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THE MEDIA LITERACY LEVEL OF SELECTED AB JOURNALISM AND

AB COMMUNICATION STUDENTS OF ALBAY

An Undergraduate Thesis
Presented to the Faculty of Bicol University
College of Arts and Letters
Legazpi City

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Bachelor of Arts in Journalism

by
Michael Leer Granatin Asuncion
Nico Paygane Arboleda

March 2011
Republic of the Philippines
Bicol University
COLLEGE OF ARTS AND LETTERS
Department of Print and Broadcast Media
Legazpi City

RECOMMENDATION FOR ORAL EXAMINATION

The undergraduate thesis hereto attached entitled, THE MEDIA LITERACY


LEVEL OF SELECTED AB JOURNALISM AND AB COMMUNICATION
STUDENTS OF ALBAY, prepared by Michael Leer G. Asuncion and Nico P.
Arboleda in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Arts in
Journalism, and is hereby submitted to the thesis committee for consideration.

ELNORA A. BROCALES, Ed.D.


Adviser

THESIS COMMITTEE

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts in


Journalism, this undergraduate thesis hereto entitled, THE MEDIA LITERACY
LEVEL OF SELECTED AB JOURNALISM AND AB COMMUNICATION
STUDENTS IN ALBAY, prepared by Michael Leer G. Asuncion and Nico P.
Arboleda is hereby recommended for oral proposal.

MA. CELINA ELADIA G. MENESES, Ph.D.


Chairman

JUDITH R. ORDIZ, M.A. PROF. RUTH G. MERCADO


Member Member

ii
Republic of the Philippines
Bicol University
COLLEGE OF ARTS AND LETTERS
Legazpi City

RESULT OF THE ORAL EXAMINATION

Result of the Oral Examination for MICHAEL LEER GRANATIN


ASUNCION and NICO PAYGANE ARBOLEDA, candidates for the degree, Bachelor
of Arts in Journalism.

Thesis: THE MEDIA LITERACY LEVEL OF SELECTED AB


JOURNALISM AND AB COMMUNICATION STUDENTS OF
ALBAY

Place: Print and Broadcast Media Department Office, Bicol University


Multipurpose Building, Legazpi City

Date: February 2, 2011

Time: 12:00-1:00 P.M.

This is to certify that MICHAEL LEER GRANATIN ASUNCION and NICO


PAYGANE ARBOLEDA have passed the Oral Examination with a rating of 95%.

Panel of Oral Examiners Action Taken

MA. CELINA ELADIA G. MENESES, Ph.D. ___________________


Chairman

JUDITH R. ORDIZ, M.A. ___________________


Member

PROF. RUTH G. MERCADO ___________________


Member

iii
Republic of the Philippines
Bicol University
COLLEGE OF ARTS AND LETTERS
Department of Print and Broadcast Media
Legazpi City

APPROVAL SHEET

Upon recommendation of the Oral Proposal Committee, this undergraduate thesis


entitled THE MEDIA LITERACY LEVEL OF SELECTED AB JOURNALISM
AND AB COMMUNICATION STUDENTS IN ALBAY, prepared by Michael Leer
G. Asuncion and Nico P. Arboleda is hereby approved in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the Degree, Bachelor of Arts in Journalism.

AGNES J. NEPOMUCENO, Ed. D.


Professor

PROF. ANACITO E. DEMATERA


Department Chair, Print and Broadcast Media

MA. JULIETA B. BORRES, Ph. D.


Dean, BUCAL

iv
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The researchers would like to extend their sincerest gratitude to the following, for
without them, this research would not have seen the light of day.

They would also like to acknowledge their thesis committee members, Ma’am
Maisie Meneses, Ma’am Judith Ordiz, and our “semi-adviser” for content, Ma’am Ruth
Mercado; our adviser Ma’am Elnora Brocales, for keeping up with the researchers’
laziness and complacency, as well as pushing them to complete this research; Ma’am Fe
Ataiza, for her assistance on statistical matters; Ma’am Aida Naz of the Philippine
Information Agency for validating our research instrument; Sir Alvin Sario of Aquinas
University for also validating the instrument and helping the researchers gather data at
Aquinas University; Ma’am Agnes Nepomuceno, their research professor, for her helpful
teachings and suggestions.

They would also like to express their deepest gratitude to their parents, whose
encouragement, support, and love became the driving force to do their very best in this
undertaking.

To their dearest friends, for their utmost support and persistence, and making the
researchers realize that they could accomplish this research on time; special mention to
Journalism 4A and 4B, and the Unibe and Budyong family.

Most of all, we also are indebted to God, for giving them strength, knowledge,
and determination when the researchers need the most, and for getting them through their
studies and all the blessings bestowed unto them.

The Researchers,

M.L.G.A.,
N.P.A.

v
ABSTRACT

Thesis: THE MEDIA LITERACY LEVEL OF SELECTED AB

JOURNALISM AND AB COMMUNICATION STUDENTS

OF ALBAY

Authors: NICO PAYGANE ARBOLEDA

MICHAEL LEER GRANATIN ASUNCION

Type of Document: Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis

Bicol University College of Arts and Letters

March 2011

The objective of the study was to determine the media literacy level of selected

third year and fourth year AB Journalism and AB Communication students of Bicol

University and Aquinas University of Legazpi. It sought to evaluate and analyze the

following areas: 1) the respondents’ level of media literacy in terms of news appreciation,

data gathering, exposure to various beats, editing and copywriting, makeup and layout,

newspaper management, and the analysis and interpretation of media content; 2) the

similarities and differences between the respondents from AB Journalism in Bicol

University and AB Communication in Aquinas University of Legazpi in terms of media

literacy skills; and 3) possible activities or programs that can be introduced to recognize

media literacy education.

The research tool used to obtain data was an evaluation research questionnaire.

The questionnaire was administered via random sampling to a sample of 81 selected AB

vi
Journalism and AB Communication students of Bicol University and Aquinas University

of Legazpi, respectively, to gather necessary data.

Findings reveal that most of the skills are taught excellently but the respondents

are not using the skills learned. In terms of news appreciation, data gathering procedures,

editing and copywriting, makeup and layout, and newspaper management, the

respondents displayed almost same skill levels, that they are taught excellently but are not

applying it in their journalistic work. In terms of exposure to various beats, police,

disaster, and provincial capitol beats yielded the same results: that covering these beats

have been taught but not well enough for them to apply in their tasks. Covering the court

beat, however, was taught to them but not well enough to make a recall. In terms of the

basic media literacy skills, the respondents displayed almost same results.

In terms of the interpretation and analysis of media content, the respondents have

the same interpretation that the video clips shown are for 18- to 24-year olds, and that

they are targeted at middle-class males.

It is also found out that the respondents’ attention can easily be held by comedic

videos with aesthetic presentation techniques, usually with the use of cute characters.

Also, the main purpose of these videos shown (violence and sexually themed) as

perceived by the respondents are mostly to entertain. AB Communication students from

Aquinas University were most likely influenced by a certain video than those of the AB

Journalism students of Bicol University.

It can be concluded that AB Communication students have a higher literacy level

than AB Journalism students considering the following factors – number of students,

vii
ratio of professors to students, and facilities. In terms of the curriculum used, AB

Journalism students in Bicol University acquire more skills compared to AB

Communication students of Aquinas University where skill levels of the students

decrease as they go further to their degree.

It is suggested that both schools consider improving or revamping the present

curriculum of the respondents, with the inclusion of media literacy subjects. For Bicol

University, it is suggested that the Print and Media Broadcast Department should be

stricter in the hiring of professors in AB Journalism, as well as a stricter admission

policy. For Aquinas University of Legazpi, the AB Communication department is

suggested to increase promotional activities for the course.

It is recommended that both schools should conduct seminars, press conventions,

film showings and workshops to increase the media literacy skills of the students.

Enhancement trainings, outreach programs, press conferences, and proper information

dissemination to improve social life of the students are also recommended.

The present undertaking dealt only with the third year and fourth year students of

AB Journalism in Bicol University and AB Communication in Aquinas University of

Legazpi, of the Academic Year 2010-11. Further studies could cover different

respondents, maybe other sectors such as professionals, farmers, fishermen and the like.

The study covered only the writing, reading and thinking skills of the students, whilst the

speaking skills of the respondents such as actual broadcasting skills were not measured.

viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE i

RECOMMENDATION FOR ORAL EXAMINATION ii

RESULT OF ORAL EXAMINATION iii

APRROVAL SHEET iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v

ABSTRACT vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS ix

LIST OF FIGURES xii

LIST OF TABLES xiii

CHAPTER

1. THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Introduction 1

Statement of the Problem 4

Scope and Delimitation of the Study 5

Significance of the Study 5

NOTES 7

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Related Literature 8

Related Studies 12

Synthesis of the State of the Art 15

Gap Bridged by the Study 16

ix
Theoretical Framework 17

Conceptual Framework 19

Definition of Terms 21

NOTES 23

3. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

Research Design 25

Sources of Data 25

Respondents 26

Research Instrument 26

Data Gathering Procedure 27

Statistical Tool Used 27

NOTES 29

4. THE MEDIA LITERACY LEVEL OF SELECTED AB JOURNALISM

AND AB COMMUNICATION STUDENTS OF ALBAY

Media literacy skills 30

Analysis and interpretation of media content 36

Comparison between respondents from Bicol University and Aquinas

University of Legazpi 41

Activities or programs that can be introduced to recognize media literacy

education to the school and community 48

NOTES 50

5. SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary 51

x
Findings 52

Conclusions 57

Recommendations 59

BIBLIOGRAPHY 62

APPENDICES 66

A. Letter to PIA-V for validation of questionnaire 67

B. Letter to Aquinas University of Legazpi College of Arts, Sciences, and

Education to conduct study in the university 68

C. Certification of the validation of the questionnaire 69

D. Survey Questionnaire 70

CURRICULUM VITAE 74

xi
LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE Page

1. Theoretical Paradigm 18

2. Conceptual Paradigm 20

3. Media literacy skill levels by school 41

4. Target audience of the video clips by school 45

5. Purpose of the video clips by school 46

6. Techniques used by video clips to catch attention by school 47

xii
LIST OF TABLES

TABLE Page

1. Frequency Distribution of Respondents by School, Course, Year, and Block 26

2. News Appreciation by the respondents 30

3. Data Gathering by the respondents 31

4. Exposure to various beats by the respondents 32

5. Editing and copywriting by the respondents 33

6. Makeup and Layout by the respondents 34

7. Newspaper management by the respondents 34

8. Target Audience by Age Bracket of the respondents 36

9. Target Audience by Income Class by the respondents 37

10. Target Audience by Gender by the respondents 37

11. Purpose of video clips by the respondents 38

12. Techniques used by video clips to attract attention by the respondents 39

13. Impact of video clips by the respondents 39

14. Impact rating of video clips by school 48

15.1. Activities or programs to recognize media literacy in school as suggested by the

respondents 48

15.2. Activities or programs to recognize media literacy in the community as

suggested by the respondents 49

xiii
CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Introduction

Media literacy is often defined as the ability to access, analyze, evaluate and

create media in a variety of forms. An expanded and updated definition was presented by

the Center for Media Literacy, an authority in media literacy education: Media Literacy is

a 21st century approach to education. It provides a framework to access, analyze,

evaluate, create and participate using messages in a variety of forms – from print to video

to the internet. Media literacy builds an understanding of the role of media in society as

well as essential skills of inquiry and self-expression necessary for citizens of a

democracy.1

According to Len Masterman’s Teaching the Media, the importance of media

literacy can be summed up in five main points:

First is the influence of media in our central democratic processes. In a global

media culture, people need three skills in order to be engaged citizens of a democracy:

critical thinking, self-expression and participation. Media literacy instills these core

skills, enabling future citizens to sort through political packaging, understand and

contribute to public discourse, and, ultimately, make informed decisions in the voting

booth.

Second are the high rate of media consumption and the saturation of society by

media. When one considers cell phones, social networking, video games, television, pop

music, radio, newspapers, magazines, billboards, the internet—even T-shirts!—we are


2

exposed to more mediated messages in one day than our great-grandparents were exposed

to in a year. Media literacy teaches the skills we need to navigate safely through this sea

of images and messages—for all our lives.

Third is the media’s influence on shaping perceptions, beliefs and attitudes. While

research disagrees on the extent and type of influence, it is unquestionable that media

experiences exert a significant impact on the way we understand, interpret and act on our

world. By helping us understand those influences, media education can help us separate

from our dependencies on them.

Fourth is the increasing importance of visual communication and information.

While schools continue to be dominated by print, our lives are increasingly influenced by

visual images—from corporate logos to huge billboards to cell phones to Internet

websites. Learning how to “read” the multiple layers of image-based communication is a

necessary adjunct to traditional print literacy. We live in a multi-media world.

Last is the importance of information in society and the need for lifelong learning.

Information processing and information services are at the core of our nation’s

productivity but the growth of global media industries is also challenging independent

voices and diverse views. Media education can help both teachers and students

understand where information comes from, whose interests may be being served and how

to find alternative views.2

These five main points point out that the inclusion of media literacy education in

the curricula is necessary, not only as a skill for aspiring media practitioners but as well

as their audience or consumers. Being tagged as the “freest press in Asia,” Philippine

media practitioners must have a better understanding of media for both creators and
3

consumers in order to live up to the name. The term media literacy does not connote

freedom of the press, rather, on how responsible it is.

With media literacy, the description of the Philippine press may change from

freest in Asia to freest and the most responsible press in the world. Responsibility and

credibility have always been issues for the press – credibility for the people to believe

and responsibility for them to follow. Believing and following are two completely

different things. People may believe but there is no guarantee that they will follow. It is

necessary for the press to establish responsibility more than credibility. What is a credible

or believable press if it is not responsible enough to make a positive trend? Media is a

powerful agenda setter and it is important that it must set a positive and responsible trend.

The chosen respondents for this study are narrowed down to AB Journalism and

AB Communication students with major subjects, i.e. the third and fourth year students.

These students will most probably become media practitioners in the future, and

measuring their media literacy skills would somehow determine the outcome of the

media industry in the near future.

Provided that the respondents will be future media practitioners and that media

plays a vital role in the society, the study will measure how well will they be as future

media men and how will they affect the present trend in the market of journalism. The

way the researchers choose the respondents is embedded in a simple statement; if the

audience needs to be media literate how much more are the future “creators” of media

messages. A media illiterate audience may be given some considerations but having

media illiterate practitioners is a totally different thing for it will affect the kind of media

industry the country will have in the near future.


4

The inclusion of AB Communications students of Aquinas University of Legazpi

as respondents is to compare between the AB Journalism students of Bicol University in

order to determine the different approaches used by the two degree programs. While it is

given that journalists do not have to pass a licensure examination in order to practice, a

standardized method of teaching journalism might be deemed necessary in the future.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to let the importance of media education be recognized in

Aquinas University of Legazpi and Bicol University. Specifically, this study aims to

answer the following questions:

1. How do the respondents rate their media literacy skills in terms of:

a. News appreciation

b. Data gathering

c. Exposure to various beats

d. Editing and copywriting

e. Makeup and layout

f. Newspaper management

2. How well do the respondents analyze and interpret media content?

3. What are the similarities and differences between the respondents from AB

Journalism in Bicol University and AB Communication in Aquinas University of

Legazpi in terms of media literacy skills?

4. What activities or programs can be introduced to recognize media literacy

education?
5

Scope and Delimitation of the study

The study is limited only to the third year and fourth year students of AB

Journalism in Bicol University and AB Communication in Aquinas University of

Legazpi, of the Academic Year 2010-11. The study revolved around the writing, reading

and thinking skills of the students, while the speaking skills of the respondents such as

actual broadcasting skills were not measured.

Significance of the study

The researchers are aspiring that the results of this study would encourage the

proliferation and significance of media literacy education not only in Bicol University

and in Aquinas University of Legazpi, but also in every educational institution around the

globe. The study is deemed beneficial to the following:

Respondents – as future media practitioners, this study will guide them on how

they should treat media messages and how powerful media as an influencing sector that

has the power to build or to destroy an individual.

Audience - the study would encourage the development of media literacy, instead

of enforcing excessive censorship laws. The study also aims to guide the audience to be

critical enough in consuming media messages; and would give them an idea of what

media literacy is and how can this affect their lives.

Media industry - the study would serve as a revelation for them that the way they

interpret messages affect the public’s point of view and that they must be responsible and

critical enough to interpret messages.


6

The Department of Education - the study can support the National Media Literacy

Education program, which will integrate media literacy in the curricula of both public and

private high school and elementary students.

The center for media literacy – the study would serve as an additional reference in

their pursuit of having media literacy education in the Philippines and the world, as well

as to make media literacy known to the public as an important factor in media

consumption.

Other educational institutions - the study would open an alley for improvement,

especially in communications. The study also aims to influence the curricula of AB

Journalism of Bicol University and AB Communication of Aquinas University of

Legaspi.
7

NOTES
1.
Thoman, E. & Jolls, T. (2005). Literacy for the 21st Century. Santa Monica, CA,
USA: Center for Media Literacy.
2.
Ibid.
CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter includes references and sources for better understanding of media

literacy. In addition, this chapter includes the basis of the present undertaking; the related

literature and studies conducted related to the field of study. It also presents the gap

bridged by the study, theoretical and conceptual frameworks and paradigms, and the

terms defined.

Related Literature

Baran defines media literacy as the power to effectively and efficiently

comprehend, and utilize media messages. He also emphasized the power of media in a

direct statement that the media is powerful enough to influence how the people act and

that audiences are “little less defenseless” when it comes to interpreting media messages.

In addition, “agenda setting” is mentioned, which is the present trend of the media

industry. Skills and the elements of media literacy as an important tool to have the power

of controlling media messages are also presented.

The reference helped the researchers identify the elements and skills of media

literacy in the present study. In addition, the book provided the insights for the

researchers on how powerful media is in influencing the public’s point of view, and how

the media sets the agenda for the audience - what to think and what to do. 1

Potter’s definition of media literacy involves a set of perspectives actively used to

expose one’s self to the media to interpret the meaning of the messages encountered. He
9

stressed the importance of having a media literacy theory in order to psychologically

protect oneself from processing media messages automatically. There are four factors

indicated that contributes to Potter’s theory: the flow of information-processing tasks,

information processing tools, decisions motivated, and knowledge structures.2

Jolls and Thoman defines media literacy as an approach to education, which

provides a framework to access, analyze, evaluate, create, and participate using messages

in a variety of forms – from print to video to the internet. It builds an understanding of

the role of media in society as well as essential skills of inquiry and self-expression

necessary for citizens of democracy. 3

They compared 20th and 21st century learning, wherein the former only

concentrates on content mastery due to the limited access of information and traditional

teaching methods, while the latter, in the advent of the internet and other newer

technology, focuses on processing skills due to infinite access to information and multi-

media tools.4

Biagi emphasized the power of media to influence various situations in a certain

country. However, she also stated that the effects of media might vary considering the

audience and there is no such thing as absolute effect of media and that of, different

people perceive same media content differently. She also said that violence and political

content of media might influence the audiences’ behavior; Biagi also mentioned that

antisocial and prosocial behavior of a person is highly affected by the media content. 5

McKenzie enumerated elements to consider in analyzing media effects; cultural

characteristics, philosophies, regulation, accessibility, and the audience. In addition, he

emphasized that policies involving media content operations are highly affected by those
10

elements. He also introduced the “The tree concept of Media system” and “The forest of

Media systems of the world,” he emphasized that each media system has a distinct

characteristic and that media effects are affected by what kind of media system a country

has. 6

Littlejohn presented theories related to the field of study, particularly theories on

message processing. He divided message processing tasks and goals into three parts:

interpreting, organizing and judging. These processes work hand-in-hand to produce

better communication. He adds that two factors, the personality traits of the person and

the situation of the person, affect message processing. 7

Dominick states that the vital role of the media to produce prosocial and at the

same time, antisocial behavior of a person is emphasized particularly on children. Also,

the power of the media to shape public’s opinion is stressed. He explained how powerful

media is in promoting and producing social behavior, both antisocial and prosocial.

Children are identified as primary victims of media effects, specifically in violent

programming. 8

Castrence emphasized the need for the press to establish not only credibility but

also a sense of responsibility to make the people believe and follow what they are

preaching. She stressed that the press has the power to mold public opinion yet their

responsibility is to promote responsible public opinion.9

Abaya emphasized the mirror function of the press: “The press reflects the society

it serves. Where the society is free, the press is free.” He also said that a free press is

essential for a country to develop and that the great societies of today are those where the
11

press is freest. In order for the press to perform its duties, it must be responsible to

promote responsibility in molding public opinion.10

Cristobal emphasized the power of the press to lead the people and apologized for

the irresponsible Philippine press, i.e. the failure to perform the basic role, which is to

provide the audience with the most complete information as possible. He added that a

careless press in expressing and interpreting what freedom of the press is.11

De Jesus highlighted responsibility of everyone to understand the power and role

of mass media to the society. She also said that media had become a mere business to

make money and little less of the “to inform” role. In addition, the present trend of media

is biased to bad news and to news that can be sensationalized, topics like sex, crime,

violence and disasters.12

De Manila described the Philippine press as “obsessed,” obsessed with violence

and sex content. The obsession to sex and violence may be blamed to the notion that sex

and violence, added with sensationalism, sells. The addition of irrelevant details to add

drama is used. He insinuates that the press is producing these kinds of articles because it

sells.13

Coronel in her article compared the Philippine press as a healthy wild animal

because of the freedom it has. Yet the credibility issue is still in the limelight, and it is not

assured that newspaper readers believe what they are reading. Press responsibility is once

again the issue of discussion, and a long term solution to restructure the press for it to be

free and responsible is needed. Another is the rampant corruption in the media – the low

pay of media practitioners, the audience, and the people’s appetite for “crisis journalism”

were cited.14
12

Braid, Victorino and Labrador emphasized the power of media to influence the

public. They said that media can cause panic and fear by being careless in the news. It is

media’s social responsibility not only to bring news but also to be careful in tackling

sensitive topics like violence, sex and disasters.15

Related Studies

Hobbs and Frost (2003) illustrated how media literacy skills are acquired in their

study in Massachusetts, USA. The various approaches of teaching media literacy were

presented, e.g. integrating it to the school’s curricula with one institution reorganizing the

entire English language arts curriculum to include a year-long media/communications

curriculum. The results of their study show that media literacy education improves the

students’ ability to identify main ideas in written, audio, and visual media.16 The present

study evaluates the effectiveness of existing curricula of AB Journalism and AB

Communication in terms of media literacy skills.

Rosenbaum (2007) discussed on the creation of an instrument for measuring

media literacy levels and its benefits at the Netherlands. The instrument is composed of a

combination of interviews and written questionnaires. Results indicated that the

respondents were mostly average, with very little getting either very high or very low

scores.17 The present undertaking used only a written questionnaire, but it also measured

the media literacy skills of newspaper readers, together with television audiences.

Walkosz, Jolls, and Sund’s (2008) study on the globalization of media education

indicated that media is a primary agent in the identity formation of an individual and the

need for a formal educational approach, not just censorship or control for the
13

understanding media. They stated that media literacy is not a new school of thought, but a

new teaching innovation, a new way to learn for young and old alike to be media

literate.18 The present study evaluated the existing methods of teaching journalism if it

would be enough for students to become media literate.

Worth’s (2004) study at Stanford University, CA, USA, media is considered as

the cause of many social problems especially with children. Media education is vital for

them to analyze media content properly. He also defined media literacy as the power to

use media messages. He stated that media literacy evaluation has two forms,

experimental and observational; both can generate data on how children learn about

media. Worth also said that media literacy should be injected to the curriculum not just a

stand-alone subject. However, worth said that media literacy learning must start not at the

school but at home.19 The present study also evaluated how the respondents are

responding to media with violence and sexual themes, the usual contents of present day

television shows.

Gillespie’s study emphasized that there is a need for the public to have the

understanding of the harmful effects of media in a long-term excessive exposure to

violence as just simple entertainment. Media violence is also considered as “education,”

on the part of social learning. The researcher also emphasized that many researches have

already been conducted with the same results. Also people may see violence in

accordance with the way that the media presented it.20 The present undertaking revealed

that the respondents are aware that media with violence and sexual themes are made

usually for entertainment.


14

Alicdan and Prianes (2009) measured the effect of local soap operas to selected

students of Ligao National High School. Their findings indicated that regardless of how

much exposure the students have received, the soap operas have influenced their lifestyle

and helped them perform developmental tasks.21 The present study used media content

with almost similar content of the soap operas utilized in Alicdan and Prianes’s study to

evaluate how the respondents are influenced.

Barbara and Pelonia (2009) measured how exposure to violence on television

influences children’s behavior. Together with the children are their respective mothers,

whose exposure was also measured. Results show that the mothers have enough

awareness to television violence, although the children still indicate that their exposure

has influenced their behavior, values, growth, development, and the gaining of

information.22 The present undertaking measured how various media content influence

third year and fourth year journalism and communication students.

Belisario and Claro (2001) measured the effects of television programs on the

moral and spiritual values of selected preschoolers. Findings show that most of the

respondents are viewing educational and science-oriented shows, although soap operas

and sitcoms are popular as well. It did yield positive results – respect for parents and

other people, self-appreciation, etc.23 The present undertaking recognizes media as an

agent in developing spiritual and moral values of a person and also the way a person lives

his life.

Mirabel and Napay (2009) measured the effects of video games on teenagers in

Legazpi City. It was found out that most of the teenagers were adversely affected by

video games, especially in school. A large percentage of them had less to nil interest in
15

studying for school, with some even cutting classes.24 The present study used media

content which have the traits of the most popular video games, violence and sexual

themes, to evaluate its effects to third year and fourth year journalism and communication

students.

Gasga and Sodsod (2010) measured the effects of political infomercials on

registered voters of the 2010 presidential election in Legazpi City. The respondents were

inclined towards political advertisements presenting their platforms like anti-poverty and

livelihood, as well as those utilizing prominent personalities like celebrities.25 The present

undertaking also understands the power of media to influence and dictate a person’s way

of thinking and that it matters how the media presents someone or something.

Synthesis of the State of the Art

The review of related literature and studies recognized the need for media literacy

education as early as grade school, as well as how much media affects the society as a

whole. Baran, Jolls and Thoman, Worth, Gillespie, and Potter presented their own

schools of thought in media literacy - all three have a universal definition, i.e. the power

to effectively and efficiently comprehend, and utilize media messages, although they

differ in some principles.

Castrence, Abaya, Cristobal, de Jesus, de Manila, Coronel, Braid, Victorino, and

Labrador presented the positive and adverse effects of media in society, and the issues of

credibility and responsibility on the part of the practitioners.

Dominick, McKenzie and Biagi focused on the effects of media to the society,

and the importance of media literacy education from as early as grade school. Hobbs and
16

Frost, and Rosenbaum conducted studies on measuring the level of media literacy

through various approaches. Gasga and Sodsod, Mirabel and Napay, Belisario and Claro,

Barbara and Pelonia, and Alicdan and Prianes all concentrated on the social effects of

media, and results are geared toward the implementation of media literacy education.

The present study evaluated the effectiveness of existing curricula of AB

Journalism and AB Communication in teaching media literacy skills and how they

respond to various media messages. Given their advantage over younger students and

non-communications college students, the respondents are expected to yield favorable

results.

Gap Bridged by the Study

The study deals with how efficiently communications students consume and

create media messages, a first of its kind in the Bicol Region. In addition, it is also the

first study on media literacy where AB Journalism and AB Communication students of

Bicol University and Aquinas University of Legazpi, respectively are the chosen

respondents.

The research, unlike any other research conducted that deals with the “what, who,

when and where,” of media effects, this research deals with the “why and the how,” of

this effects, and would likely to generate different results. This is the gap bridged by the

present study.
17

Theoretical Framework

The Hypodermic Needle Theory, also known as the Magic Bullet Theory, implies

that the mass media has a direct, immediate, and powerful effect on their audiences. The

mass media in the 1940s and 1950s were perceived as a powerful influence on behavior

change. One of the factors contributed to this “strong effects” theory of communication

was the fast rise and popularization of radio and television.26

The theory suggests that the mass media could influence a very large group of

people directly and uniformly by ‘shooting’ or ‘injecting’ them with messages designed

to trigger a desired purpose. Media, as an agent in personality development, can influence

how the people think and act, injecting or shooting something negative would always

bear something negative.

The relevance of the theory to the study can be presented through substitution of

the variables: “Media” can be the professors, “media content” as the information taught

by the professors, and “influence to the consumers” could be the level of learning

acquired by the students. The theory implies that the level of learning of the students has

a tight connection to the information injected to them for basic media literacy skills.

With media literacy education, future journalists as well as media consumers

would develop a sense of responsibility and would most likely produce responsible media

messages.
18

HYPODERMIC NEEDLE THEORY

Mass Media

Media Content

Influence on
media consumers

Figure 1. Theoretical Paradigm


19

Conceptual Framework

The definition of media literacy, according to the Center of Media Literacy, is the

ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and create media, as well as the understanding of

media’s role in society. Media literacy also inculcates the essential skills of inquiry and

self-expression necessary for citizens of a democracy.

The research revolves on how much the respondents were taught about the basics

of journalism, i.e. news appreciation, data gathering, exposure to various beats, editing

and copywriting, newspaper management. In addition, their ability to analyze and

interpret media content was measured to determine their media literacy level as an end-

user.

The results thereof were compared between the two schools involved, i.e. Bicol

University and Aquinas University. After conducting the research, the researchers would

like to give way or introduce changes and programs that can be adopted by the present

curriculum.
20

Level of media
literacy

Comparison
between AUL, BU

Programs which can be


introduced for media
literacy education

Figure 2. Conceptual Paradigm


21

Definition of terms

The following terms are taken from sources and defined operationally for clearer

presentation:

Analysis- the examination of something in detail in order to understand it better or

draw conclusions from it27

Beats- a regular route followed or area covered while reporting28

Data gathering- the collection of the necessary data for news items

Effects- the results produced by a cause; as used in the study, these refer to the

observable changes in one’s behavior when exposed to various media types29

Interpretation- an explanation or establishment of the meaning or significance of

something30

Layout- the design or arrangement of printed material such as an advertisement or

the pages of a book31

Level- the amount or concentration of something32

Literacy- the ability to read and write to a competent level or the knowledge of or

competence in a subject or area of activity33

Makeup- the arrangement of typographical elements on a page34

Media- the various means of mass communication considered as a whole,

including television, radio, magazines, and newspapers, together with the people involved

in their production35

Media literacy- the power to effectively and efficiently comprehend, and utilize

media messages36

News appreciation- when the news item(s) is most effective


22

Newspaper management- the operations and controlling of the affairs of a

newspaper
23

NOTES
1.
Baran, S. (2006). Introduction to Mass Communication (4th edition). New York, NY,
USA: McGraw Hill
2.
Potter, W. J. (2005). Media Literacy (3rd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage
3.
Thoman, E. & Jolls, T. (2005). Literacy for the 21st Century. Santa Monica, CA,
USA: Center for Media Literacy.
4.
Ibid.
5.
Biagi, S. (1996). Media Impact an Introduction to mass media. Belmont, CA, USA:
Wadsworth
6.
McKenzie, R. (2006). Comparing Media from Around the World. Boston, MA, USA:
Pearson Education
7.
Littlejohn, S. (1999). Theories of Mass Communication. Belmont, CA, USA:
Wadsworth
8.
Dominick, J. (2002). The Dynamics of Mass Communication Media in the Digital
Age (7th edition). New York, NY, USA: McGraw Hill
9.
Teodoro, L. V. & De Jesus, M. Q. (2001). The Filipino Press and Media, Democracy
and Development. Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines: University of the Philippines
Press
10.
Ibid.
11.
Ibid.
12.
Ibid.
13.
Ibid.
14.
Ibid.
15.
Ibid.
16.
Hobbs, R. & Frost, R. (2003). Measuring the acquisition of media-literacy skills.
Wellesley, MA, USA: Babson College
17.
Rosenbaum, J. (2007). Measuring Media Literacy: Youngsters, Television, and
Democracy. Nijmegen, Netherlands: Radboud University
18.
Walkosz, B., Jolls, T., & Sund, M. A. (2008). Global/Local: Media Literacy for the
Global Village. Santa Monica, CA, USA: Center for Media Literacy
19.
Worth, P. (2004). Evaluating the Effectiveness of School-Based Media Literacy
Curricula. Stanford, CA, USA: Stanford University
24

20.
Gillespie, T. Media Violence and Media Literacy. Ireland: Religious Society of
Friends in Ireland
21.
Alicdan, C. & Prianes K., Television soap operas: Effect on selected students of
Ligao National High School, (Undergraduate Thesis, Bicol University College of Arts
and Letters, Legazpi City, March 2009)
22.
Barbara, A. & Pelonia I., Exposure to Television Violence and its Influences on
Children’s Behavior, (Undergraduate Thesis, Bicol University College of Arts and
Letters, Legazpi City, March 2009)
23.
Belisario, J. & Claro, J., The Effects of Television on the Moral and Spiritual Values
of Preschoolers, (Undergraduate Thesis, Bicol University Institute of Communication
and Cultural Studies, Legazpi City, March 2001)
24.
Mirabel, R. & Napay, M., The Effects of Video Game Violence on the Gamers in
Legazpi City, (Undergraduate Thesis, Bicol University College of Arts and Letters,
Legazpi City, March 2009)
25.
Gasga, J. & Sodsod, J., The Effects of Political Infomercials on Registered Voters of
Legazpi City, (Undergraduate Thesis, Bicol University College of Arts and Letters,
Legazpi City, March 2010)
26.
Hypodermic needle theory (2011, March 14). Wikipedia. Retrieved March 14 2011
from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypodermic_needle_theory
27.
Analysis. (2009). Microsoft Encarta Dictionaries [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft
Corporation
28.
Beat. (2009). Microsoft Encarta Dictionaries [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft
Corporation.
29.
Effect. (2009). Microsoft Encarta Dictionaries [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft
Corporation
30.
Interpret. (2009). Microsoft Encarta Dictionaries [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft
Corporation
31.
Layout. (2009). Microsoft Encarta Dictionaries [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft
Corporation
32.
Level. (2009). Microsoft Encarta Dictionaries [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft
Corporation
33.
Literacy. (2009). Microsoft Encarta Dictionaries [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft
Corporation
34.
Makeup. (2009). Microsoft Encarta Dictionaries [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft
Corporation
35.
Media. (2009). Microsoft Encarta Dictionaries [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft
Corporation
36.
Thoman, E. & Jolls, T. (2005). Literacy for the 21st Century. Santa Monica, CA,
USA: Center for Media Literacy
Chapter 3

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the research methodology used in the conduct of the study.

This includes the research design, sources of data, respondents, and data gathering

procedure, research instruments and its statistical treatment.

Research Design

This study used a combination of descriptive quantitative and qualitative methods

of research to provide necessary information on the study “The Media Literacy Level of

selected AB Journalism and AB Communication students of Albay.” The method is a

purposive process of tabulating and analyzing data to describe systematically a situation

or area of interest factually and accurately. This includes public opinion surveys,

questionnaires, interview studies, status studies, et cetera. Since this study was concerned

with the ability to analyze, comprehend, and create media efficiently, the descriptive

method will deem useful.

Sources of Data

The responses of selected third and fourth year AB Journalism students of Bicol

University and selected third and fourth year AB Communication students of Aquinas

University of Legazpi to the questionnaire were considered the primary sources of data in

the study. Secondary sources of data comprised of unpublished theses, books, journals,

and related articles published over the Internet.


26

Respondents

The respondents of the study are the third and fourth year students of AB

Journalism and AB Communication of Bicol University and Aquinas University of

Legazpi, respectively. At least 50% percent of the total number was taken as the sample

size of the study. There were seven third year and four fourth year AB Communication

students of Aquinas University of Legazpi, while there were 79 third year and 68 fourth

year AB Journalism students of Bicol University. The total number of students is 158,

whereas the sample size is 81.

Table 1
Frequency Distribution of Respondents by School, Course, Year, and Block

School Course, Block Total students Respondents %


Bicol University Journalism 3 79 40 51
Journalism 4 68 34 50
Subtotal 147 74 50
Aquinas Communication 3 7 4 57
University Communication 4 4 3 75
Subtotal 11 7 64
Total 158 81 51

Research Instrument

The researchers used an evaluation research questionnaire to gather necessary

data. The questionnaire was patterned from Hobbs and Frost’s study, “Measuring the

acquisition of media literacy skills,” to assess the media literacy skills of the

respondents.1
27

The questionnaire utilized a Likert scale and a checklist including both close and

open-ended questions. The questions identified how the much media literacy skills the

respondents have, and how they analyze and interpret media messages through a viewing

of video clips.

The first part, which used a Likert scale (an ordered scale from which respondents

choose one option that best aligns with their view) measured what they have been taught

of on news appreciation, data gathering, exposure to various beats, editing and

copywriting, and newspaper management.

The second part is an evaluation checklist in how the respondents respond to

media content through the video clips, one with violence and sexual themes with the

other. The third part gathered suggestions on what can be done in order to introduce and

promote media literacy to the schools involved and the community.

Data Gathering Procedure

An evaluation research questionnaire was used for data gathering, which was also

the tool for obtaining data from the respondents. A letter was prepared by the researchers

with the approval of the college dean and head of the department, in order to gain access

to the student respondents of the said educational institutions.

Statistical Tool Used

The researchers used simple frequency count in tallying the responses. Percentage

and frequency was compared to assess the media processing skills of the respondents.

The researchers obtained data from the responses of the respondents. The researchers
28

targeted at least fifty percent of the junior and senior students of AB Journalism of Bicol

University and AB Communication of Aquinas University.

To treat the data gathered through the survey questionnaire, the following

statistical tools were used:

Frequency distribution. The number of respondents’ responses or occurrences of the

subject of the study. It is done through simple one-by-one counting.

Weighted mean. To determine the level of awareness of the survey participants, the

weighted mean formula was computed.2 The formula is:

WM=∑fW/N

Where: WM=weighted mean


f=frequency of the responses
W=weighted value
N = total number of respondents
Likert scale. An ordered, one-dimensional psychometric scale from which respondents

choose one option that best aligns with their view3:

Where: 1=very effective


2=effective
3=somewhat effective
4=ineffective
5=very ineffective
29

NOTES
1.
Hobbs, R. & Frost, R. (2003). Measuring the acquisition of media-literacy skills.
Wellesley, MA, USA: Babson College
2.
Ali, L. (2011, March 14). How to Calculate Weighted Mean. eHow. Retrieved
March 14 2011 from http://www.ehow.com/how_5544473_calculate-weighted-
mean.html#ixzz1GYJVKscX
3.
Likert scale (2011, March 14). Wikipedia. Retrieved March 14 2011 from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Likert_scale
CHAPTER 4

THE MEDIA LITERACY LEVEL OF SELECTED AB JOURNALISM AND AB

COMMUNICATION STUDENTS OF ALBAY

This chapter is a presentation of the findings, conclusions, and recommendations

of this study from the data gathered from the responses of the survey participants. The

results and findings are presented in tables and graphs and supplemented with textual

discussion.

Media literacy skills

Table 2
News Appreciation by the respondents

Skill Weighted Mean Adjectival description


Timeliness 4.06 The topic has been taught to me well
Proximity 3.38 The topic has been taught to me well

News appreciation delves on two attributes of news – timeliness and proximity.

Timeliness is the reportage of unfolding events or occurrences, distinguishing a journalist

from a historian or playwright. As news is highly perishable, the journalist should report

an event immediately; if he wants his story appreciated. Proximity is the nearness of the

event to the intended readers, which make the news more appreciated.1

Table 3 suggests that the adjectival answer to the respondents’ skill level in terms

of timeliness and proximity is that both topics have been taught to them well, but not well

enough to create retention.


31

As the fundamental parts of newswriting, timeliness and proximity are the most

redundant topics in most journalism books and professors. With that, they become easier

to teach with the abundance of references. Yet the findings suggest that the teaching

strategies can be improved for retention on the part of the students.

Table 3
Data Gathering by the respondents

Skill Weighted Mean Adjectival description


Identifying sources 4.27 The topic has been taught to me well
Crafting questions 3.85 The topic has been taught to me well
Conducting interviews 4.22 The topic has been taught to me well
Covering press conferences 3.43 The topic has been taught to me
Ambush interviews 3.41 The topic has been taught to me
Organizational writing styles 3.53 The topic has been taught to me well

Journalism, as opposed to literary fiction, is purely based on facts. To get these

facts is possible only through proper data gathering. The sources of data must be

identified properly, the questions must be well crafted, and one must know how well they

can conduct interviews. Press conferences and ambush interviews, both a Pandora’s Box

of information, should also be learned on how it must be handled properly.

Organizational writing styles must also be observed to be as factual as possible in the

reportage.

Table 4 indicates that identifying sources, crafting questions, conducting

interviews, and organizational writing styles have been taught well, but not well enough

for them to perfect. Covering press conferences and handling ambush interviews,

however, have just been taught to them.


32

Media practitioners have an advantage in teaching journalism through on job

experiences than non-practitioners; identifying sources, crafting questions, conducting

interviews and organizational writing styles can be easily taught if the professor has

enough field experience to boot. The findings reveal that students need more hands-on

activities to practice these methods of data gathering. Covering press conferences and

ambush interviews, however, have not really been a mastered art yet, which makes them

a little difficult to teach regardless of experience.

Table 4
Exposure to various beats by the respondents

Beat Weighted Mean Adjectival description


City hall/Provincial Capitol 3.69 The topic has been taught to me well
Court 2.94 The topic has been taught to me
Police/Crime 3.73 The topic has been taught to me well
Disaster 3.40 The topic has been taught to me well
Others 4.22 The topic has been taught to me well

Beats are a regular fixture in news reporting, where a journalist is assigned to

cover and report a specific area or subject in a certain period of time. The usual beats

include covering the city hall and provincial capitol, court stories, the police beat (or

crime stories), and covering disasters.

Table 5 indicates that covering the city hall and provincial capitol, the police beat,

and disasters have been taught well, but not well enough to fully master the coverage of

these beats. On covering court stories, however, has just been taught to them.

A usual newswriting class would have students assigned to cover various beats

and submit at least one story every week. This gives the students hands-on experience,
33

yet the findings show that more rigorous exercises can be given beforehand to practice to

make a better coverage.

Table 5
Editing and copywriting by the respondents

Skill Weighted Mean Adjectival description


Polishing articles 3.78 The topic has been taught to me well
Copy reading symbols 3.02 The topic has been taught to me
Headline writing 3.85 The topic has been taught to me well
Caption writing 3.80 The topic has been taught to me well
Beat assignments 3.85 The topic has been taught to me well

A publication’s content for its upcoming issue needs to undergo rigorous editing

and proofreading before it can be submitted for layout, and eventually printing. Vital

skills needed in this stage of producing a publication are as follows: being able to polish

articles well for the readers, knowledge of the use of copy reading symbols, writing

headlines and captions, and knowing what beats must be assigned.

Table 6 reflects that the respondents have been taught polishing articles, headline

writing, caption writing, and beat assignments well, but not well enough for them to be

able to put it to practice efficiently. Copy reading symbols have just been taught to them.

Experienced newspaper editors have a distinct advantage in teaching these skills

as they are used to these functions. Several references covering polishing articles,

headline writing, and caption writing are readily available; beat assignments are usually

learned through evaluating writers. Copy reading symbols, however, have lost its

popularity due to the advent of computers, where copy reading becomes more efficient.
34

Table 6
Makeup and Layout by the respondents

Skill Weighted Mean Adjectival description


Tabloid 3.12 The topic has been taught to me
Magazine 3.11 The topic has been taught to me

Makeup is the physical arrangement of the elements on a printed page, including

headlines, photographs, white spaces, and rule or column lines. Makeup is the page

design of a newspaper, while layout is that of a magazine or an advertisement.2

The makeup of a newspaper has these functions: 1) to provide attractive

appearance to the individual pages and a pleasing harmony or contrast in the continuity of

pages; 2) to show the relative importance of news and feature materials through their

positioning in the newspaper pages; and 3) to facilitate reading through the avoidance of

monotony or disharmony in the appearance of newspaper pages.3

It is shown on Table 7 that makeup and layout has been taught to them, although

not necessarily well enough for them to make a recall. To practice makeup and layout,

one needs a computer with the necessary software and the skills to manipulate them well.

The lack of computer units in Bicol University and the absence of necessary software and

layout skills in both schools make the skills much difficult to teach.

Table 7
Newspaper management by the respondents

Skill Weighted Mean Adjectival description


Beating the deadline 3.81 The topic has been taught to me well
Newsroom operations 3.67 The topic has been taught to me well
35

The journalist’s laboratory may be the whole world, but everything he does boils

down on how important his role will be in the newsroom; whether his story will be

published or not, or on how efficient he works. Beating the deadline and the ways and

means of the newsroom are the basic skills necessary for any journalist.

Table 8 shows that the importance of deadlines is being implemented and that

what is being done in a newsroom is well taught, but the respondents have not applied

these skills in real life situations.

To pass certain subjects in journalism, beating the deadline is a necessary skill,

and its importance is equal to what the students will face in the real world. This is not

easy to implement though, especially with lenient professors taken advantage by some

students. Newsroom operations can be easily taught via books and references, but a

simulated newsroom would give a more hands-on experience for the students.
36

Analysis and interpretation of media content

In the second part of the survey questionnaire, the respondents were shown video

clips containing violence and sexual themes. Its purpose is in lieu of problem #2 of the

statement of the problem, analysis and interpretation of media content

Table 8
Target Audience by Age Bracket of the respondents

Age bracket Frequency Percentage


2- to 11-year-olds 8 8.79
12- to 17-year-olds 13 14.29
18- to 24-year-olds 55 57.14
25- to 39-year-olds 13 14.29
40- to 59-year-olds 1 1.09
60-year-olds and older 4 4.4

Table 8 shows what the respondents think was the target age bracket of the video

clips presented. About 57.14% claim that 18-24 year olds are the target market of the

videos considering that these ages are matured enough to interpret those videos. Second

was 12- to 17 year-olds with 14.29%, followed by 25- to 39 year-olds with 14.29%, next

is 2- to 11-year olds with 8.79%, followed by 60-year-olds and older with 4.40%, while

40- to 59-year-olds got the lowest frequency of 1.09%.

Walkosz, Jolls, and Sund’s (2008) study indicated that media, as a primary agent

of personality development, plays a vital role in life. Gillespie indicated that media

violence is still education, and for minors to stay in front of unhealthy media content
37

would likely to develop bad social life. Worth (2004) pointed out that minors exposed to

unhealthy media content will eventually adapt to what they see.

Belisario and Claro (2001) indicated the power of media to develop children’s

moral values, the present undertaking yielded result that at least 23.08% think that the

violence and sexually themed videos are fit for minors. The present undertaking found

that the videos shown was analyzed to be fit for mature people, but some 23.08% still

thinks that the videos containing violence were fit for minors.

Table 9
Target Audience by Income Class by the respondents

Income class Frequency Percentage


poor 7 8.43
middle-class 68 78.31
wealthy 11 13.26

Table 9 shows what target income class the respondents think of the video clips

presented. Around 78.31% of the respondents think that the clips were suited for the

middle class, while 13.26% of the total respondents claim that the video clips were for

wealthy people. About 8.43% claim that it was for the poor.

Table 10
Target Audience by Gender by the respondents

Gender Frequency Percentage


men 69 84.15
women 13 15.86
38

Table 10 shows what the respondents think the target gender of the video clips

shown. Around 84.15% of the respondents think that the clips were more appropriate for

male audiences – this result may conclude that males are more likely to watch violence

and sexually themed material compared to female responses which just amounted to

15.86% of the total responses.

Table 11
Purpose of video clips by the respondents

Purpose Frequency Percentage


to inform 6 5.94
to entertain 60 59.41
to persuade 0 0
for self-expression 21 20.79
to make money 10 9.9
to teach 4 3.96

Table 11 presents what the respondents perceive to be the purpose of the

presented video clips. Entertainment got the highest percentage amounting to 59.41% of

the total responses. Self-expression followed with 20.79%, followed by making money

with 9.9%, next is information at 5.94%, and teaching with 3.96%. No respondent

answered that the video clips were used to persuade.

Mirabel and Napay (2009) showed the entertainment function of media in form of

video games that affect the respondents negatively. The present undertaking found out

that violence and sex were most likely to be the object of entertainment and influence
39

those of the audience. Mirabel and Napay in their study pointed out that entertainment

from media violence can still influence the audience.

Table 12
Techniques used by video clips to attract attention by the respondents

Purpose Frequency Percentage


violence 20 17.54
the use of cute characters 31 27.19
comedy 33 28.07
dramatic storylines 3 2.59
animation 21 18.42
sexual innuendos 8 6.9

Table 12 presents what the respondents thought what techniques were used in the

video clips to attract and hold their attention. The use of comedy got the highest

frequency of 28.07% of the total responses. While, the use of cute characters placed next

having 27.19%, followed by use of animation with 18.42%, next is violence with

17.54%, while, sexual innuendos placed last with only 6.14%.

Table 13
Impact of video clips by the respondents

Video Clip Weighted Mean Adjectival Rating


Happy Tree Friends: A Bit Of A Pickle 3 the video clip has an impact on me
SBC Packers by Rex Navarette 3 the video clip has an impact on me

Happy Tree Friends: A Bit Of A Pickle and Rex Navarette’s skit SBC Packers

were chosen by the researchers as the video clips to be shown to the respondents in the
40

second part of the questionnaire, analysis and interpretation of media content. Happy

Tree Friends is an online sitcom created by Mondo Mini Shows featuring cartoon

characters that usually engage in various forms of gore and violence. SBC Packers is a

skit included in Rex Navarette’s Hella Pinoy, a DVD of his stand-up comedy parodying

Filipinos in the United States.

Both video clips had an impact on the respondents, but not so much that it would

influence them.
41

Comparison between respondents from Bicol University and Aquinas University of

Legazpi

Figure 3
Media literacy skill levels by school

5
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

Bicol University
Aquinas University of Legazpi

Figure 3 presents the average rating of each school in each media literacy skill

included in the questionnaire. In terms of news appreciation, all respondents have learned

about timeliness and were taught excellently but are not using it in their journalistic work,

with a skill level of 4.

For proximity, all respondents from Bicol University yielded the same results,

that they are taught about the topic excellently, but they are not necessarily using their

learning in journalistic practice. AB Communication students displayed the highest skill


42

level of 5, that they are taught excellently and that they are using it in their journalism

practice.

In terms of data gathering skills, the respondents from Aquinas University

displayed the highest skill level of 5 in identifying sources, i.e. that they are taught well

and they are using it in their tasks. Bicol University respondents indicated that the topic

has been taught excellently but they are not applying it to their journalistic assignments.

In crafting questions the respondents from Bicol University and Aquinas

University showed same results, which they have been taught well about the skill, yet

they haven’t applied it in their work.

In conducting interviews, same result as that of identifying sources, all of the

respondents were taught excellently but only respondents from Aquinas University use

the skill in their tasks. While, Bicol University respondents were just taught and are not

applying it in their tasks.

For covering press conferences, all of the respondents are taught but are not

applying it in their journalism tasks. AB Communication students were taught

excellently, while, AB Journalism respondents were not even taught excellently.

The same results came out with covering press conferences; only AB

Communication students were taught excellently but are still not using it in their tasks.

AB Journalism students were not taught excellently about this topic.

For organizational writing styles, all the respondents displayed same results. The

respondents were taught excellently but are not using it in their journalistic tasks.
43

For exposure to various beats, in covering the city hall/ provincial capitol, AB

Journalism students were taught excellently but are not using it in their tasks. The

respondents from Aquinas University were taught about the topic but not enough to make

an impact.

Covering the court beat yielded the lowest results for all the respondents with skill

level of 3. The result implies that covering this beat may have been taught to them failed

to create a recall.

For police/crime beats, AB Journalism respondents showed that the topic was

taught excellently but they are not using it while covering this beat. AB Communication

respondents indicated that they were taught about the topic but not well enough.

In covering disasters, all respondents indicated that they are taught but are not

using it. But, only AB Journalism respondents were taught excellently but still are not

using it in their tasks. While, AB Communication students were not even taught

excellently about the topic.

In terms of polishing articles, all respondents from Bicol University and Aquinas

University showed same results. With skill level of 4, the result implies that the

respondents were taught excellently but are not utilizing this learning for their outputs.

Copyreading symbols have same results from all Bicol University and Aquinas

University respondents. It was indicated that the use of copyreading symbols was taught

but not well enough for them to be able to really use them in practice.
44

In terms of writing headlines, Aquinas University respondents displayed highest

results, that they have been taught excellently and that they are using it in their tasks.

While, Bicol University respondents indicated that they were taught excellently but are

not using it for their benefit.

Writing captions and beat assignments yielded same results, all of the respondents

were taught excellently about the topic. But the results indicated that the respondents are

not using it in their journalistic tasks.

In makeup and layout in tabloids and magazines, all of the respondents indicated

that the topic has been taught to them but they haven’t applied it in their work. Bicol

University respondents meanwhile have showed that it has been taught to them but not

well enough for them to use it. While, Aquinas University students indicated that they

were taught excellently but are also not using it in their journalistic tasks.

All respondents indicated the same results that they were taught how important

deadlines are but are not necessarily applying it. This indicates how delayed the outputs

are submitted by the students in both schools.

In terms of newsroom operations, only the AB Communication students claim

that they are taught excellently on this field and they are also using it in their tasks. AB

Journalism on the other hand indicated that they are also taught well but they have not

applied it due to a lack of a simulated newsroom.


45

Figure 4
Target audience of the video clips by school

120.00%
100.00%

80.00%
60.00%

40.00%
20.00%

0.00%

Bicol University
Aquinas University of Legazpi

Figure 4 shows that respondents from both schools have fairly the same opinion

on whom the video clips were most appropriate for. In terms of age bracket, 56.32% of

the respondents from Bicol University said the video clips were appropriate for 18- to 24-

year olds, while 85.71% of the respondents said likewise. In terms of income class, all

respondents from Aquinas University and 77.22% of the respondents from Bicol

University agree that the clips are also for middle class audiences. Gender wise, 82.67%

of the Bicol University respondents and all 7 respondents from Aquinas University say

that the clips cater to male audiences.


46

Figure 5
Purpose of the video clips by school

70.00%

60.00%

50.00%

40.00%

30.00%
Bicol University
20.00%
Aquinas Universiy of Legazpi
10.00%

0.00%

Figure 5 indicates that the respondents think that the video clips were made

primarily to entertain. Around 59.57% of the respondents from Bicol University and

57.14% of the respondents from Aquinas University agree that the clips are mainly for

entertainment, while 42.86% of the Aquinas University respondents think that the clips

were made for moneymaking. Only 7.45% of the Bicol University respondents, however,

agree with them.


47

Figure 6
Techniques used by video clips to catch attention by school

40.00%
35.00%
30.00%
25.00%
20.00%
15.00%
10.00% Bicol University

5.00% Aquinas University of Legazpi

0.00%

Figure 6 shows mixed opinions among the respondents in terms of how their

attention was caught by the video clips, with comedy as the highest. About 27.78% of the

Bicol University respondents and 37.5% of the Aquinas University respondents think that

the use of comedy caught their attention, while 26.85% of the respondents of Bicol

University and 25% of the respondents from Aquinas University said that the use of cute

characters caught their attention.


48

Table 14
Impact rating of video clips by school

Video Clip Bicol University Aquinas University of Legazpi


Happy Tree Friends: A Bit Of A Pickle 2.61 3.57
SBC Packers by Rex Navarette 2.51 3.71

Table 10 shows the impact rating of the video clips shown by school. AB

Communication from Aquinas University respondents displayed higher impact levels and

are more likely to be influenced by certain media content than those the of AB

Journalism students of Bicol University. The entire respondents claim that they were

influenced by the video clips but AB Journalism respondents showed lower level of being

influenced as that of AB Communication students.

Activities or programs that can be introduced to recognize media literacy education

to the school and community

Table 15.1
Activities or programs to recognize media literacy in school as suggested by the
respondents

Activity or program Frequency Percentage


Seminars 19 23.46%
Film showing 8 9.88%
Workshops 7 8.64%
Documentary festivals 2 2.47%
Others 11 13.58%
Total 47 58.02%
49

Table 15.2
Activities or programs to recognize media literacy in the community as suggested by the
respondents

Activity or program Frequency Percentage


Seminars 16 19.75%
Film showing 7 8.64%
Workshops 2 2.47%
Others 9 11.11%
Total 34 41.98%

The respondents’ top recommendations in the recognition of media literacy

education in both the school and the community are the conducting of seminars, film

showings, and workshops. Having documentary festivals were also recommended for the

schools.

Other recommendations include enhancement trainings, press conventions,

outreach programs, values education, activities for a healthy social life, media ethics

seminars, conducting conferences, a community newspaper, having competent

professors, and the inclusion of a media literacy subject into the curriculum.
50

NOTES
1.
Malinao, A. (2003). Journalism for Filipinos (3rd Ed.). Mandaluyong City,
Philippines: National Bookstore.
2.
Ibid.
3.
Ibid.
CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary, findings, conclusions, and recommendations

of the study.

Summary

This study was conducted with the purpose of assessing the media literacy level

of selected AB Journalism and AB Communication students of Albay. This study sought

to measure the level of media literacy of the selected students in terms of news

appreciation, data gathering, exposure to various beats, editing and copywriting, makeup

and layout, newspaper management, and also their ability analyze and interpret media

content. After measuring the media literacy skills of the respondents, the results were

then compared to see the similarities and differences between the respondents in two

schools. The recommendations to recognize media literacy education were also tapped

from the respondents.

An evaluation research questionnaire was utilized for gathering data. The

questionnaire, which served as the survey vehicle, was administered via random sampling

to a sample of 81 selected AB Journalism and AB Communication students of Bicol

University and Aquinas University of Legazpi, respectively, to gather necessary data. A

part of the questionnaire was patterned from Hobbs and Frost’s study, “Measuring the

acquisition of media literacy skills,” to assess the media literacy skills of the respondents.
52

The statistical tools used for analyzing and interpreting data include frequency

distribution and percentage, weighted mean, and ranking.

Findings

The salient findings of the study are as follows:

1. The level of media literacy of the selected students in terms of:

a. News appreciation. The respondents have indicated that they have been

taught both timeliness and proximity excellently, but they have not fully

applied them in their journalistic work.

b. Data gathering. The respondents have indicated that they were taught to

identify sources, craft questions, conduct interviews, and use organizational

writing styles excellently, but they have not fully applied it in their journalistic

work. Covering press conferences and handling ambush interviews, however,

have been taught to them but not well enough for them to make a recall.

c. Exposure to various beats. The respondents have been taught how to cover

city hall and provincial capitol beat, police/crime beat and disaster beat

excellently, but they have not applied it well enough in their journalistic work.

Covering the court beat has been taught, but not well enough to make an

impact.

d. Editing and copywriting. The respondents have been taught to polish

articles, write headlines, write captions, and what beats should be assigned

excellently, but they have not applied it well enough in their journalistic work.
53

Copy reading symbols have been taught, but not well enough for them to be

able to use them well.

e. Makeup and layout. The respondents indicate that they have been taught

makeup and layout in both tabloid form and magazine, but not well enough

for them to put them into practice.

f. Newspaper management. The respondents have been well taught with the

ability to beat deadlines as well as the newsroom operations, but has not

applied it in real-life scenarios.

g. Analysis and interpretation of media content. In the second part of the

survey questionnaire, the respondents were shown video clips containing

violence and sexual themes.

For Target audience: Age bracket of the video clips presented, 57.14% claim

that 18-24 year olds are the target market of the videos considering that these

ages are matured enough to interpret those videos. After 18-24, the next age

bracket which got the highest frequency was 12- to 17-year-olds with 14.29%,

followed by 25- to 39-year-olds with 14.29%, next is 2- to 11-year olds with

8.79% followed by 60-year-olds and older with 4.40%, while 40- to 59-year-

olds got the lowest frequency of 1.09%.

In terms of Target income class of the video clips presented. The responses

which indicated that the target income class of the video clips amounted to

78.31% of the total responses were the middle class. On the other hand, only
54

13.26% of the total respondents claim that the video clips were for wealthy

people and only 8.43% claim that it was for the poor.

In Target gender class of the video clips shown, the respondents who

answered male amounted to 84.15%, this result may conclude that males are

more likely to watch violence and sexually themed material compared to

female responses which just amounted to 15.86% of the total responses.

In terms of the possible purpose of the presented video clips, the

entertainment function got the highest frequency amounting to 59.41% of the

total responses. Self-expression function followed with 20.79%, followed by

making money purpose with 9.9, next is informing function with 5.94%, and

teaching function is the lowest with only 3.96%.

For techniques used in the video clips to attract and hold ones attention,

comedy got the highest frequency of 28.07% of the total responses. The use of

cute characters placed second with 27.19%, followed by use of animation with

18.42%, then violence with 17.54%, and sexual innuendos with 6.14%.

For violence themed video, which is “Happy Tree Friends: A Bit of a Pickle,”

the respondents of AB Communication 4 had the highest impact from the

video, with a weighted mean of 4. They are followed by AB Communication

3 (3.25), AB Journalism 4B (3.06), AB Journalism 3A (2.9), AB Journalism

4A (2.47), and AB Journalism 3B (2.45).

SBC Packers by Rex Navarette, a video laden with sexual themes and foul

language, has influenced the respondents from AB Communication 4 the


55

most, with a weighted mean of a perfect 5. The remaining respondents,

however, have lesser impact from the video, with weighted means ranging

from 2 and 3. Behind AB Communication 4 are AB Journalism 3A (2.9), AB

Communication 3 (2.75), AB Journalism 4A (2.59), AB Journalism 4B (2.41),

AB Journalism 3B (2.15).

On the other hand, both block A classes claimed that “SBC Packers by Rex

Navarette” had also some impact on them, while both block B classes

indicated that it had some impact on them but it was minimal.

h. The similarities and differences between selected students of AB Journalism

of Bicol University and the AB Communication students of Aquinas

University of Legazpi in terms of media literacy skills

In terms of News appreciation skills, AB Journalism and AB Communication

students share same results in timeliness; they have been taught excellently

but are not using it. In proximity, AB Communication generated a perfect

rating of 5 and the highest of all the respondents.

For Data gathering skills, Aquinas University and Bicol University

respondents displayed the same results – where they were taught excellently.

Aquinas University students, however, indicated higher results in some

aspects of this skill.


56

In terms of Exposure to various beats, it is found out that Bicol University

students have more knowledge in the coverage of various beats than Aquinas

University respondents.

For Editing and copywriting skills, the skills in using copyreading symbols

got the lowest percentage of all the results in this aspect, with average rating

of 3 for all the respondents. Same results were generated in the other aspects

for all of the respondents with an average of 4.

The same results were indicated in Makeup and layout skills. AB

Communication respondents are more adept in the designing of tabloids and

magazines than AB Journalism students.

For Newspaper management, all of the respondents displayed same results in

beating deadlines, but different results for newsroom operations. It is indicated

that Aquinas University respondents are more adept in newsroom operations

than Bicol University students.

Respondents from both schools indicate that that the video clips shown are for

18- to 24-year-olds, middle class, and for males. In terms of purpose, both

schools agree that the video clips are made to entertain.

The respondents displayed that the techniques used to hold their attention

were the comedy and the use of cute characters, the 2 techniques got at least

25% of the total responses.

For the impact of the violence themed video, the results indicated that the

Aquinas University respondents are more influenced by the video than those

from Bicol University. On the other hand, the video with sexual themes had
57

less impact for almost all blocks except AB Communication 4 with a higher

impact rating.

i. Activities or programs recommended by the respondents to promote media

literacy in their schools and communities

The top four recommendations to promote media literacy in schools given by

the respondents was to give seminars about media literacy, film showings of

media literacy related films or documentaries, workshops on campus

journalism, and documentary festivals featuring the work of AB Journalism

and AB Communication students. In the community, seminars, film showings,

and workshops were also recommended.

Respondents from Bicol University also suggested enhancement trainings,

press conventions, outreach programs, values education, a community

newspaper, having competent professors, and the inclusion of a media literacy

subject into the curriculum.

Respondents from Aquinas University of Legazpi recommend activities for a

healthy social life as well as media ethics, conducting conferences, and proper

information dissemination.

Conclusions

From the results of this study, the following conclusions were drawn:

1. The respondents of AB Journalism in Bicol University have a lower level of

Media literacy. In the first part of the questionnaire, the respondents from
58

Aquinas University usually indicate higher scores compared to Bicol

University respondents. One of the factors to be considered is the number of

students. In AB Communication, 7 students for 3rd year and 4 for 4th year,

while AB Journalism 3A has 39 and 3B with 40 students, and at 34 for each

4th year class. The results show that number of students have an effect on the

learning; the lesser the students, the more attention can be given from a

professor to each student. In facilities, Aquinas University is more blessed

than Bicol University. For example, the classroom of the AB Communication

students is a computer laboratory with a ratio of 1 student per computer with

internet access; in fact the computers usually outnumber the students. In Bicol

University, the ratio of computer to student is lower, usually 1:2 or 1:3 or

lesser. Some of the computers have some problems and all computers cannot

easily access the internet, unless the student will purchase an internet account.

Another factor would be the faculty – Aquinas University’s AB

Communication professors are mostly part-timers with a ratio of one professor

to 7 students. Bicol University, however, has at least 2 regular faculty

members with six part-timers, yet the ratio of 1 professor to 30-40 students, an

obvious disparity between the two schools.

2. In Aquinas University, 3rd year AB Communication students generated higher

skill levels than those of the 4th years, a rare trend in most educational

institutions.

3. The respondents from Bicol University present the usual trend in the survey,

where the fourth year students indicate higher media literacy levels than third
59

years. A factor to consider in this result is that the professors from Bicol

University are experience-based; with most of them being media practitioners,

giving them different teaching approaches from conventional teachers.

4. In terms of media content analysis, the respondents pointed out that the video

clips shown containing violence and sexually themed videos are for 18- to 24-

year-old middle-class males.

5. For purpose of the clips, the respondents indicate that violence and sexually

themed videos are made primarily to entertain.

6. The respondents’ attention can easily be held by pleasing visuals and comic

approaches used in a certain video. Without considering the content of the

video, as long as it is well presented, more viewers will be attracted.

7. The AB Communication students from Aquinas University indicated that they

are easily influenced by a violent video, while it would impact AB Journalism

students lesser. The video with sexual themes has lesser impact than the

violent video, though AB Communication students have a higher level of

being influenced. The researchers concluded that AB Communication students

are more vulnerable to the influence of violence and sex through media than

the AB Journalism students.

Recommendations

In light of the foregoing findings and conclusions, the following

recommendations were put forward:


60

1. For Bicol University, despite the competencies of professors, additional

facilities may be required to be able to improve media literacy skills. A more

strict screening for professors and students could also help. The University, or

at least its Print and Broadcast Media Department, should also consider

having regular press conventions, film showing activities, and documentary

festivals to help students familiarize with media literacy. The inclusion of

media literacy education in the curriculum may be needed to maximize the

student learning abilities, even though it will be included to curriculums of

elementary and high school1. The curriculum where the respondents are in,

have journalism subjects only in the third and fourth years (with the exception

of Introduction to Journalism, which is taken in second year), but the present

curriculum has been reorganized, putting more Journalism subjects as early as

freshman year. The new curriculum may yield better results than that of the

old, and most likely to develop the students’ skills better. The university

school paper, The Bicol Universitarian (or possibly another paper), could be

expanded to a community newspaper – covering not only the university, but

the province of Albay as well. Existing college publications like University of

the Philippines-Diliman’s The Philippine Collegian, which competes with

national papers like The Philippine Daily Inquirer and Manila Bulletin.

2. For Aquinas University, considering the low number of enrollees, the

University must increase promotional efforts for the course. Despite the

University’s advantage in facilities, the program may eventually die a natural

death if the trend in the enrolment would further decline. The curriculum
61

could be improved, since the findings reveal that the students’ media literacy

level declines through time. Conducting conferences, workshops, film

showings, and activities concerning healthy social life and media ethics, are

also being recommended.

3. To the community, the researchers recommend giving seminars, enhancement

trainings, outreach programs, and the like to improve the media literacy levels

of both children and adults alike. Also, community newspapers can be tapped

for proper information dissemination about media literacy.

4. To all, especially the respondents, the development of sensitivity is

recommended to at least aid the problem of apathy or being uninterested with

what they are in. The learning process should include the interest of the

student and as well as the professors. Working hand-in-hand, the researchers

would want to recognize the ability to change learning process with right

efforts.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
63

A. BOOKS

Baran, S. (2006). Introduction to Mass Communication (4th edition). New York, NY,
USA: McGraw Hill

Biagi, S. (1996). Media Impact an Introduction to mass media. Belmont, CA, USA:

Wadsworth

Dominick, J. (2002). The Dynamics of Mass Communication Media in the Digital Age
(7th edition). New York, NY, USA: McGraw Hill

Littlejohn, S. (1999). Theories of Mass Communication. Belmont, CA, USA: Wadsworth

Malinao, A. (2003). Journalism for Filipinos (3rd Ed.). Mandaluyong City, Philippines:
National Bookstore.

McKenzie, R. (2006). Comparing Media from Around the World. Boston, MA, USA:
Pearson Education

Potter, W. J. (2005). Media Literacy (3rd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage

Teodoro, L. V. & De Jesus, M. Q. (2001). The Filipino Press and Media, Democracy and
Development. Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines: University of the Philippines
Press

Thoman, E. & Jolls, T. (2005). Literacy for the 21st Century. Santa Monica, CA, USA:
Center for Media Literacy.
64

B. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS

Alicdan, C. & Prianes K., “Television soap operas: Effect on selected students of Ligao
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Barbara, A. & Pelonia I., “Exposure to Television Violence and its Influences on
Children’s Behavior”, (Undergraduate Thesis, Bicol University College of Arts
and Letters, Legazpi City, March 2009)

Belisario, J. & Claro, J., “The Effects of Television on the Moral and Spiritual Values of
Preschoolers”, (Undergraduate Thesis, Bicol University Institute of
Communication and Cultural Studies, Legazpi City, March 2001)

Gasga, J. & Sodsod, J., “The Effects of Political Infomercials on Registered Voters of
Legazpi City”, (Undergraduate Thesis, Bicol University College of Arts and
Letters, Legazpi City, March 2010)

Gillespie, T. “Media Violence and Media Literacy”. Ireland: Religious Society of Friends
in Ireland

Hobbs, R. & Frost, R. (2003). “Measuring the acquisition of media-literacy skills”.


Wellesley, MA, USA: Babson College

Mirabel, R. & Napay, M., “The Effects of Video Game Violence on the Gamers in
Legazpi City”, (Undergraduate Thesis, Bicol University College of Arts and
Letters, Legazpi City, March 2009)

Rosenbaum, J. (2007). “Measuring Media Literacy: Youngsters, Television, and


Democracy.” Nijmegen, Netherlands: Radboud University

Walkosz, B., Jolls, T., & Sund, M. A. (2008). “Global/Local: Media Literacy for the
Global Village”. Santa Monica, CA, USA: Center for Media Literacy

Worth, P. (2004). “Evaluating the Effectiveness of School-Based Media Literacy


Curricula.” Stanford, CA, USA: Stanford University
65

C. WEBSITES/ELECTRONIC SOURCES

Ali, L. (2011, March 14). How to Calculate Weighted Mean. eHow. Retrieved March 14
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mean.html#ixzz1GYJVKscX

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APPENDICES
67

APPENDIX A

Bicol University
College of Arts and Letters
Legazpi City

Eduardo A. de Leon
Regional Director
Philippine Information Agency Region V
Legazpi City

Sir:

We are pursuing the study “The Level of Media Literacy of selected AB Journalism and AB
Communication Students of Albay” in partial fulfillment of the subject Research in Journalism
(Comm. 4).

In regards to this, we ask for your permission to validate the study’s survey questionnaire
attached hereto, in order for the undersigned to proceed with the collection of data.

Thank you and God bless!

Respectfully yours,

Nico P. Arboleda

Michael Leer G. Asuncion


Researchers

Noted:

Dr. Agnes J. Nepomuceno


Subject Professor
68

APPENDIX B

Bicol University
College of Arts and Letters
Legazpi City

Susana C. Cabredo, Ed. D.


Vice President for Academic Affairs
Aquinas University of Legazpi
Legazpi City

Thru: Susan B. Bobadilla, Ph. D.


Dean, College of Arts, Sciences, and Education
Aquinas University of Legazpi
Legazpi City

Madam:

We are pursuing the study “The Level of Media Literacy of selected AB Journalism and
AB Communication Students of Albay” in partial fulfillment of the subject Research in Journalism
(Comm. 4).

We would like to ask for your permission to conduct our study in the AB Communication
department, since the third and fourth year students of the said department are our chosen
respondents together with the third and fourth year AB Journalism students of Bicol University.

Furthermore, we also ask for your permission to validate the study’s survey
questionnaire attached hereto, in order for the undersigned to proceed with the collection of
data.

Thank you and God bless!

Respectfully yours,

Nico P. Arboleda

Michael Leer G. Asuncion


Researchers

Noted:

Dr. Agnes J. Nepomuceno Dr. Elnora Brocales


Subject Professor Thesis Adviser
69

APPENDIX C

Bicol University
College of Arts and Letters
Legazpi City

CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that the survey questionnaire of the study “The Level of Media Literacy
of selected AB Journalism and AB Communication Students of Albay” of Michael Leer G.
Asuncion and Nico P. Arboleda has been validated by the undersigned, and can proceed with the
collection of data.

AIDA ALCAZAR-NAZ
Information Officer
Philippine Information Agency Region V

ALVIN SARIO
Research Professor
Aquinas University of Legazpi

Noted:

Dr. Elnora Brocales


Thesis Adviser
70

APPENDIX D

Bicol University
College of Arts and Letters
Legazpi City

Dear respondent:

The researchers of the study “The Media Literacy Level of Selected AB


Journalism and AB Communication Students of Albay” have chosen you as their
respondents in the aforementioned study.

The study aims to determine the level of media literacy skills of the respondents
in order to recognize the importance of media literacy education in both Bicol University
and Aquinas University of Legazpi.

In line with this, we ask for your fullest cooperation in answering the attached
questionnaire carefully and fully. The responses will be used for academic purposes
alone, and will be treated with utmost confidentiality.

Thank you very much.

Respectfully yours,

Nico P. Arboleda

Michael Leer G. Asuncion


Researchers
71

Name: ________________________________________________________________

Year: __3rd __4th School: __Aquinas University __Bicol University

I. Answer the following questions by encircling the appropriate answer:


In a scale of 1-5, rate yourself on how much you were taught the following
items:
5 – The topic has been taught to me excellently
4 – The topic has been taught to me well
3 – The topic has been taught to me
2 – The topic may have been mentioned to me
1 – The topic has not been taught at all
1. News appreciation
i. Timeliness 1 2 3 4 5
ii. Proximity 1 2 3 4 5
2. Data gathering
i. Identifying sources 1 2 3 4 5
ii. Crafting questions 1 2 3 4 5
iii. Conducting interviews 1 2 3 4 5
iv. Covering Press Conferences 1 2 3 4 5
v. Ambush interviews 1 2 3 4 5
vi. Organizational writing styles 1 2 3 4 5
3. Exposure to various beats
i. City hall/Provincial Capitol 1 2 3 4 5
ii. Court 1 2 3 4 5
iii. Police/Crime 1 2 3 4 5
iv. Disaster 1 2 3 4 5
v. Others (please specify):
____________________ 1 2 3 4 5
4. Editing and copywriting
i. Polishing articles 1 2 3 4 5
ii. Copyreading symbols 1 2 3 4 5
iii. Headline writing 1 2 3 4 5
iv. Caption writing 1 2 3 4 5
v. Beat assignments 1 2 3 4 5
1. City hall
2. Court
72

3. Police/Crime
4. Disaster
5. Others
5. Makeup and Layout
i. Tabloid 1 2 3 4 5
ii. Magazine 1 2 3 4 5
6. Newspaper management
i. Beating the deadline 1 2 3 4 5
ii. Newsroom operations 1 2 3 4 5

II. After viewing the video clips, answer the following questions:
1. The video clips are appropriate for (check the best choices, one per
column):
__ 2- to 11-year-olds __ poor __ men
__ 12- to 17-year-olds __ middle-class people __ women
__ 18- to 25-year-olds __ wealthy people
__ 25- to 40-year-olds
__ 40- to 60-year-olds
__ 60-year-olds and older
2. What was the purpose of the video clips?
__ to inform __ for self-expression
__ to entertain __ to make money
__ to persuade __ to teach
3. Which of these techniques was the most effective in attracting and
getting your attention?
__violence __dramatic storylines
__the use of cute characters __animation
__comedy __ sexual innuendos

4. In a scale of 1-5, with 5 being the highest, rate the impact of the video
clips:
5 – the video clip has heavily influenced me
4 – the video clip has somewhat influenced me
3 – the video clip has an impact on me
2 – the video clip has little impact on me
1 – the video clip does not have any impact on me at all
73

a. Happy Tree Friends: A Bit Of A Pickle 1 2 3 4 5


b. SBC Packers by Rex Navarette 1 2 3 4 5

III. What activities or programs can be introduced to promote media literacy to


your school?

_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
________________________

To your community?

_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
________________________
CURRICULUM VITAE
75

CURRICULUM VITAE

Name: NICO PAYGANE ARBOLEDA

Address: #57 Rizal St. Guinobatan, Albay

Date of Birth: October 13, 1990

Age: 20

Civil Status: Single

Parents: Romeo Roces Arboleda

Evelyn Paygane Arboleda

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Elementary: Guinobatan East Central School

Guinobatan, Albay

2000-2003

Secondary: Bicol Regional Science High School

Tuburan, Ligao City

2003-2005

St. Gregory the Great Minor Seminary

Panal, Tabaco City

2005-2007

Tertiary: Bicol University College of Arts and Letters

Legazpi City

Bachelor of Arts in Journalism

2007-2011
76

CURRICULUM VITAE

Name: MICHAEL LEER GRANATIN ASUNCION

Address: Brgy. 40, Cruzada Legazpi City

Date of Birth: July 4, 1991

Age: 19

Civil Status: Single

Parents: Laurence S. Asuncion

Raquel G. Asuncion

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Elementary: Albay Central Elementary School

Legazpi City

1997-2003

Secondary: Divine Word College of Legazpi High School

Legazpi City

2003-2007

Tertiary: Bicol University College of Arts and Letters

Legazpi City

Bachelor of Arts in Journalism

2007-2011