqeUS V lajpuk] VSx] vo;oksa dk usfLVax] xq.k@fo'ksrk,a ewY;@xkjsek,a

XML - vo;o] XML esa vkids vius Tags dh ifjHkk"kk] Root vo;o] Child vo;o rFkk buds xq.k@fo'ks"krk,a]
XML esa fVIif.;ka] XML esa White space rFkk ubZ ykbus]a Hkyh izdkj cus XML MkWdqeUS V~l] XML MkWdqeUS Vksa
dk oS/khdj.k] XML Parser, fdlh osy czkmtl ij XML MkWdqeUS V ns[kuk

124
bdkbZ&III % lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh vuqiz;ksx
fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks ;g ijke'kZ fn;k tkrk gS fd os MkVkcsl izcU/ku VwYl rFkk HTML dk mi;ksx djds fuEufyf[kr
{ks=kksa ij bu fo"k;ksa ds ikB~;Øe ds vUrxZr v/;;u fd, tkus okys VwYl dk dk;kZUo;u djsAa

izHkko {ks=k
O;kikj vfHkdyu
 O;fDrxr MkVk izcU/ku iz.kkyh
 fo|ky;@d{kk&ifj.kke fo|kFkhZ vuqlkj ,oa fo"k; vuqlkj vad lfgr
 deZpkfj;ksa ds isjksy ¼osru½ ¼ekfld osru dk vfHkdyu½
 fo|ky; lEifÙk lwph ¼Ø; ,oa fuxZeu ds fjdkMZ½

osclkbV fMt+kfuax
 O;fDrxr Cykx & uke] QksVks] vfHk:fp {ks=k] fo|ky;] jkT;] ns'k dk uke lfgr
 fo|ky; osclkbV & volajpuk] lqfo/kk,a] ;wuhQkWe]Z eksVks] fo|ky; Hkou QksVksxkz Q] brjikB~p;kZ fØ;kdyki]
fo"k; rFkk Hkk"kkvksa ds fodYi
 ;k=kk vkSj i;ZVu
 Hkkjrh; lkf[;dh & jkT;okj {ks=kQy] tula[;k] lk{kjrk ¼izkFkfed] fefMy] lsd.Mjh] lhfu;j lsd.Mjh
esa Nk=kksa dh la[;k½ fyax&vuqikr
 i;kZoj.k ¼ÅtkZ cpkvks½ rFkk izn"w k.k ¼oSf'od m"e.k½

bdkbZ&IV % lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh dk lkslkbVh ls la?kVu %


ok;jl] okWElZ] Vªkt
s l
a rFkk ,.Vh ok;jl lkW¶Vos;j] LikbZo;s j] feMos;j] LiSe] MkVk cSdvi] rFkk fjdojh VwYl
,oa fof/k;ka] vkWu ykbu cSdvi] gSdj rFkk ØSdj ¼dEI;wVj MkVk rFkk vuqi;z ksxksa ds lanHkZ es½a A

e&dkWelZ esa lwpuk lqj{kk ds izko/kku

izk;ksfxd
izk;ksfxd iz'u i=k ijh{kk vof/k va d ihfj,M dh dqy la[;k
1 2 ?kUVs 20 40

¼12 vad½

125
(A) gLrfl) vuqHko
izk;ksfxd iz'u i=k dk fMtkbu %
izk;ksfxd ijh{kk ds lapkyu ds fy, CBSE }kjk igys ls lsV fd;k gqvk dksbZ iz'u i=k iznku ugha fd;k x;k
gSA ijh{kdksa dks ;g yphyk ,oa Loar=kr fo|ky; ds iz;ksx lkykvksa ds miyC/k lalk/kuksa ,oa lqfo/kkvksa dks
;ku esa j[kdj izk;ksfxd ijh{kk esa lq/kkj dh n`f"V ls iznku dh x;h gSA rFkkfi ikB~;Øe] vad foHkktu] ,oa
ijh{kk lapkyu ds vk/kkj ij CBSE }kjk foLr`r funs'Z k iznku fd, x, gSAa fu/kkZfjr ikB~;Øe rFkk vad foHkktu
ds vuqlkj vkUrfjd rFkk ck/; ijh{kd nksuksa feydj iz'u i=k dk fuekZ.k djrs gSa

O;kikj vfHkdyu leL;k*


fdlh O;kikj vfHkdyu leL;k dk gy MkVkcsl ds fuEufyf[kr igyqvksa dk ijh{k.k djus ds fy, MkVkcsl
izc/a ku VwYl }kjk fd;k tkuk gSA
 MkVkcsl esa MkVk dk l`tu ,oa izfof"V
 izkFkfed dqt
a h lsV djuk
 MkVk dk oS/khdj.k

II osc ist fMtkbu djuk

(i) osc ist fMtkbu djus ij dksbZ leL;k ¼de ls de nks ist½ nh tkrh gS] tks HTML ds fuEufyf[kr
vo;oksa dk ijh{k.k djrh gks %
---- osc ist ls 'kh"kZd tksM+uk
---- VSDlV dk QkWefZs Vax
---- izfrfcEc lfEefyr djuk
---- Øfed vFkok@,oa vØfed lwph esa eq[; fcUnqvksa dks j[kuk
---- iSjkxzkQksa esa VSDLV fy[kuk
---- lkjf.k;ksa ds :i esa fo"k; oLrq dk lekos'k
fo|kfFkZ;ksa sl vis{kk dh tkrh gS fd os okLrfod thou ds vuqiz;ksxksa ,oa ikB~;Øe esa of.kZr fo"k;ksa ij
izHkko{ks=kksa ds fy, fof'k"V oscist fMtkbu djus ds fy, vko';d VwYl rFkk LVkby ds fo"k; esa tkudkjh
j[krs gSaA

(ii) fo|kfFkZ;ksa ls lS)kfUrd ikB~;Øe esa v/;;u dh x;h XML dh /kkj.kkvksa ds vk/kkj ij XML MkWdeq Us V
l`ftr djus ds fy, dgk tkuk pkfg,A
 foT;qvy bQsDV 1

126
 fyafdax 1
 foT;qvy bQsDV 1
* mÙkj iqfLrdk ds lkFk MkWdeq Us Vl ds fizUV vkmV Hkh yxkus gSAa

(B) lwpuk izk|


s ksfxdh vuqi;z ksx fjiksVZ Qkby
fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks okLrfod thou ds fu;r dk;ks±@izt
s Us Vs'kuksa dk lekos'k djrs gq, MkVkcsl izcU/ku VwYl rFkk izHkko
{ks=k ls fo"k; oLrq ij HTML dk mi;ksx djds lwpuk izk| S ksfxdh fjiksVZ Qkby cukuh gS%

blesa fuEufyf[kr fizUV vkmV gksus pkfg,%


 O;kikj vfHkdyu ls 4 MkVkcsl gy
 czkmtj O;w ds lkFk 8 HTML lkslZ dksM
 2 X ML MkWdqeUS V~l

(C) ekSf[kd iz'u (4 vad)


d{kk IX rFkk X ds ikB~;Øe ds fdlh Hkh va'k ls iz'u iwNs tk ldrs gSAa

uksV% f'k{kdksa dks ;g ijke'kZ fn;k tkrk gS fd os fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks egÙoiw.kZ igyqvksa tSls bUVusV ls lac/a ku izpfyr
lpZ batu dk mi;ksx djuk] osc czkmft+] bZ&esy [kkrs [kksyuk] bZ&esy Hkstuk rFkk izkIr djuk] Qkbyksa rFkk fiDpjksa
dks Mkmu yksM djuk dk izR;l fun'kZu nsAa

127
d{kk&X
bdkbZokj ihfj;M ,oa vad rkfydk ¼F;ksjh vkSj izSfDVdy½

bdkbZ fo"k; ihfj;M vad


F;ks j h iz S D Vhdy F;ks j h iz S D Vhdy
1- lwpuk izk|
S ksfxdh 08 00 10 00
ewyHkwr fl)kar
2- lwpuk izk|
S ksfxdh Vwy 30 60 30 30
foaMks
ekbØkslkW¶V vkWfQl 8 15
ekbØkslkW¶V oMZ 8 15
ekbØkslkW¶V 8 15
ikoj ikbaV
ekbØkslkW¶V 6 15
,Dlsy
3- lwpuk izk|
S ksfxdh vuqi;z ksx 02 20 00 30
dqy ;ksx 40 80 40 60

fl¼kUr
iz'u i=k % ,d le; % 2 ?kaVk vad % 40

bdkbZ&1 % lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh ewyHkwr fu;e


izk|
S ksfxfd;ksa dk vfHklj.k ¼duojtsl
a ½
dEI;wVj iz.kkyh
dE;wVj ds vfHky{k.k] dEI;wVj ds ewyHkwr mi;ksx] dEI;wVj iz.kkyh ds ?kVd dsUnzh; lalkèku bdkbZ ¼lh
ih ;w½ n`'; izn'kZu bdkbZ ¼oh Mh ;w½ dqt
a h iVyA
Le`fr dh laèkkj.kk ¼dalsIV½
izkFkfed vkSj f}rh;d Le`fr RAM vkSj ROM Le`fr dh bdkb;ka&ckbV] fdyksckbV] esxkckbV] xhxkckbV]
VsjkckbV] fuos'k&fuxZe ;qfDr;ka] ekml] tkW;fLVd] LdSujA
HkaMkj.k ;qfDr;ka

128
dE I;wVj Hkk"kk,a %
dEI;w
e'khuhHkk"kk] vlsEcyh Hkk"kk vkSj mPp Lrjh; Hkk"kk,a] vlsEcyj vkSj dEikbyjA
lkW¶Vos;j dh fdLesa %
iz.kkyh] mi;ksfxrk vkSj vuqi;z ksx lkW¶Vos;j mnkgj.kksa lfgr
la p kj iz k S | ks f xdh
usVofd±x dh vko';drk] LAN, MAN vkSj WAN

vkadM+k lapkj ;qfDr % ekWMe


baVjusV ls ifjp; % lkexzh
vkadM+k] lwpuk vkSj cgqekè;e

bdkbZ&2 % lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh Vwy


ekbØkslkW¶V foaMks
,d izpkyd iz.kkyh dh laèkkj.kk vkSj mlds dk;Z
foaMks ls ifjp; % ekml vkSj ewfoax vkbduksa dk mi;ksx djuk] esjk dEI;wVj] fjlkbfdy fcu] VkLd ckj] vkjaHk&ehuw
vkSj ehuw p;u] vuqi;z ksx] pykuk] lSfVax iz.kkyh] fnukad vkSj le;] QkbZy QksYMj vkSj Mk;jsDVjh ns[kus gsrq
foaMks ,DlIyksjj] QkbZy vkSj QksYMj fuekZ.k vkSj mudk iqu% ukedj.k] foaMks dks [kksyuk vkSj can djuk] foaMks
ds U;wure] iqu% izkfIr vkSj vfèkdre :i] foaMks ds ewyHkwr ?kVd] fMLVki Ýse] VkbVy ckj] ehuw ckj] LVsVl
ckj] LØkWy ckj ¼gkWjhtkaVy vkSj oVhZdy½] ekml ds lgh cVu dk mi;ksx] 'kkVZdV dk fuekZ.k] ewyHkwr foaMks]
vuqlxa h ¼,Dlsljh½ uksV iSM] isV]s dSydqyVs j] oMZ iSM] fpicksMZ dk bLrsekyA
ekbØkslkW¶V vkWfQl
ekbZØkslkW¶V oMZ %
oMZ izkl
s l
s j ls ifjp; izy[s k ¼MkWD;weVas ½ dk fuekZ.k vkSj mldh j{kk izy[s k dk laiknu vkSj QkesfZ Vax] ikB~;
dk LVkby (B.I.V.) QksVa Vkbi lkbt] jax ifjorZu] ikB~; dk laj[s k.k ¼,ykbuesVa ½] iafDr ds lkFk iSjkxzkQksa dk
QkesfZ Vax] iSjkxzkQ Lisflax] i`"Bksa dh la[;k n'kkZus okys gSMj vkSj QqVj fy[kuk] O;kdj.k vkSj orZuh tkapus ds
fy, ;qfDr;ksa dk mi;ksx] lcfLØIV vkSj lqijfLØIV dk mi;ksx djuk] ladrs ksa dh izfof"V] eqn.z k fizO;w] izy[s k
dk eqn.z kA
oMZ vkVZ dh izfof"V] DyhikVZ vkSj fp=k] ist lSfVax] cqyV vkSj vadu] ckWMjZ vkSj 'ksfMax] QkesVZ isVa j] <w<a uk
vkSj iqu%LFkkiu rkfydkvksa dh izfof"V iafDr;ksa vkSj LraHkksa dh izfof"V vkSj gVkuk] lSy foy;u] lSyksa dks foHkDr
djuk] vkWVksQkesVZ dk mi;ksx] esy etZA
ekbZØkslkW¶V ikoj ikabV %
izLrqfrdj.k] xzkfQd ls ifjp;] LykbM 'kks dh laèkkj.kk dks le>uk] LykbM ds ewyHkwr rRo@LykbM ys&vkmV
ds fofHkUu izdkj] izLrqfrdj.k dk fuekZ.k vkSj cpko] LykbM ds fofHkUu ifjn`';] lkekU;

129
ifjn`';] LykbM lkWVjZ n`f"Vdks.k vkSj LykbM 'kks] LykbM dk laiknu vkSj QkesfZ Vax] 'kh"kZdksa dk ;kstu] ikB~; i`"BHkwfe]
okVj ekdZ vkSj gSMj vkSj QqVj LykbMksa dk la[;kadu ¼uacfjax½
QkbZyksa esa ls fp=kksa dks izfo"V djuk] fp=kksa vkSj ikB~; dk èofu lekos'k ls lthohdj.k ¼,uhes'ku½] ikB~;
ckWDl fp=kksa vkSj LykbMksa dk fuèkkZj.k] iwokZH;kl le; fuèkkZj.k] DyhikVZ ls fp=kksa dk folewghdj.k vkSj lewghdj.kA
ekbZØkslkW¶V ,Dlsy %
LizMS 'khV ls ifjp;] odZ'khV vkSj odZcd q dh laèkkj.kk] odZ'khV dk fuekZ.k vkSj cpko] vkVksfQy dk mi;ksx
djds odZ'khV esa la[;kvks]a ikB~;] fnukad@le;] lhfjt dks izfo"V djuk] odZ'khV dk laiknu vkSj QkesfZ Vax ftlesa
ikB~; ds jax] vkdkj] QkSVa ] ,ykbuesVa esa ifjorZu] 'kkfey gS]a djuk] dksf"Vdkvks]a iafDr;ksa vkSj LrEHkksa dk lekos'k
vkSj gVkuk] lw=k] lw=kksa esa vkWijsVj (+,-,*,/) dk mi;ksx djds lSy esa lw=k dks ntZ djuk] vkisf{kd lanHkhZdj.k
¼fjÝsflax½ fujis{k lanHkhZdj.k vkSj fefJr lanHkhZdj.k] odZ'khV dk eqn.z kA
ljy lkaf[;d QaD'ku SUMO, AVERAGEQ, MAXQ, MINO, IFO dk mi;ksx ¼fcuk la;Dq r dFkuksa ds½]
odZ'khV esa rkfydkvksa dk lekos'k] odZ'khV esa fofHkUu fdLeksa ds pkVZ % ykbu] fid] LdSVj] ckj vkSj ,fjvk
dh ,eoSfMaxA

bdkbZ&3 % lwpuk vkSj izkS|ksfxdh ds vuqiz;ksx


fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks lq>k;k tkrk gS fd os fuEu {ks=kksa esa ekbZØkslkW¶V&oMZ] ekbZØkslkW¶V&ikoj ikbaV] ekbZØkslkW¶V&,Dlsy
dk fuEu fo"k;ksa ij mi;ksx djds ikB~;Øe esa lekosf'kr Vwykssa dks iz;ksx djsAa
{ks=k %
izys[k iks"k.k
 vukSipkfjd i=k
 vkSipkfjd i=k
 fjiksVZ ys[ku
 cèkkbZ dkMZ
 iksLVj fuekZ.k

izLrqfrdj.k
 Ldwy if=kdk
 i;kZoj.k vkSj izn"w k.k
 mRikn foKkiu
 ikB~; iqLrd esa dksbZ fo'ks"k izlxa ¼dksbZ Hkh fo"k;½

130
fo'ys"k.k fjiksfV±x
 fØdsV fjdkMZ
 ekSle fjiksVZ
 Ldwy@d{kk ifj.kke
fVIi.kh % mi;qDZ r fo"k;ksa ij uewuk izy[s k@izLrqfrdj.k@LizMS 'khV dsUnzh; ekè;fed ijh{kk cksMZ CD-ROM miyCèk djk;h
xbZ gSA
f'k{kdksa ls vuqjksèk gS fd os oMZ izkl
s fs lax] izLrqfrdj.k vkSj LizMS 'khV ds dqN vU; ,sls yksdfiz;] lkW¶Vos;jksa
dk izn'kZu djsa tks fgUnh rFkk vU; Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa dks leFkZu iznku djrs gksAa yhM vkWfQl] vkWfQl lwV ¼ekbZØkslkW¶V
vkWfQl] yksVl] LekVZL;wV] istesdj] dksjy s Mªk vkfn ds baVjQsl lfgr oMZ izkl s l
s j½ dk ,d mnkgj.k gS tks Hkkjrh;
Hkk"kkvksa dks iw.kZ leFkZu iznku djrk gSA
d{kk IX

izSDVhdy
izSDVhdy iz'u i=k ijh{kk vofèk vad o"kZ esa ihfj;M
,d 4 ?kaVs 60 80
¼d½ vuqHko ij vkèkkfjr ¼¼4 vH;kl½ 30 va d
,d izSDVhdy iz'u i=k dk fMtkbu
vadksa ds forj.k vkSj izDS Vhdy ijh{kk ds dk;kZUo;u ds ckjs esa ikB~; fooj.k ij vkèkkfjr funs'Z k fn, tk pqds
gSAa ijh{kdksa dks lykg nh tkrh gS fd os fuèkkZfjr ikB~;Øe ds vuqlkj iz'u i=k rS;kj djsxa s vkSj vadksa dk forj.k
djsxa As
(i) foaMks izpkyu iz.kkyh 6 vad
(ii) ekbZØkslkW¶V oMZ 8 vad
(iii) ekbZØkslkW¶V ,Dlsy 8 vad
(iv) ekbZØkslkW¶V ikoj ikbaV 8 vad
(I) foaMks izpkyu iz.kkyh % QkbZy@QksYMj ij fuEu esa ls dqN ewyHkwr iz.kkyh&izpkyuksa dks ij[kuk
 fuekZ.k
 iqu% ukedj.k
 izfrfyfi@dkVuk@fpidkuk
 gVkuk
 uksViSM@oMZiMS @isVa ls lacfa èkr lekns'k
 fDyi cksMZ dk mi;ksx

131
(II) ekbZØkslkW¶V oMZ
ijh{kk ds nkSjku ekbZØkslkW¶V oMZ esa ,d iSjkxzkQ dks] ftlesa esa ls dqN midj.kksa dk lekos'k gks] ij[kuk
gS %
 ikB~; vkSj iSjkxzkQ laiknu vkSj QkesfZ VaxA
 ist vkSj iSjkxzkQ O;oLFkkA
 fp=kksa vkSj oMZ dh izfof"VA
(III) ekbZ Ø ks l kW ¶ V ikoj ikbaV
ijh{kk ds nkSjku uhps fn, x, midj.kksa esa ls dqN dks 2 ;k 3 LykbMksa ds lkFk iz;Dq r djds ikojikbaM
izLrqfrdj.k dks ij[kuk gS %
 LykbM laiknu vkSj QkesfZ Vax
 fp=k vkSj èofu dk lekos'k
 èofu dh enn ls fp=kksa vkSj ikB~; dks ltho cukukA
(IV) ekbZ Ø ks l kW ¶ V ,Dls y
ijh{kk ds nkSjku uhps fn, x, midj.kksa esa ls dqN ls lacf)r LizMS 'khV dh ,d leL;k dks ij[kuk
gS %
 QkeZfs Vax lSy vkSj MkVk
 Qyu vkSj lw=k ¼vkisf{kd] fujis{k vkSj fefJr izlxa ½
 pkVZ
 izy[s kksa ds fizUV vkmVksa dks mÙkj 'khVksa ds lkFk layXu djuk pkfg,A
¼[k½ lwpuk vkSj izkS|ksfxdh vuqiz;ksx fjiksVZ Qkby 20 va d
fo|kfFkZ;ksa ls ;g vis{kk dh tkrh gS fd os ekbZØkslkW¶V oMZ] ekbZØkslkW¶V ikoj ikbaV vkSj ekbZØkslkW¶V
,Dlsy dk mi;ksx djds okLrfod thou ls lacfa èkr {ks=k ls de ls de 15 fo"k;ksa ij lwpuk izk| S ksfxd
vuqi;z ksx fjiksVZ QkbZy rS;kj djsxa As
 ekbZØkslkW¶V oMZ ds de ls de 5 izy[s kA
 ekbZØkslkW¶V ikoj ikbaV ds de ls de 5 izLrqfrdj.kA
 xzkQ lfgr ekbZØkslkW¶V ,Dlsy dks de ls de 5 LizMS 'khV
¼x½ ekSf[kd ijh{kk 10 va d

132
d{kk&X
bdkbZ&okj ihfj;M ,oa vad rkfydk ¼F;ksjh vkSj izSDVhdy½

bdkbZ fo"k; ihfj;M vad


F;ks j h iz S D Vhdy F;ks j h iz S D Vhdy
1- lwpuk izk|
S ksfxdh 08 05 10 05
ewyHkwr fl)kar
2- lwpuk izk|
S ksfxdh midj.k 17 30 30 30
ekbZØkslkW¶V vkWfQl
 ekbZØkslkW¶V&,Dlsl (05) (10) (10) (10)
 HTML (12) (20) (20) (20)
3- lwpuk izk|
S ksfxdh vuqi;z ksx 00 15 00 25
dqy 25 50 40 60

fl)kar
iz'u i=k % ,d le; % 2 ?ka V k vad % 40

bdkbZ&1 % lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh ewyHkwr fl¼kar


baVjusV % fo'oO;kih osc] osc ljoj] osc lkbV] oSc ist] osc czkmlj HTML osc ,Mªl S URL, HTTP
s ] bZ&esy ,Mªl
baVjusV ij miyCèk lsok,a % lwpuk iqu% izkfIr] bysDVªkfud Mkd] lpZ batuksa dk mi;ksx djds lkbVksa dk LFkku
fuèkkZj.k djuk vkSj usV ij yksxksa dk irk yxkuk] ohfM;ks Vwj lEesyu vk;ksftr djuk] FTP QkbZyksa dks nwjLFk
lkbV ls MkmuyksM vkSj viyksM djuk] U;wtxziq ]

bdkbZ&2 % lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh midj.k


ekbZØkslkW¶V % vkWfQl
ekbZØkslkW¶V % ,Dlsl
ewyHkwr laèkkj.kk,a vkSj ,d MkVkcsl ds fy, vko';drk] MkVkcsl dk fuekZ.k] izkFkfed dqt
a h dh LFkkiuk] MkVkcsl
esa MkVk izfo"V djkuk] QhYM dks izfo"V djuk vkSj gVkuk] fjdkMZ MkVk] ekU;dj.k QhYM vkdkj] O;frØe eku
ekU;dj.k fu;e] ekU;dj.k ikB~;] vko';d] vuqe;s 'kwU; yackbZA
gkbij VSDLV ekdZvi ysaXost (HTML)

yksdfiz; czkmljksa ij fo'ks"k cy ds lkFk osc czkmlj dh vkèkkjHkwr laèkkj.kk] baVjusV ,DlIyksjj vkSj usVLdsi
uSohxsVj

133
HTML vkèkkjHkw r fl)kUr
fl)kUr
HTML dk mi;ksx djds osc ist fMtkbu ls ifjp;] HTML izy[s k dk fuekZ.k vkSj cpkuk] HTML ds
rRo] daVus j vkSj fjDr rRoA fuEu rRoksa dk mi;ksx djds osc ist fMtkbu djuk %
HTML, HEAD, TITLE, BODY ¼xq.k % BACK GROUND, BGCOLOR, TEXT, LINK, ALINK, VLINK,
LEFT MARGIN, TOP MARGIN) FONT ¼xq.k % COLOR, SIZE, FACE)

BASE FONT ¼xq.k % COLOR, SIZE, FACE) CENTER, BR ¼czd


s ½ HR ¼{kSfrtfu;e] xq.k % SIZE,
WIDTH, ALIGN, NOSHADE, COLOR) COMMENTS! fVIi.kh ds fy,] H1..H6 ¼gSfMax½ P ¼iSjkxzkQ½
B ¼cksYM½ I ¼bVSfyDl½ U ¼js[kkafdr½ UL vkSj OL ¼vØfer lwph vkSj Øfer lwph] xq.k % TYPE, START,
LI ¼lwph vkbVe½ IMG rRo dk mi;ksx djds izfrfcac dh izfof"V ¼xq.k % SRC, WIDTH, HEIGHT, ALT,
ALIGN)

osc istksa ds chp vkarfjd vkSj cká J`a[kyu] J`a[kyu dk egRo] A &,adj rRo ¼xq.k % NAME,
HREF, TITLE, ALT)

bdkbZ&3 % lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh vuqiz;ksx %


fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks ;g lykg nh tkrh gS fd os ,Dlsl vkSj HTML dk mi;ksx djds fuEu {ks=kksa
ij mu fo"k;ksa ds ikB~;Øe esa fn, x, midj.kksa dks dk;kZfUor djsa %

iz{ks=k
MkVkcsl
 MkVk izcaèku iz.kkyh
 LVkW d fyLV

osclkbV fMtkbfuax
 ;k=kk vkSj i;ZVu
 xzkeh.k Hkkjr
 i;kZoj.k vkSj iznw"k.k

fVIi.kh
I. mi;qZDr fo"k;ksa ij uewus ds :i esa izys[k vkSj izLrqfrdj.k dsUnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ CD-
ROM esa miyCèk gSA

II. f'k{kdksa ls fuosnu gS fd os oMZ izkslsflax] izLrqfrdj.k] LizSM'khV] MkVkcsl izcaèku O;oLFkk ds fy,
dqN vU; ,sls yksdfiz; lkW¶Vos;jksa dk izn'kZu djsa tks fganh vkSj vFkok vU; Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa
dks leFkZu iznku djrs gksaA
III. fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks lq>k;k tkrk gS fd os vius dqN izys[k@izLrqfrdj.k lacafèkr lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh ds
vuqiz;ksx Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk esa rS;kj djsaA

134
d{kk&X
izSDVhdy
izsDVhdy iz'u i=k ijh{kk vofèk vad o"kZ esa ihfj;M
,d 4 ?kaVs 60 80

¼d½ vuqHkkoo ij vkèkkfjr ¼¼2 vH;kl½ 30 vad


izSDVhdy iz'u i=k dk fMtkbu
izDS Vhdy ijh{kk lEiUu djus ds fy, dsUnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ dksbZ iwo&Z fuèkkZfjr iz'u i=k iznku ugha
djrkA ;g yphykiu ijh{kd dks] Ldwy esa gh iz;ksx'kkyk esa miyCèk lqfoèkkvksa rFkk lkèkuksa dks è;ku esa j[kdj
izDS Vhdy ijh{kk esa vfèkd Lora=krk nsus ds fy, j[kk x;k gSA ijarq ikB~; fooj.k ds vkèkkj ij vadksa dk forj.k
vkSj izDS Vhdy ijh{kk ds lapkyu gsrq foLr`r vuqn's k iznku dj fn, x, gSAa vkarfjd ijh{kd vkSj ckgjh ijh{kd
feydj fuèkkZfjr ikB~;Øe vkSj vadksa ds fooj.k ds vuqlkj iz'u i=k rS;kj djsAa
I. ekbZ Ø ks l kW ¶ V ,Dls l 8 va d
II. HTML 22 va d
I. ekbZ Ø ks l kW ¶ V ,Dls l ¹
ijh{kk ds nkSjku fuEu midj.kksa esa dqN ls lacfa èkr ekbZØkslkW¶V ,Dlsl ij fdlh leL;k dks ij[kuk
gSA
 MkVk dk fuekZ.k vkSj MkVkcsl esa mldh izfof"V
 izkFkfed dqt
a h dh LFkkiuk
 MkVk ekU;dj.k
II. HTML

osc ist fMtkbfuax ¼de ls de 2 ist½ ij ,d ,slh leL;k nh tkuh pkfg, tks fuEu HTML rRoksa
esa ls dqN dks lekosf'kr djsA
 <HTML>, <HEAD>, <TITLE>, <BODY>
 QkaV LVkby <B>, <i>, <U>
 <FONT>,– FACE, SIZE
 <CENTRE>
 <P>-ALIGN
 <A>
 <IMGSR>
 fVIi.kh <!>
fo|kfFkZ;ksa ls okLrfod thou dh ?kVukvksa ls Mkseus fo'ks"k ds oscist rFkk ikB~; fooj.k esa mYysf[kr fo"k;ksa
ij fMtkbu djus dh tkudkjh dh vis{kk dh tkrh gSA

135
vadksa dk C;kSjk (HTML)

 n`'; izHkko % 8
 lEidZ % 6
 dksfMax % 10
 izy[s kksa ds fizVa vkmVksa dks mÙkj iqfLrdk ds lkFk layXu fd;k tkuk pkfg,A
¼[k½ lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh vuqiz;ksx fjiksVZ Qkby va d 20
fo|kfFkZ;ksa ls ;g vis{kk dh tkrh gS fd Mkseus esa fn, x, fo"k;ksa ij ekbZØkslkW¶V ,Dlsl vkSj HTML
dk mi;ksx djds os okLrfod thou leqfuns'ku@izLrqfrdj.k ij lwpuk izk| S ksfxdh vuqi;z ksx fjiksVZ Qkby
rS;kj djsxa As
fuEu ds fizVa vkmV vo'; rS;kj djsa %
 ekbZØkslkW¶V ,Dlsl ds izy[s k ¼de ls de 5½
 czkmlj O;w ds lkFk HTML òksr dksM ¼de ls de 10½
¼x½ ekSf[kd ijh{kk va d 10
d{kk IX vkSj X ds nkSjku i<+k, x, ikB~; fooj.k ds fdlh Hkh va'k ls iz'u iwNs tk ldrs gSAa
fVIi.kh % f'k{kdksa dks ;g lq>k;k tkrk gS fd baVjusV ls laidZ djuk] izpfyr lpZ batuksa dk mi;ksx] osc czkmflax]
bZ&esy [kkrs [kksyuk] bZ&esy Hkstuk vkSj izkIr djuk] QkbZyksa vkSj fp=kksa dks mrkjuk tSls igyqvksa ij vèkqukru
izn'kZu izLrqr djsAa

vkèkkfjd lajpuk
ekStnw k vkèkkfjd lajpuk dks è;ku esa j[kdj fuEu U;wure vkèkkfjr lajpuk lq>k;h tkrh gS %

lkWW¶Vos;j
 WIN 96 +

 ekbØkslkW¶V vkWfQl 95+


 yhi vkWfQl 2000
 usVL~ dsi uSohxsVj
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 486 eYVhehfM;k e'khu
 16 MB RAM
 4.3 GH HDD

136
baVjusV laidZ
 TCP/IP

 fo|kFkhZ&e'khu vuqikr 2 % 1

f'k{kd dh ;ksX;rk
 Lukrd ¼dEI;wVj foKku½
 Lukrd ^,* Lrj lfgr
 fdlh ekU;rk izkIr laLFkk@fo'ofo|ky; ls ih-th-Mh-lh-,- lfgr Lukrd ¼de ls de Ms<+ o"kZ½

if=kdk@ohfM;ks fiQYe
 P.C. Quest

 Chip

 P.C. World

 Computer@home

 Computer Today

 Microsoft Training Software

 C-DAC dk ADIT Course material

137
7- vkarfjd ewY;kadu ds fo"k;
dk;Z vuqHko@iwoZ O;kolkf;d f'k{kk] dyk f'k{kk rFkk 'kkjhfjd ,oa LokLF; f'k{kk dk ewY;kadu fo|ky;ksa
}kjk fd;k tk,xkA lh-ch-,l-bZ- us bu fo"k;ksa ds vfrfjDr ewY;kadu ds fy, tks fn'kkfuns'Z k rS;kj fd, gSa mUgsa
lacfa èkr fo|ky; vè;kiu rFkk ewY;kadu ds le; è;ku esa j[ksAa muds iz;ksx rFkk lanHkZ ds fy, cksMZ ds fuEufyf[kr
izdk'kuksa dh laLrqfr dh tkrh gS ftlesa ikB~;fooj.k dh :ijs[kk rFkk ewY;kadu ds eq[; fcUnq fn, x, gSa %
(i) odZ ,Dlihfj,al bu LdwYt+ % xkbZMykbUl ,.M lsycs l&fjokbTM ,fM'ku 1991
(ii) vkVZ ,twd's ku bu LdwYt
(iii) fQftdy ,.M gSYFk ,twd's ku bu LdwYt
(iv) lfVZfQdsV vkWQ ,phoesVa ] fQykWlksQh ,.M esFkksMkWyksth

8- iwoZ O;kolkf;d f'k{kk

1- jk"Vªh; f'k{kk uhfr] 1986 ds micaèkksa vkSj fofHkUu lfefr;ksa dh flQkfj'k ds vuqlj.k esa dsUnzh; ekè;fed
f'k{kk cksMZ us 9oha d{kk ds 1995&96 ds f'k{kk l=k ls vè;;u lacèa kh viuh ;kstuk ls iwoZ O;kolkf;d
f'k{kk dk izkoèkku fd;k gSA iwoZ O;kolkf;d f'k{kk ds mís'; fuEukuqlkj gS
d{kk 9 vkSj d{kk 10 esa fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks lkèkkj.k O;kikfjd dkS'ky eas izf'k{k.k nsukA
mRikndrk c<+kus gsrq O;kolkf;d #fp vkSj O;kolkf;d izof` Ùk;ksa dh Lo;a [kkst djus dh vuqefr
nsukA
mPprj ekè;fed Lrj ij O;kolkf;d ikB~;Øekssa ds p;u gsrq fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh lgk;rk djukA
fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks 'kSf{kd ;ksX;rk ds okafNr vk;ke ds :i eas dk;Z vuqHko izkIr djus ds fy, izfrHkkfxrk
gsrq rS;kj djuk] vkSj
dk;Z lkaLÑfrd ls lacfa èkr ykHkizn ewY;ksa dks eu esa cSBkukA
2- iwoZ O;kolkf;d f'k{kk ;kstuk dh eq[; fo'ks"krk,¡ fuEukuqlkj gSAa
(i) iwoZ O;kolkf;d f'k{kk dk;Z vuqHko ds LFkku ij nh tk,xhA
(ii) iwoZ O;kolkf;d ikB~;Øeksa ds fy, izR;sd lIrkg esa de ls de 6 ihfj;M fuèkkZfjr fd, tk,axAs
(iii) iwoZ O;kolkf;d f'k{kk dsoy ,sls fo|ky;ksa esa ykxw dh tk,xh tgk¡ ij 10+2 Lrj ij O;kolkf;d
ikB~;Øe izLrqfr fd, tk jgs gSa vkSj p;u fd, x, O;kolkf;d ikB~;Øe ds fy, volajpuk lqfoèkk,a
fu;fer rkSj ij miyCèk gSAa

138
(iv) fuEu ekè;fed Lrj ij iwoZ O;kolkf;d f'k{kk ds iwjk gksus ds i'pkr~ ikl gksus okyksa dks lacfa èkr
ikB~;Øe esa fo"k; dq'kyrk izkIr djuh pkfg,A
(v) iwoZ O;kolkf;d f'k{kk] iz;ksx ds vkèkkj ij dsoy pqus gq, fo|ky;ksa esa nh tk jgh gSA bl izdkj iwoZ
O;kolkf;d ikB~;Øe vkjaHk djus ls iwoZ cksMZ ls iwoZ vuqefr izkIr djuk vfuok;Z gSA
(vi) ewY;kadu dh ;kstuk dk;kZuHq ko ds leku gSA 9oha o 10oha d{kkvksa esa ewY;kadu fo|ky;ksa }kjk fd;k
tk,xkA d{kk ¼10½ esa fo|ky;ksa }kjk fn, x, xzMs cksMZ ds izek.ki=k esa lacfa èkr ikB~;Øe ds 'kh"kZd
ds lkFk n'kkZ, tk,axAs fnYyh ds jk"Vªh; jktèkkuh {ks=k vkSj paMhx<+ iz'kklu us 'kSf{kd l=k 1995&96
ls vius dqN pqus gq, fo|ky;ksa esa fuEufyf[kr iwoZ O;kolkf;d VªMs ksa esa f'k{kk vkjaHk djus dh lgefr
nh gSA
3- jk"Vªh; jktèkkuh ifjlj fnYyh ,oa paMhx<+ iz'kklu us vius dqN pqus gq, fo|ky;ksa esa 1995&96 ds 'kSf{kd
l=k ls fuEu iwoZ O;kolkf;d ikB~;Øeksa dks vkjaHk djus dh lgefr nh gS
dksM ua- 507 izkjfEHkd dk;kZy; i)fr;ka
dksM ua- 508 izkjfEHkd dEI;wVj izfØ;k,¡
dksM ua- 509 izkjfEHkd ys[kk i)fr;k¡
dksM ua- 510 Qy ,oa lfCt;k¡ laj{k.kA
dksM ua- 511 izkjfEHkd csdjh
dksM ua- 512 izkjfEHkd dUQSD'kujh
dksM ua- 513 izkjfEHkd bysDVªksfuDl
dksM ua- 514 okrkuqdy
w u ,oa jsÝhtsj's ku
dksM ua- 515 bysfDVªd ?kjsyw midj.kksa dh ejEer
dksM ua- 516 VsDlVkby fizfa Vax VsDuksyksth
dksM ua- 517 VsDlVkby flYd LØhu fizfa Vax VsDuksyksth
dksM ua- 518 dVkbZ vkSj flykbZ
dksM ua- 519 fLdu ds;j vkSj C;wVh dYpj
dksM ua- 520 vkWVkseksckby
dksM ua- 521 [kkuk idkuk ,oa lsok,¡A
4- ;s iz;ksxkRed ikB~;Øe f'k{kk funs'kky;] fnYyh vkSj paMhx<+ iz'kklu ds vUrxZr pqus gq, fo|ky;ksa esa
vkjaHk fd, x, gSaA bu funs'kky;ksa ds varxZr tks fo|ky; buesa ls dksbZ ikB~;Øe vkjaHk djuk pkgrk
gS] mls lEcfUèkr funs'kky; ls iwoZ vuqefr ysuh pkfg, ,oa ikB~;Øe lEcfUèkr volajpuk lqfoèkk,¡
gksuh pkfg,A

139
9- dk;Z f'k{kk
rdkZèkkj
lu~ 2000 dh ikB~;p;kZ ds <kaps esa dk;kZuqHko dks dk;Z&f'k{kk dgk x;k gS rFkk ;g f'k{kk dk vfuok;Z
vax cu x;k gSA bl izdkj lqO;ofLFkr vkSj oxhZÑr dk;ZØe ds }kjk ;g Kku vkSj dkS'ky nksuksa gh iznku
djsxk ftlls ;g Nk=kksa&Nk=kkvksa ds dk;Z dh nqfu;k esa dne j[kus ij lgk;rk djsxkA dk;Z f'k{kk ikB~;p;kZ
dk ,d vyx {ks=k gSA ;g cPpksa dks d{kk esa vkSj d{kk ds ckgj lkekftd vkSj vkfFkZd fØ;kdykiksa esa Hkkxhnkjh
ds volj iznku djrk gS ;gh ugha ;g mUgsa fofHkUu izdkj ds dk;ks± esa fufgr oSKkfud fl)karksa vkSj izfØ;kvksa
dks le>us esa Hkh leFkZ cuk,xkA mRiknd gLr dk;Z dh fLFkfr;ksa dk p;u LokLF; vkSj LokLF; foKku]
Hkkstu] vkokl] oL=k] euksjatu vkSj lkeqnkf;d lsok ds {ks=kksa esa fd;k tk,xkA bl {ks=k esa ftu l{kerkvksa
dk fodkl fd;k tk,xk] muesa Kku] cksèk] O;kogkfjd dkS'kyksa vkSj ewY;ksa dk lekos'k vko';d gSA bu l{kerkvksa
dk fodkl thou ds fy, vko';d fØ;kdykiksa ds }kjk fd;k tk,xkA bl Lrj ij iwoZ O;kolkf;d ikB~;Øeksa
dks izeq[k LFkku feyuk pkfg,A
dk;Z f'k{kk dk mís'; lHkh izdkj ds 'kkjhfjd dk;ks± ds fy, izfr"Bk vkSj vknj ds Hkkoksa dks iqu% LFkkfir
djuk gSA blds }kjk O;fDr] mlds ifjokj vkSj leqnk; dh vko';drkvksa dks iwjk djus ds fy, vkRefo'okl
esa Hkh o`f) gksxhA ;gh ugha] mfpr dk;Zdq'kyrkvksa vkSj ewY;ksa ds }kjk mRikndrk Hkh c<+kbZ tk,xhA bruk
gh ugha lkekftd dk;ks± vkSj lkeqnkf;d lsok ds mfpr dk;ZØe ds }kjk lekt dY;k.k ds fy, izfrc)rk
dks Hkh izksRlkfgr fd;k tk,xkA

mís';
ekè;fed Lrj ij dk;Z f'k{kk ds izeq[k mís'; gSa
 fuEufyf[kr ds lanHkZ esa vfuok;Z Kku vkSj cksèk dks fodflr djus esa Nk=kksa@Nk=kkvksa dh lgk;rk
djuk %
Hkkstu] LokLF; vkSj LoPNrk] oL=k] vkokl] euksjatu vkSj lekt lsok ls tqM+ha O;fDr ifjokj
vkSj leqnk; dh t:jrksa dh igpku djukA
leqnk; ds mRiknd fØ;k dykiksa ls ifjfpr djokukA
dk;Z ds fofoèk izdkjksa esa fufgr lPpkb;ksa vkSj oSKkfud fl)karksa dks le>kuk(
oLrqvksa vkSj lsokvksa ds mRiknu esa vkStkjksa vkSj miLdjksa ds iz;ksx dks le>uk rFkk dPps
eky ds òksrksa dks tkuuk( mRiknd dk;Z vkSj leqnk; dh lsokvksa dh mi;ksfxrk dks le>uk(
mRiknd izfØ;kvksa vkSj dq'kyrkvksa ds lanHkZ esa izkS|ksfxdh; n`f"V ls izxfr'khy lekt dh
vko';drkvksa dks le>uk(
mRiknd dk;ks± ds fu;kstu vkSj O;oLFkkiu dh izfØ;kvksa dks le>uk(

140
mRiknd fLFkfr;ksa esa mudh Hkwfedk dh ifjdYiuk djuk(
fu"iknu vkSj m|e ds fy, Lo&ewY;kadu dh ;ksX;rkvksa dk fodkl djukA
 Nk=k@Nk=kkvksa dh d'kyrkvksa ds fodkl esa lgk;rk djuk
fofHkUu izdkj ds mRiknd dk;Z ds fy, vkStkjksa vkSj lkeku ds p;u] vfèkizkfIr] O;oLFkk vkSj
mi;ksx esa lgk;rk djuk(
dk;Z&vH;kl esa fujh{k.k] ifjpkyu] vkSj Hkkxhnkjh esa lgk;rk djuk(
mRiknd dk;Z vkSj lkekftd lsok dh fLFkfr;ksa esa leL;k&lekèkku dh fofèk;ksa ds vuqiz;ksx
esa lgk;rk djuk(
i<+kbZ ds lkFk mUgsa dekbZ ds ;ksX; cukus vkSj mudh dk;Z&{kerk esa i;kZIr o`f) djus esa
lgk;rk djuk(
uoizorZukRed fofèk;ksa vkSj lkeku dk vkfo"dkj djus rFkk mudh jpukRed ;ksX;rkvksa ds
mi;ksx djus esa lgk;rk djuk(
 fuEufyf[kr ds lanHkZ esa Nk=k@Nk=kkvksa dh mfpr euksof` Ùk vkSj ewY;ksa ds fodkl esa lgk;rk djuk %
'kkjhfjdJe vkSj dkexkjksa ds izfr vknj fodflr djuk(
vkRefuHkZjrk] lg;ksx] lkewfgd dk;Z] èkS;Z] lfg".kqrk vkfn lkekftd n`f"V ls okaNuh; ewY;ksa
ds fodkl esa lgk;rk djuk(
mfpr dÙkZO;fu"Bk vkSj fu;ferrk] le; fu"Bk] bZekunkjh] leiZ.k] vuq'kklu vkfn ds fodkl
esa lgk;rk djukA
mRiknd dk;Z vkSj lsokvksa esa miyfCèk;ksa ds }kjk vkRe&lEeku ds fodkl esa lgk;rk djuk(
i;kZoj.k ds fy, xgu fpark vkSj lekt ds fy, Lotu Hkkouk nkf;Ro vkSj opuc)rk ds
Hkkoksa ds fodkl esa lgk;rk djuk(
Js"Brk ds fy, iz;Ru esa lgk;rk djukA

ikB~;Øe fo"k;oLrq
dk;Z f'k{kk dh fo"k;oLrq ds nks Hkkx gSa Nk=kksa@Nk=kkvksa] muds ifjokjksa vkSj leqnk; dh nSuafnu
vko';drkvksa dks iwjk djus ds fy, vfuok;Z ^fØ;kdyki* rFkk mRiknd dk;Z vkSj lsokvksa ds fy, oSdfYid
dk;ZØe] tks mUgsa udnh ;k oLrq ds :i esa ikfjJfed fnyk ldrk gSA bl voLFkk esa oSdfYid
fØ;k&dykiksa }kjk mRiknd dk;Z vH;kl vR;ar egÙoiw.kZ gS vkSj blhfy, fo|ky; dh le; lkfj.kh
esa bls 70 izfr'kr Hkkfjrk iznku dh xbZ gSA ysfdu Ldwy }kjk fØ;kdykiksa@ifj;kstukvksa@iwoZ&O;kolkf;d
ikB~;Øeksa dk okLrfod p;u bu ckrksa ij fuHkZj djsxk {ks=k fo'ks"k esa izkÑfrd] HkkSfrd vkSj ekuo&lalkèkuksa
dh miyCèkrk] leqnk; dh lektkfFkZd i`"BHkwfe rFkk Nk=k@Nk=kkvksa dh vko';drk,a vkSj #fp;kaA

141
vfuok;Z fØ;kdyki
cl] jsy] ok;q;ku dh le;lkj.kh vkfn dk mi;ksxA
nqèkk: i'kqvksa dks nqguk rFkk lacafèkr fØ;kdykiksa dk izcaèkuA
lkekfld fo|ky;ksa esa nksigj ds Hkkstu@mikgkj ds cukus vkSj forj.k esa enn djukA
iznf'kZu;ksa] fidfud i;ZVu vkSj lSj likVs] fo|ky; ds mRlo vkfn ds vk;kstu esa fo|ky; ds
vfèkdkfj;ksa dh enn djuk rFkk mu ij fjiksVZ izLrqr djukA
vius rFkk izkFkfed d{kkvksa ds fy, f[kykSuksa rFkk [ksy ds vU; lkeku rS;kj djukA
izkFkfed mipkj ds fØ;kdyki tSls uCt ns[kuk] rkieku ¼cq[kkj½ ukiuk] rFkk ?kkoksa dks lkQ djds
mu ij iês ckaèkukA
;krk;kr ds fu;eu esa ;krk;kr iqfyl dh enn djukA
Nk;knkj@tykou ns u s okys @ ltkoVh@ lM+ d ks a ds fdukjs yxkus okys o` { kks a dk jks i .kA
ifjokj dk ctV cukuk rFkk nSfud ?kj [kpZ dk fglkc j[kukA
lkekU; moZjdks]a isLV ukf'k;ksa ds ckjs esa tkudkjh vkSj lgh midj.kksa ds }kjk mudk mi;ksx djukA
iapk;r ds lg;ksx ls ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku rd ds fy, ifjogu lqfoèkkvksa dks tkuus rFkk
mUgsa izkIr djus esa iz;Ru djus ds ;ksX; gksukA
lkekU; ihM+d thoksa vkSj ikSèkksa ds jksxksa ds fo"k; esa tkudkjh rFkk lkekU; jlk;uksa vkSj ikSèkksa ds
j{kd midj.kksa dk mi;ksxA
Ñf"k i'kqvksa dks f[kykus] ugykus vkSj lkekU; tk¡p ij[k dh tkudkjhA
xkao@uxj@xanh cLrh@tu&tkrh; {ks=k ds yksxksa ds iks"k.k vkSj LokLF; dh n'kk dk vè;;u djukA
?kj&?kj ds laidZ dk;ZØeksa ds }kjk leqnk; ds iks"k.k] LokLF; vkSj i;kZoj.kh; n'kk dks lqèkkjus
ds fy, lkeqnkf;d LokLF; dk;ZØeksa esa enn djukA
izkS<+ f'k{kk dk;ZØeksa esa HkkxhnkjhA
f'k'kq&x`gksa esa cPpksa dh ns[kHkky esa enn djukA
vLirkyksa vkSj esyksa] izkÑfrd vkinkvksa vkSj nq?kZVukvksa ds le; Lo;a lsod dk dkeA

oSdfYid fØ;kdyki
bl voLFkk esa dk;Z vH;kl] Øfed fØ;kdykiksa okyh ifj;kstukvksa ds :i esa gksuk pkfg,A ;s
fØ;k&dyki mRiknu vkSj lsok {ks=kksa ds O;olk;ksa ls lacfa èkr gksxa As fofoèk vko';drkvksa vkSj O;kolkf;d
{ks=kksa esa xgu ifj;kstukvksa@iwoZ O;kolkf;d ikB~;Øeksa dks dqN eghuksa dh vofèk ls ysdj ekè;fed Lrj
dh lEiw.kZ nks o"kks± dh vofèk esa iwjk djuk pkfg,A ;gh bl vko';drk dk Li"V mÙkj gSA bl izdkj
dh ifj;kstukvksa@iwoZ&O;kolkf;d ikB~;Øeksa dk mís'; dk;Z esa xgu dq'kyrk vkSj izoh.krk dk fodkl
djuk gSA ;g Nk=k@Nk=kkvksa dh mu dk;ks± esa mRikndrk vkSj {kerk dks c<+kus esa izsjd gksxk] tks mUgsa

142
i<+kbZ ds lkFk&lkFk dekbZ ds ;ksX; Hkh cuk,xkA bl voLFkk esa xgu dkS'ky fuekZ.k ij cy nsus dk
mís'; dk;Z f'k{kk dk dk;ZØe dks iwoZ&O;kolkf;d vkèkkj iznku djuk gSA lkFk gh ;g d{kk X ds
ckn i<+kbZ can djus okys Nk=k@Nk=kkvksa dks lalkj esa dne j[kus dh rS;kjh dks Hkh vkèkkj iznku djsxkA
mPprj ekè;fed Lrj rd viuh i<+kbZ tkjh j[kus okyksa ds fy,] ;s iwoZ&O;kolkf;d ikB~;Øe] + 2
Lrj ds O;kolkf;d IkkB~;Øeksa dh rS;kjh esa lgk;d gksaxsA ,slh ifj;kstukvksa@iwoZ&O;kolkf;d ikB~;Øeksa
dh izk;ksfxd lwph uhps nh xbZ gS
Qwyksa] lfCt;ksa dh [ksrh rFkk ulZjh esa ikSèks vkSj ikSèk rS;kj djukA
ikSèkksa dh lqj{kk esa dke vkus okys midj.kksa dh ejEer vkSj j[k&j[kkoA
flapkbZ dh ukfy;ksa dk iwoZ fuekZ.kA
dkf;d izoèkZu&p'ek yxkuk] dye ckaèkuk] dVku] nkc yxkuk vkfn ds }kjk u, ikSèks cukuk@iSnk
djukA
eqxhZ ikyuk % ¼1½ vaMksa ds fy, ¼2½ idkus ds fy,A
cs d jh vkS j fe"Vku&mRikn rS ; kj djukA
[kk| inkFkks± dk ifjj{k.k] tSyh] eqjCck] VekVj dh pVuh] vpkj cukukA
ÅtkZ ds xSj ijaijkxr òksrksa ls lacafèkr ifj;kstuk,a lkSj] iou] Tokjh;] ck;ksxSl vkfnA
eèkqeD[kh ikyu % 'kgn dh cksrycanh rFkk foi.kuA
fcØh ;k èkkxk cukus ds fy, js'ke ds dhM+s ikyukA
miHkksx] ifjj{k.k ;k fcØh ds fy, e'k:e dh [ksrhA
ikd fofèk dq'kyrk,aA
NksVs rkykcksa esa eNyh ikyuA
[kk|kUuksa dh QlyksÙkj izkS|ksfxdh vkSj lqjf{kr HkaMkj.kA
thok.kqt moZjdksa dk mi;ksxA
nqXèk mRikn rS;kj djukA
isLV vkSj jksxksa ls ikSèkksa dh lqj{kkA
e`nk ijh{k.k rFkk m)kj ds mik;A
Q+kby] Q+kby cksM]Z jftLVj] ys[ku cksM]Z eksgj yxkus dh L;kgh tSlh ys[ku lkexzh dh oLrq,a cukukA
O;kikj ds fy, caèkst vkSj vkoj.k NikbZA
ifjèkku fuekZ.k
fctyh ds ?kjsyw midj.kksa dh ejEer vkSj j[k&j[kkoA
?kj ;k fo|ky; esa mi;ksx ;k fcØh ds fy, fctyh ds foLrkj cksMZ cukukA

143
Qks V ks x z k Qh&O;kikfjd
uy deZ
jíh dkxtksa ls dkxt cukukA
isfjl IykLVj ls vfèkd ifj"Ñr ltkoVh oLrq,a cukukA
pVkbZ vkSj dkyhu cquukA
xqfM+;k cukukA
gkFk dh d<+kbZA
i;kZIr {kerk ds lkFk Vad.kA
LVs u ks x z k Qh
lgdkjh HkaMkj pykukA
fo|kFkhZ cSad pykukA
iqLrd cSad pykukA
csar dh cqukbZ] c<+bZfxjh vkSj jktxhjhA
lkbfdy vkSj LdwVj dh ejEerA
dEI;w V j pykuk vkS j mldk j[k&j[kko ¼lfQ± x ] ba V jus a V [kks y uk] bZ & es y ½A
QksVks dkihA
vkoj.k NikbZA
Ñf"k midj.kksa vkSj e'khuksa dk j[k j[kkoA
ih lh vks ¼QSDl½
jk"Vªh; dSMsV dksj] ,u ,l ,l LdkmfVax vkSj xkbfMax
oSdfYid fØ;kdykiksa dh Åij lq>kbZ xbZ lwph esa ls Hkkstu] LokLF; vkSj LokLF; foKku] ifjèkku]
vkokl] euksjt
a u vkSj lkeqnkf;d lsok tSls ekuo dh vko';drkvksa ds fofHkUu {ks=kksa esa ls Nk=k Nk=kkvksa
dks ,d ;k nks fØ;k&dykiksa@ifj;kstukvksa dk p;u djuk gSA p;fur oSdfYid ikB~;Øeksa dh la[;k
bl ckr ij fuHkZj djsxh fd muds fu"iknu ds fy, dqy fdrus ihfj;Mksa dh vko';drk gksxh] tks
120 ls vfèkd ugha gks ldrhA

dqN fØ;kdykiksa ds ikB~;Øe dh :ijs[kk


Åij fn, x, fØ;k dykiksa vkSj ifj;kstukvksa dks ewrZ :i nsus vkSj fuèkkZfjr le; ds mfpr mi;ksx
dks lqfuf'pr djus ds fy, rFkk lkFk gh vHkh"V mís';ksa dh loksZÙke miyfCèk ds fy, dqN vfuok;Z
vkSj oSdfYid fØ;kdykiksa dk vkSj vfèkd fooj.k fn;k x;k gSA vfuok;Z fØ;k&dykiksa ds fu"iknu
ds fy, vko';d ihfj;Mksa dh la[;k] fdl d{kk ds fy, mi;qDr gS rFkk vko';d vkStkjksa vkSj lkeku

144
dk fooj.k fn;k x;k gSA oSdfYid] fØ;k&dykiksa ds lanHkZ esa] d{kkuqlkj izkXO;olk;h ikB~;Øeksa dh
fo"k; oLrq@izeq[k fØ;kdykiksa dk foLr`r fooj.k fn;k x;k gSA blesa vfèkxe ifj.kke@fof'k"V fØ;k
dykiksa] f'k{k.k@vfèkxe fofèk;k¡ vkStkjksa vkSj lkeku] fu"iknu ds fy, vko';d le; rFkk ikB~;p;kZ
ds vU; {ks=kksa ls lacaèk dk C;kSjk Hkh 'kkfey gSA 'ks"k fØ;k&dykiksa@ifj;ktukvksa izkX;olk;h ikB~;Øeksa
ds fy, fof'k"V fØ;kdykiksa dk fuèkkZj.k fd;k tk ldrk gSSA dqN fØ;k dykiksa ds ikB~;Øeksa dh :i
js[kk uhps nh xbZ gS %

vfuok;Z fØ;kdyki
fØ;kdyki I xkao@uxj@xanh cLrh@tu tkrh; {ks=k esa yksxksa ds iks"k.k vkSj LokLF; dh n'kk dk vè;;uA

d{kk IX ;k X (30 ihfj;M)


yksxksa ds iks"k.k vkSj LokLF; dh fLFkfr]ns'k dh orZeku fLFkfr vkSj Hkkoh laHkkoukvksa dks n'kkZrh gSA
iks"k.k vkSj LokLFk esa lq/kkj] fodkl ds jk"Vªh; fu;kstuksa dh igyh izkFkfedrk gksuh pkfg,A iks"k.k vkSj
LokLFk dh orZeku fLFkfr ds fy, mÙkjnk;h dkjdksa ds vè;;u ls rF;ksa dk Kku gksxk] ftuds vkèkkj
ij mudh fLFkfr esa lqèkkj ds fy, mfpr fu;kstu fd;k tk ldrk gSA

fof'k"V fØ;kdyki
fdlh xk¡ o @uxj@xa n h cLrh@ tutkrh; {ks = k dk vfHkxz g .kA
leqnk; dh iks"k.k vkSj LokLF; lEcUèkh leL;kvksa dh izkjfEHkd igpkuA
ifjokj ls mudh i`"BHkwfe vkSj vU; lwpuk,¡ izkIr djus ds fy, iz'ukoyh fuekZ.k@lk{kkRdkj dk;ZØeA
lkekU; tkudkjh % ifjokj dk eqf[k;k] ifjokj dk izdkj
ifjokj dk la ? kVu
ifjokj ds Hkkstu dk izfr:i
Hkkstu] oL=k] vkokl] f'k{kk] nokvksa] b±èku] ifjogu] cpr] dtZ pqdkuk] euksjatu vkfn vU; enksa
ij ekfld O;; dk izfr:iA
Hkkstu ds ekfld O;; dh foLr`r tkudkjhA
?kj ij cuk HkkstuA
fo'ks"k n'kkvksa esa fn;k tkus okyk HkkstuA
Hkkstu idkus dh fofèk;k¡A
?kj esa Hkkstu dh oLrqvksa dk HkaMkj.kA
^vPNh* vkSj ^vPNh ugha* ekuh tkus okyh Hkkstu dh oLrq,aA
LokLF; dh lkekU; leL;k % cPpksa dh vHkkotU; chekfj;ka] cPpksa ds vU; lkekU; jksx] ifjokj
esa lkekU;r% gksus okys jksxA

145
jksxksa ls eqfDr ds fy, fd, x, mik;A
i;kZoj.kh; LoPNrk lEcUèkh leL;kA
dpjs ¼Bksl ;k rjy½ ds fuiVku dk rjhdkA
ty vkiwfrZ dk òksr rFkk ty HkaMkj.k dk rjhdkA
LokLF; lacaèkh vkanrksa dk vuqikyuA
miyCèk LokLF; lsok,¡A
 losZ{k.k dk lapkyu
 vk¡dM+ksa dk fo'ys"k.k rFkk fuEufyf[kr ds lanHkZ esa izeq[k fu"d"kks± ij fjiksVZ rS;kj djuk
lektkfFkZd n'kk,a(
i;kZoj.kh; LoPNrk lacaèkh leL;k,a(
LokLF; dh lkekU; leL;k,a(
cPpksa] ekrkvksa vkSj leqnk; ds dqiks"k.k dh leL;k,a(
leqnk; dh iks"k.k] LokLF; vkSj LoPNrk lacaèkh vokaNuh; izFkk,a(
iks"k.k vkSj LokLF; dh fLFkfr dks lqèkkjus ds fy, O;kogkfjd gLr{ksi mik;(

fØ;kdyki&II
?kj&?kj laidZ dk;ZØe ds }kjk leqnk; ds iks"k.k] LokLF; vkSj i;kZoj.kh; fLFkfr lqèkkjus vkSj leqnk;
ds LokLF; dk;ZØeksa esa lgk;rkA

d{kk IX ;k X (30 ihfj;M )


fodkl'khy nqfu;k esa dqiks"k.k vkSj laØe.k LokLF; dh vfuf'pr fLFkfr ds ize[q k dkj.k gSAa dqiks"k.k
dsoy xjhch ;k lkekftd vkSj forj.kkRed vU;k; ds ifj.kkeLo:i Hkkstu dh vuqiyCèkrk ds dkj.k
gh ugha gksrk] vfirq iks"k.k ds rF;ksa ds vKku vkSj vokaNuh; izFkkvksa ds dkj.k Hkh gksrk gSA dqiks"k.k
dh leL;kvksa dks dkQh gn rd gy fd;k tk ldrk gS] ;fn vk; dh lhek esa jgdj gh Hkkstu dk
foosd iw.kZ p;u fd;k tk, vkSj miyCèk Hkkstu dk vkSj vfèkd mi;ksx fd;k tk ldsA i;kZoj.k dh
LoPNrk dh nks ewyHkwr leL;kvksa ds fpjdkfyd vfLrRo eq[; :i ls vlqjf{kr ty vkiwfrZ rFkk dpjs]
fo'ks"k :i ls ekuo eyew=k ds vLokLF;dj fuiVku] ls gh laØked jksx QSyrs gSaA i;kZoj.kh; LoPNrk
ds fy, vkèkqfud oSKkfud Kku ds vuqiz;ksx ls 80 izfr'kr jksxksa ij izHkko'kkyh <ax ls fu;a=k.k fd;k
tk ldrk gSA
bl izdkj leqnk;ksa ds okaNuh; iks"k.k] LokLF; vkSj i;kZoj.kh; LoPNrk dh izFkkvksa ds }kjk LokLF;
dh leL;kvksa dks dkQh gn rd gy fd;k tk ldrk gSA tula[;k ds lHkh vk;qoxZ dks i;kZoj.k vkèkkfjr
f'k{kk nsdj bl y{; dks izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSA ?kj&?kj laidZ dk;ZØe] i;kZoj.k vkèkkfjr f'k{kk
dk lcls izHkko'kkyh rjhdk gSA iks"k.k] LokLF; vkSj LoPNrk esa gLr{ksi fd, fcuk Hkh ?kj&?kj laidZ

146
dk;ZØe ds }kjk izkIr dk;kZRed f'k{kk ls leqnk; dh iks"k.k] LokLF; vkSj LoPNrk dh fLFkfr dks lqèkkjk
tk ldrk gS A
 fof'k"V fØ;kdyki
xkao ds ljiap] lkeqnkf;d LokLF; dk;ZdÙkkZ] izkFkfed LokLF; dsUnz ds deZpkjh] lkoZtfud
LokLF; bathfu;j] vkSj [kaMfodkl vfèkdkjh dks ,d lEesyu esa vkefU=kr djuk pkfg,A buds lkFk
feydj vfHkxzghr leqnk; esa pyk, tk jgs lkeqnkf;d LokLF; dk;ZØeksa ij ppkZ djuh pkfg,A blh
ekSds ij laidZ dk;ZØe esa mudh Hkkxhnkjh vkSj lg;ksx dh laHkkoukvksa dks Hkh ryk'kk tk ldrk gSA
 iwoZ losZ{k.k ¼fØ;kdyki 1½ ds }kjk fpfÌr vfHkxzghr leqnk; esa iks"k.k] LokLF; vkSj LoPNrk dh
leL;kvksa dks leqnk; esa pyk, tk jgs LokLF; dk;ZØeksa ds lkFk lEcUèk tksM+uk rFkk leqnk; esa
fof'k"V okaNuh; izFkkvksa dh ,d lwph rS;kj djukA
cPps dh pkj eghus dh vk;q gksus ij iwjd Hkkstu nsrh gSA
cPps dks cksry esa ugha] dVksjh esa nwèk nsrh gSA
cPps dks dbZ ckj nwèk fiykrh gSA
chekj gksus ij Hkh cPps dks nwèk fiykrh gSA
cPps dks izfrf'kf{kr djrh gSA
dkVus ls iwoZ lfCt;ksa dks èkksrh gSA
vfèk'ks"k ikd ty dk mi;ksx djrh gSA
gjh iÙkhnkj lfCt;ksa dk fu;fer mi;ksx djrh gSA
dPph lfCt;ksa@Qyksa@vadqfjr vukt dk fu;fer mi;ksx djrh gSA
?kj ds ikl&iM+ k s l dks lkQ j[krh gS A
vity dk ikSèks mxkus esa mi;ksx djrh gSA
dpjs dks xïs esa Qsadrh gSA
nk¡rksa dks lkQ j[krh gSA
uk[kwu dkVdj mUgsa lkQ j[krh gSA
ekxks±] tyòksrksa vkSj ?kjksa ls nwj ey R;kx djrh gSA
ey R;kx ds ckn ckgj gh lQkbZ djrh gS( fdlh rkykc@VSad@unh esa ughaA
 ?kj&?kj lEidZ dk;ZØe ds fy, cukbZ xbZ ifj;kstuk Vhe ds lnL;ksa esa ifjokjksa dk forj.k rFkk
?kj&?kj laidZ dk;ZØe ds fy, le; lkj.kh rS;kj djuk] vkSj vfèkd vPNs iks"k.k] LokLF; vkSj
LoPNrk ds fy, okaNuh; izFkkvksa ds egÙo dks le>kuk vkSj okaNuh; izFkkvksa dh tkap lwph esa ifjokj
esa izpfyr izFkkvksa dks ntZ djukA
 izR;sd rhu laidks± ds ckn Vhe lnL;ksa dk lkeus vkbZ leL;kvksa ij fopkj foe'kZ djuk] fdlh

147
okaNuh; izFkk ds u pyus ds dkj.kksa dks fo'ys"k.k djuk] rFkk dk;ZØe dks vkSj vfèkd l'kDr cukus
ds fy, laHkkfor lekèkku [kkstukA
 leLr leqnk; ds fy, izFke vkSj vafre laidZ dk;ZØe dh okaNuh; izFkkvksa ds vfHkys[k lqn<` + djuk
rFkk izFkkvksa esa lqèkkj ds izfr'kr ds vkèkkj ij dk;ZØe ds izHkko dks tkapukA
 ifj;kstuk dh Vhe ds lnL;ksa dk mudh lR; fu"Bk vkSj bZekunkjh ds vkèkkj ij rFkk mudks lkSais
x, ifjokjksa esa izFkkvksa esa lqèkkj ds vkèkkj ij O;fDrxr fu"Iknu dk ewY;kadu djuk A

fØ;kdyki III

izFke mipkj nq?kZVuk ;k vkdfLed chekjh ls ifhfM+r O;fDr dks rRdky vkSj vLFkk;h ns[kHkky dks
izFke mipkj dgrs gSaA izFke mipkj dk eq[; mís'; ihfM+r O;fDr ds thou dks cpkuk] LokLF; ykHk
esa lgk;rk djuk rFkk MkWDVj ds vkus ;k vkikr?kj ;k vLirky rd ifjogu ds nkSjku jksxh dh n'kkvksa
dks vfèkd xEHkhj gksus ls jksdukA

fof'k"V fØ;kdyki
 izFke mipkj fdV cukuk rFkk mi;ksx djukA
 ?kkoksa dh lQkbZ vkSj iêh ckaèkukA
 lkèkkj.k pksVksa vkSj vkikr~ fLFkfr;ksa dk izcaèkuA
[kwu cguk
iz?kkr
Mwcuk
tyuk
lk¡i dk dkVuk
vfLFk Hkax
fo"kk;u

fØ;kdyki IV

Nk;knkj@tykou@ltkoVh@lM+dksa ds o`{kksa dk jksi.k


i;kZoj.k ds ikfjfLFkfrd laryq u ds fy, o`{kksa dk egÙoA fofHkUu mís';ksa ds fy, LFkkuh; vkSj fons'kt
o`{k ikSèkksa dh lkekU; o`f) dks izHkkfor djus okys dkjdA dqN tkfr fo'ks"k ds o`{kksa ls lEcfUèkr fof'k"V
leL;k,¡ vkSj muds lekèkkuA ikSèk?kj esa ikSèk mxkuk rFkk ikSèk?kj dk izcaèkuA ltkoVh o`{kksa dk dkf;d
izoèkZuA vfHkfoU;kl fu;kstuA o`{kkjksi.k vkSj mudh ns[kHkkyA

fof'k"V fØ;kdyki
 Nk;knkj@tykou@ltkoVh lM+ d ks a ds o` { kks a dh igpkuA

148
 fofHkUu o`{kksa dk mn~fHkt~ laxzg ¼gjcsfj;e½ rS;kj djukA
 okuLifr o`f)] ubZ dksaiys@ifÙk;ka fudyuk] iq"i.k] Qyu vkfn dk _rq tSfod fujh{k.kA
 chtksa dh igpku] ikSèk?kj esa cksus ls igys chtksa dk mipkjA
 cht cksus ds fy, ikSèk?kj esa D;kfj;ka cukukA
 ikSèk ?kj esa ikSèks mxkuk rFkk ikSèk?kj izcaèkuA
 dVku] nkc }kjk dkf;d izoèkZuA
 o`{kkjksi.k ds fy, vfHkfoU;klA
 o`{kkjksi.k ds xïs [kksnukA
 xïksa esa Hkjus ds fy, e`nk vkSj [kkn dk feJ.k rS;kj djukA
 jksi.k ds fy, ikSèks fudkyukA
 jksi.k cksMZ ;k jLlh dh enn ls o`{kkjksi.kA
 lqj{kk ds fy, o`{k dop@ckM+ yxkuk ¼o`{k dop@ckM+ yksgs dh NM+ksa] [kkyh iqjkus ihiksa] dkaVsnkj
Vgfu;ka] b±Vksa] dkaVsnkj rkjksa] ltho ckM+s ls cus gksrs gSa½
 jksi.k ds ckn ikSèkksa dh ns[kHkky] flapkbZ] [kjirokj fudkyuk] ?kklikr <duk] xqM+kbZ] jksxksa ls cpko]
isLV] tUrq] ekSle dh izfrdwy n'kk,a vkfnA

fØ;kdyki V

lkekU; moZjdksa vkSj isLV ukf'k;ksa dh igpku rFkk mfpr midj.kksa }kjk mudk mi;ksx A
ikSèkksa ds iks"k.k ds rÙo] moZjd ukbVªkstuh] Qk¡lQsVh tSo moZjdksa] lw{e iks"kdksa] lkekU; dhVuk'kdksa
[kjrokjufk'k;ksa] dodukf'k;ksa dh ladYiukA ek=kk x.kukA ikSèk j{kd midj.k] fofHkUu izdkj ds Qgkjs
izèkwydA ikSèk j{kd midj.kksa dh j[k j[kko vkSj mi;ksxA moZjd Mkyus dh fofèk;ka] e`nk vkSj i.khZ;
mi;ks x A

fof'k"V fØ;kdyki
 fofHkUu izdkj ds moZjdksa] dod ukf'k;ksa] dhVuk'kdksa [kjirokj ukf'k;ksa] tSo moZjdksa dh igpkuA
 Qqgkjksa vkSj iz|wydksa ds fofHkUu vaxksa dh igpkuA
 ikSèk j{kd midj.kksa dk va'k'kksèkuA
 fof'k"V mís';ksa ds fy, moZjdksa] dhVuk'kdksa vkfn dh ek=kk dh x.kukA
 ikSèk j{kd jlk;uksa ds dk;kZred ?kksy rS;kj djukA
 ikSèk j{kd midj.kksa dk mi;ksxA
 moZjdksa dk mi;ksx] lrg ds Åij lrg ds uhps rFkk ifÙk;ksa ij fNM+ddj moZjd MkyukA

149
 Qyhnkj Qlyksa ds fy, tSo moZjdksa dk mi;ksxA
 m|ku Ñf"k esa ifê;ksa esa moZjd yxkukA
 moZjdksa ds mi;ksx ds ckn Qlyksa@ikSèkksa dk lkekU; isLVukf'k;ksa fujh{k.k rFkk vuqipfjr ikSèkksa ls
mudh rq y ukA

fØ;kdyki VI

ikSèkksa ds lkekU; isLV vkSj jksxksa ls ifjp; rFkk lkekU; jlk;uksa vkSj ikSèk j{kd midj.kksa dk mi;ksx
Ñf"k esa isLVksa vkSj jksxksa dk egÙoA muds fu;a=k.k ds mik;A tSo rFkk lefUor fu;U=k.k mik;ksa
ds fo"k; esa lkekU; tkudkjhA lkekU; dhVuk'kd] doduk'kh] [kjirokj uk'khA lkekU; ikSèk j{kd
midj.k muds fuekZ.k dk foLr`r fooj.k] lkekU; ejEer vkSj j[k j[kkoA ikSèk j{kd jlk;uksa ds mi;ksx
ds le; dh lkoèkkfu;k¡A izeq[k {ks=kh; Qlyksa] lfCt;ksa vkSj Qyksa dh Qlyksa ds lkekU; isLVA izeq[k
{ks=kh; Qlyksa] lfCt;ksa vkSj Qyksa dh Qlyksa ds lkekU; jksxA

fof'k"V fØ;kdyki
 dhVksa] muds ykjok] I;wik] vaMksa dk laxzg.k vkSj ijh{k.kA
 jksxxzLr ikSèkksa ds vaxksa dk laxzg.k vkSj ijh{k.kA
 Qlyksa ds isLVksa vkSj jksxksa dh igpku vkSj o.kZuA
 ikni j{kd jlk;uksa dh igpkuA
 isLVksa vkSj jksxksa ds dkj.k Qlyksa dh gkfu dk vuqeku yxkukA
 iknij{kd midj.kksa dh lQkbZ] j[k&j[kko vkSj lkekU; ejEerA
 iknij{kd midj.kksa dks pykukA
 iknij{kd jlk;uksa dk dk;kZRed ?kksy cukukA
 iknij{kd jlk;uksa ds mi;ksx ds ckn ikSèkksa dk fujh{k.kA
 mipfjr vkSj vuqipfjr ikSèkksa esa rqyukA
 dod uk'kh }kjk chtksa dk mipkjA

fØ;kdyki VII

ikfjokfjd ctV cukuk rFkk nSfud ?kjsyw ys[kk&tks[kk


fof'k"V fØ;kdyki
 ?kjsyw ys[kk ds egÙo dh igpkuA
 ysu&nsu dks fjdkWMZ djus dh izfØ;k dks lh[kukA

150
 [kpks± ds fjdkWMZ] okmpjksa] jlhnksa] fcyksa vkfn dks j[kukA
 lkekU; jlhnksa vkSj Hkqxrku ds ys[kk dk jftLVj esa O;ofLFkr vkSj lkQ lqFkjs <ax fjdkWMZ j[kukA
 iqjkuh jlhnksa vkSj Hkqxrku dh orZeku jlhnksa vkSj Hkqxrku ls rqyuk djukA

fof'k"V fØ;k&dyki
 fofHkUu ifjokjksa dh vko';drkvksa] lq[kksa vkSj foykflrkvksa esa varj djukA
 ifjokj dh miHkksT; oLrqvksa dh lwph cukukA
 vko';d miHkksT; oLrqvksa ds rqyukRed ewY;ksa dk laxzg.kA
 ikfjokfjd vk; dks fofHkUu enksa esa ck¡VukA
 ikfjokfjd ctV cukukA
 fuEu oxZ] fuEueè;oxZ vkSj eè;oxZ ds ifjokjksa ds ctV dk rqyukRed vè;;u djukA

fØ;k&dyki VIII

cl vkSj jsy dh le; lkj.kh rFkk vU; lwpuk òksrksa dk mi;ksx


 cl] jsy vkSj vU; le;&lkjf.k;ksa ds egÙo dks le>ukA
 cl vìs ls cl dh le;&lkj.kh rFkk jsyos LVs'ku ls jsy dh le;&lkj.kh ,d=k djukA
 le;&lkj.kh ds fofHkUu Hkkxksa dk vè;;u djukA
 cl vkSj jsy dh le;&lkj.kh dks i<+us dh izfØ;kvksa dks lh[kukA
 fofHkUu mís';ksa vkSj fofHkUu xUrO;ksa rFkk ekxks± ds fy, cl vkSj jsy ;k=kk dh ;kstuk cukukA

fØ;kdyki IX

fo|ky; ds vfèkdkfj;ksa dh fuEufyf[kr ds vk;kstu esa enn djukA


¼d½ fidfud] i;Z V u vkS j lS j &likVks a ] mRlo
¼[k½ iz n 'kZ f u;k¡

fof'k"V fØ;kdyki
 fo|ky; ds vfèkdkfj;ksa dh fidfud] i;ZVu] lSj likVs] vkSj fo|ky; ds mRloksa ds vk;kstu esa
enn djukA
dk;ZØe dh ;kstuk cukukA
ifjogu] Hkkstu] [ksy vkSj euksjatu tSls fofHkUu dkeksa ds fy, Vheksa dk xBuA

151
èku la x z g rFkk mldk ys [ kk&tks [ kk j[kukA
izR;sd fØ;kdyki dh O;oLFkk vkSj rS;kjh djukA
fidfud] i;Z V u@lS j likVs ] mRlo ds fnu dk;Z Ø eks a dk vk;ks t u@fu"iknuA
dk;ZØe dh lQyrk dh xbZ xfrfofèk ds izHkkfor dk ewY;kaduA
 izn'kZfu;ksa ds vk;kstu esa fo|ky; ds vfèkdkfj;ksa dh enn djukA
dk;Z dh ;kstuk cukukA
iznf'kZr oLrqvksa dk laxzg.k@fuekZ.k rFkk mUgsa lqjf{kr j[kukA
izn'kZu ds fy, mfpr estksa] cksMks± vkfn dks bdëk djukA
iznf'kZuh d{k ;k eSnku dh lQkbZ vkSj ltkoVA
;kstukuqlkj mfpr LFkyksa ij oLrqvksa dk izn'kZuA
iznf'kZuh ds fnu Lokxr djus dk dÙkZO; fuHkkukA
n'kZdksa dks iznf'kZr oLrqvksa ds fo"k; esa crkukA
iz n f'kZ u h dh lekfIr ij oLrq v ks a dks bdëk djuk rFkk mUgs a muds Lokfe;ks a @ fo|ky; ds
vfèkdkfj;ksa dks ykSVkukA
QuhZpj vkfn dks mlds mfpr LFkku ij okil j[kuk

fØ;k&dyki X

izkS<+ lk{kjrk dk;ZØe esa Hkkxhnkjh


fof'k"V fØ;kdyki
ikl&iM+ksl dk losZ{k.k rFkk izkS<+ fuj{kjksa dh igpkuA
?kj&?kj tkdj feyuk rFkk mUgsa lk{kjrk dh d{kkvksa esa vkus ds fy, eukukA
mudh vk;q] O;olk; vkSj #fp;ksa ds vuqlkj fuj{kjksa ds lewg cukukA
mudh {kerkvksa vkSj #fp;ksa ds vkèkkj ij Nk=kksa ds lewg cukukA
f'k{kd ds funsZ'ku vkSj enn ls lk{kjrk lkexzh dk p;uA
dk;ZØe pykus ds fy, LFkku vkSj HkkSfrd ¼oLrqvksa½ dh O;oLFkk djukA
f'k{k.k lkexzh ds p;u lfgr f'k{k.k dh i;kZIr rS;kjh djukA
izkS<+ksa dks lewg esa i<+kukA
d{kk esa ,d lkFk feyuk rFkk dk;Z dh izxfr vkSj leL;k] ;fn dksbZ gS rks] dk iqujh{k.k djukA
vuqHko ds vkèkkj ij f'k{k.k dh fofèk;ksa vkSj izfØ;kvksa dks lqèkkjukA
izkS<+ lk{kjrk dh izxfr dk ewY;kadu djuk rFkk fjdkWMZ j[kukA

152
vko';d lkexzh] midj.k vkSj vkStkj

fØ;k&dyki XI

d{kk esa mi;ksx ds fy, lkexzh


fof'k"V fØ;k&dyki
 ml ladYiuk@izdj.k@ ikB dh igpku] ftlds fy, f'k{k.k lkexzh rS;kj djuh gSA
 rS;kj dh tkus okyh f'k{k.k lkexzh dh igpku% mUes"k dkMZ] pkVZ] ekMy] drju jftLVj] ¶ySuy
cksMZ] dke pykÅ midj.k vkfnA
 f'k{k.k lkexzh dh Iyku@dke pykÅ js[kkadu djuk rFkk vko';d midj.kksa vkSj lkexzh dh lwph
cukukA
 bls cukus ds fy, lkexzh bdëk djukA
 f'k{kd ds funsZ'ku esa f'k{k.k lkexzh rS;kj djukA
 bldh izHkkfork vkSj dfe;ksa dks tkuus ds fy, izfrn'kZ Nk=kksa ij f'k{k.k lkexzh dk mi;ksxA
 dfe;ksa dks nwj djukA
 mi;skx ds fy, fo|ky; ds vfèkdkfj;ksa dks lkSaiukA

153
10- dyk f'k{kk
rdkZèkkj
dyk f'k{kk f'k{kkfFkZ;ksa ds laiw.kZ O;fDrRo ds fodkl ds fy, ikB~;p;kZ&fØ;kdyki ds {ks=k dk egÙoiw.kZ
vax gSA dyk ifjrks"k dh izfØ;k gS] tks jpukRed] l`tu'khy vkSj vkuUne; jhfr ls thou ds izR;sd {ks=k
esa O;kIr gSA dykf'k{kk vfHkO;fDr ¼ekSf[kd vkSj vekSf[kd½ dh fofoèk izfØ;kvksa ds vUos"k.k esa lgk;d gSA
i;kZoj.k ds ,dkxzfpÙk i;Zos{k.k ls ;g l`tu'khy vfHkO;fDr ds fodkl dks izksRlkfgr djrh gS rFkk cqf)
dks iz[kj cukrh gSa fofoèk izdkj dh lkexzh ls ifjp; ds }kjk ;g vfHk#fp;ksa ds vUos"k.k esa lgk;rk djrh
gSA ;gh ugha vfHkO;fDr dh oS;fDrd foèkk vkSj 'kSyh dh igpku esa Hkh ;g lgk;d gSA ;g ifjos'k ds vUnj
vkSj ckgj rFkk {ks=k fo'ks"k esa izpfyr dyk dh fofoèk foèkkvksa ds fo"k; esa Kkuo`f) djrh gSA bruk gh ugha]
iz;ksx vkSj vUos"k.k dh izfØ;k esa blds }kjk fofHkUu vkStkjksa vkSj vU; dyk&lkexzh ds mi;ksx esa dq'kyrk
dk fodkl gksrk gSA Lisl laxBu jaxksa] foèkkvksa] js[kkvksa] foU;kl xfr] èofu] vkfn ds vUos"k.k dh izfØ;k esa
f'k{kkFkhZ esa laxBu vkSj vfHkdYi dk cksèk fodflr gksrk gSA dyk muesa oS;fDrd Nfo rFkk ?kj] fo|ky;
vkSj leqnk; ds lUnHkZ esa vuq'kklu dk Hkko tkxzr djrh gSA ;g dykRed vfHk#fp vkSj lkekftd ewY;ksa
rFkk lkaLÑfrd èkjksgj ds izfr vknj dk fodkl djrh gSA
l`tu'khy dyk dh vfHkdYiuk esa lkekU;r% Kkr dyk&foèkkvksa ds lHkh rÙo lfEefyr fd, tkrs gSaA
dyk dh foèkk,a ;s gSa % pk{k"k fu"iknu vkSj Hkkf"kd dyk tSls laxhr] u`R;] ukVd] js[kkadu vkSj fp=kdyk]
izfr:i.k vkSj ewfrZdyk ;k fuekZ.k dk;Z] dqEgkjh vkSj e`fÙkdk f'kYi] dfork vkSj jpukRed ys[ku rFkk vU;
lEcfUèkr f'kYi foèkk,aA

mís'; %
dyk f'k{kk ds mís'; fuEufyf[kr gSa %
 fo|kFkhZ ds iwoZ vuqHkoksa vkSj Kku dks lesfdr djus esa lgk;rk djukA
 fo|kFkhZ ds uohu ekè;e vkSj rduhd rFkk l`tu'khy vfHkO;fDr ds fy, muds mi;ksx ls ifjp;
djkukA blls os lkekU; mi;ksx dh oLrq,a cuk ldsaxsA
 yksd dykvksa] LFkkuh; fof'k"V dykvksa rFkk vU; lkaLÑfrd ?kVdksa ds fo"k; esa Kku ds fodkl
ds volj iznku djukA blls mudk jk"Vªh; èkjksgj ds fo"k; esa Kku c<+sxk vkSj os mldh iz'kalk
dj lds a x s A
 thou dh nSufUnu ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa fo|kFkhZ dks dykRed lq#fp vkSj lkSan;Z cksèk ds mi;ksx esa
lgk;rk djukA
 lkekftd izk.kh ds :i esa fo|kFkhZ ds larqfyr fodkl esa lgk;rk djukA ;g fodkl izkÑfrd vkSj
lkaLÑfrd èkjksgj ij vkèkkfjr ifj;kstuk ds }kjk gksxkA

154
 LFkkuh; dykdkjksa@dykoarksa ds thou vkSj dk;Z ls ifjp; djkukA
 leqnk; dh lgk;rk ls vkSj LFkkuh; :i esa miyCèk lkexzh ds }kjk l`tu'khy vfHkO;fDr dk fodkl
djukA
 izkÑfrd lkSan;Z vkSj dyk foèkkvksa ds ewy rÙoksa dh iz'kalk ds Hkko dks ifj"Ñr djukA

dyk ds fØ;kdykiksa dh i¼fr


ekè;fed Lrj ij dyk f'k{kk] LFkkuh; yksd dyk vkSj f'kYi rFkk yksd ukV~; ds vfèkd fudV
gksrh gSA dyk dsoy iqjkus dykdkjksa dk vaèkkuqdj.k ;k f'k{kdksa ds dk;Z dh ;Fkk:i vuqÑfr ugha gSA
;g rks l`tu'khy vkSj dYiuk 'khy jhfr ls f'k{kkfFkZ;ksa dh vius vki dh vfHkO;fDr esa lgk;rk nsrh
gSA l`tu'khy dyk,a dk;Z f'k{kk dk fodYi ugha gks ldrh gSAa dk;Z f'k{kk esa dqN dykRed fØ;kdykiksa
dks dk;kZfUor fd;k tk ldrk gS] ysfdu bldh i)fr vkSj Ñfr fHkUu gksxhA
f'k{kkFkhZ ds fgr esa ;gh gS fd tgka rd laHko gks] fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds le{k l`tu'khy dykvksa ds lHkh
ekè;e j[ks tkus pkfg,] rkfd os viuh #fp ds vuqlkj] dyk dh fdlh ,d foèkk ;k dyk dh foèkkvksa
ds fdlh leqPp; dks pqu ldsaA os gSa

pk{kq"k dyk,a
 nks vk;keh ;k fp=kkRed
js[kkadu vkSj fp=kdyk
dks y kt cukuk
Nkik rS ; kj djuk
Qks V ks x z k Qh
dEI;wVj fp=k ¼tgka laHko gks½
 rhu vk;keh
e`nk izfr:i.k vkSj dqEgkjh
mRdh.kZu vkSj ewfrZfuekZ.k
fuekZ.k

fu"iknu dyk,a
 laxhr ¼xk;u] oknu½
 lapyu vkSj u`R;A
 l` t u'khy ukVd rFkk dBiq r yhA
 l`tu'khy ys[ku vkSj dkO;

155
dyk f'k{kk ds lkèku
Ldwyksa esa dyk ds dk;ZØeksa esa izns'k fo'ks"k ds yksdkpkj dk izfrcaèku gksuk pkfg,A laxhr dkO;]
u`Rp ukV~; vkSj foèkkvksa dh jpuk esa dykRed vfHkO;fDr izkjfEHkd dky ls gh ekuo thou dk vax
jgh gSA ;g dksbZ ubZ vkSj vifjfpr ugha gS vfirq ;g rks ekuo vfLrRo dk vfHkUu vax gSA LFkkuh;
ifjos'k vkSj dykvksa ls ifjp;] fo|ky; ds dyk dk;ZØe dk vfuok;Z fØ;kdyki gksuk pkfg,A
oS;fDrd vfHkO;fDr ds vfrfjDr] dyk,a] izkphu dky vkSj orZekudky esa fn, x, ;ksxnku dk
vè;;u vkSj jlkLoknu djus dk volj Hkh iznku djrh gSAa laxhr] fp=kks]a u`R; vkSj ukVd dk ewY;kadu
lh[kdj O;fDr esa lkSan;Zijd laosnu'khyrk rFkk Hkkoqdrk fodflr gks tkrh gS vkSj og bl izdkj vU;
laLÑfr;ksa ls lac) yksxksa dks vkSj vfèkd vPNh rjg ls le> ldrk gSA ge ,d ln~Hkkoiw.kZ lekt]
,d l`tu'khy jk"Vª ;k iz'kalkiw.kZ Hkkoksa ls vfHkHkwr ,d vyx lalkj dh jpuk dj ldrs gSaA blds
fy, ;g vR;ko';d gS fd fo|ky; ds dyk lac/a kh dk;ZØe cPps }kjk {ks=k dh dyk ijEijk ls voxr
gksaA {ks=k dykvksa ls ifjp; ds }kjk mlesa 'kfDr vkSj fo'okl dk lapkj gksxk vkSj og laLÑfr rFkk
vU; yksxksa }kjk fn, x, ;ksxnku dk vknj vkSj iz'kalk dj ldsxkA
fo|ky;ksa esa l`tu'khy dk;ZØeksa ds fy, lnSo ifj"Ñr lkexzh vkSj mPp dksfV ds lalkèkuksa dh
gh vko';drk ugha gksrh gSA lcls vfèkd egÙoiw.kZ rks l`tu'khy dykvksa dk cksèk gS ftlds fy, dkS'ky
Lor% fodflr gks tkrs gSa rFkk cPpksa ds lkFk dke djus vkSj [ksyus dk ifjrks"k gSA LFkkuh; :i ls
miyCèk lkexzh dk l`tu'khy vfHkO;fDr ds fy, mi;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gS rFkk leqnk; ds fo'ks"kKksa
dh lgk;rk Hkh yh tk ldrh gSA

ikB~;Øe
¼d½ pk{kq"k dyk,a
vxj fo|ky; fofHkUu ek/;eksa ds fy, dyk&f'k{kdksa dh O;oLFkk dj ldrs gSa rks fuEufyf[kr ikB~;Øe
dks pquk tk ldrk gSA lkexzh@ekè;e vkSj rduhd ds lanHkZ esa fuEu fØ;k&dyki fu/kkZfjr gSa %

nks vk;keh vFkok fp=kkRed fØ;kdyki


 pk{kq"k lalkèkuksa vkSj l`tu vfHkO;fDr ds lkèkuksa dk vè;;u %
nks vk;keh Lisl dk nks vk;keh o rhu vk;keh :i o vkdkj esa laxfBr djrs le; js[kkvks]a
jaxksa] vkHkkvksa] jax laxfr;ksa] foU;klksa vkfn dk vè;;uA
izÑfr vkSj ifjos'k dk js[kkaduA
varjky] ok;qeaMy] O;fDrfu"B eu%fLFkfr ds izn'kZu ds fy, jaxksa dk l`tu'khy mi;ksxA
LFkkuh; lac)rk ds ifjizs{; dk l`tukRed iz;ksx
nsoukxjh vkSj jkseu v{kjksa ¼fyfi;ksa½ ds lqys[kh; vk?kkrksa dk vè;;uA
oS"kE; izHkko dk dyk ds vfHkO;atd rÙo ds :i esa mi;ksxA
mudh miyfCèk dh lhek rd fofHkUu ekè;eksa vkSj rduhdksa dk vè;;u vkSj mi;ksxA
isfUly] dkBdks;yk] tyjax] ØsvkWu rsy jax] iksLVj jax vkSj vikjn'khZo.kZfp=k.k] ,sfØfyd

156
jax vkSj jaxksa ds vikjaifjd òksr tSls flanjw ] yky vkSj ihyh feêh] pkoy dk vkVk vkSj midj.k
tSls ty jaxksa vkSj rsy jaxksa dh fp=k.k rwfydk,a] fp=k.k lrg tSls fofoèk izdkj vkSj xq.krk
ds dkxt] tSls fpduk] [kqjnjk] eksVk] iryk vkfn] fp=kiVh] gkMZ cksM] dkxt ij lkekU;
oL=k vkfnA
fofoèk jaxksa ds dkxtksa vkSj jaxhu eqfnzr fp=kksa] eSxthu vkSj lekpkji=kksa ls QksVks@fp=kksa ls
leqfpr fp=k rFkk fpfÙky dk;ZA
Nkis cukuk % ,dy NikbZ] dk"B Cykd ls NikbZ] ykbuksa dV vkSj èkkrq i.kZ % lsjhxzkQh ¼js'ke
LØhu½] Lo fufeZr LVsfUly vkfnA
dEI;wVj fp=kksa dk ewyHkwr Kku ¼tgk¡ dgha laHko gS½

rhu vk;keh ;k ewfrZdyk lEcUèkh fØ;k&dyki


 e`fÙkdk ds ewy foèkkvksa dk vè;;u
fofoèk lkexzh tSls e`fÙkdk] iSfjl IykLVj] ls y [kM+ h ¼eq y k;e iRFkj½ dk"B ¼Cykd] Vgfu;ka
vkSj 'kk[kk,a] tM+sa vkfn½ èkkrq drjuksa] IykfLVd pknjksa] rkjèkkxksa] dkxt vkSj xÙkksa] lfCt;ksa
rFkk vU; Qsads x, miyCèk inkFkks± dk vè;;uA
izkÑfrd vkSj ekuoÑr vkÑfr;ksa] ekuo vkÑfr if{k;ksa] tho tarqvksa] ouLifr vkSj vU; oLrq
tSls ?kjsyw oLrq,a] Hkou ;k tSlh fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh bPNk] dk vè;;uA
nSufUnu mi;ksx dh oLrqvksa dk lewg rFkk fHkUu n`'; foèkku vkSj foU;klA

fu;r dk;Z
fHkUu ekè;eksa vkSj rduhdksa esa nks vkSj rhu vk;keh O;fDr fu"B foèkkvksa] mi;ksxh vkSj izdk;kZRed
dyk vkSj f'kYi foèkkvksa esa fu;r dk;Z fp=k] fHkfÙk fp=k] vkys[k] e`fÙkdk izfr:i.k] dk"B mRdh.kZu] lsy[kM+h]
iSfjl IykLVj b±V fuekZ.k dk [kaM] leqfpr fp=k] tM+kÅ dke] e`nHkkaM vkSj e`fÙkdk HkkaM] eq[kkSV]s dBiqrfy;ka]
oL=k:ikadu ¼caèkst ¼ckaèkuw½ vkSj ¼ckfVd] vkSj Cykd NikbZ lfgr½ iksLVj :ikadu] vfHkU;kl fp=k rFkk
QksVksxzkQh vkfnA

dyk&fØ;kdyki dk fo|ky; ds vU; fØ;kdykiksa ls lg lEcUèk


 dBiqryh cukuk] muds ifjèkku cukuk] dBiqrfy;ksa dk dkepykÅ eap ;k jaxeap] x`gfoKku vkSj
dyk ¼ukVd½ fo"k;ksa ls lg lEcUèk@ikl&iM+ksl dh Hkwfe dks Hkwn`'; fuekZ.k }kjk HkkSfrd i;kZoj.k
dk lkSan;Zijd la?kVuA o`{k vkSj vU; Qwyksa okys ikSèks rFkk lfCt;k¡ yxkdj Hkwn`'; fuekZ.k fd;k
tk ldrk gS rFkk bls Ñf"k] x`gfoKku vkSj i;kZoj.k vè;;u ds fØ;kdykiksa ls tksM+k tk ldrk gSA
 eap foU;kl midj.kksa dk fuekZ.k tSls ijns i`"B ij eap izdk'k] dke pykÅ QuhZpj vkfn mi;ksxh
¼f'kYi½ oLrqvksa dk :ikdau rFkk dk;Z f'k{kk ds fØ;k&dykiksa ls lg&laca/k LFkkfir djukA
 fo|ky; dh if=kdk cqyfs Vu cksM+k±s dk :ikadu fo|ky; ds mRloksa ds fy, iksLVj cukuk] cèkkbZ@fuea=k.k
i=k cukuk] laxhr] u`R; ukVdksa ds fy, eap n`'; cukuk rFkk vuqiz;qDr dyk ds fØ;kdykiksa ls
lg lEcUèk LFkkfir djukA

157
fVIi.kh % ;s fØ;kdyki rFkk vU; lkewfgd fØ;k&dykiksa dks ifj;kstuk ds :i esa ;k O;fDrxr
Lrj ij iwjk fd;k tk ldrk gSA

lkewfgd fØ;k dyki


 Nk=kksa ds vkofèkd vkSj l=k dk;Z ds izn'kZu vkSj izn'kZfu;ksa dk vk;kstuA
 mudh vU;ksU;fØ;k vkSj Kku dh lhek dks vkSj vfèkd foLrkj nsus ds fy, varfoZ|ky; izn'kZfu;ksa
dk vk;sktu djukA
 izknsf'kd vkSj yksd dyk dh ikjaifjd foèkkvksa lfgr leqnk; ds mRlo vkSj lekjksgksa] lkaLÑfrd
laè;kvksa laxhr xksf"B;ksa] fQYe izn'kZuksa rFkk vU; fu"iknuksa dk fu;kstu vkSj vk;kstuA
i;kZoj.k vkSj lkaLÑfrd fofoèkrkvksa dh vfèkd tkudkjh ds fy, laxzgky;ksa] okuLifrd m|kuksa]
fpfM+;k?kjksa vkSj dyk ohfFk;ksa vkSj dyk laLFkkuksa dh vè;;u ;k=kkvksa esa HkkxhnkjhA

dyk vkSj laLÑfr dk lS¼kafrd cksèk


 lkekftd vè;;u ij vkèkkfjr Hkkjrh; dyk vkSj laLÑfr ds egÙoiw.kZ i{kksa ij laf{kIr fVIif.k;kaA
bl izdkj ds vkys[kksa dk vkèkkj ikB~; iqLrdksa esa eqfnzr dykÑfr;ksa dk iqueqZnz.k gks ldrk gSA
 fdlh Hkh ,d ledkyhu dykdkj dk ;ksxnkuA
 ikfjHkkf"kd 'kCnksa dk Kku % vkÑfr la?kVu] vkys[k] foèkk] ifjek.k] varjky ¼Lisl½] dkafr Nkik cukuk]
leqfPpr fp=k] vè;olk;h] mn~Hk`fr dk izfr:i.k] tM+kÅ dke] lqys[ku] foU;kl] iksLVj vkSj la?kVuA
¼[k½ fu"iknu dyk,¡
la x hr ¼xk;u½
 fl)ka r
ikfjHkkf"kd 'kCnksa dk Kku laxhr] ukn] Loj] 'kq)] dksey] rhoz] lIrd] ean]z eè; rkj] vkjksg
vojksg] jkx] y;] ek=kk] rky] vkorZu] lerkyA
iafMr fo".kq fnxacj iyqLdj] iafMr fo".kq ukjk;.k Hkkr[kaMs vkSj iqjsanj nkl }kjk fuèkkZfjr Loj
fyfi i)frA
laxhr ds bfrgkl dh :ijs[kkA
O;kolkf;d fØ;kdykiA
jk"Vª x kuA
leqnk; esa xkus ds fy, ianzg xhrA
o"kZ ds le; dk ladsr djrs gq, rFkk volj vkSj mRlo fo'ks"k ls lEcfUèkr fofHkUu izns'kksa
ds ik¡p yksd xhr ;k tutkrh; xhrA mlh xhr dk vFkZ fy[kuk rFkk y; dk KkuA
Hkkjr ds lardfo;ksa ds Hktu rFkk ik¡p HkfDr xhrA

158
VSxksj ds xhr lfgr ekr`Hkk"kk ds vykok izknsf'kd Hkk"kkvksa ds rhu xhrA
ns'kHkfDr ds rhu xhr ;k lkoZHkkSe izse vkSj eS=kh ds fo"k; ij xhrA
 rkyc) vkSj vyadkj ds }kjk Loj vkSj y; ds mfpr Hkko dh l`f"V djukA
 fuEufyf[kr esa ls fdUgha pkj jkxksa dh lajpuk ls ifjp; % ;eu] dkQh] [kekt] Hkwikyh] uV] dY;k.kh]
losjh] rksMh ¼tkiqjk rcyk ;k e`nax dh laxr ds lkFk½ xq#th dks jkx vkSj blds Lojksa ds fof'k"V
y{k.kksa dks bl rjg le>kuk pkfg, fd fo|kFkhZ jkx ds xq.kksa vkSj blesa fofHkUu Lojksa ds ;ksxnku
dks igpku ldsaA
 fuEufyf[kr rky vkSj muds Bsds % dgjok] nknj] r`rky ¼rhu rky½] >irky] pkSrky] vyadkj rky

ifj;kstuk dk;Z
 egku laxhrdkjksa ds fp=k muds ifjp; dh fVIi.kh ds lkFk ,d=k djuk] lHkh izdkj ds ok| ;a=kksa
ds QksVks ;k fp=k rFkk muds ctkus okys dykdkjksa ds fp=k Hkh ,d=k djds drju iqfLrdk esa fpidkukA
 jsfM;ks vkSj Vh-oh- ij laxhr ds dk;ZØeksa dks lquuk rFkk muds fu"iknu ij laf{kIr fooj.k fy[kuk
vkSj viuh drju iqfLrdk esa fpidkukA

laxhr (jkxkRed ok|)


 fl)kUr
ikfjHkkf"kd 'kCnksa dk Kku % laxhr] èofu] ukn] Loj ¼'kq)] dksey] rhoz½ lIrd ¼eanz eè;] rkj½
vkjksg] vojksg] jkx] xr] y;] ek=kk] rky] vkorZu] lerky] [kkyh] y?kq nzqre~] vuqnzqre~A
iafMr fo".kq ukjk;.k Hkkr[kaMs iafMr fo".kq fnxacj iyqLdj vkSj iqjanj nkl }kjk fuèkkZfjr Loj
fyfi i)fr dk KkuA
de ls de pkj ok| ;a=kksa] muds eq[; vo;oksa rFkk muls fudyus okyh èofu ¼laxhr½ ij
laf{kIr fVIif.k;kaA
 O;kogkfjd fØ;k dyki
fuEufyf[kr esa ls fdlh ,d ok| ;a=k ds lqj feykuk rFkk ctkuk % flrkj] ljksn] ok;fyu fny#ck
;k bljkt] ckalqjh] tyrjax] eaMksfyu] fxVkj ¼rcys dh laxr ds lkFk½
 ok| ;a=kksa dks ctkus okys fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks leqnk; xk;u dks pquus dh vuqefr nh tkuh pkfg, ;k
os fQj mUgsa ikB~;Øe ds fn, x, jkxksa ;k lqxe laxhr vkSj yksd èkqu ij vkèkkfjr ok| o`an dh
vuqefr gksuh pkfg,A
 rkycaèk vyadkj ds }kjk Loj vkSj y; ds mfpr Hkko dh l`f"V djukA foLr`r fooj.k lfgr fuEufyf[kr
jkx % ;eu] [kekt] Hkwikyh] dkQh Hkksikyh] uêkbZ] dY;k.kh] rksM+h] losjh ¼rkuiqjs vkSj rcys dh laxr
ds lkFk½
 vius Bsdksa lfgr fuEufyf[kr ikap rky % dgjok] nknjk] r`rky ¼rhu rky½] >irky] pkSrkyA

159
l`tu'khy ukVd
;g voLFkk gS] ftlesa ;qok yksx ukV~;dyk vkSj lacfa /kr f'kYi ls ifjp; izkIr djrs gSa rFkk lkfgR;
ds }kjk ukV~; cksèk dks foLr`r djrs gSaA l`tu'khy ukVd dk mudk iwoZ vuqHko fuEufyf[kr {ks=kksa dh
[kkst esa lgk;d gksxkA
 fl)kUr
ikfjHkkfk"kd 'kCnksa dk Kku % ewd vfHku;] ukV~; vkys[k] lapu] pfj=k fp=k.k] eap] eap midj.k]
eap&ifjèkku] eap lapyu] eap izdk'k ,dkadh vkfnA
 O;kogkfjd fØ;k&dyki
y;c) lapyu vkSj ewdkfHku; esa eap Hk; ls eqfDr dh rS;kjhA
pfj=k fp=k.k esa vH;klA
laokn cksyus dk vH;klA
¼1½ nSufUnu thou dh ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa ?kVh ?kVuk,¡A
¼2½ ikB~;iqLrd dh dgkfu;ksa ;k dgkuh dh iqLrdksa dh ?kVuk,¡A
¼3½ 'kkL=kh; ukVdksa ds laf{kIr n`';ksa ij vkèkkfjr dFkkoLrq vkSj la?k"kZ dh jpuk ds vH;klA
 ea p f'kYi
midj.k lfgr eap dk fu;kstu rFkk izdk'k ds òksrksa dk voLFkkiu] js[kkadu }kjk ;k izfr:i.k
}kjk ukVd ds pfj=k ds lapyu dk fu;kstuA
ukVd ds pfj=kksa ds ifjèkkuksa dk :ikadu
ukVd&ys [ ku
fcuk vkys[k okys ukVd dks vfHkus; vkys[k ds :i esa fy[kukA
fVIi.kh n'kZdksa ds lkeus fofèkor fu"iknu bl voLFkk esa vPNs dke ds fy, izsj.kknk;d gks
ldrk gS A

vè;kidksa ds fy, ladsr


 fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks vdsys rFkk NksVs&NksVs lewg esa rFkk ckyd&ckfydkvksa dks ,d lkFk dke djus ds
fy, izksRlkfgr djuk pkfg,A
 f'k{kkfFkZ;ksa dks egku dykdkjksa dh rduhd] izfØ;k vkSj dke ds fo"k; esa iwNus ds fy, izksRlkfgr
djuk pkfg,A
 fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks u, ekè;eksa vkSj midj.kksa ds mi;ksx ds fy, izksRlkgu vkSj lgk;rk nsuh pkfg,A
bl izdkj os vius lkeus okyh fofHkUu leL;k lekèkkukRed fLFkfr;ksa dh pqukSfr;ksa dk lkeuk dj
lds a x s A

160
 fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks igy djus rFkk vius dke dk vkykspukRed ewY;kadu djus ds fy, izkRs lkfgr djuk pkfg,A
 fd'kksj ckyd izkS<+ izHkko] izkS<+ fØ;kdyki vkSj dk;Z'kSyh ls izHkkfor gksrk gSA vr% og izkS<+ fØ;k
dykiksa vkSj mudh dk;Z'kSyh dk vuqdj.k djus yxrk gS rFkk mUgsa vkn'kZ eku ysrk gSA bl voLFkk
esa f'k{kd dks pkfg, fd og fd'kksj ckyd dks mlds dk;Z dh ekSfydrk vkSj vf}rh;rk ls voxr
djok, rFkk mls dk;Z djus dh viuh i)fr vkSj 'kSyh fodflr djus ds fy, izkRs lkfgr djs]a D;ksfa d
izkS<+ksa ds dk;Z esa cgqr vfèkd fofoèkrk vkSj fHkUurk gksrh gSA
 f'k{kd dks vius fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds lkFk eS=khiw.kZ vkSj lgkuqHkwfrewyd lEcUèk fodflr djus pkfg, rFkk
mUgsa LFkkuh; leqnk; ds dykRed fØ;kdykiksa ds fo"k; esa tkuus ds fy, izksRlkfgr djuk pkfg,A
 f'k{kd dks fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh lgk;rk ls LVwfM;ks@dyk d{k@jax'kkyk@eap dh LFkkiuk djuh pkfg,A
 f'k{kd dks laxzgky;ksa] ,sfrgkfld izn'kZfu;ksa] okuLifrd vkSj izk.kh m|kuksa] ukVd vkSj LFkkuh; ukVd
ds fØ;kdykiksa] laxhr vkSj u`R; xksf"B;ksa vkSj fQYe izn'kZu esa fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks ys tkus dh O;oLFkk
djuh pkfg,A
 f'k{kd dks] izn'kZu vkSj izn'kZfu;ksa ds rFkk egkudykdkjksa ds laxhr vkSj vU; fu"iknuksa ds fu;kstu
vkSj vk;kstu ds cPpksa dh lgk;rk djuh pkfg,A
 f'k{kd dks vU; fo"k;ksa ds f'k{kdksa ds lkFk feydj vU; fo"k;ksa ls lEcfUèkr dyk ds fØ;kdykiksa
dh ifj;kstuk,a fodflr djuh pkfg,A
 f'k{kd dk fo|kfFkZ;ksa }kjk LFkkuh; :i ls miyCèk dkepykÅ vkStkjksa vkSj midj.kksa ds mi;ksx
ds fy, izksRlkfgr djuk pkfg,A
 f'k{k.k i)fr vkxeukRed gksuh pkfg, rFkk fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks viuh leL;kvksa dks gy djus ds fy,
vius lalkèkuksa dks rS;kj djus ds fy, izksRlkfgr djuk pkfg,A rduhdksa esa izR;{k funsZ'kksa ls cpuk
pkfg,A mUgsa] lkexzh ekè;e] midj.k vkSj rduhd dh [kkst ds }kjk viuh 'kSyh vkSj rduhd
fodflr djus ds fy, izksRlkfgr djuk pkfg,A

161
11- 'kkjhfjd vkSj LokLF; f'k{kk

LokLF; vkSj 'kkjhfjd f'k{kk] Nk=k vkSj leqnk; ds lEiw.kZ LokLF; ls lEcfUèkr gSA blds vfrfjDr] 'kkjhfjd
LokLF; esa Nk=k dk ekufld vkSj HkkoukRed LokLF; 'kkfey gSA fo'o LokLF; laxBu] LokLF; dh dsoy
chekjh ;k v;ksX;rk dk u gksuk gh ugha cfYd 'kkjhfjd] ekufld vkSj lkekftd dY;k.k ds :i esa ifjHkkf"kr
djrk gsA LokLF; vkSj 'kkjhfjd f'k{kk dk y{;] Nk=k dks LokLF; dh ml voLFkk dks izkIr djus ds yk;d
cukuk gS fd ;g lEiw.kZ ekuo&tkfr ds fy, ,d f'k{kk cu tk,A
bl lEcUèk esa] ;g dguk lp gS fd LokLF;izn jgu&lgu dh vknr 'kkjhfjd f'k{kk ds fy, ,d uhao
dk dk;Z djsxhA ,slk ekuk x;k gS fd fo|ky; Lrj ij lkSUn;Ziw.kZ ewY;ksa dks c<+kok nsus dk dksbZ Hkh iz;kl]
'kkjhfjd dY;k.k ds fy, ,d LokHkkfod lEeku dks 'kkfey djsxkA 'kjhj dh fuiq.krk] bldh 'kfDr;ksa vkSj
xq.kksa dks Kku] iz.kkyhc) izf'k{k.k vkSj vH;kl dh vko';drk gSA blesa dkS'ky vkSj {kerk,¡ fodflr dh
tkrh gSa] ek¡lisf'k;k¡ vkSj rfU=kdk,¡ izf'kf{kr dh tkrh gSa] laosnuk,¡ mRiUu dh tkrh gSa rFkk LoPN vkSj mfpr
[kku&iku dh vknrsa Mkyh tkrh gSaA vr% LokLF; vkSj 'kkjhfjd f'k{kk ds fy, fo|ky; ikB~;Øe esa igys
dh rqyuk esa vfèkd iz.kkyhc) izkoèkku cuk;s tk,¡A lSdsaMjh Lrj ij LokLF;izn jgu&lgu dh vknrsa
rfU=kdk&rU=k vkSj ek¡lisf'k;ksa ds leUo;u vkSj 'kkjhfjd ;ksX;rk ds fy, [ksy&dwn vkSj ,FkysfVDl dqN
y{; gSa] ftu ij LokLF; vkSj 'kkjhfjd f'k{kk dk dksbZ Hkh ikB~;Øe cukrs le; è;ku nsuk pkfg,A

'kkjhfjd vkSj LokLF; f'k{kk ds mís'; fuEufyf[kr gSaµ


ewY;ksa dh vkewypwy ltxrk] Kku vkSj Nk=kksa esa LokLF; dh fn'kk esa ok¡fNr vknrsa vkSj n`f"Vdks.k
mRiUu djuk rFkk muds LokLF; dk Lrj Å¡pk mBkukA
Nk=kksa dks 'kkjhfjd] ekufld vkSj HkkoukRed :i ls ;ksX; cukuk vkSj muds O;fDrxr rFkk lkekftd
xq.kksa dks fodflr djuk] tks mUgsa vPNk ekuo cuus esa enn djsaxsA
LokLF; vkSj 'kkjhfjd f'k{kk ds ckjs esa ,d oSKkfud lksp fodflr djukA
O;fDrxr] ikfjokfjd vkSj lkeqnkf;d LokLF; dh igpku djuk rFkk LoLFk cus jgus ds fy, bu
leL;kvksa dks jksdus rFkk fu;fU=kr djus ds fy, lqlxa r oSKkfud Kku ,oa tkudkjh vftZr djukA
(i) muds Lo;a ds LokLF;] (ii) muds ifjokj ds lnL;ksa ds LokLF; vkSj (iii) muds leqnk; esa
bnZ&fxnZ yksxksa ds LokLF; dh] tc vko';d gks miyCèk lkeqnkf;d lalkèkuksa ls enn ek¡xrs gq,]
j{kk djus rFkk mUgsa laofèkZr djus ds fy, O;fDrxr vkSj lkewfgd :i ls dk;Zokgh djukA
ifjokjksa vkSj leqnk; esa lafofèkZr fuokjd vkSj mRlkgoèkZd Lo&ns[kHkky vknr dks c<+kokuk nsukA

162
leqnk; esa ,p-vkbZ-oh-] ,M~l rFkk u'khyh nokvksa ds ckjs esa ltxrk c<+kukA
O;fDrxr vkSj lkekftd thou esa 'kkjhfjd ;ksX;rk vkSj vkafxd n{krk ds egRo ds ckjs esa ltxrk
c<+kukA
ekSfyd izfØ;kvksa dks viuh ilUn dh 'kkjhfjd xfrfofèk;ksa esa cnyus ds ckjs esa tkx:drk iSnk
djukA
vkRe&lUrks"k rFkk bls thou dk vax cukus ds fy, O;k;ke vkSj [ksy&dwn esa #fp c<+kukA
van:uh&xq.kksa dks fodflr djus ds fy, O;fDr fo'ks"k dks ;ksX; cukuk tSls Lo;a ij fu;U=k.k]
vuq'kklu] lkgl] fo'okl vkSj n{krkA
O;fDr dks ftEesnkjh dh Hkkouk] ns'k&HkfDr] vkRe&cfynku n'kkZus rFkk csgrj rjhds ls leqnk;
dh lsok djus ds ;ksX; cukukA
vkRe&j{kk vkSj vkRe&fuHkZjrk ds egRo dh tkx:drk fodflr djukA
,d vPNh eqnzk fodflr djus dh tkx:drk c<+kuk rkfd og vPNh eqnzk cuk;s j[kus ds fy,
rRij jgsasA
O;fDr dks mRlkgoèkZd vkSj lfØ; thou thus ds fy, ;ksX; cukukA
O;fDr dks ,d vkd"kZd rjhds ls lkekftd :i ls Lohdk;Z O;ogkj i)fr;k¡ viukus ds yk;d
cukukA

fo|k (lh[kus) ds fu"d"kZ


bl Lrj ij 'kkjhfjd vkSj LokLF; f'k{kk esa ikB~;Øe dk y{; fuEufyf[kr ckrsa gkfly djuk gS
(I) 'kkjhfjd f'k{kk esa Kku ds fu"d"kZ
f'k{kk] vaxksa dh ;ksX;rk] vkSipkfjd KkusfUnz;k¡ rFkk l{ke vkafxd iz.kkyh fodflr djrs gSaA
os mfpr O;k;ke esa layXu gksus dh vknr cukrs gS]a rkfd rRdky vkSj Hkkoh LokLF; vko';drkvksa
dks iwjk fd;k tk ldsA
os rfU=kdk&rU=k vkSj ek¡lis'kh dkS'ky esa o`f) djrs gSa] ftlls vklkuh vkSj lQkbZ ls dk;Z djus
dh {kerk fodflr gksrh gSA
os lg;ksx] vPNs f[kykM+hiu rFkk mfpr [ksy dk n`f"Vdks.k fodflr djrs gSaA
os Lo&fu;U=k.k] vuq'kklu] lkgl vkSj fo'okl tSls y{k.kksa dh vknr Mkyrs gSaA
os ns'k&HkfDr] vkRe&cfynku] vkRe&fuHkZjrk rFkk thfor jgus dh bPNk dh Hkkouk fodflr djrs
gSaA
os] [ksyksa esa ykHk ysus ;k [ksydj] mudh ljkguk djds vkSj vkuUn ysdj mudk Kku vftZr
djkds [kkyh le; mi;ksx djus ds fy, Lo;a dks rS;kj djrs gSaA

163
(II) lq>ko ;ksX; xfrfofèk;k¡
u` R ;
[ks y &dw n ¼iz f 'k{k.k@dks f pa x lfgr½
;ks x
,FkyS f VDl
rS j kdh
;q) dyk,¡
(III) LokLF; f'k{kk esa f'k{kk ds fu"d"kZ
f'k{kk] LokLF; vkSj 'kkjhfjd f'k{kk dh ,d oSKkfud lksp fodflr djukA
os O;fDrx] ikfjokfjd vkSj lkeqnkf;d LokLF; leL;kvksa dh igpku djrs gSa rFkk LoLFk cus jgus
ds fy, bu leL;kvksa dks jksdus vkSj fu;fU=kr djus ds yk;d cukrs gSaA
os Lo;a ds LokLF;] ikfjokj ds LokLF; rFkk vius ifjokj ds bnZ&fxnZ ds yksxksa ds LokLF; dh
j{kk djus rFkk mls lafofèkZr djus ds fy, O;fDrxr :i rFkk lkewfgd :i ls dk;Zokgh djrs
gSaA
os] ifjokj rFkk leqnk; esa lafofèkZr fuokjd vkSj mRlkgoèkZd Lo&ns[kHkky vknr fodflr djus
ds fy, gesa ,d rRij jgrs gSaA
(IV) lq>ko ;ksX; {ks=k
LokLF; dk vFkZ vkSj izÑfr
i;kZoj.k vkSj LokLF;
cM+h&nq?kZVuk,¡] tks fd xzkeh.k vkSj 'kgjh {ks=kksa esa ?kkrd gks ldrh gSaA izkFkfed mipkjA
iks"k.k
vkèkqfudhdj.k ds LokLF;&[krjs % u'ks dh vknr] ,p-vkbZ-oh- vkSj ,M~lA
laØked vkSj vlaØked jksxA gekjs ns'k esa nokvksa dh vuqeksfnr iz.kkfy;k¡ vioknh tk jgh gSA
vUrjk"Vªh; LokLF; dk egRoA
'kkjhfjd f'k{kk dh xfrfofèk;k¡] fo|ky; esa vkSj blds bnZ&fxnZ miyCèk lqfoèkkvksa ij fuHkZj gSA vr%
f'k{kd dks fo|ky; vkSj leqnk; esa miyCèk lqfoèkkvksa dks è;ku esa j[krs gq, dk;ZØe fodflr djus pkfg,A

164
'kkjhfjd f'k{kk
d{kk&IX vkSj X

1- ,FkyS f VDl
¼d½ nkS M + u s okyh iz f rLièkkZ , ¡ rst nkSM+ ¼ckèkk&nkSM+ lfgr½ rFkk eè;e vkSj yEch&nwjh dh izfrLièkkZ,¡A
iSj fVdkus rFkk 'kjhj dks Hkkj lfgr lgh 'kq:vkr] lekiu rduhdksa] nkSM+us ds ,D'ku ij tksj
fn;k tk,A
¼[k½ dwnus okyh ¼tfEiax½ izfrLièkkZ,¡ yEch dwn vkSj Å¡ph&dwn rduhdksa cu lesdu rFkk fVªiy tEi
rFkk iksyokYV dh vkèkkjHkwr ckrksa dh 'kq:vkrA
¼x½ Qsadus ¼Fkzksbax½ okyh izfrLièkkZ,a xksyk Qsd
a vkSj pDdk Qsd
a rduhdksa dk lesdu rFkk Hkkyk Qsd
a
rFkk gSej Fkzks dh ewyHkwr ckrksa dh 'kq:vkrA
¼?k½ fofHkUu lpy ?kVdksa vFkkZr~ xfr] 'kfDr] lgu'kfDr] yphysiu rFkk leUo;dkjh ;ksX;rkvksa esa lqèkkj
ykus ds fy, O;k;ke dk;ZØe esa HkkxhnkjhA
uksV (i) bl Lrj dk y{;] mlds fu"iknu dh izkfIr ij gksuk pkfg, vkSj blhfy,] fo'ks"kKrk ds
fy, ,d [ksy dk p;u djuk pkfg,A ,d ls vfèkd [ksyksa dk p;u rc gh djuk pkfg,]
tc nksuksa ds chp esa rkfdZd lEcUèk gksaA
(ii) izfr;ksfxrkvksa ls lEcfUèkr ewyHkwr fu;eksa dk ifjp;A
2- fteukfLVd
d - iq # "k
¼d½ igys ls lh[ks gq, dkS'kyksa dh iqujko`fÙk
¼[k½ dkS'ky ¼Q'kZ ds O;k;ke½
gSM fLizxa ]
jkmaM&vkWQ
¼x½ okWfYVax gkslZ
pkSM+s ?kksM+s ij LVªsMy okWYV
pkSM+s ?kksM+s ij gSaM fLizax
yacs ?kksM+s ij p<+uk vkSj cSBuk
yacs ?kksM+s ij&[kM+h gqbZ eqnzk ls LVªsMy
¼?k½ lekukUrj ckj ¼MaMs½
fofHkUu izdkj dh p<+kbZ vkSj mrjkbZ
,d ckj dk jkWy

165
'kksfYMj LVSaM
^,y* fLFkfr idM+
¼M½ {kSfrt ¼gksfjtksaVy½ ckj
fofHkUu izdkj dh idM+
ihNs ls iyVuk ¼cSd VuZvksoj½
,d Vkax ij ldZy QkWjokMZ
lkèkkj.k fLoax
[k- efgyk
¼d½ iwoZorhZ d{kk esa lh[ks x;s dkS'kyksa dh iqujko`fÙk
¼[k½ dkS'ky ¼Q'kZ ds O;k;ke½
,d gkFk ls dkVZOghy
jkmaM vkWQ
¼x½ larqyu che
u`R; lEcUèkh dyk,¡
eqM+us okyh eqnzk,¡
ÝUV jkWy vkSj cSad jkWy
fofHkUu lUrqyu
¼?k½ okWfYVax gkslZ
pkSM+s ?kksM+s ij LVªsMy okWYV
oqYQ okWYV ¼lkbM okWYV½
dSV fLizax vkSj tai
¼x½ fteukfLVd ds fy, vko';d lpy ?kVdksa dks fodflr djus ds fy, fofHkUu izdkj ds
vuqdwyu O;k;keA
3-- ;ks x
èkuqjklu
dqDdqVklu
e;qjklu
lqIrotzklu
odklu

166
xkSe[q kklu
lqIr&iou eqDrklu
gyklu
'kyHkklu
ukSdklu
ukSdklu
'kh"kkZlu
lw;Z ueLdkj
4-- iz e q [ k [ks y
¼fuEufyf[kr ls fdUgha nks dk p;u fd;k tk,½
¼d½ fØdsV
¼[k½ Qq V cky
¼x½ gkW d h
¼?k½ ckLdsV ckWy
¼M½ ckWyhcky
¼p½ gS a M cky
¼N½ [kks & [kks
¼t½ dcM~ M h
¼>½ Vs c y&Vs f ul
¼>½ cS M fea V u
¼.k½ cS M fea V u
¼V½ dq ' rh
¼B½ tw M ks
ekSfyd dkS'kyiw.kZ i)fr;ksa dh fl[kykbZ ds lesdu ij tksj fn;k tk,A ;fn miyCèk gks] rks bu [ksyksa
dks iwjs vkdkj ds eSnku esa [ksyk tk,A ;fn dsoy NksVs vkdkj dk [ksy&{ks=k miyCèk gS] rks bu [ksyksa dks
:ikarfjr :i esa [ksyk tk,A
fofHkUu lpy ?kVdksa vFkkZr~ xfr] 'kfDr] lgu'kfDr] yphykiu rFkk leUo;dkjh ;ksX;rkvksa esa lqèkkj
ykus ds fy, O;k;ke dk;ZØeksa esa HkkxhnkjhA
[ksyksa ls lEcfUèkr ewyHkwr fu;eksa dk ifjp;A

167
5-- rS j kdh
¼d½ izfrLièkkZRed nwfj;ksa dk iz;ksx djrs gq, lHkh LVªksdksa dh rduhdksa rFkk ekSfyd dkS'kyiw.kZ
i)fr;ksa dh fl[kykbZ ds lesdu ij tksj fn;k tk,A
¼[k½ rSjkdh ls lEcfUèkr fofHkUu lpy ?kVdksa esa lqèkkj ykus ds fy, O;k;ke dk;ZØeksa esa HkkxhnkjhA
¼x½ okVj&iksyks dkS'ky vkSj xksrk[kksjh ¼Mkbo½ dk lesduA
¼?k½ rSjkdh okVj iksyks rFkk xksrk[kksjh ds ekSfyd fu;eksa dk ifjp;A
uksV bl Lrj ij ,d Nk=k dk y{; mPp fu"iknu dh izkfIr gksuk pkfg, vkSj blhfy, mls fo'ks"kKrk
ds fy, ,d [ksy dks pquuk pkfg,A ,d ls vfèkd [ksy ¼izfrLièkkZ½ dks rc gh pquuk pkfg,
tc muds chp rkfdZd lEcUèk gksA

LokLF; f'k{kk
d{kk&IX
LokLF; dk vFkZ ,oa izÑfr] LokLF; dh ikfjfLFkfrdh; voèkkj.kk] LokLF; ds 'kkjhfjd] ekufld]
HkkoukRed vkSj lkekftd vk;keksa dh ikjLifjd fuHkZjrk] LokLF; dks izHkkfor djus okys ?kVd
vkSj ifjfLFkfr;k¡] LokLF; dk egRo] LokLF; f'k{kk dk vFkZ] mís';] fl)kUr vkSj iz.kkfy;k¡] LokLF;
f'k{kk esa ehfM;k dh HkwfedkA
yksxksa ds LokLF; dh fLFkfr ds lEcUèk esa xk¡oksa] dLcksa vkSj >qXxh&>ksaifM+;ksa esa i;kZoj.kh; n'kk,¡]
R;kT; fuiVku dk;Z] iznw"k.k jksdus ds mik;] [kkn ds xM~<s] lks[kus okys xM~<s] LoPN 'kkspky;
lqjf{kr is;ty ds òksr] uxjikfydk tykiwfrZ iz.kkyh] vkokluA
chekfj;ksa dh jksdFkke vkSj LokLF; laoèkZu] lkaLÑfrd dk;Z vkSj LokLF; lfgr O;fDrxr vkSj
i;kZoj.kh; LokLF; vknrksa dk lEcUèkA
cM+h nq?kZVuk,¡] ftuls xzkeh.k vkSj 'kgjh {ks=kksa esa nq?kZVuk,¡ gksrh gSa] nq?kZVukvksa ds fy, ftEesnkj
?kVd] vke nq?kZVukvksa dks jksdus ds fy, lkekU; fl)kUr] vkx tykus LVkso@dqfdax xSl iz;ksx
djus fctyh ds mi;ksx] lh<+h&p<+us] lM+d ikj djus ;krk;kr ds lkèkuksa esa p<+us] lkbfdy pykus]
rSjkdh] [ksyus] nok,¡ vkSj tgjhys jlk;u j[kus] dyk,¡ fu"ikfnr djus] iz;ksx'kkykvksa esa dke djus
rFkk bySfDVªdy rFkk esdsfudy xStsVksa rFkk e'khuksa ij dke djus] nq?kZVuk tksf[keksa dks gVkus
ds mik;ksa ls lEcfUèkr lqj{kk fu;eA
[kjksap] ?kkdksa] ehp] ekalisf'k;ksa esa f[kpko] yxkrkj&[kwu cguk] gM~Mh VwVuk] dkVs tkus ;k Mad
ekjs tku]s ikuh esa Mwcus] csgks'k gksus] lnek] tyus ds izkFkfed mipkj mik; % izkFkfed mipkj
ds fl)kar] ?kjsyw mipkj rFkk fof'k"V ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls fuiVus ds dkS'kyA
,d O;fDr dh ikSf"Vd fLFkfr dks izHkkfor djus okys ?kVd vkSj ifjfLFkfr;k¡] dSyksjh vkSj iks"kdksa

168
ds lanHkZ esa 'kjhj dh ikSf"Vd vko';drk,¡] bu ikS"kdksa ls Hkjiwj lLrk vkSj LFkkuh; :i ls miyCèk
Hkkstu] vkerkSj ij iz;ksx esa vkus okys [kk|&inkFkks± dk ikS"kd&ewY;] larqfyr vkgkj&vk;q] fyad]
O;olk;] xHkkZoLFkk rFkk HkkSxksfyd fLFkfr ds vuqlkj bldk egRo vkSj vko';drk,¡] vkgkj ;kstuk
ds fl)kUr] vYirk chekfj;ksa vkSj mudk fuokj.kA
d{kk&X
vkèkqfudhdj.k&iznw"k.k ds LokLF;&tksf[ke] Lokl tksf[keksa] ikfjokfjd rFkk lkeqnkf;d thou ij
tula[;k foLQksV dk izHkkoA
laØked vkSj vlaØked jksx] lØked jksxksa ds QSyus rFkk fu;U=k.k djus esa estcku ,tsaV vkSj
i;kZoj.k dh Hkwfedk 'kjhj dk cpko] jksx&izfrjksèkdrk&izkÑfrd vkSj vftZr] jksxksa dh jksdFkke
ds fy, fu;fer fpfdRlk&tk¡p dk egRo] Vhdkdj.k dk;ZØe rFkk cwLVj&[kqjkdksa dk egRo@Hkkjr
esa ej.k'khyrk vkSj e`R;qnjA jk"Vªh; LokLF; dk;ZØe] bu dk;ZØeksa ds fØ;kUo;u esa Nk=kksa vkSj
yksxksa dh Hkkxhnkjh dk egRo] izkFkfed LokLF; ns[kHkky] vFkZ vkSj {ks=k xzkeh.k vkSj 'kgjh {ks=kksa
esa LokLF; ns[kHkky dh LFkkiukA
vUrjk"Vªh; LokLF; dk egRo] ,d ns'k ls nwljs ns'k esa laØked jksxksa ds QSyus dks jksdus ds fy,
vUrjk"Vªh; LokLF;&mik;] DokjsaVkbu mik;] fo'o LokLF; laxBu blds dk;Z vkSj xfrfofèk;k¡]
fo'o LokLF; fnol dk egRoA
Hkkjr esa dke esa ykbZ tk jgh vuqeksfnr fpfdRlk&iz.kkfy;k¡] miyCèk fo'ks"kKrk] lykg vkSj xSj&lykg
okyh nokb;k¡] vknr Mkyus okyh nokb;k¡] Lo&fpfdRlk ds [krjs rFkk ,d >ksyk Nki MkDVj
ds ikl tkuk ,YdksgkWy vkSj rEckdw ds nq"izHkko xk¡o] dLCkk] ftyk] jkT; vkSj jk"Vªh; Lrj ij
LokLF; dsUnz] LokLF; vkSj LokLF; f'k{kk ds {ks=k esa dk;Zjr Lo;alsoh ,tsfUl;k¡A
,p-vkbZ-oh- vkSj ,M~l dh ltxrk@LoPNan ;kSu&O;ogkj rFkk cky vkSj u'khyh nokvksa ds dnkpkj
ls lEcfUèkr cqjkb;ksa ls Nk=kksa dks ifjfpr djkukA fd'kksj&f'k{kk rFkk ;kSu&f'k{kk dks mfpr rjhds
ls fn;k tk,A

169
12- fo'ks"k izkS<+ lk{kjrk vfHk;ku ds fy, <kapk
1- izk<S +kas esa fuj{krk dks lekIr djus lacèa kh jk"Vªh; dk;Z esa opuc)rk vkSj lgk;d i)fr;ksa ds :i eas O;kid
Lrj ij fo|kfFkZ;ksa vkSj Ldwyksa dk 'kkfey gksuk vko';d gSA
2- ^fo'ks"k izk<S + lk{kjrk vfHk;ku* dk;Z vuqHko dk vko';d la?kVd cusxkA rnuqlkj dk;Z vuqHko ds {ks=k
dh iqul Z ja puk dh xbZ gS vkSj ekè;fed rFkk ofj"B ekè;fed Lrjksa ij ikB~;Øe esa lkis{k egRo dks è;ku
esa j[krs gq, bl vksj fuEukuqlkj cy fn;k x;k gS %
¼d½ vfuok;Z {ks=k % ftlesa cksMZ }kjk tkjh ekxZn'khZ fl)kUrksa esa fn, x, funs'Z kksa ds
vuqlkj] LokLF;] foKku] [kk| inkFkZ] 'kj.kLFkku] vkSj 20%

euksjatu vkfn 'kkfey gks ldrs gSaA


¼[k½ fo'ks"k izkS<+ lk{kjrk vfHk;ku % 20%

,d vyx vkSj fo'ks"k la?kVd ds :i esa


¼x½ oSdfYid dk;Zdyki % cksMZ }kjk tkjh ekxZn'khZ fl)kUrksa esa miyCèk
cgqr ls dk;Zdykiksa esa ls dksbZ ,d dk;Z pquuk gksrk gSA 60%
3- ,sls {ks=kksa esa ftuesa 100% lk{kjrk izkIr dj yh xbZ gS] fo'ks"k izkS<+ lk{kjrk vfHk;ku ds fy,
fuèkkZfjr 20% Hkkx dks vfuok;Z {ks=k eas ueksfn"V la?kVd ds lkFk feyk fn;k tk,xkA lgorhZ
:i esa] ,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksa ;k {ks=kksa esa vfuok;Z {ks=k ds la?kVd ds fy, 40% Hkkx ¼fo'ks"k izkS<+
lk{kjrk vfHk;ku ds 20% lfgr½ vkSj oSdfYid {ks=k ds fy, 60% Hkkx visf{kr gksxkA
4- fo'ks"k izkS<+ lk{kjrk vfHk;ku ds rgr dk;Z vuqHko ds ,d Hkkx ds :i esa bls lkSais x, 20%
Hkkx ds vuq:i fo|kfFkZ;ksa }kjk fd, x, ykHkiw.kZ dk;Z dks Lohdkj djrs gq, vad fuEukuqlkj
fn, tk,axsA
4-1 ,d izkS<+ (15&35) o"kZ dks f'kf{kr djuk ¾ 15 vad
4-2 nks izkS<+ (15&35) o"kZ dks f'kf{kr djuk ¾ 20 vad
5- mu fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks tks nks ls vfèkd izkS<+ksa dks f'kf{kr djrs gSa] dks mi;qZDr iSjk 4 ds varxZr
lq>k, x, vuqlkj mlh vuqikr esa vfrfjDr Js; fn;k tk ldrk gS] vFkkZr]
5-1 3 izk<S k+ as ds fy, vfrfjDr 15 vad
5-2 4 izk<S + ds fy, vfrfjDr 20 vad
6- ;s vfrfjDr 20 vad dk;Z vuqHko ds vfuok;Z {ks=k ls fy, tk,ax]s ftl Ldhe esa 20% Hkkx fn;k
x;k gSA ,sls fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds fy, vfuok;Z {ks=k ds fy, vkcafVr vfèkdre 20 vadksa rFkk fo'ks"k
izkS<+ lk{kjrk vfHk;ku ds fy, fuèkkZfjr 20 vadksa dks bl dk;Zdyki ds fuèkkZj.k ds fy, ,d
lkFk feyk fn;k tk,xkA bu fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks vad 20 vadksa ds LFkku ij tks fd mi;qZDr 4 ds
varxZr lkekU; ekeyksa esa gksrk gS] 40 vadksa eas ls fn, tk,axsA rhu ;k vfèkd izkS<+ksa ds f'kf{kr

170
djus okys fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks vfuok;Z {ks=k ds rgr 20 vfuok;Z {ks=k ds rgr+20 fo'ks"k izk<S + lk{kjrk vfHk;ku
ds varxZr dks iz;ksx djus okyksa ds :i esa ekuk tk,xkA
dk;Z vuqHko esa mPpre xzMs ij igqp¡ us dh n`f"V ls ;g lykg vfuok;Z {ks=k] fo'ks"k izk<S + lk{kjrk
vfHk;ku vkSj oSdfYid dk;Zdykiksa ds fy, lkSia s x, Hkkxksa ds vuqlkj vadksa ds :i esa fd;k tk,xkA rc
lai.w kZ d{kk ds vyx&vyx vH;kFkhZ }kjk izkIr dqy vadksa ¼rhu la?kVdksa dks tksM+dj½ dks Øeokj j[kk tk,xkA
vfèkdre ls U;wure rd tks fo|kFkhZ 33% ls de vad izkIr djsxa s mudks vlQy ekuk tk,xk vkSj xzMs
¼M½ fn;k tk,xkA 'ks"k lQy vH;kfFkZ;ksa vFkkZr~ tks cksMZ }kjk fuèkkZfjr ekun.M ds vuqlkj 33% ;k blls
vfèkd vad izkIr djrs gS]a esa ls Åij ds ,d ls ysdj vkB rd ds vH;kfFkZ;ksa dks d&1 xzMs esa j[kk tk,xk
rFkk vxys ,d ls vkB rd ds vH;kfFkZ;ksa dks d&2 xzMs esa j[kk tk,xk vkSj vxys vH;kfFkZ;ksa ds fy,
,sls gh fd;k tk,xkA
7- mu Ldwyksa esa ;k ,sls fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds ekeys esa tks lacfa èkr {ks=k dh Hkk"kk dk Kku ugha j[krs gSa tgk¡ ij lk{kjrk
dk;ZØe vkjaHk fd;k tkuk gks rks vH;kFkhZ dks ;k rks
7-1 bl dk;Z ls NwV gksxh ¼,sls ekeys esa lkèkkj.k ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa 20% Hkkx ds LFkku ij 40% Hkkx ds
fy, vfuok;Z {ks=k ds rgr fuèkkZj.k fd;k tk,xkA½
7-2 vFkok ,sls vH;kfFkZ;ksa dks izk<S +kas dks lhèks f'kf{kr djus ds LFkku ij fo'ks"k izk<S + lk{kjrk vfHk;ku
ds vU; lacafèkr dk;Zdykiksa esa yxk;k tk,xk vkSj muds }kjk fd, x, dk;Z ds fy, mUgsa
mi;qDr :i ls vad fn, tk,axsA
8- fo|kfFkZ;ksa }kjk fd, x, dk;Z dks Lohdkj djus dh n`f"V ls fo'ks"k izk<S + lk{kjrk vfHk;ku esa Hkkx
ysus ds ckjs esa vkSj Cykd vofèk ds nkSjku lk{kfjrk fd, x, izk<S +kas dh la[;k ds ckjs esa ekè;fed
vkSj ofj"B ekè;fed Lrjksa ds vUr esa cksMZ }kjk tkjh fd, izek.ki=kksa esa bl ckjs esa Hkh mYys[k
fd;k tk,xkA
9- laLFkkvksa }kjk fd, x, vPNs dk;ks± dks Hkh izksRlkgu fn;k tk,xkA ;g vk'kk dh tkrh gS fd
fo'ks"k vfHk;ku ds rgr Ldwy ,sls izR;sd fo|kFkhZ }kjk 2 O;fDr;ksa ds f'kf{kr djus esa l{ke gksxa s
ftUgsa ekè;fed vkSj ofj"B ekè;fed O;oLFkk Lrjksa ij izfr o"kZ cksMZ dh ijh{kk ds fy, Hkstk
tkrk gSA
10- ,sls izR;sd fo|kFkhZ okyafV;j ds fy, tks izksRlkgu vadksa dks mi;ksx esa ykuk pkgrk gks] izR;sd
'kSf{kd l=k esa de ls de 100 ?kaVs yxkuk visf{kr gksxkA bl dk;Zdyki dh vuqlwph ypdnkj
gksuh pkfg, ftls fu;fer Ldwy le; ds Hkhrj] Ldwy le; ds ckn] Nqfê;ksa ds nkSjku ;k xzh"edkyhu
Nqfê;ksa ds nkSjku pyk;k tk ldrk gS pw¡fd laiw.kZ dk;ZØe lh[kus okyksa ij vkèkkfjr gksrk gSA
;g vuqlp w h vyx&vyx gks ldrh gSA izk<S +kas dh lk{kjrk dks ,u-,y-,e- vkSj cksMZ }kjk fuèkkZfjr
fd, x, ekunaMksa ds vuqlkj Ldwyksa }kjk ijh{kk ds vkèkkj ij izekf.kr djuk gksrk gSA
11- fo'ks"k vfHk;ku dh ,l-,-,y-Mh- jk"Vªh; vkUnksyu ds ,d Hkkx ds gksus ds dkj.k dsoy fo|kfFkZ;ksa
}kjk vius Lrjksa ij fd, x, dk;Z ds :i esa ugha ekuk tk,xk cfYd ,d i)fr ds :i esa lai.w kZ
Ldwy }kjk vkjaHk fd;k x;k ekuk tkuk pkfg,A laLFkk ds vè;{krk esa lHkh dks iw.kZr;k 'kkfey
gksuk pkfg, rkfd ,sls lHkh vè;kidksa dks 'kkfey fd;k tk lds tks bl dk;Z dk leFkZu vkSj
c<+kok ns jgs gSAa bl vfHk;ku dh lQyrk ds fy, vfHkHkkod dk 'kkfey gksuk Hkh vko';d gSA
Ldwyksa vkSj vfHkHkkod vè;kid ,lksfl,'ku }kjk mi;qDr izksRlkguksa ds ckjs esa Hkh irk yxk;k
tkuk pkfg,A

171
12- Ldwy }kjk bl dk;Z dks le;c) vkSj LFkku&fo'ks"k cukuk pkfg,A os fudV ds xk¡oksa ;k leqnk;ks]a tSlk
Hkh ekeyk gks] dks ys ldrs gSa vkSj fuèkkZfjr le; vFkkZr nks ;k rhu o"kks± ds Hkhrj mudks f'kf{kr ?kksf"kr
dj ldrs gSAa bl izdkj y{; dks dsoy fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds fy, gh ugha cfYd Ldwy ds fy, Hkh fuèkkZfjr le;
vofèk ds Hkhrj izkIr djuk vfuok;Z gSA egkuxjh; 'kgjksa esa ,sls bykdksa dks fudV ds {ks=kksa esa igpku
ugha dh tk ldrh gSA vr% fo|kFkhZ ifjokjksa dks pqu ldrs gSa vkSj mUgsa fuèkkZfjr vofèk ds Hkhrj f'kf{kr
?kksf"kr dj ldrs gSAa
13- fo'ks"k izk<S + lk{kjrk vfHk;ku dh cksMZ }kjk fu;fer :i ls ekuhVfjax dh tk,xhA bl iz;kstu ds fy,
lacfa èkr jkT;ks@a {ks=kksa esa lkexzh dh lIykbZ] 'kSf{kd fufof"V;ksa lkèkkj.k leUo; vkSj dk;ZØe dh lexz izHkkfodrk
ds lanHkZ esa ukeksfn"V jkT;ks@a {ks=kksa esa dk;ZØe dh izxfr dh leh{kk djus ds fy, ;g jkT;okj@{ks=kokj ekuhVfjax
lfefr;ka xfBr dj ldrk gSA
14- ;s ekuhVfjax lfefr;k¡ dk;Zdykiksa dh vkSj dk;ZØe ds lHkh lacfa èkr igyqvksa vkSj Ldwyksa }kjk lh[kus okys
izk<S +kas ds fjdkMZ dk vè;;u djus ds fy, izfr o"kZ Qjojh ls vizy S rd dh vofèk ds nkSjku fdlh Hkh
le; ij lac) laLFkkvksa dk fuEufyf[kr n`f"Vdks.k ls vkdfLed nkSjs dj ldrh gSA
14-1 ;g irk yxkus ds fy, fd D;k lk{kj fd, x, izk<S +kas dks izek.k&i=k nsrs le; Ldwyksa }kjk mfpr ewY;kadu
izfØ;k,a viuk;h xbZ gSAa
14-2 ;g ns[kus ds fy, fd D;k fo|kfFkZ;ksa }kjk mrus izk<S +kas dks f'kf{kr fd;k x;k gS tSlk fd mUgksua s ,d
o"kZ ds fy, Ldwyksa }kjk cksMZ dks izLrqr dh xbZ fu"iknu fjiksVZ esa nkok fd;k gSA
15- dsUnzh; fo|ky;] uoksn; fo|ky;ks]a ljdkjh vkSj ljdkjh lgk;rk izkIr laLFkkvksa ds lacèa k esa ekuhVfjax vkSj
budks fu;a=kr djus okys lacfa èkr laxBuksa }kjk dh tk,xhA rFkkfi cksMZ Hkh bu laLFkkvksa dh ekuhVfjax
djus ds fy, viuh ekuhVfjax lfefr;ksa dks funs'Z k ns ldrk gS tc Hkh visf{kr tkap ds fy, vko';d
le>k tkrk gSA
16- ekuhVfjax ds iz;kstu ds fy, Ldwyksa dks fuEufyf[kr dk;Z visf{kr gSa
16-1 fo|kFkhZ&Lo;alos dksa dks izkRs lkgu vad nsus ds iz;kstu ls fn, x, ifjf'k"V ds vuqlkj fo|kFkhZ Lo;a
lsodksa dh miyfCèk fjdkMZ j[kukA
16-2 izk<S + uoflf[k;ksa ds fjdkMZ rS;kj j[kuk ftlesa Ldwyksa }kjk dh tkus okyh ijh{kk izk<S +kas dh vH;kl
iqLrdsa vkSj fo|kFkhZ Lo;a lsodksa }kjk nh xbZ nSfufd;k¡ 'kkfey dh tk ldrh gSAa
16-3 ekuhVfjax lfefr }kjk tk¡p ds fy, mu izk<S +kas ds iwjs irs vkSj fooj.k j[kuk ftUgsa f'kf{kr fd;k
x;k gS muds lkFk vxys fnuksa esa cSBd dh O;oLFkk dh tk ldrh gS vFkok ;fn lfefr pkgrh gks
rks muds LFkkuksa ds nkSjksa dh Hkh O;oLFkk dh tk ldrh gSA
16-4 izfro"kZ Qjojh ds vUr esa ifjf'k"V&[k esa fn, x, fo'ks"k izk<S + lk{kjrk vfHk;ku&2 izkQ
s kekZ esa cksMZ
dks okf"kZd dk;Z fu"iknu fjiksVZ HkstukA

172
fo'ks"k izkS<+ lk{kjrk vfHk;ku&1
dsUnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] fnYyh

Ldwy dksM-Z ---------------------------------------Ldwy dk uke---------------------------------------------------ijh{kk


fVIi.kh % izR;sd o"kZ Qjojh ds vUr esa {ks=kh; dk;kZy; dks nks izfr;ksa esa izLrqr fd;k tk,xkA ;fn cksMZ dk;kZy;
dks miyfCèk fjdkMZ Qjojh rd ugha igq¡prk gS rks vkxs dksbZ Hkh vuqjksèk Lohdkj ugha fd;k tk,xkA

Øe la - jks y ua - ijh{kkFkhZ dk uke f'kf{kr fd, x, f'kf{kr fd, x, f'kf{kr fd, x, vH;wfDr
izkS<+ksa dh la[;k izkS<+ksa ds uke izkS<+ksa ds irs

ml lk{kjrk dk;ZØe ds vU; igyqvksa dk mYys[k djsa ftlesa LFkkuh; Hkk"kk dk Kku u gksus ds dkj.k okLrfod
f'k{k.k ds LFkku ij Hkkx fy;k x;kA

173
ifjf'k"V&[k
fo'ks"k izkS<+ lk{kjrk vfHk;ku
dsUnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ] fnYyh
fo'ks"k izkS<+ lk{kjrk vfHk;ku
okf"kZd dk;Z fu"iknu fjiksVZ ds fy, izksiQkekZ
izfro"kZ Qjojh ds vfUre lIrkg rd fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh Lo;a dh miyfCèk;ksa lfgr nks izfr;ksa esa {ks=kh; dk;kZy;
dks Hksth tkuh gSA

Ldwy-------------- ijh{kk o"kZ----------------


ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa dh la[;k % Ldwy }kjk lk{kkfjr
fd, x, izkS<+ksa dh la[;k
ekè;fed % ---------------
mPpre ekè;fed---------------
1- pqus fd, {ks=k@leqnk;] dqy tula[;k] 'kkfey dh xbZ tula[;k dk Hkkx] vfHk;ku dh vofèk]
ds lanHkZ esa dk;ZØe dh fooj.kkRed :i js[kk] miyfCèk dh ek=kk] deh ds dkj.k] ;fn dksbZ
gks] fd, tkus okys dk;Z] viuk;h xbZ i)fr vkSj ;kstuk,a] lkeus vkbZ dfBukbZ;ka] muds lekèkku
tqVk, x, lalkèku dk;ZØe dh fo'ks"k ckrksa dk mYys[k fd;k tk,xkA fooj.k en okj fn;k tk,
rkfd fo'ys"k.k djus esa lqfoèkk jgsA

fVIif.k;ka vkSj lq>ko %


2-1 Ldwy ds fy,
2-2 cksMZ ds fy,
2-3 vU; laidZ ,tsfUl;ka
gLrk{kj
Ldwy dh eksgj

è;ku ns a % ;fn LFkku vi;kZIr gks rks vkSj 'khV tksM+ ysaA

174
ifjf'k"V&[k
cksMZ ds izdk'kuksa ds fy,
cksMZ }kjk izdkf'kr dh xbZ ikB~; iqLrdksa rFkk vU; izdk'kuksa ds fy, vkWMjZ fuEufyf[kr dk;kZy;ksa
esa ls fdlh Hkh dk;kZy; dks fn;k tk ldrk gS %
1- eq[; lgk;d ¼izdk'ku LVksj½
dsUnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ]
ih-,l&1&2] ba L VhV~ ; w ' kuy ,fj;k]
iViM+ x a t ] fnYyh&110092
2- {ks=kh; vfèkdkjh]
dsUnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ]
IykWV ua- 1630 ,] 16 eSu jksM+]
vUuk uxj] ¼if'pe½ pSUusbZ&600040
3- {ks=kh; vfèkdkjh]
dsUnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ]
jktx<+ jks M ] jktx<+ frukyh]
xq o kgkVh&781003
4- {ks=kh; vfèkdkjh]
dsUnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ]
Vks M jey ekxZ ]
vtes j ] ¼jktLFkku½&305001
5- {ks=kh; vfèkdkjh]
dsUnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ]
35&ch] flfoy LVs'ku] ,e-th- ekxZ]
flfoy ykbUl] bykgkckn&211001 ¼mÙkjiz n s ' k½
6- {ks=kh; vfèkdkjh]
dsUnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ]
lsDVj 5]
ia p dq y kA

vnk;xh dh i¼fr %
(i) vnk;fx;ka rRdky [kjhn ds fy, ;k rks udnh :i esa vFkok lfpo] dsUnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk
cksMZ] fnYyh ds uke ls cSad Mªk¶V@euhvkMZj ds tfj, Lohdkj dh tkrh gSaA bUgsa vkWMZj ds lkFk
dsUnzh; ekè;fed f'k{kk cksMZ ds dk;kZy; dks Hkstk tkuk gksrk gSA
(ii) Mkd [kpZ izR;sd izdk'ku esa mYys[k fd, x, ewY; ls vyx gksxkA
(iii) iSfdax izHkkj rhu izfr'kr dh nj ls vyx ls gksxhA
Nw V % izR;sd izdk'ku dh 10 izfr;ksa ;k blls vfèkd izfr;ksa ds fy, 15% dh nj NwV vuqKs;
gSA de izfr;ksa ds fy, dksbZ NwV ugha gSA

175