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Course Title: Educational Measurement and Evaluation

Course No. : Ed. 521 Full marks: 50

Nature of course: Theory Pass marks: 20
Level: M. Ed. Periods per week: 3
Year: Second Time per period: 55 minutes
Total periods: 75
1. Course Description
This is a core course which aims to provide the fundamental knowledge and skills on
measurements and evaluation in education. It deals with the nature of measurement and
evaluation in education along with classification of tests, reliability and validity of a
test, standardization of a test and intelligence tests. Moreover, the course aims to
enable the students in designing standardized test.

2. General Objectives
The general objectives of this course are as follows:
• To make the students familiar with the functions, general problems and
current trends in education.
• To acquaint the students with various types of tests used in education.
• To equip the students with the skills in measuring complex achievement of
students in education.
• To enable the students in constructing standardized test.
• To acquaint the students with facts about intelligence.
• To acquaint the students with standardized intelligence test, achievement
test, aptitude and projective tests.
3. Specific Objectives Contents
Specific Objectives Contents
• Unit I : Educational Measurement (8)
Clarify the concepts of 1.1 Overview of measurement and
measurement and assessment. assessment
• 1.2 Relationship among test, measurement
Show relationship among test, and assessment
measurement and assessment. 1.3 Types of measurement
• 1.3.1 Psychological measurement
Differentiate between psychological1.3.2 Physical measurement
and physical measurement. 1.4 Functions of measurement
• 1.4.1 Prognosis
Explain the functions of 1.4.2 Diagnosis
measurement. 1.4.3 Research functions
• 1.5 Scales of measurement
Explain the properties of 1.5.1 Properties of measurement scales.
measurement scales. 1.5.2 Types of scales
• • Nominal,
Explain the various scales of • Scale
measurement. • Ordinal scales
• • Equal interval scale
Explain the problems of • Ratio scales
measurement. 1.6 General problems of measurement
• 1.7 Current trends in educational
State the current trends in measurement
educational measurement. 1.7.1 'High stakes' testing
1.7.2 Performance and portfolio
1.7.3 Education reform and global
Unit II : Classification of Test (8)
• 2.1 Purpose specific tests
State the purposes of specific tests. 2.1.1 Diagnostic
• 2.1.2 Aptitude
Explain the various classifications of2.1.3 Achievement
tests. 2.1.4 Proficiency
• 2.2 Mode specific tests
Show the differences between 2.2.1 Formal vs informal assessment
various mode specific tests. 2.2.2 Formative vs.
• summative assessment,
Differentiate between various 2.2.3 Continuous vs.
process specific tests. terminal assessment
2.2.4 Process vs. product assessment
2.2.5 Internal vs. external assessment
2.3 Process specific test
2.3.1 Teacher - made test vs.
standardized test
2.3.2 Norm reference test vs.
criterion reference test

• Unit III: Reliability and Validity of a Test

Clarify the concepts of reliability. (14)
• 3.1 Overview of reliability
Compute reliability using various 3.2 Methods of estimating reliability with
methods. computation
• 3.2.1 Test retest method
Explain the principles related to 3.2.2 Equivalent forms
interpretation of reliability method
coefficient. 3.2.3 Split half method
• 3.2.4 Kuder-Richardson
Compute standard error of method
measurement of test. 3.2.5 Interrater consistency
• 3.3 Interpreting reliability coefficient
Explain the factors influencing 3.4 Standard error of measurement
reliability. 3.4.1 Concept
• 3.4.2 Computation
Explain the major considerations in
validation. 3.5 Factors influencing reliability measures
3.6 Nature of validity

3.7 Major considerations in validation
Explain various methods of
3.7.1 Content consideration
estimating validity.
3.7.2 Construct
• consideration
Explain the factors influencing
3.7.3 Test-criterion
• 3.7.4 Consideration of
Show the relationship between consequences
reliability and validity. 3.8 Methods of estimating validity
3.9 Factors influencing validity
3.10Relationship between reliability and
• Unit IV : Measuring Achievement (12)
State the various types of objective 4.1 Overview of constructing various types
tests. of objective tests
• 4.2 Guidelines for writing objective test
Provide suggestions for writing items
objective test items. 4.3 Measuring complex achievement
• 4.3.1 Interpretive exercises
Explain the nature of interpretive • Nature
exercise. • Forms
• • Uses of the
Explain the forms and uses of interpretive exercises
interpretive exercises. • Advantages and
• limitations of interpretive
Explain the advantages and exercises
limitations of interpretive exercise. 4.3.2 Essay questions
• • Forms
Describe the forms and uses of • Uses of essay questions
essay questions. • Guidelines for constructing
• essay questions
List the guidelines for constructing • Essay scoring criteria
essay questions. • Improving of scoring essay
• questions
Prepare scoring criteria for essay

Suggest measures in improving the
scoring of essay question.

• Unit V : Standardization of a Test (15)

Make a plan for preparing the test. 5.1 Planning the test
• 5.1.1 Determining the
Prepare the preliminary format of objective of the testing
the test. 5.1.2 Preparing the test
• specification
Compute item analysis. 5.2 Preparing the preliminary format
• 5.2.1 Writing of items
Construct the final form of test after 5.2.2 Arrangement of items
trying out the test. 5.2.3 Item review and
• editing
Interpret test scales. 5.3 Tryout of the test
• 5.3.1 Administration of the
Explain the characteristics of test
standardized test. 5.3.2 Scoring of the test
5.4 Item Analysis

5.5 Preparing the final form of the test
Explain the uses of standardized
5.5.1 Selection of item
5.5.2 Fixing the time limit
5.5.3 Direction for the
5.5.4 Preparation of the
scoring key
5.6 Administration of the final form of test
5.6.1 Determining validity
5.6.2 Determining reliability
5.6.3 Norms
• Raw scores
• Age norms
• Grade norm
• Percentile norms
• Standard scores.
5.7 Manual of the test
5.8 Interpretation of test results
5.9 Characteristics of standardized test
5.10 Uses of standardized test
• Unit VI : Intelligence, Achievement,
Define the term intelligence. Aptitude and Personality Testing
• (18)
Explain some facts about 6.1 Concept of intelligence
intelligence. 6.2 Facts about intelligence
• 6.2.1 Intelligence and age
Explain the Binet's principles of test 6.2.2 Intelligence quotient
construction. 6.2.3 Intelligence and sex
• differences
Explain the early editions of SB 6.2.4 Heredity and
intelligence scale. intelligence
• 6.3 Intelligence Tests
Explain the characteristics and 6.3.1 Concept and uses of
psychometric properties of modern intelligence tests
SB scale. 6.3.2 Types of intelligence
• test
Explain the general features of • Individual
Wechsler tests. • Group test
• 6.3.3 Brief review on early
Explain the various subtests of editions Stanford-Binet (SB) tests
Wechsler test. 6.3.4 Characteristics and
• psychometric properties of
Describe Wechsler Adult present intelligence test
Intelligence Scale III and Wechsler 6.3.5 General features and
Intelligence Scale for Children IV. subtests of Wechsler tests
6.3.6 Brief review of

Wechsler Adult Intelligence
Describe the uses of achievement
Scale III and Wechsler
Intelligence scale for children IV

Describe the uses of aptitude test.
6.4 Standardized achievement test
• 6.4.1 Use of standardized
Describe briefly the DAT and achievement test
GATB. 6.4.2 Brief review of
• Stanford Achievement Test
Describe the uses of personality (SAT) and Metropolitan
test. Achievement Test (MAT)
• 6.5 Aptitude test
Describe projective technique. 6.5.1 Concept and uses of
Aptitude test
6.5.2 Brief review of
Differential Aptitude test (DAT)
and General Aptitude Test
Battery (GATB)
6.6 Personality test
6.6.1 Concept and uses
personality test
6.6.2 Brief review of
Projective Techniques

Note: The figures in the parentheses indicate the approximate periods for the respective units.

4. Instructional Techniques
The instructional techniques for this course are divided into two groups. The first group
consists of the general instructional techniques applicable to most of the contents. The
second group consists of the specific instructional techniques applicable to specific

4.1 General Instructional Techniques

• Lecture
• Question-answer
• Discussion
• Brainstorming, and buzz session
• Students participation in group discussions
and group assignments.

4.2 Specific Instructional Techniques

Unit III: Practice on estimation of reliability.
Unit V: Students will be assigned to prepare a test, administer and standardize
the test.
Unit VI: Students will be given assignment on various topics to present in the

5. Evaluation
The Office of the Controller of Examination, Tribhuvan University will conduct the
annual examination at the end of the academic year to evaluate the students'
performance. The types, number and marks of the subjective and objective questions
will be as follows:

Types of questions Total questions to Number of questions Total

be asked to be answered and marks
marks allocated

Group A: Multiple choice 8 questions 8 x 1 mark 8
Group B: Short questions 5 with 2 'or' 5 x 6 marks 30
Group C: Long questions 1 question 1 x 12 marks 12

6. Recommended Books and References

Gregory, R. J. (2005). Psychological testing : History, principles, and applications.
Fourth ed. Delhi : Pearson Education Pte. Ltd. (For unit VI)
Kaplan, R.M. & Saccuzzo, D. P. (2007). Psychological testing: Principles,
applications, and issues (6th ed.). Kundli Haryana: Thomson Wadsworth. (For
unit VI)
Kubiszyn, T. & Borich, G. (2004). Educational testing and measurement:
Classroom application and practice (7th ed.). Kundli Haryana: John Wiley &
Sons, Inc. (For units I, III and V)
Linn, R. L. & Gronlund, N. E. (2003), Measurement and assessment in teaching (8th
ed.). New Delhi : Pearson Education. (For units I, III, IV and V)
Sharma, R. A. (2004). Essentials of measurement in education and psychology.
Meerut : R. Lall Book Depot. (For units I -VI)
Sidhu, K. S. (2005). New approaches to measurement and evaluation. New Delhi:
Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. (For units I, II, and V)

Reference Book
Ebel,, R. L. & Frisbie, D. A. (1991). Essentials of educational measurement (5th
ed.). New Delhi : Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
Patel, R. N. (2005). Educational evaluation theory and practice (6th ed.). Mumbai,
India : Himalaya Publishing House Pvt., Ltd.
Singh, A. K. (1997). Tests, measurements, and research methods in behavioural
sciences (2nd ed). Patna: Bharati Bhawan Publishers and Distributors.
Swain, S. K., Pradhan, C., & Khatoi, P. K. (2005). Educational measurement
statistics and guidance (2nd ed). New Delhi: Kalyani Publishers.