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com
THERMAL EXPANSION
OF
SOLIDS, LIQUIDS & GASES
TOPIC 11: THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER
THERMAL ENERGY?
HOW DOES THE SIZE OF
MATTER CHANGE DUE TO

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SIZE
FOCUS ON
THE SUBSTANCE’S

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THERMAL ENERGY

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CAN

Change Change
the lengths of the volumes of
solids liquids & gases

OF THE MATTER
WHAT DO WE KNOW?

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When heat is applied to a substance.
The substance’s size increases in all direction.

Expansion

Heat Energy Applied Heat Energy Applied


WHAT DO WE KNOW?

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When heat is removed from a substance.
The substance’s size decreases in all direction.

Contraction

Heat Energy Removed Heat Energy Removed


EXPAND
AND CONTRACT?
WHY DOES MATTER

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ON HEATING

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Its particles gain energy and vibrate more vigorously.

The increased movement causes an increase in the


intermolecular distance.
The structure expands.
ON COOLING

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Its particles lose energy and vibrate less.

The decreased movement causes a decrease in the


intermolecular distance.
The structure contracts.
GAS

EXPANDS
MORE THAN
LIQUID

EXPANDS
MORE THAN
THERMAL EXPANSION
SOLID

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UNEVEN EXPANSION OF MATTER

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When two types of solids of different expansion rates
are joined together the overall structure will expand
unevenly if heated.

Uneven
Even Expansion Expansion

Uneven expansion causes the structure to bend.


UNEVEN EXPANSION OF MATTER

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The direction of bending depends on the expansion
rate of the solids and its position on the structure.

The structure will bend The structure will bend


downwards if the top layer upwards if the bottom
expand faster. layer expand faster.