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5 E R I E 5

JUMBOJET I VOLUME 10 I

• Improved 747 Models • 747-400 Roster


• 747-400 Variants • Advanced Engines
~~
• Technical Description • The World's Largest Airliner
AirlinerTech Series IiJ!LHEl!!~!!I~
LOCKHEED ~

L-lOll TRISTAR

Griffon-Powered Mustangs - Volume 1 Item #SP034


Racing Bearcats and Corsairs - Volume 2 Item #SP035

WarbirdTech Series
Consolidated B-24 Liberator - Volume 1 Item # SP464
Lockheed P-38 Lightning - Volume 2 Item # SP465
North American F-86 SabreJet Day Fighters - Volume 3 Item # SP466
Vought F4U Corsair - Volume 4 Item # SP467
North American P-51 Mustang - Volume 5 Item # SP468
Messerschmitt Me 262 Sturmvogel - Volume 6 Item # SP469
Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress - Volume 7 Item # SP470
MD F-4 Gun-Nosed Phantoms - Volume 8 Item # SP471
McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle - Volume 9 Item # SP472
Lockheed SR-71NF-12 Blackbirds - Volume 10 Item # SP475
North American NA-16/AT-6/SNJ - Volume 11 Item # SP476
North American B-25 Mitchell- Volume 12 Item # SP477
Douglas A-l Skyraider - Volume 13 Item # SP478
Boeing B-29 Superfortress - Volume 14 Item # SP479
Northrop P-61 Black Widow - Volume 15 Item # SP480
Lockheed U-2 Dragon Lady - Volume 16 Item # SP009
Bell P-39/P-63 Airacobra & Kingcobra - Volume 17 Item # SP01 0
Republic F-l05 Thunderchief - Volume 18 Item # SP011
Boeing North American B-1 Lancer - Volume 19 Item # SP012
Fairchild-Republic A10A-l0 Warthog - Volume 20 Item # SP013
Boeing/BAe Harrier - Volume 21 Item # SP014
Douglas A-26 Invader - Volume 22 Item # SP016
Republic P-47 Thunderbolt - Volume 23 Item # SP018
Convair B-36 Peacemaker - Volume 24 Item # SP019
Lockheed Martin F-117 Nighthawk - Volume 25 Item # SP020
Royal Air Force Avro Vulcan - Volume 26 Item # SP023
Lockheed AH-56A Cheyenne - Volume 27 Item # SP027
English Electric Lightning - Volume 28 Item # SP028
Martin B-26 Marauder - Volume 29 Item # SP029
Boeing C-17A Globemaster 111- Volume 30 Item # SP040
Boeing F/A-18 Hornet - Volume 31 Item # SP041
:~:Vf:~:~~
Griffon-Powered Spitfires - Volume 32 Item # SP045 ·oevelo\>oneotH;story

Grumman A-6 Intruder - Volume 33 Item # SP050


North American XB-70A Valkyrie - Volume 34 Item # SP056
Merlin-Powered Spitfires - Volume 35 Item # SP057

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I
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AIRLINERTECH "
5 E R I E 5

VOLUME 10

BOEING

By ROBERT F. DORR
COPYRIGHT © 2002 ROBERT F. DORR

Published by
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Material contained in this book is intended for historical and entertainment value only,
and is not to be construed as usable for aircraft or component restoration, maintenance, or use.

Printed in China

Title Page: Atlas Air was not the first user of the popular 747-400F freighter but it became the largest when it acquired Polar
Air in 2001, and now hauls cargo in several other liveries in addition to its own. This jetliner is operating at California's Los
Angeles International Airport in August 2001. (Sunil Gupta)
Front Cover: This study of a Japan Airlines 747-400 from beneath provides an excellent view of some of the technical features
of the aircraft. Note the complexity of the three-piece trailing edge flaps located inboard of the engines and the separate set of
trailing-edge flaps outboard. We can also see detail of the leading-edge flaps and main landing gear. (Tom Pesch)
Back Cover (Left Top): Illustrating an airliner with characters from the children's game Pokemon was a pleasing move by
All Nippon Airways. This aircraft is Boeing 747-481, line number 979, c/n 25645, registered as JA8962. Unlike -400s in early
operation on domestic routes, this aircraft's international configuration is equipped with winglets. (Alex Hrapunov)
Back Cover (Right Top): This is the underside of the left wing ofa partially assembled 747-400 in the Everett factory, prior to
installation of engines. The split pylon doors are in the open position. Each wing of the 747-400 weighs 33,000 pounds but
would be heavier were it not for the counterbalancing influence of the pylon-mounted engines. Games c. Goodall)
Back Cover (Right Lower): The -400's most widely-used power plant is the General Electric CF6-80C-B1F high bypass ratio
turbofan engine, a derivative of the CF6-50E2 but with a shorter overall length, larger diameter fan, four-stage booster
compressor, shorter combuster, core-mounted accessory gear box and engine accessories, and relocated engine mounts. (Boeing)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
BOEING 747-400

Introduction 4
A Word from the Author

Chapter 1 Flying a 747-400 7


Long Haul Mission in Boeing's Biggest

Chapter 2 Why the 747-400 ? 25


Improving Upon Aerial Success

Chapter 3 747-400 Airlines 75


Today and Tomorrow

Color Section Colorful Jumbos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 65


A 875,000-pound Flying Canvas

Chapter 4 747-400 Variants 51


Main Models in Use

Chapter 5 Technical Details. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 35


Walk-Around Check

Appendix A 747-400 Roster 96


By The Numbers

Appendix B Significant Dates 103


Key Dates in the History of the Boeing 747-400

BOEING
141-400
INTRODUCTION
A WORD FROM THE AUTHOR

v'" .~,.•"",~""he Boeing 747-400 is the ing prices, staggering delays, surly nience of new security measures.
T ! transformed version of the
,.. ,.L. airliner that changed the
world. In many ways, it is a new air-
employees, lost baggage. No matter
what happened, things would have
to get better.
Now, the United States was at war,
Americans saw their economy in a
tailspin, and air travel, once so glam-
craft rather than a development of Briefly, they did. A non-stop orous and exciting in an earlier age,
the wide body "jumbo jet" that 747-400 flight from Chicago to was now more an ordeal than ever.
brought air travel to the everyday Tokyo, which inspired the first The 747-400 continued to travel
citizen. With an outer shell that dates chapter, was a delight. the globe hauling people and car-
to the mid-1980s and an interior that However, while his book was goes. However, some -400s joined
reflects a digital revolution and a under way, the United States was uneconomical 747 "classics" that
new century, the 747-400 is a com- attacked. Nineteen men transformed were basking in the sun in bone-
plex and smoothly functioning thing our beloved airliners into lethal mis- yards in the American Southwest -
of beauty. Many regard the 747-400 siles; they were used to kill 3,000 too costly to yield a profit for air-
as the most majestic flying machine innocent people. In the aftermath of lines experiencing one of the worst
plying the world's revenue routes. the attack of September 11, 2001, air slumps ever.
The aircraft is a fitting successor travel slumped badly, and then began The 747-400 was at a crossroads
to the 747 "classic" airliner that to improve a.little, but not much. At when this volume went to the print-
came before it. In like manner, this the start of 2002, it was more a hassle er, and its future was waiting to be
volume is a follow-up to Volume 6 than ever-inexperienced leisure defined. Meanwhile, tumult in the
in the Airliner Tech series by Dennis travelers deterred by their fear of ter- airline industry meant that informa-
R. Jenkins, which tells the story of rorism, seasoned frequent flyers tion about any airline or airliner was
the 747-100/200/300/SP series. equally deterred by the inconve- in danger of being out-of-date before
When this volume was begun,
the world's airlines already were
parking and storing three-pilot jet-
liners to cut costs. By the time it was
finished, they were beginning to
park and store more four-~ngine jet-
liners-yes, even the stately 747-
400-for the same reason. Anyone
looking at the future of air travel
might wonder whether the future lie
with any commercial aircraft pow-
ered by more than two engines, but
Boeing is proceeding with the
"Longer-Range 747-400" due in
2002, and its hopes are high.
I started work on this mono-
graph when the United States was at
peace, Americans were prospering,
and air travel was increasingly
becoming a hassle. To us frequent The 747-400's distinctive winglet seen from the passenger's viewpoint. This shot
flyers, the air travel year 2000 of a Singapore Airlines craft was taken over Mount Everest, but the world's
seemed the worst experience anyone highest mountain eluded the camera while the winglet stood out distinctively.
could have-crowded flights, soar- (Jim Winchester)

4
..
AIRLINER TECH
The enormous bulk of the 747-400 fuselage contrasts dramatically with the high-incidence, relatively thin wing when viewed
from the front, moments after takeoff. This is a KLM aircraft. (Andre Ran)

the printer's ink was dry. This book Every Boeing aircraft (whether history office unearthed documents,
contains plenty of information about 737,747, or another model) is assigned and the manufacturer provided
the ownership and operation of the a five-digit manufacturer's serial facilities to a photographer whose
747-400, and much of it will remain number in a series that only recently work appears here. However, Boe-
valid. Some of it will change, faster reached 30,000. The 696th aircraft in ing could make no one available to
than in better times. the 747 production run was given be interviewed, to review the manu-
A note about Boeing designa- manufacturer's serial number 23719. script, to make suggestions, or to fill
tions: The type is obvious: 707, 727, I have followed longstanding prac- out our roster of 747-400 aircraft,
737, 747, and so forth. Next are a tice and referred to the manufactur- which is current through line num-
hyphen and the series number er's serial number as a constructor's ber 1203, but has gaps afterward.
"-400." But while 747-400 is the cor- number (not construction number), Again, this was a dramatic contrast
rect, generic term for every aircraft spelled out when first encountered to Airbus, which is always eager to
in this series, each can be described but otherwise abbreviated c/n. assist with books about its products.
more precisely by replacing the "00" Every civilian aircraft has a civil Again, too, it must be said again
with a customer code: "22" for Unit- registry number assigned by the that an invaluable resource for
ed Airlines, for example. Thus, a authorities of the country where it is research on individual aircraft is Jet
typical aircraft belonging to United licensed to fly. The civil registry Airliner Production List: Volume 1-
can be called a 747-400 (generic) or a number can change if the aircraft Boeing, by John Roach and A. B.
747-422 (specific), and either term is changes owners, or even countries. Tony Eastwood (Middlesex: The
II II

correct. Occasionally, a letter suffix American civil registry numbers Aviation Hobby Shop, 1999). On the
also appears, the 747-400M being a begin with "N." pages that follow, readers will get
"Combi," the 747-400F a freighter. Using the formula described representative information about the
Numbers identify every aircraft. above, the first Boeing 747-400 (or 747-400 fleet, including a roster of air-
Production of the 747-400 began with 747-451) was assigned line number frames, or "hulls," as some call them,
the 696th aircraft in the larger 747 696, constructor's number (c/n) but Roach and Eastwood list every
series. After the 721st, every 747 being 23719, and civil registry N661US. Boeing jetliner, its registration, who
manufactured was also a 747-400 and This aircraft first flew in 1988 and operates it, and various significant
the series now extends to at least the flies today with Northwest Airlines. events in its history. Their work is a
l,272nd. This number, identifying the Again, as with the earlier vol- superb companion to the technical
sequence of the aircraft on the assem- ume on the "classics," Boeing did and pictorial material appearing here.
bly line, is called a "line number" and not assist in the preparation of this The author is responsible for
is usually not abbreviated. book. Boeing provided photos, its any errors that appear here, but this

BOEING
141-400 5
book would have been impossible helped make this book possible are "Michael Shayler," Michael Stroud,
without help from many, including Colin Clark, Bill Crimmins, Michael Nick Stroud, Kirsten Tedesco, Dave
Boeing historian Tom Lubbesmeyer France, James C. Goodall, Sunil Willis, and Jim Winchester.
and international airline captains Gupta, George W. Hamlin, Joseph G. This book is dedica ted to Marc
Robert Beavis, Robert L. Burns, Cort Handelman, Rob Hewson, Dennis Reid, who is finally able to straight-
de Peyster, Dennis Hoffman, and R. Jenkins, Jim Kippen, Jon Lake, en up and fly right.
Darrel Whitcomb. Nate Leong, Jason S. MacLean, Al Robert F. Dorr
Among the fraternity, those who Mongeon, Tom Pesch, Andre Ran, Oakton, Virginia

71 PERCENT

69 FEET
6 INCHES
8 FEET 1 INCH--j
r-
32 FEET 4 INCHES~------~~II

I n FEET
9 INCHES

21 FEET 4 INCHES
14 FEET
7 INCHES ~
~~~~r-----102 FEET----j

......- - - 109 FEET 5 INCHES ----+------"i...-YI~- 99 FEET ------~


2 INCHES
0.25 "AC

!--10 FEET
f--n
I
FEET
1 INCH

32 FEET
2 INCHES
38 fEET

63 FEET
4 INCHES

4 FEET 10 INCHES
25 FEET-+_-_;----- 84 FEET 0 INCH~
5 INCHES 1-- _
231 FEET 10 INCHES -----------------1

A two-view plan drawing of the 747-400 from side and top provides an appreciation for the size and shape of the aircraft. The
747-400 introduced a new wing with greater span than the wing of "classic" 747 models. The fuselage length of the Dash Four
Hundred is fully three times the length of a Convair 240 propeller-driven transport. (United Airlines)

6
..
AIRLIJVERTECH
FLYING
LONG HUAL MISSION IN BOEING'S BIGGEST
747-400
· he aircraft snuggled up to changeable. The short answer is that check the flight plan and weather for

T the jetbridge at Chicago


,~~ O'Hare International Air-
port is a Boeing 747-400, an up-to-
Boeing resisted the temptation to today's 6,274-mile (5,453-nautical
install a common flight deck on all .mile, or 10,097-kilometer) nonstop
of its major airliners, preferring flight from Chicago to Tokyo. Today,
date and decidedly high-tech ver- instead to give the 747-400 a few an extra pair of pilots is coming
sion of the "jumbo" jetliner that extra bells and whistles. The aboard because of the distance and
brought air travel to the everyday 747-400's two pilots were trained duration of this trip. The rule is that
citizen. specifically to fly the 747-400 while three pilots must be on board; one is
It's a distinctive aircraft. It 757 and 767 pilots routinely fly both for relief duty on a flight longer than
stands apart from other airliner of those aircraft. Compared to other eight hours. Four pilots are required
models with its 6-foot (loS-meter) aircraft, the electronic flight instru- for a flight longer than twelve hours;
winglets, those upturned wingtips mentation system (EFIS) of the 747- this includes a complete, two-pilot
designed to enhance fuel efficiency 400 uses larger cathode ray terminal relief crew.
(found on nearly all 747-400s) and (CRT) screens that provide more atti- To most airlines, this require-
with its stretched upper deck (SUD) tude and navigational data in digital ment means the obvious-carrying
which extends the upper-fuselage form than on the other models. an extra captain, an extra first offi-
hump by 23 feet 4 inches (found on Arriving at O'Hare, the captain cer, or both. Some, however, follow
all 747-400s except freighters, but on and first officer check in at Opera- the practice of Air New Zealand of
some -200 and all -300 models as tions, sign in, and check their com- having a second officer fill the third
well). To passengers loitering at the puters for schedules and the latest crew position when three pilots are
gate and peering out toward the air- company information. Then they aboard. This means that a co-pilot
craft, other distinguishing features
of the Dash Four Hundred are not
readily apparent. From outside, they
cannot see the new structural alloys
or the new carbon brake units. They
cannot see the high-tech flight deck
where a flight crew of just two peo-
ple will rely on a digital "glass cock-
pit" to fly this SOO,OOO-pound
(362,SOO-kilogram) leviathan.
The 747-400's two-crew cockpit
differs significantly from the two-
crew cockpit of the 757, 767, or 777.
The four throttle levers in the center
console are the immediate tip-off. Of
the four Boeing jetliners coming off
the production line today, the 747- The magnificent lines of the 747-400 are evident in this view of Air-India's fourth
400 is alone in having four engines Boeing 747-437 (VT-ESP), named AJANTA, which made its first revenue flight
and it has a choice of General Elec- from New York to New Delhi to Mumgai on June 30, 1994. As the l,034th aircraft
tric (GE), Pratt & Whitney (P & W), in the 747 series and assigned cln 27214, AJANTA displays the obvious recognition
or Rolls-Royce (R-R) power. This features: winglets at the ends of the extended wings and the stretched upper deck
e does not fully explain why the cock- inherited from the 747-300. Not seen from this exterior shot at London's Heathrow
r pits of modern jetliners from the International Airport in 1999 is the revolutionary flight deck that enabled airlines
same manufacturer are not inter- to operate this "jumbo" jetliner with just two pilots. (Jim Winchester)

BOEING
141-400 7
fills in the reserve position/ which in
effect/ gives a three-pilot crew to a
two-pilot aircraft.
The airline industrts standard is
that the pilots should be on board 45
minutes before departure time. Since
boarding begins 45 minutes prior to
pushback time on international
flights, the passengers may already
be boarding. In reality/ pilots prefer
to settle into their ergonomic seats
before the passengers arrive. Interna-
tional flights like this one require
more time/ anyway. The pilots must
meet quickly with the flight atten-
dants, or at least the head attendant
(called the purser by some carriers)
Sucking in its wheels while climbing in the pattern at Chicago's O'Hare for a quick briefing. Then they must
International Airport in August 1997, N195UA is a United Airlines 747-422 program the flight computer/ talk to
(c/n 26899/ line number 1113). The complex, double-bogie main landing gear/ wing maintenance if there are any discrep-
spoilers/ and leading- and trailing-edge flaps are all new metal-the manufacturer ancies on the aircraft, determine how
delivered this aircraft to United on May 23/ 1997. United had some interest in the to depart the airport, and insure that
747-400 having the same flight deck as the airline's 757 an.d 767 models/ which are the aircraft is properly loaded. The
flown interchangeably by pilots having identical training, but the builder eschewed first officer will also do a walk
cockpit commonality and gave the two-pilot Dash Four Hundred a unique set of around inspection of the aircraft.
instruments and controls. (Tom Pesch) Passengers coming aboard the
Dash Four Hundred may not notice/
but this aircraft has larger/ fixed-
shelf luggage bins than earlier 747s.
Ceiling light is more indirect and
subdued and creates the illusion of a
wider passenger cabin although the
internal fuselage dimensions are/ in
fact/ the same as previous 747 mod-
els. The 747-400 uses tougher/
graphite-based materials in panels
and bulkheads. All materials on the
interior of the aircraft are of plastic
or graphite materials that meet or
exceed the requirements of fire/
smoke/ and toxicity regulations
established after earlier 747 models
were manufactured. At 31/285 cubic
So where are the winglets? Well, they aren't found on 747-4000 (jar "domestic") feet (876 cubic meters)/ the 747-400
models, used for short-distance flights. These aircraft were delivered with the short has the largest passenger interior
wing and without winglets, so that externally they appear identical to the 747-300 volume of any commercial airliner-
model except for minor changes in engine nacelle shape. Internally, however, they the equivalent of more than three
have the two-pilot cockpit and other modernized features of the Dash Four Hundred houses each measuring 1/500 square
series. This aircraft is All Nippon Airways' 747-4810 registered as JA8959 (c/n feet (135 square meters).
25646, line number 952) which made its first flight on December 18/ 1992 and is Once the passengers are
used for high-density flights within Japan. (George Hamlin) onboard the Dash Four Hundred/ a

8
..
AIRLINER TECH
fueler (typically a contractor, not an
airline employee) will give the cap-
tain the fuel sheet stating how much
jet fuel was put aboard. This is for
WHEEL.
comparison with cockpit instru- WELl..
DOORS----~
ments and it is rare for the fuel sheet
STRUT
and the cockpit instrument not to WELl..
DOORS
jibe. When they do not, the conflict-
ing figures must be resolved-in an
extreme case, by actually measuring
fuel levels in each tank-before
pushback can be authorized.
In addition, as part of the start-
ing process the captain has to sign
a flight release. Prior to pushback, a
mechanic will give the captain a
flight release form as part of the
paperwork for the flight.. This is his
MAIN LANDING GEAR AND DOORS
certification that the flight is in all
aspects ready and legal to go.
According to one captain, "This is
the most important thing a captain Once into the air, the 747-400 flight system cues the pilot to bring up the landing
does." In the airline world, especial- gear at the appropriate speed. While retracted in the air, the main gear trucks are
ly the world of long-range heavies tilted, forward wheels up. Wing gear trucks tilt approximately 52 degrees and body
like the 747-400, the man or woman gear 7 degrees. (Boeing)
in the cockpit's left seat enjoys enor-
mous authority-but at the cost of VENT SUltGE
TANI:
shouldering more responsibility
than most mortals.
NO. 3 RESUVE TANK
(1,322 U.S. GAU
VENT SlMGE TANK (1,10' IIII' GALl
OTHER RESPONSIBILITIES (5,004 LTU
NO.3 IlAIN TANK
(12,544 U.S. GALl
While the captain and first offi- (10,441 IMP GALl
(41,~92 LTNl
cer run through preparations and
HORIZONTAL
checklists, dozens of other people are STABILIZER
TANK
readying the 747-400 for flight. For (3,300 U.S. GALl
NO. ~ MAl II TANK (2,748 I"" GALl
the Dash Four Hundred, it's entirely (~,~82 U.S. GALl (12,492 LTI;l
<3,132 IMP GALl
unremarkable to have every seat ('6,966 LTRl

filled on a run favored by business


travelers. A typical aircraft (using a
United Airlines 747-422 model in
"Sleeper seat" configuration as an
NO. 2 IlAIM TANK NO. 1 IlAIN TANK NO.2 RESERVE TANK
example) will carry 418 passengers: <12,544 U.S. GALl (~,482 U.S. GAL) <1,322 U.S. GALl
<10,447 IIIl' GAll (3,132 IMP iA!.l <1,10' INP GALl
14 in first class, 80 in business class, CUTER VING TANK
(11,'" U.S. GALl
(47,492 LTRl (16,"6 LTR) (5,0~ LTN)

and 270 in economy. (United's 747- (1~,292 IIIl' GALl


(64,913 LTNl
422 "Genesis Seat" aircraft have 18 in
first class, 84 in business, and 270 in
economy. United also has some air- The fuel tank arrangement of the 747-400. The captain and first officer monitor the
craft configured to carry 14 in first situation constantly, but the electronic flight system determines when and how fuel
class, 73 in business, and 260 out tanks feed the engines. On shorter flights, only the principal fuel tanks in the wings
back.) For a flight with a typical gate- are used. (United Airlines)

BOEING
141-400 9
to-gate time of 12 hours 45 minutes
(dependent on winds, weather, and
air traffic control), the caterers will
have to load up 1,254 meals, to say
nothing of pillows, blankets, liba-
tions, entertainment tapes, and all
the other paraphernalia designed to
comfort the passengers. For a typical
international flight, one 747-400
operator uses no fewer than 5.5 tons
of food supplies and more than
50,000 in-flight service items. Small
wonder, then, the 747-400 has anoth-
er distinguishing feature: Look for
the catering door three-quarters of
the way back on the SUD.
Ground crews load galley sup-
This computer-enhanced photo shows Virgin Atlantic's Boeing 747-4Q8 plies aboard the 747-400 at both for-
(c/n 24958, line number 1028) wearing the airline color scheme introduced in 1999. ward and aft locations. The aircraft
This aircraft was delivered to Virgin on April 28, 1994 and is named Lady will carry 11,400 pounds (5,170 kilo-
Penelope. That very lady appears as a caricature beneath the first officer'S cockpit, grams) of food and 2,700 pounds
carrying a stylized version of the Union Jack and an apparent magnum of (1,224 kilograms) of water. Ground
champagne. The British flag also appears on the winglet~. Virgin aircraft all have personnel also load cargo and bag-
registrations that can be expanded into happy exclamations for the eager vacation gage into the two principal baggage
traveler. This ship is registered G- VFAB, for 'fabulous." (Virgin Atlantic) pits in the forward and aft lower

Qantas, the Australian flag carrier, already had 24 Dash Four Hundreds in its fleet of 104 aircraft when the airline celebrated
its 80th birthday on November 16, 2000 by ordering more. The inevitable kangaroo is outlined in red on the fin of this 747-438
(c/n 24887, line number 286), registered as VH-OJI, and seen in Europe in 1993. This is a "Longreach" aircraft, optimized for
the vast distances of Qantas' routes. The legend "The Spirit of Australia" appears under the airline's name on the forward
fuselage. (Silvano Tirtei)

10
..
AIRLINER TECH
fuselage. When an aircraft is being
turned around after an arrival, the
prepping process is more complex:
ground personnel tidy up the interior
before boarding begins (typically, 40
minutes before scheduled pushback)
and toilets must be serviced using a
toilet servicing vehicle dubbed a
"Honeycart" by crews. The 747-400
was redesigned with a central toilet
drainage point rather than widely
scattered separate drainage locations
found on earlier 747 models.
The fueling ritual is less obvious
than loading catering supplies.
Today, as usual, the 747-400 took on FLIGHT CONTROLS

its supply of jet-fuel kerosene from


underground tanks beneath the gate
parking position, pumped aboard by Flight control surfaces of the Dash Four Hundred include leading-, mid-wing, and
pumping vehicles. The Dash Four trailing-edge flaps, ground and flight spoilers, and inner and outer ailerons and
Hundred holds a maximum fuel load elevators, and upper and lower rudder panels. The leading edge flaps are pneumatic.
of about 58,000 U.S. gallons (217,000 Hydraulic actuators drive all other flight surfaces. (Boeing)
liters). The aircraft has four main fuel r-'

tanks in the wings, two reserve tanks


farther out on the wings, and addi-
tional tanks in the center fuselage
and stabilizer. The fuel system is
largely automatic and is set before
departure-the pilots don't spend all
their time switching fuel tanks and
attending to weight and balance
issues. After take-off most center
tanks will be employed first, then the
system will balance its usage of fuel
from the inboard and outboard wing
tanks on both sides, so that the wings
remain the same weight.
Those who enjoy numbers love
to attach statistics to the 747-400.
When any 747 is fully pressurized,
nearly a ton of air is added to its
weight. Any 747 has six million parts.
The Dash Four Hundred model's tail
height of 63 feet 8 inches (19.41
meters) is equivalent to a six-story A passenger boarding the 747-400, if able to peek into the cockpit, would see a scene
building. The wing area of today's like this. The Boeing 747-400 flight deck, designed for full operation by two
747-400, which adds up to 5,650 crewmembers instead of three on earlier 747 models. All engine instruments,
square feet (525.45 square meters) is primary flight instruments, and gear and flap indicators have been replaced by six
an expanse sufficient to hold 45 identical cathode ray tubes. The manufacturer points out that the 747-400 has just
medium-sized automobiles. The 365 lights, gauges, and switches, as compared with 970 on earlier 747 models.
powered flight made by Wilbur and (Boeing K55674)

BOEING
141-400 11
Orville Wright on December 17, 1903
could have been completed in the
length of space provided by the 747-
400's 187-foot (57-meter) interior
main deck, and handily across the
span of its 211-foot (64-meter) wing.
According to a press release dating to
the origins of this huge and graceful
airliner, one 747-400 has enough inte-
rior space to hold 4,000,000 golf balls.

TAKING OFF

When all of the passengers are


onboard, ground personnel close the
doors and flight attendants arm the
emergency escape slides attached to
This is the typical first-class sleeper seat of the 747-400 in April 2001. This each. While flight attendants brief
configuration, found on several airliner types operated by this carrier, gives the top- passengers on emergency evacua-
drawer passenger a carefully crafted region of personal space for working, sleeping, tion procedures, emergency oxygen
and eating. The seat is canted at an angle to the centerline of the fuselage, which masks, and life rafts, the pilots wrap
increases privacy and comfort, but at the expense of disorienting some passengers. up final checks and prepare to be
Curiously, back in the 1950s, the airlines decided not !o use rearward-facing pushed back from the gate.
seats-which offer the best chance for survival in a mishap-precisely because they The captain and first officer
were concerned about disorienting their customers. (Nate Leong) review safety procedures, including
steps they'll take if a malfunction
occurs during the takeoff roll. A
pushback buck attached to the nose
wheel will handle the 747-400 for its
first few seconds of movement. The
~aptain radios the ground engineer,
who is connected to the interphone
by an umbilical wire plugged into
the nose. Typically, the captain
requests pushback and he and the
ground employee confirm the direc-
tion the 747-400 will face to taxi out.
So is it difficult, moving so
many tons of man-made machinery?
':This is a ground-handIer's issue,"
one pilot says. "A 747-400 has terri-
ble rearward visibility from the
cockpit, and I suspect the 777 is as
bad or worse. If you're looking just
right, you can barely see the wingtip
(which is many meters aft of the
The first class cabin in the Dash Four Hundred is a very comfortable place to be, wing root). To me it's a miracle we
although actual airline seating differs from one carrier to another, and from this don't see more bent tin. Some
early manufacturer's concept. This version of a first class cabin offers 34 sleeper thought has been given to hanging a
seats. In practice most carriers have smaller first class sections, typically proximity detector on the extremi-
accommodating 18 to 24 passengers. (Boeing) ties of the aircraft." This pilot recalls

12 AIRLIlfERTECH
After requesting and receiving
clearance to take off, the pilot presses
takeoff/ go-around switches at the
front of the throttles, the thrust levers
automatically advance to takeoff
power setting, and the huge aircraft
eases forward and begins its takeoff
roll. If something goes wrong on take-
off, the pilot at the controls will
decide whether to attempt to halt the
aircraft prior to the "commit" point,
known as VI, or alternatively to lift
off, go around the airfield pattern,
and make an emergency landing. The
pilot not performing the takeoff is
busy monitoring instruments and
747-400 economy section, April 2001. At the start of a new century, the air traffic announces "Vee One" (VI) at a speed
system was more congested than ever, too many aircraft were using too few of about 150 knots and "rotate" at
runways, and too many people (according to some) were crammed into too few about 160 knots. The pilot eases back
airplanes. However, even in economy class, the average airline passenger still on the control column in a careful,
enjoyed more amenities than many would admit. This configuration is typical of a measured motion, and the 747-400 is
747-400 carrying 270 passengers in coach. (Nate Leong) in the air, climbing away from one of
the busiest airfields in the world. A
one event in Atlanta when two air- aircraft in its turn to the runway 747-400 typically takes off at 180 miles
liners "were powering back from threshold point, while both pilots per hour (290 kilometers per hour).
opposing gates, and backed into check takeoff data, flaps, flight con- The passage of time from rollout to
each other" In June 2001, a similar trol, and trim. liftoff has been about 50 seconds.
mishap affected a most unlikely per-
son. Jim Coyne, president of the Air
Transportation Association-the air-
line industry's Washington lobby-
was on an airliner at Washington, D.
C. Dulles International Airport taxi-
ing toward the gate when his air-
craft was hit by a Lufthansa 747-400
being pushed back by a tug. Coyne
later said that, "A lot of aluminum
was bent, and passengers on both
planes were delayed." Another
observer noted, "Sometimes there's
just no substitute for eyeballs."
Continuing our account of push-
back, start-up, and taxiing: the air-
craft engines are started beginning
with no. 4 (right, outboard) and the
flight crew requests permission to Compared to earlier 747 models, the Dash Four Hundred offers business class
taxi. The ground engineer pulls his customers enlarged overhead bins as standard in sidewall and center locations. The
wire, leaving the 747-400 no longer relocated stairway to the upper deck is straight, giving carriers improved flexibility
attached to anything. The pilot mak- in seating layouts. The area aft of the stair can be configured either for business
ing the takeoff (who could be class or economy. The configuration shown here is representative of the 747-400 at
captain or first officer) moves the the start of its flying career in the late 1980s. (Boeing K55740)

BOEING
141-400 13
EN ROUTE WESTWARD
1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - [!> -----------~

The 747-400 responds to easy


pilot handling and begins its climb.
Its quiet engines give noise relief
to residents around O'Hare; its
upturned winglets provide fuel
economy to the airline. In the air,
flight director commands will guide
the pilots throughout every phase of
the flight. They are, of course,
trained for emergencies-a sudden
decompression, for example, will
IIlli.:. JIG POSITIDN - JACKED LEVEL SUFFICIENT TO transform the more routine flight
SWING LANDING GEAR AND NO FUEL.

FULLY FUELED - TIRES AND SHOCK STRUTS


into a chaotic event-but during
CO"PRESSED 8 INCHES. much of the flight the captain and
WING SPAN - JIG POSITION - 211 FT 5 IN first officer will be monitoring
- FULLY FUELED - 213 FT 0 IN

WING HEIGHT - JIG POSITION - 30 FT 7 IN


developments, acting on cues, and
- FULLY FUELED - 22 FT 0 IN relying on autopilot.
Pulling up the wheels on the
747-400 takes about 9 seconds. First
Viewed from the front, the 747-400 is a formidable sight. The legend with this line the gear doors open, temporarily
drawing describes the variation in wingspan and height between an unfuelled and a increasing aerodynamic drag. Then
fully fueled aircraft. (United Airlines) comes retraction of the nose gear
and four main-gear trucks (each
with four wheels inside their wheel
wells) as the aircraft makes a stan-
dard instrument departure. At 1,000
feet (305 meters), the horizontal bar
on the flight director bar commands
a greater degree of nose-down atti-
tude (provided by the pilot) so that
flaps can be raise, first to 10 degrees
and, as speed increases, to five
degrees. The flaps-up cue appears
on the speed tape typically at about
245 knots, typically at about 2,000
feet (610 meters). During the early
stage of the climb, the outboard
leading edge flaps come up first,
followed by the leading and trailing
edge flaps closer to the fuselage.
The captain and first officer go
through an after-takeoff checklist. In
Remember that movie where anti-terrorist commandos were crawling around inside "clean" condition (wheels and flaps
the roof of a 747? This nook for weary workers really is up there in the roof, at least retracted), the 747-400 passes 250
from the passengers' viewpoint. This is the famous "overhead crew rest" knots, the pilot lowers the nose to
accommodation which allows flight attendants to take a break above their customers. increase climb rate, and then engages
The optional crew rest facility is located above the passenger compartment at the autopilot when ready. The 747-400
door 5 life raft support beam and aft lavatory complex. The facility is not certified for climbs to altitude and begins its pre-
occupancy during landing and takeoff. (via Michael Stroud) programmed journey along estab-

14 AIRLINER TECH
..
~
'"t
"
>l
S ...
~
..
.-
"

...

This is a typical 747-400 seating configuration for international operations by a U.S. carrier. The airline calls this the
"B747-400 Worldwide 2" configuration. It offers 18 seats in first class, 84 in business class, and 270 in coach. The seat pitch is
5 feet in first class, and less than 3 feet in coach. (United Airlines)

lished airways. Passengers now such as halogen reading lights into tive entertainment, and of course
begin to experiment with in-flight one system. That was the concept in in-flight Internet access.
entertainment systems, all designed the prehistoric 1980s, before lap- The 747-400 is unique in offer-
to make them forget tha t they are tops, palm pilots, or the Internet. ing its flight attendants a place to
inside a steel tube flying at nearly Today, Each airline has a different which they may escape during pre-
nine-tenths the speed of sound at the in-flight menu of movies, music, scribed breaks. An option on all
edge of the stratosphere. and news. In every case, however, Dash Four Hundreds, the overhead
Earlier literature for the 747-400 equipping a seat with entertainment crew rest area is located above the
touted the ACESS (Advanced Cabin gear has rendered the seat heavier, ceiling of the passenger compart-
Entertainment/Service System). bulkier, and less ergonomic in ment in the rear of the fuselage
This system combines passenger design. Many in-flight entertain- (coincident with the leading edge of
entertainment, including 18-channel ment systems are still user- the fin). In a copyrighted story in
audio capability, four passenger- unfriendly-difficult to reach and USA Today newspaper on May 11,
address zones, and cabin inter- operate. Airlines are still scrambling 2001, reporter Jayne Clark wrote of
phone, as well as passenger services to develop real-time news, interac- "ladderlike steps ascend[ing] to a

...

A newer configuration, known as "Worldwide 1," reduces first class from 18 to 14 seats, retains the same seating elsewhere as
"Worldwide 2," and adds a section called economy plus for frequent flyers. (United Airlines)

BOEING
15
141-4~~
claustrophobic space equipped with
four bunks and two airline seats. On
trips of more than eight hours, the
crew gets downtime. On this flight,
[the flight attendants] each have
about four hours in the cubbyhole,
taken in shifts. The protocol is strict:
lights out and no talking." The crew
rest area, like the rest of the interior,
comes in several configurations
depending on the wishes of the air-
line. It is not certified for use during
takeoff or landing.

TRAVELING TO TOKYO

Considerable attention by the


captain and first officer is needed as
the 747-400 begins the northern, This is the aft upper crew rest area in a United Airlines Boeing 747-400, as viewed
great circle route, which will take it from the top of the entry stairs. (Nate Leong)
from Chicago to Tokyo. Once away
from the crowded air traffic of the inertial navigation units, while the tern at each waypoint, while keeping
North American landmass, if not at two flight mqnagement computers watch on air speed and flight and
the very start of the flight, the pilots cue information to them. They con- engine displays. However, much of
allow the 747-400 to be flown by its tinue to monitor navigation and this work is "hands off." If anything
triple-redundant autopilots and plug new information into the sys- goes wrong, the captain and first
officer will know instantly, either
from the behavior of the aircraft or
from their displays.
The 747-400 is at once identical
to, and also completely different
from, every aircraft that came before
it. With a single stroke of the hand,
either pilot can disengage the auto-
mated systems and fly the Dash
Four Hundred using throttles, yoke,
and rudder pedals-the same flight
controls that determine the fate of a
Cessna 150 or a B-52 Stratofortress.
More frequently, the captain and
first officer spend a fair amount of
effort monitoring, tweaking, and
communicating while allowing the
aircraft to fly itself. As one airline
Germany's Lufthansa was the lead customer for the General Electric-powered 747- captain described it, the systems on
400. Lufthansa places the "last two" letters of the civil registry in white letters on the 747-400 "talk to each other," a
the upper rear of the fin, in this case "VN," signifying the aircraft that is registered conversation that includes the ILS
as D-ABVN, otherwise known as 747-430 line number 915, c/n 26427, which (instrument landing system) at the
made its initial flight on April 23, 1992. A tiny German flag appears behind the destination. If he chooses to, the
civil registry on the rear fuselage, in this view barely visible behind the extended handling pilot can allow the 747-400
trailing-edge flap. (Lufthansa) to land itself on arrival at Tokyo's

16
..
AIRLINER TECH
Usually seen only when there's a mishap, this is the digital voice recorder, carried on the flight deck of the 747-400. (Nate Leong)

Narita Airport, while staying alert to A report on the 1999 Qantas landed and fishtailed more than a
take over the controls if necessary. crash (in which no one was killed) mile (3 kilometers) down the run-
The human element is always stated that the accident could have way of Don Muang Airport, ending
vital. At times the pilots' long hours been averted if reverse thrust had up in a golf course. Said the report:
of boredom can be punctuated by been deployed on landing. The Dash As with other [Qantas] B747-400
sudden drama. In a typical mishap, Four Hundred, with 410 passengers pilots, the crew had not been provid-
the pilots were blamed when a land- and crew on board, attempted to ed with appropriate procedures and
ing on a wet runway that resulted in abort a landing, but the crew then training to properly evaluate the
a spectacular crash in Bangkok. reversed this decision. Instead, it potential effect of the weather condi-

The very first of United's fleet, posing in the snow in Chicago. The aircraft is Boeing 747-422 line number 733, c/n 24333,
registered as N171 UA, which made its first flight on May 25, 1989. This portrait was snapped on January 2, 1999. (Nate Leong)

BOEING
17
141-400
0<. BOEING 0<.
BOEING
~ 747-400 ~ 747-400
MAINTENANCE MANUAL MAINTENANCE MANUAL

RIGHT SIDE ENGINE 1 LEFT SIDE ENGINE 1

LEFT SIDE ENGINE 2

0\ BOEING 0\ BOEING
~ 747-400 ~ 747-400
MAINTENANCE MANUAL MAINTENANCE MANUAL

RIGHT SIDE ENGINE 3

RIGHT SIDE ENGINE 4

There are minor differences in the appearance of the engine nacelles from one nacelle to another, and depending on the side from
which the engine is viewed. These line drawings illustrate the Pratt & Whitney-powered Dash Four Hundred. (United Airlines)

18
..
AIRLINER TECH
One of the least-photographed operators of the 747-400 is South African, which operates several ROlls-Royce-powered 747-744
models. This ship, at London's Heathrow International Airport in 2000 is Boeing 747-444 line number 1162/ cln 28468/
registered as ZS-SAK, which made its first flight on June 30/ 1998. This is the second paint scheme to be used by South African
on its aircraft. (Jim Winchester)

tions. In particular, [the pilots] were


not sufficiently aware of the poten-
tial for aquaplaning and of the
importance of reverse thrust as a
stopping force on water-affected
runways. That error was primarily
due to the absence of appropriate
company procedures and training.
The airline disputes some find-
ings in the report.
Mishaps are the exception. As
promotional literature tells us/ the
747 fleet has logged 20 billion
statute miles (32 billion kilome-
ters)-enough to make 42/000 trips
to the moon and back. To put it
another way, the 747 fleet has car-
ried 2.2 billion people-the equiva-
lent of nearly 40 percent of the The 747-400 is a formidable sight from any angle, but it is not exactly elegant when
world/s population. The typical air- everything is hanging out/ as in this close-up at Chicago's O'Hare International
line pilot can fly 30 years and log Airport. This angle emphasizes the complexity of the main landing gear, which
30/000 flight hours without once consists of 8 tandem trucks and 16 wheels. (Torn Pesch)

BOEING
19
141-400
experiencing a serious emergency. 747-400 is typical. Like the pilots ly a creature of the 1980s, the 747-
This is truer than ever with the new who fly it, the 747-400 has been 400 preceded much of the software
generation of airliners, of which the through a maturing process: initial- and technology of today, but has
grown and changed on the inside
while changing little on the outside.

REACHING THE DESTINATION

Our flight is nearing its end,


after traveling a significant portion
of the globe. Few airliners today can
match the "legs" of the 747-400,
which has a range of approximately
8,400 statute miles (13,515 kilome-
ters), an increase of nearly 2,300
statute miles (3,700 kilometers) over
the first 747. Typically, the flight has
been cruising at 565 miles per hour
(910 kilometers per hour). For the
pilots up front, the letdown and
approach to the destination are
made almost entirely under radar
control from the ground, with air
traffic controllers instructing pilots
on headings, heights, and speeds.
In what could be the final scenes of the typical flight described in this chapter, a Usually, the letdown is routine. In
United Airlines Dash Four Hundred pulls into the gate at Washington Dulles in bad weather with traffic being
July 2001. The aircraft is Boeing 747-422 line number 1113, c/n 26899, registered stacked, the captain and first officer
as N195UA. (Alex Hrapunov) can be exceedingly busy following

20
..
AIRLINER TECH
Trailing edge flaps are in the full
"down" position as this Japan
Airlines 747-400, the nose wheel
is still extended, and the main
gear is coming up. There are no
air speed restrictions for retraction
of the nose wheel, which typically
is seen extended after the four-
unit, 16-wheel main assembly is
near the end of its retraction
sequence. (Andre Ran)

orders for S-turns, consulting stop- marking the runway sides and The 747-400 is one of the largest
watches and instruments, and com- touchdown point. The aircraft objects that must be moved with rea-
paring notes. Out back, it all feels makes its final approach at 160 sonable haste from one part of a
smooth and natural. miles per hour (260 kilometers per crowded airport to another, and this
The captain lights the seatbelt hour). . is never more apparent than when
sign for arrival. As the aircraft For today's journey, the 747-400 taxiing in. The high perch enjoyed
descends, flaps are lowered to five carried 57,000 U.s. gallons of fuel by the two pilots gives them excel-
degrees. (215,745 liters) and landed with a lent visibility, and the airport con-
The pilots will use some radio significant reserve: the fuel would troller will keep them under positive
facility for guidance (such as ILS, have made it possible to fly a much control when turning off,. taxiing,
when available) when making an longer route, such as San Francisco and maneuvering into the gate.
approach and landing visually. The to Sydney, Australia. The aircraft When the jetbridge nudges up
pilot making the landing may rely consumed this fuel at an average of against the left side of the fuselage,
on an external visual cue provided 5 U.S. gallons (19 liters) per mile. the passengers will file out of the
at the airfield itself, such as the The builder says the 747-400 is up to 747-400, closely followed by the
VASI (visual approach slope indica- 13 percent more fuel efficient than crew-and a new set of airline per-
tor) which consists of two colored its predecessor, the 747-300, depend- sonnel will begin the job of readying
bars of light, one above the other, ing on the engine. the aircraft for its next trip.

It is not supposed to be done this


way. This aerial behemoth is
touching down initially on its
right landing gear, rather than on
both mainwheel groups
simultaneously. The result will be
something less than perfect
smoothness for the passengers.
This mostly-white aircraft is a
747-428(M) (cln 25302, line
number 884) belonging to Air
France and registered as F-GISB.
This less-than-perfect landing is
at Miami International Airport on
February 1, 2001. (Joseph G.
Handelman)

BOEING
21
141-400
1 JEPPESON MANUAL
2 FUGHT KIT
3 OPS MANUAL
4 WINDSHIELD WASHER I
5 MANUALS
6 VALUABLES STOWAGE (DOOR AFT)
7 SUNVISOR STOWAGE
8 SMOKE GOGGLES
9 PORTABLE OXYGEN
10 FIRST AID KIT (OPT)
11 FIRE EXTINGUISHER
12 CRASH AXE
13 RAIN REPELLENT Q
14 APPROACH CART HOLDERS
15 WORK TABLE
16 CUP HOLDERS
17 ASHTRAY
18 PENCIL HOLDER
19 HAND HOLD
20 SUN VISOR
21 FOOT REST
22 UTIUTY UGHT
23 FOOT & SHOULDER
HEAT SWITCHES
24QRH
25 LAV OCCUPIED UGHT
26 EROS OXYGEN
27 AUDIO CONTROL PANEL
28 JACK PANEL
29 ROLLER SUNSHADES
FUGHT DECK LEFT SIDE

1 MISCELLANEOUS STOWAGE CUP


2 JEPPSON MANUAL
3 FUGHTKIT
40PS MANUAL
5QRH
6 MANUAL STOWAGE
7 ROLLER SUNSHADES
8 COAT/HAT
9 SMOKE GOGGLES
10 EMERGENCY ESCAPE DEVISES
11 APPROACH CHART HOLDER
12 SUNVISOR
13 WORK TABLE
14 CUPHOLDERS
15 ASHTRAYS
16 PENCIL HOLDERS
17 SPARE BULB BOX
18 UTlUY UGHT
19 HANDGRIP
20 FOOTREST
21 MAP UGHT
22 PULL-OUT TABLE
23 EROS OXYGEN MASK/REG
24 HEADSET/BOOM MIC STOWAGE
25 HANDMIC STOWAGE
26 MAP UGHT CONTROL
27 JACK PANEL
28 FOOT AND SHOULDER
SWITCHES
29 DATA LOADER SWITCH
30 MASTER DIM & TEST CARDS
31 AIRBORNE DATA LOADER (OPTIONAL)

A huge variety of portable and fixed equipment are located along the side walls of the flight deck of the 747-400. (Boeing)

22
..
AIRLIlVERTECH
l
WHYTH ~
IMPROVING UPON AERIAL SUCCESS
47-400?
y the time the first 747-400 enues was worsened by the Septem- after all, change the airplane that
took to the air, earlier 747 ber 11,2001 terror attacks on the U.S. changed the world?
models, known as "classics," "They eat fuel, they need three Burns responded with his rea-
had carried 780 million passengers pilots, and they have four engines. sons: "Two-man crew on many legs,
over 11 billion miles. They also have antiquated systems. such as Hong Kong-Singapore (sav-
So why did the 747 need to be How else can I say that they cost too ing money); keeping up with the
improved? much to operate?" competition (Airbus); demand by
It may not have been obvious to That last point was obvious in airline marketing whiz kids; a glass
most people. However, within the the mid-1980s. Robert L. Burns, a cockpit which includes a Flight Man-
airline industry, everybody saw it United Airlines captain who flew agement System that can save fuel
coming. This is not to say that airline the Boeing 747 "classic," was asked by optimizing flight planning (select-
experts were prescient. In the mid- why the he thought Boeing went to ing the best altitudes, routes etc.);
1980s, it would have been impossi- tremendous effort and expense to re- eliminating the flight engineer (sav-
ble to predict that in 2002 the "most design his aircraft-one that already ing more money), but still having
stored" aircraft type would be the seemed, to many, to be the perfect relief pilots or supplemental! aug-
Boeing 747 "classic." Yes, those flying machine. mented crews on long hauls (which
empty airliners, basking in the sun- Didn't the 747 ignite a revolu- in some cases costs more than having
shine of the American Southwest, in tion in air travel? If the 747 was so a flight engineer on board). Above
boneyards in places like Mojave, great, why was it necessary to do a all, an overall more efficient aircraft
California -the very same aircraft complete, nose-to-tail redesign of design."
that had changed the world. "They the aircraft? Why change virtually Another explanation exists for
became an albatross around our all of its key features from the improving on the original 747
necks," one airline executive said, instruments in the flight deck to the design-and the 747-400 is in many
shortly after a slump in airline rev- size and shape of the wing? Why, ways a new aircraft, not merely an

The first 747-400 began its flight test program with an April 29, 1988 sortie piloted by James Loesch. The aircraft in the series was
line number 696, constructor's number 23719, registered as N401PW. From this frontal view at Paine Field, Washington, we can
see the distinctive winglets and stretched upper deck. The leading-edge flaps, inboard of the engines, are deployed. (Boeing)

BOEING
141-400 23
improvement of an existing one- airline operators by being the fastest and frequency, although competitor
can be found in numbers. The origi- commercial aircraft today, with a Airbus is relentlessly sticking with
nal 747 had a range of 4,600 nautical cruise speed of Mach .85. Pilots the idea that size matters.
miles; the 747-400 has a range of often fly a little faster in short bursts, There was an even more com-
7,100 miles and is 25 percent more at up to Mach .90 or more. On one pelling and obvious reason for the
fuel-efficient. Extended range and long-haul route, a four-engined Air- investment in a new-generation 747.
fuel efficiency mean a better deal for bus A340 actually departs 20 min- In the early to mid-1980s when most
airline operators, crews, and passen- utes ahead of a 747-400 and arrives of the design work was completed,
gers. In realistic terms, this means a at the same destination 10 minutes production of "classic" 747s, then
Dash Four Hundred can fly direct later than the 747. Boeing's recently- totaling almost 700 aircraft, had
from London to Singapore, whereas, announced plans for a entirely new declined to a trickle. Most new-build
depending on winds and weather, Mach 0.95 "sonic cruiser" airliner "classics" were being delivered to
the 747-200 model needs a stopover demonstrate that operators and trav- existing customers as "top-ups" to
en route, typically in New Delhi. elers are more interested in speed existing fleets. Within months of the
Although some people dispute and frequency than aircraft capacity. launch of the 747-400, Boeing started
the point, the 747-400 also benefits At least Boeing is betting on speed receiving large orders for the new

An aircraft paint scheme that was


soon discarded in favor of a more
modernistic look adorns this
Cathay Pacific 747-400. As the
first airline to operate the 747-400
with GE engines, Cathay paved
the way for British
Commonwealth users to follow.
This view emphasizes the complex
leading- and trailing-edge flap
configuration on the wing of the
Dash Four Hundred. (via
Michael Stroud)

Cathay Pacific was the launch


customer for the Rolls-
Royce-powered 747-400, with the
first aircraft arriving at Hong
Kong's Kaitak Airport on June 8.
1989. Shown here at fondly-
remembered Kaitak is a Cathay
747-481, line number 811, cln
24833, registered as VR-HOT.
Since the takeover of Hong Kong
by the Peoples Republic of China,
all Cathay aircraft have acquired
"B" civil registry numbers, so this
ship is now registered as B-HOT.
Today, Cathay operates at Hong
Kong's new Chep Lap Kok
Airport. (Cathay Pacific)

24
..
AIRLIlVERTECH
version. Northwest Airlines' order
for 10 was followed by Cathay Pacif-
ic (2, initially), KLM Royal Dutch
Airlines (6), Lufthansa (6), Singapore
Airlines (14), and British Airways
(16). A second batch of purchases
came from United Airlines (IS), Air
France (16), and Japan Air Lines (5).
Production of the first "classic"
747 required 75,000 engineering
drawings. It completed more than
15,000 hours of wind-tunnel testing.
The original 747 flight test program,
which led to the airplane's certifica-
tion for commercial service in
December 1969, used five airframes,
lasted 10 months and required more
than 1,500 hours of flying. In design-
ing the Dash Four Hundred, Boeing KLM Royal Dutch Airlines was the launch customer for the General Electric
had the advantage of advances in CF680C2 turbofan-powered Boeing 747-400. This ship, line number 732, cln
computer technology that enabled 24000, registered as PH-BFB, was the second 747-406 delivered to the Netherlands'
the design process to move at an airline. The GE engines became the most numerous power plants for the 747-400
unprecedented pace. With the 747- series, and KLM returned to the manufacturer to purchase additional Dash Four
400, half the number of engineering Hundreds, including those configured as Combi models (not shown here).
drawings were used and wind tun- (via Michael Stroud)
nel testing was minimal. However,
the flight test effort was almost as change, Boeing saw the new aircraft of the persuading of this group, and
sizeable, using three aircraft plus a as retaining the stretched upper- in part due to pressure from other
back up instead of the five used with deck configuration while having a potential buyers, Boeing came to the
the"classic" 747. greater wingspan, greater fuel realization that it would be insuffi-
The public learned of the new capacity, and mbre powerful cient to go ahead with its minimalist
aircraft when Boeing announced an engines. Initially, the new design approach to improving the 747.
"Advanced Series 300," otherwise was expected to have a three-pilot Thus, the more dramatic changes to
called the 747-300A (Advanced), at flight deck. It was, in effect, a "mini- the 747 design were wrought not by
Britain's Farnborough air show in mum change" upgrade of the 747 Boeing but by the purchasers, who
1984. Boeing's decision to rejuvenate "classic" design; it largely lacked in saw the need for the glass cockpit,
the 747 was a brilliant marketing imagination or innovation. two-pilot crew, digital avionics and
move but it was less a luxury than a In early 1985, a number of air- systems, and other improvements.
necessity. The latest version, the 747- line carriers (British Airways, Having begun its efforts in a conser-
300 that introduced the stretched Cathay Pacific, KLM, Lufthansa, vative direction, Boeing saw the
upper deck, had not won as many Northwest, Qantas, and Singapore need to become more revolutionary.
orders as the manufacturer hoped. Airways) created a special 747 con-
In 1984,747 production shrunk to an sultative group to compare notes on FIRST FLIGHT
all-time low of between one and two common operational requirements
per month-a far cry from the peak and to combine forces in lobbying At the Everett, Washington,
of seven per month in 1979-1980. Boeing for specific changes to the plant where widebody jetliners are
Now, Airbus and Douglas were new design. In the view of some, the assembled, the builder made careful
introducing new widebody passen- group trod perilously close to the preparations to fly the first 747-400.
ger jets, the A330, A340, and MD-ll. line between common sense and The maiden flight was delayed by
Boeing had to compete. Adopting an anti-trust issues, but it achieved a several weeks because of subcon-
early outlook that it would quickly measure of success. In part because tractor difficulties in providing some

BOEING
141-400 25
liners. After being delayed by supply
and systems integration issues, and
after a projected March 21 first-flight
date came and went, this prototype
of the Dash Four Hundred series lift-
ed off for its maiden flight at Paine
Field on Friday, April 29/ 1988.
The polished-aluminum aircraft
went skyward from Paine Field at
10:22 a.m. At the controls were the
sole occupants of the 747-400/ pro-
ject pilot James Loesch and co-pilot
Kenneth Higgins, director of flight
operations for Boeing Commercial
Airplanes. Loesch was the son of
test pilot Dix Loesch, who pioneered
flying of earlier 747 models. A rela-
Another contrast between the early 747 configuration and the much-revised 747- tively small group of about a dozen
400 shape. Like groceries, automobiles, and airplane books, the price of an airliner technicians monitored the event
went up with inflation. In 1970/ an airline could purchase a "classic" 747 for about from the ground.
$20 million. By 1990/ the sticker price on a shiny new 747-400 had risen to $125 The maiden flight culminated in
million. At the time these comparison photos made their appearance, both airframes a landing on Runway 13R at Boeing
shown were owned and operated by Boeing. This Dash Four Hundred later went to Field south of Seattle. Boeing' s
Northwest Airlines. (Boeing) chairman and chief executive officer
Frank Shrontz greeted the pilots and
called their craft the "flagship air-
plane for the next century." Pilot
Loesch reported that the first flight
had gone "beautifully" and that the
distinctive winglets of the 747-400
"had no effect on handling." Hig-
gins offered his opinion that, "This
promises to be a great ship and a
great project for all of us."
This maiden flight lasted 2
hours 26 minutes. The jetliner
reached a speed of Mach 0.7 and an
altitude of 20/000 feet (6/096 meters).
The first 747-400 was ready to
press ahead with its flight develop-
subcomponent items, and subse- The aircraft had spent many ment program but it was not yet a
quently by the integration of months in the assembly shop complete airliner. When Loesch
electronics system. However, the marked by a small sign denoting its came down the steps, reporters saw
fundamental flight test plan was status as "No.1 for Northwest." On through the open door-the interior
sound and it was soon possible to rollout, it was attired in natural was unpaneled and unpainted.
proceed. The first aircraft in the metal with the Boeing name on the Some of the avionics for the first
series was line number 696/ con- fuselage and the emblems of 18 air- Dash Four Hundred had not yet
structor's number 23719/ registered line customers arrayed in small been installed. Bill Shineman, vice
as N401PW for operations with the squares along the forward fuse- president and general manager of
manufacturer and later re-registered lage-customers who had already the Everett Division commented
as N661US for Northwest Airlines. ordered a total of 124 of the new air- that, "Such 'work-arounds' are not

26
...AIRLINER TECH WI
unusual for the first flight of a new power plants. Afterward, it
airplane model." The aircraft did not would be delivered to Lufthansa These were the first four Dash
yet have an airliner-style interior as a 747-430, registered D-ABVB. Four Hundreds. Their line numbers
and some of the avionics and instru- • c/n 23814, line number 705, to were not in sequence because earli-
ments were not yet installed. test the Rolls-Royce (R-R) er-model 747s were still interspaced
engines. This aircraft was sched- with 747-400s at this juncture. Boe-
TEST PROGRAM uled for 229 hours of flight test- ing flew the second 747-400 for the
ing, 224 hours of ground testing, first time on June 27, 1988 for a
Boeing officially launched the and 2,690 instrument measure- duration just one minute short of
747-400 on October 22, 1985, when ments-covering avionics, struc- two hours.
Northwest ordered ten of the new tures, aerodynamics, and the R- That day, the first 747-400 with
aircraft. The prototype was rolled R engines. After testing, it its PW4056 engines set a world
out at Everett on January 26, 1988 would be turned over to Cathay record by taking off at a weight of
(Boeing rolled out the first 737-400 in Pacific as a 747-467, registered B- 892,450 pounds (404815 kilograms),
Renton on the same day). Boeing HOO. compared with the airliner's project-
already had an ambitious plan for a • c/n 23720, line number 708, ed weight of 850,000 pounds (385560
flight development effort that would with P & W engines, would kilograms). This aircraft climbed to
make use of at least three aircraft, receive 100 hours of flight test- the admittedly modest altitude of
plus a back up. No smaller number ing and 200 hours of ground 6,562 feet (2000 meters) to establish
was realistic, since the airliner was testing, but its primary purpose the record in accordance with Federa-
being purchased with three different was to serve as a back-up--air- tion Aeronautique International regu-
power plants. The manufacturer craft for the test program and lations, but the principal purpose for
never intended to use any 747-400 for training. It would later go to the flight was to perform heavy-
airframe solely for test work, howev- Northwest as a 747-451, regis- weight stalls and low-speed drag
er. Every aircraft in the development tered N662US. tests. The weight was remarkable for
program eventually was earmarked
for an airline and would operate rev-
enue flights. The aircraft were: MAIN ENTRY DOOR

• c/n 23719, the first ship, which


would prove out the Pratt &
Whitney (P & W) power option.
This aircraft was scheduled for
453 hours of flight testing, 333
hours of ground testing, and
4,205 instrument measure-
ments-checking aerodynamics,
structures, flight controls, sys-
tems (particularly, brakes) and,
of course, the P & W engines.
Afterward, the aircraft would go
to Northwest as a 747-451, re-
DOORS
registered N661US.
• c/n 23817, line number 700,
which would test the General
Electric engines. This aircraft This view of the doors on the 747-400 provides an upward-looking perspective on
r
was slated to fly 407 hours of Dash Four Hundred version of the airliner that changed the world, an angle that
flight testing, 339 hours of emphasizes the different wing shape compared to the 747 "classic." This door
ground testing, and 3,757 instru- arrangement for access to various compartments and service areas includes only
ment measurements-checking minor changes from earlier versions and should be regarded as typical rather than
avionics, structures, and the GE definitive. (Boeing)

BOEING
141-400 27
the era, and encouraged expectations gram was, for a temporary spell at
late 1989 to raise that figure to five.
that the Dash Four Hundred would Only then did Boeing finally decid- least, too ambitious. With three
become a big success. ed to drop the three-pilot "classic" engines being test-flown in the new
747s from production, although they Dash Four Hundred, minor gremlins
TEETHING TROUBLE would continue to roll off the lines were gnawing at the delivery calen-
for three more years. dar. Just as the first flight of the 747-
However, the production diffi- In 1988, with more than 100 firm400 had been delayed for weeks, the
airline orders on the accountants'
culties persisted. It took until 1988 to threat now loomed of delayed air-
raise production of all 747 models to ledgers, Boeing acknowledged that line deliveries.
four aircraft per month, and until its ambitious developmental pro- A relatively inexperienced work
force, increasing rapidly in size, ran
into difficulties on the production
line. At the same time, the electrical
system of the 747-400 initially
refused to work properly, and inte-
grating systems on the flight deck
took longer than planned. On Octo-
ber 11, 1989, Boeing acknowledged
that "limited delivery delays" would
hold up the first 20 aircraft on the
production line, although in no case
for longer than 30 days. The compa-
ny did not have the means to imme-
diately increase the production rate
of the aircraft, and some officials
acknowledged that they had under-
1 - - - - - - 231'-4· - - - - - - ' \ . estimated interest in it and the fierce
(70.5m)
competition among airlines seeking
early slots on the production line.

. . -3~.-'-l2:-ii::::~:jj'.?:::?_. . /O-~I
The first 747-438 for Qantas, for
example, was about four months late

WL
.~ml~ •
~ . . . .
0

GROUND UNE
when delivered on August 11, 1989,
and the first 747-B3 for UTA was five
0.0 2S-S. I I I months in arrears when the airline
1--78'-11.5·-j 1--10',1.
(7.7m) (24.0m) (3.Om) received it on September 22,1989.
1- •
Production-line difficulties at
211
(64.3m) Everett persisted. Boeing had gener-
ously offered each airline a tailor-
made internal configuration. It was
an age when every airline employed
an interior designer and a work-effi-
ciency expert, so the manufacturer
quickly found itself obliged to re-
locate galleys and toilets, and even
747-400 to change the color shades of warn-
ing labels on the inside of the cabin.
PRINCIPAL DIMENSIONS Coupled with the added cost of
offering this unusual degree of flexi-
bility, the manufacturer found itself
This three-view general arrangement drawing shows a generic 747-400 with coping with quality control issues,
dimensions that can vary slightly from one variant to another. (Boeing) and in many cases forced to order

28 AIRLINER TECH
..
Not a real photo of an actual aircraft but, rather, the 1980s version of digital photographic manipulation, this marketing
image was created to show customers what the new 747-400 would look like, and was widely circulated while the first
flights were taking place. The snazzy, executive-style paint design is somewhat different from any that appeared on an
actual airplane. (via Michael Stroud)

re-work after an aircraft had been Certification of the 747-400 in structural clearances previously
regarded as finished. Europe foundered when civil avia- granted to the 747-300 "classic" were
Regardless of all the sudden tion authorities insisted that the 747- held not to apply to the new airliner.
changes, Boeing ended up doing a 400 was a new aircraft type. The As a new type, the 747-400 failed to
superb job of getting Dash Four
Hundreds to the airlines, none
delayed by more than a few weeks.

INTO SERVICE

The Federal Aviation Adminis-


tration (FAA) certificated (the cor-
rect word, "certified," is not used)
the first 747-400 on January 9, 1989,
and it entered service with North-
west. The airline took the rather
unusual step of introducing the air-
craft on a flight between Minneapo-
lis and Phoenix, on February 9,1989.
Northwest began international ser-
vices on June 1 with a flight from
New York to Tokyo, although by An important moment in the history of what may be the world's best-known
then Singapore Airlines had stolen jetliner: The date is September 10, 1993, and the 1,000th Boeing 747 is emerging
the show with an inaugural flight from the Everett production line. Line number 1,000 was a Boeing 747-412 model,
from Singapore to London- cln 27068, registered as 9V-SMU. The aircraft made its first flight on September 24
Heathrow the previous day. and soon afterward was delivered to Singapore Airlines. (via Michael Stroud)

BOEING
29
141-400
The flight deck of the 747-400, showing
the aircraft with observer seats and crew
rest compartment located behind the
second observer's seat. (Boeing)

meet updated requirements for toler-


ance to structural damage. Specifical-
ly, authorities decided that the upper
deck floor was not strong enough to
meet the requirement that the aircraft
survive a sudden decompression
caused by a 20-square-foot hole with-
out potentially catastrophic damage
to control cables and vital wiring.
Airlines and government regu-
lators on the continent quickly came
to a compromise that enabled the
747-400 to be issued a Joint Airwor-
thiness Requirement (JAR) certifica-
tion. The problem had been discov-
ered only months before the first
delivery to KLM Royal Dutch Air-
lines and Lufthansa. Thanks to quick
action, the JAR gave KLM and
Lufthansa's first Dash Four Hun-
dreds 90-day JAR-type certificates,
UGHTlNG and Boeing agreed to produce retro-
CONTROLS
DISPLAY fit kits to strengthen their floor
SWITCHING
beams and separate their control
runs. The 747-400s were delivered to
the airlines on May 18 and 23,
respectively. Subsequent new 747-
NO
400s emerged from the factory built
to the improved standard.
The first Rolls Royce-powered
747-400 went to Cathay Pacific on
June 8, the same day that the British
Civil Aviation Authority issued its
type certificate. It was the following
FM
year, 1990, when the RB.211-pow-
ered version became generally avail-
able to airlines.

PRODUCTION PROBLEMS

Between 1985 and 1990, the


CAPTAIN'S PANEL
manufacturer received orders for 450
airliners in the 747 series, of which
From the very first flight of the initial 747-400 until today's long-range airline all but 100 were for the 747-400
operations, the captain's yoke has gone largely unchanged. This drawing shows model. The number of orders leaped
yoke, multifunctional displays, and lighting controls. (Boeing) from seven in 1988 to 62 in 1990.

30 AIRLIlVERTECH
...
The center panel located between the EFlS CONTROL AFCS MODE EICAS DISPLAY
PANEL CONTROL PANEL SELECT PANEL
captain and first officer contains two
EICAS (engine indicating and crew
alerting system) displays (upper and
lower) and other instruments. (Boeing) EICAS
CONTROL FLAP PLACARD
PANEL SPEEDS

In April 1993 the manufacturer


announced a Performance Improve-
ment Package (PIP) for the basic
747-400, to be incorporated on later
production aircraft, and provided a
retrofit package for existing 747- STANDBY
INSTRUMENTS
400s. The PIP provided for increased
gross weight, included an improved
composite tailfin fairing and a
revised fuel transfer system, and
drag improvements to the spoilers
(which had tended to lift slightly in E1CAS
DISPLAYS ALTERNATE
cruising flight). This was one of GEAR CONTROLS

many improvements to the basic


design being studied by Boeing, .
•...1... •· "1.-
""
,erf"'" -, ,or!",,,
REGISTRATIONI
SELCAL
PLACARD

although most never progressed fur- " " ...... "

ther than the drawing board.


By the time the 1,000th Boeing CENTER PANEL
747 was rolled out of the Everett fac-
tory, fully 270 of the aircraft in the
total were 747-400 models, which
quickly replaced the" classics" to
become the only model in produc-
tion. On September 10, 1993, ship DISPLAY
NO SWITCHING
number 1,000 made its appearance.
It was a Boeing 747-412 model, c/n PFD

27068, registered as 9V-SMU. The


aircraft made its first flight on Sep-
tember 24 and soon afterward was
delivered to Singapore Airlines. 'lltll

By the 1990s, Boeing was assem- ~~


bling Dash Four Hundred airliners
in four distinct versions (see chapter :~ ~
four). These are the familiar passen- '~~
ger-carrying jetliner; the Combi,
which carries both passengers and
cargo; the 747-400D domestic ver-
.~
sion; and the 747-400F freighter. This
last model appeared in 1993 and
·i ~
was billed as being capable of haul- GROUND PROXIMITY INST1RUMENT SOURCE
SWITCHES
ing more cargo than any other FIRST OFFICERS PANEL SElECT SWITCHES

freight aircraft built in the West. The


747-400 was also directly responsible
for the employment of 32,900 Boeing This view of the first officer'S panel (not including the yoke) shows the principal
employees, plus tens of thousands multifunctional displays and instruments used by the co-pilot. (Boeing)

BOEING
31
147-4~~
\\\\,\\\\
"~"~ttl'"~ "~"~It"~

- S\\\Gf>..?c:m.~ f>..\~=\';~\-:\\"'t:-S-\_------~-_...4
......." •••••••••. .OIp.....".

...... ~,..-

_~

:}'
.
...

- .
--~-
.._ .
" , ,_ _ . 6 ~ -.

A Singapore Airlines 747-400 "Megatop" (the carrier's trade name) ready to touch down. The mainwheels do not need to be
anything approaching level until contact is made. (via Robert Hewson)

Air Canada began flying its Boeing 747-400 jetliners in April 1992 from Toronto and Montreal, with destinations at Los
Angeles, London, Paris, and Frankfurt. This example is still attached to the tow bar and won't be going anywhere until the
tractor disconnects. (via Michael Stroud)

32
..
AIRLINERTECH
of subcontractors in the United
States and abroad.
There continued to be speed ~#-. -~ . ._ - - - - " -

bumps as Boeing employees went /'


on strike for 90 days in 1995 and 60 r
days in 1996. In 1997, Boeing had to rC , I

shut down the Everett production


line for 20 days; they continued to
address problems posed by integra-
tion of new employees and tech-
niques. Boeing sustained losses of
$2.6 billion because of penalty claus-
es for late deliveries.

NEW CENTURY

Today, the future of the Boeing


747-400 is being defined. This is hap-
pening at a time when most airline
companies are replacing four-
engined aircraft with twin-engine
models on many routes, especially Viewed from below on the side opposite the jetbridge, United's Spirit of Seattle II
those of medium length such as typifies the working 747-400 in its element. This angle gives us a good look at the
the 2,556 miles (4,115 kilometers) very strong and flexible nose wheel unit and at the access door for the forward
between Los Angeles and Honolulu. luggage pit. (Bill Crimmins)

'"
'.: ""'i' _\~\\'~
.

111111111111 II
~ ~)\ ~
1I1HUB' t I fI II
'\) ~
11l1l1l1lttll

The world's international airports have the taxiways and ramp space to handle the 84-foot 6-inch (25.06 meter) footprint of the
main landing gear trucks as well as the 211-foot (64.03-meter) span of the wing. However, from some angles (jor example here,
as Air Canada is taxiing at Washington Dulles) the 747-400 can appear cramped by its setting. Note that this aircraft is
moving into a sharp left turn with its nosewheel askance. (Bill Crimmins)

BOEING
741-400 33
The technical achievements that "sold" the 747-400 to the world's airline carriers were also powerful sales arguments when
Boeing sold a VIP transport to the Japanese government. As a result, Japan's prime minister is the only world leader who has a
newer, higher-tech aircraft than the U.S. president (who must be content with a Boeing 747-200 "classic"). Newly assigned the
Japan Air Self-Defense Force serial 20-1102, this is the se~ond of two 747-47Cs in JASDF hands. It's line number 839, cln
24731,formerly registered as JA8092. (Bill Crimmins)

Boeing is also confronting eco- favored over four and even the sometimes being replaced by 757s,
nomic challenges as it has at several newest and shiniest 747-400s are 767s, and 777s on many routes.
junctures in the history of the Dash
Four Hundred. Already battered by
a sagging economy and aggressive
competition from Airbus, the manu-
facturer reacted to the September 11,
2001 terrorist attacks on the U.S.
(and the painful, subsequent loss of
the Joint Strike Fighter contract)
with massive layoffs and serious
belt-tightening.
This is happening while hun-
dreds of perfectly good 747 "classic"
airliners have suddenly become
dead weight to the airlines that own
them-their technology too outdat-
ed for today's air traffic environ-
ment and their operating costs too
high. The Boeing 747-400 remains a
moneymaker for most of its opera-
tors, but some Dash Four Hundreds
are being parked in the desert along The nose cribbing and scaffolding used on the nose of the Boeing 747-400
with "classics." As airlines operate production line. The aircraft shown here is a 747-400F freighter under construction
fewer flights, twin engines are for Polar Air Cargo. Games c. Goodall)

34
--AIRLINER TECH..
Once Boeing had resolved early
production problems with the
Dash Four Hundred passenger
aircraft, it proceeded with
longstanding plans to build a
freighter version. This artist's
conception of afuture
747-400F freighter was released
in 1992, the year before a real-
life aircraft appeared. The paint
design was altered somewhat,
but the basic design had been
finalized by the time this image
appeared. (Boeing)

More than 50 percent ofafinished


747-400 (as measured by cost) was
the result ofwork performed off-
site by subcontractors. However,
final assembly of the 747-400 took
place at the 7S0-acre site at Paine
Field, near Everett, Washington.
The assembly site is reportedly the
world's largest building (as
measured by volume), built at a
cost of $200 million. The shop
floor is pristine and, perhaps
surprising to some, the noise level
quite low. (via Michael Stroud)

Long after it began assembling


747-400 passenger airliners,
Boeing began building 747-
400F freighters, which are built
on the same Everett line but lack
the stretched upper deck (5 UD)
of the people-hauling version.
This look at the first 747-4R7F
for the Luxembourg-based
freight hauler Cargolux shows a
worker (lower left) examining
the leading-edge flaps and
highlights the complex
scaffolding needed to work on a
modern airliner in a busy
factory. (via Michael Stroud)

BOEING
141-4~~
35
The $200 million Everett building is truly a place for "assembly" rather than "production," since aircraft are essentially
brought together, rather than created. Major structures, engine nacelles, and subassemblies come from Northrop, which in turn
receives upper-deck fuselage frames from Daewoo. The result is a "mating" as shown here on the pristine shop floor, with the
747-400 being transformed into the sum of its parts. (via Michael Stroud)

36 AIRLINERTECH
This is a view of the upper
fuselage ofa 747-400 being
assembled and looking into the
partially completed forward
section from where the very
distinctive hump of the aircraft
is flared into the fuselage.
(James C. Goodall)

The view from the assembly


scaffolding dubbed the "erector
set" by shop workers, looking
down toward the right wing
and engines ofa soon to be
completed 747-400.
(James C. Goodall)

This shot, taken at the Everett


factory during nose assembly
build-up shows the right side
upper cabin door and assembly
detail. Games c. Goodall)

BOEING
141-4~~ 37
The ladder facing the number
four engine nacelle and the
maintenance worker atop the
engine provide a sense for the size
of this Air China Dash Four
Hundred, although the size of the
winglets is exaggerated by their
"""'" -
proximity to the camera.
(via Michael Stroud)

A gathering of jetliners at Everett, where a state highway passes within a short distance of a flight line filled with sky giants.
That's a Boeing 767 in the right center-a widebody used on some of the same routes as the Dash Four Hundred but with half
as many engines. The other aircraft are 747-400s, including examples from Cathay, Korean, Lufthansa, KLM, and British
Airways. (via Robert F. Dorr)

38 AIRLINER TECH
...
TECHNIC DETAILS
WALK-AROUND CHECK

· ihe maintenance manuals for had remained little changed since pilots current in the 747-400 hold

T ,
• a 747-400 used by one airline
fill the entire wall of a large
hangar up to a height of six feet. The
the dawn of aviation. The key com-
ponent of the EFIS cockpit is a digi-
tal primary flight display (PFD) that
qualifications unique to that aircraft
alone. The 747-400, of course, is the
only one of the four current Boeing
narrative which follows is an replaces the round-dialed, analog prod uction airliners with four
attempt to summarize key points instruments of earlier airliners, engines, a factor in the decision to
about the principal features of this including earlier 747s. A bit surpris- forego cockpit commonality.
aircraft, including cockpit, engines, ingly, however, Boeing decided not In 1988 when the change to a
fuselage, landing gear, wing, and to give the 747-400 the same flight digital-display cockpit was intro-
tail. Perhaps not surprisingly, many deck features as its three other pro- duced, not all pilots were ready for a
of these features are significantly duction airliners (the 757 and 767, glass cockpit. Yet almost everything
different from those of the "classic" plus late-model 737s). While United in the 747-400 cockpit is, in fact, dig-
747-100 through -300 models. Not Airlines, for example, assigns pilots ital. In all, the glass cockpit of the
the least of which, of course, is the interchangeably to the 757 and 767, 747-400 makes use of six 8x8-inch
flight deck, where reduced flight
crew size is an important considera-
tion to airline operators in today's
tight economic environment.

TWO-PILOT COCKPIT

Considering that the highest-


densi ty version of the 747-400,
employed on domestic routes in
Japan, can haul a staggering total of
624 passengers, it still seems remark-
able to some observers that only two
pilots fly this huge aircraft. Never-
theless, the two-pilot cockpit has
become standard on nearly every
large airliner now being manufac-
tured. Technology replaced a human
navigator on most airliners as long
ago as the 1950s. An even faster pace
of technology replaced the flight
engineer in the 1980s. To be sure, The flight deck of the 747-400, as seen here with backlighting inside a hangar in
replacement aviators are still April 2001. Flight, engine, and system information is displayed on six Collins
brought along on extreme duration 8x8-inch cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, five on the main instrument panel and
flights of more than 8 hours more, the sixth at the center of the pedestal between the two flight management
but at all times the fate of this huge computers (FMCs). The displays are a dramatic contrast to the round dials of
aircraft is in the hands of two people. yesteryear and differ in size and shape from those on the 757 and 767 airliners.
From the beginning, the 747-400 The seats for the captain and first officer are reclinable, have adjustable lumbar
was designed for an electronic flight supports, and sheepskin seat covers, and are adjustable in the vertical and
instrumentation system (EFIS) to horizontal directions with 3 inches of additional aft movement when compared to
replace those clunky gauges that previous 747 models. (Nate Leong)

BOEING
141-4~~ 39
(200x200-millimeter) cathode-ray
displays to provide the two-pilot
crew with information on flight and
systems operation. United Captain
Robert Beavis points out that the
only old-fashioned instruments left
on the Dash Four Hundred panel are
the clock, "which is the most com-
plex instrument to set correctly,"
plus a standby gyro, air speed indi-
cator, altimeter, and wet compass.
"Everything else is displays instead
of dials."
In the Dash Pour Hundred cock-
pit, the captain's left-hand PPD pro-
vides a cathode-ray tube presenta-
tion of the basic performance of the
aircraft (airspeed, altitude, attitude,
The forward tip of the 747-400 contains what might be considered wasted space, and vertical speed), as well as its
since the relatively large radome covers a very small radar dish. The basic 747 heading (compass). Most prominent
design, dating to the original "classic" models, was deliberately arranged to keep of these measurements is a rectangu-
the flight deck high above the main fuselage. That way, the aircraft has the potential lar altitude display that shows air-
to be converted for loading from the nose. In the three decfldes since the first 747 craft attitude information gleaned
went aloft, miniaturization has made it possible to do a better job with a smaller, from the inertial reference system.
lighter radar dish in the nose. (James C. Goodall) To the left of this box is the vertical
tape airspeed indicator (to measure
climb or descent). The air data com-
puter is the source of all airspeed
information on the PFD.
The captain's right-hand naviga-
tion display screen uses a silhouette
of the aircraft as a guiding symbol.
This display has four modes, and
provides information on approach,
very-high-frequency omnidirection-
al range (VOR), map, and flight
plan. The crew can superimpose
color weather-radar images to pro-
vide information on potentially dan-
gerous conditions.

PRIMARY FLIGHT DISPLAY

The primary flight display had


undergone periodic improvements
since the 747-400 was introduced.
An important retrofit is the overlay
of the traffic-alert and collision
Details of the nose wheel assembly of the 747-400 as viewed from the right side of avoidance system (T-CAS) pitch
the aircraft-that is, the airliner is pointed from the viewer's left toward the commands and vertical speed cues.
viewer's right. Games c. Goodall) These are shown on the attitude

40 AIRLINER TECH
now! Climb, climb now!" 747-400
pilots can also use the navigation
display in some modes to call up a
plan view of surrounding traffic
equipped with T-CAS.
The aircraft also has a ground
proximity warning system (GPWS),
which provides a screen display
and, when necessary, a voice
prompt.

FLIGHT DECK

Of course, even the highest of


high-tech aircraft has the same basic
flight controls found on a Cessna
140 or a B-1B Lancer bomber. There
The inboard main landing gear assembly of the 747-400 as viewed from the left side are, after all, only so many varia-
of the aircraft. Games c. Goodall) tions on yoke, rudder pedals, and
throttle. As 747 pilot Robert L. Burns
indicator display and the vertical der) comes too close. The symbols puts it, the jetliner "has a yoke like
speed display respectively, both in tell the Dash Four Hundred pilot old flying machines with rudder
red. The system is designed to pre- where to fly to avoid a "mid-air." pedals that have brake pedals incor-
vent mid-air collisions or traffic con- T-CAS also gives the captain and porated in them, and a center con-
flicts. The PFD will show these dis- first officer voice prompts, ranging sole with four thrust levers (throt-
plays instantly when an intruding in urgency from the preliminary tles). The rudder pedals also have
aircraft (so long as it has a transpon- "Traffic, Traffic!" to "Climb, climb limited nose wheel steering."

This view from the rear fuselage shows the wing, trailing-edge flaps, and winglet of the 747-400. Note that the variable-camber
flaps, which lie flat when retracted, assume their camber when extended as seen here. The 747-400 also has leading-edge flaps
that are not visible here. Games c. Goodall)

BOEING
141-400 41
UPPE~ CECK busy terminals while being so high
E"E~GENCI COo.l

I up and so far forward. Yet in spite of


LEFT-UI,
RIGHT - 847
the enormous size of the Dash Four
fIRST PASSENGER
CABIN DOOl!
LEfT - 831,
Hundred, the flight deck is essential-
~IGHT - 841 THIRC PASSENGER
SECOND PASSENGER CABIN COOl! ly the same size as that of the earlier

I
(lEW ENERGENCY CABIN COOl! LEfT - 833,
HIT HATCH LEfT - B32, ~IGHT - 8,3 Boeing 707. That aircraft usually car-
I.EfT _ 839 lIGHT - 8,2
ried a crew of four (two pilots, navi-
STA
830
ST! gator, flight engineer). The Dash
2261
FIfTH PASSENGER
CABIN DOOR
Four Hundred uses the extra seat
LEfT - 855,
RIGHT - S<'5
space for two" observer" seats,
~--+-,~---+-,I--------1---,L-
directly behind the two pilot seats,
which are used when a second flight
crew is carried on long flights or
when an FAA inspector is riding
along. The flight deck area also
includes two 78 by 30-inch crew rest
bunks, also for use when a second
pair of pilots is aboard.
The pilot seats of the 747-400
The size and complexity of the 747-400 is symbolized by the number of hatches were designed for convenience and
found on the aircraft, no fewer than 13 doors as shown in this side plan view. efficiency. All recline and have
(United Airlines) adjustable lumbar supports and
sheepskin seat covers. The captain's
The two pilots sit on a flight the main landing gear, and 12 feet in and first officer's seats are adjustable
deck situated fully 29 feet above the front of the nose gear. The pilots vertically and horizontally and fea-
ground, roughly 100 feet in front of maneuver this large aircraft around ture 3 inches of additional aft move-
ment from previous 747 models.
1I0EINC747 The first "observer" seat, on the
right behind the first officer, is
pedestal-mounted and features both
horizontal and vertical adjustment.
Manual stowage and a pullout work-
table are located next to this seat.
The second "observer" seat is on a
fixed base with stowage space in the
base. Optional features include head-
rests for all seats and electrically
operated pilot seat controls.

ENGINES

From the beginning, the plan


was that the 747-400 would be
offered to airlines with engines from
the world's three principal engine
builders: General Electric, Pratt &
Whitney, and Rolls-Royce. All three
Although its purpose is to illustrate the location of panels on the flight deck, this companies manufacture turbofan
diagram of the pilots' work area (with seats and some other items removed for engines of a new generation,
simplicity) also gives us a sense for the size and shape of this part of the aircraft. referred to by some as third-genera-
(United Airlines) tion turbofans. These engines are

42 AIRLINER TECH
cumference and has a thrust rating
AIR SCOOP
FULL AUTHORITY up to 62,000 pounds (275.8 kN). It
FUEL CONTROL
uses new-technology, single-crystal
turbine blades and is controlled by a
full-authority, engine digital control
MIXER
(FAEDC). It also has a larger fan and
ASSEMBLY
is credited with reducing fuel con-
sumption by 7 percent as compared
EXHAUST
FUEL PUMPSI --e<~ CONE to the same manufacturer's JT9D
FMU
engine, from which it is derived.
Users of the P&W engines
include Air Canada, Air China,
China Airlines, Korean Air Lines,
DEDICATED
Northwest Airlines, Singapore Air-
ALTERNATOR lines, and United Airlines.
ROLLS-ROYCE RB211 ENGINE General Electric manufactures
the CF6-80C2, which became the
second engine to be chosen for the
British Commonwealth carriers operating the 747-400 prefer the Rolls-Royce 747-400 and has subsequently
RB.211-524G and -524H high bypass ratio turbofan engines, which are derived become the most popular. Its thrust
from the RB.211-524D4 but with a wide chord fan, full authority fuel control, low rating is listed as 57,000 pounds
emission combustor, and integrated exhaust nozzle assembly. (Boeing) (253.65 kN) although all thrust rat-
ings are, of course, based on a vari-
bigger and more powerful than the current series of PW4000 turbofans. ety of factors induding temperature
engines of even a decade or two The PW4056, initially known as the and altitude.
ago. Indeed, the improvements in PW4256 and tailored to the 747-400 The GE engine, whose first 747-
engine power and efficiency proba- has a 7-foot lO-inch (2.4-meter) cir- 400 customer was KLM Royal Dutch
bly mark the biggest change in air-
line flying in recent years. Were it
not aerodynamically impossible-
and distinctly uncomfortable for all
on board-the engines on a Dash
Four Hundred would enable the air-
craft to fly straight up. It should be
added that the Dash Four Hundred
was meant to use these engines to
travel farther. As compared to the
747-300 "classic," maximum fuel
capacity rose to 44,640 gallons
(202,940 liters) from 43,640 gallons
(190,380 liters). Depending on the
power plant chosen, the 747-400
was designed to offer 7 to 11 percent
greater fuel efficiency than the -300.
After receiving the nod from
launch customer Northwest Air-
lines, Pratt & Whitney drew the dis-
tinction of supplying power plants
for the first 747-400 airframe and,
hence, the first flight. In the 1980s The General Electric CF6-80C2 turbofan engine became the most numerous power
the company began to develop its plants used by the 747-400 series. (General Electric)

BOEING
43
147-400
pounds (267 kN) thrust respectively.
Because the engine is manufactured
at the former Rover Car Co. facility
at Barnoldswick, in northwest York-
shire, England, the "RB" prefix sig-
nifies Rolls Barnoldswick. The
launch customer for the R-R 747-400
engine was Cathay Pacific Airways.
The RB.211 was, in many
respects, a product of the reorgani-
zation that followed Rolls-Royce's
darkest hour- its bankruptcy in
1971. The company recalled its for-
mer whiz kid, Stanley Hooker, who
masterminded a complete redesign
of the basic RB.211 design. The
result is that by 2001, the builder
had manufactured at least 3,400
RB.211 engines, including the no-
frills -535 version selected by most
users Of the Boeing 757.
With its RB211-624G/H models,
R-R was last among the big three
engine makers to gain certification
for the 747-400, in 1990. The R-R
engine for the 747-400, like previous
RB.211s, is triple-shaft configured,
but unlike any previous 747 engine
provides wide-chord fan blades,
This view, emphasizing the easy accessibility of the huge Pratt & Whitney identical to those introduced on the -
4000-series engines to ground maintainers, was released to mark the delivery of the 535E4 for the 757 and regarded as
2,OOOth engine in the series in June 1999. The 94-inch diameter of the engine's fan especially resistant to bird strikes.
unit enables the power plant to fit inside a nacelle so large that a man or woman Since introducing its 747-400 power
can stand fully erect inside the air intake. (Pratt & Whitney) plant, R-R has upgraded the engine
with the advanced Trent 700 (for-
Airlines, was an improved version of Kuwait Airways, Lufthansa, merly, the RB.211-700) high-pressure
an earlier CF6 variant improved with Malaysia Airlines, Philippine Air- core, making the RB.211-624G/H
the addition of an extra low-pressure lines, Thai Airways International, part of the maker's larger family of
compressor stage (to total four) and and UTA. General Electric turbofans Trent engines.
was controlled with a FADEC. Like also equip 747-400s operated by the Operators of Rolls-powered 747-
its P & W competitor, the CF6-80C2 government of Brunei and by Japan 400s include Air New Zealand,
used new, stronger materials in its Airlines for the government of Japan. British Airways, Cathay Pacific,
turbine blades and included an extra Qantas, and South African Airways.
(fifth) turbine stage. ROLLS POWER Commenting on the three
Carriers that chose the General engine choices available to 747-400
Electric power plant include Air Rolls-Royce (R-R) provides 747- operators, a power plant expert said:
France, All Nippon Airways, Asiana 400 airliners operated by British Typically an engine maker will
Airlines, Atlas Air, Cargolux (which Commonwealth airlines with its boast when something is cheaper or
also has Rolls-powered Dash Four RB.211-524G and -524H turbofan has higher performance compared
Hundreds) EVA Air, Garuda Indone- engines. These engines are rated at to earlier products. Getting more
sian Airways, Japan Airlines, KLM, 58,000 pounds (258.1 kN) and 60,000 compression or extracting more

44
---AIRLINER TECH
..
power with fewer stages is some-
thing to boast about, but the maker
of the CF6 would might not take
pride in, or publicize, the extra stub
stage in the compressor and the
extra turbine stage. That is an effec-
tive way to increase thrust and/ or
reduce fuel consumption, but the
trade-off is cost (more parts) and I r WHrTE

c:===;~=?-f/ AND
NAVIGATION
STROBE
more maintenance (more parts). It is UGHTS

more logical to feel good when you


have something that's logical, like

1
WING SCAN
Rolls-Royce boasting about bird UGHTS-LEFT RED ANTICOWSION LIGHT (BOTTOM)
ANDRIGoHT
resistant wide-chord blades. RED ANTICOWSION UGHT (TOP)
The three engine choices avail- RUNWAYTURNOFF
L1GHT·LEFT AND RIGHT
able on the Dash Four Hundred are
RED NAVIGATION AND \
identical to those available on the WHITE STROBE LIGHTS ----------

Boeing 767, so the builder has been EXTERIOR LIGHTING

able to design some commonality


into engine pylons and nacelles. The
nacelles are identical for each of the The exterior lighting arrangement on the Boeing 747-400. The arrangement
engine choices. All have a cowling conforms to international agreements for the locations and colors of various lights.
diameter of 8 feet 6 inches (2.6 (Boeing)
meters). All three engine choices are
completely up-to-date on world- for lavatories on the main deck, with 121 different lavatory configura-
wide noise requirements, prompting six more "upstairs" giving an airline tions! Similarly, the aircraft had
the manufacturer to claim that customer enormous flexibility, and numerous "utility hook-ups," offer-
engine noise from today's 747-400 is
half of what it was on the original
747s delivered in 1970.

FUSELAGE

In "green" condition (unfin-


ished, as it emerged from the facto-
ry), the basic 747-400 airframe was
actually much lighter than the 747-
300 "classic," but when the aircraft
was fitted out for revenue opera-
tions it was heavier and more
robust. The certificated gross takeoff
weight of the aircraft rose to 870,000
pounds (384,630 kilograms) from
833,000 pounds (377,850 kilograms).
The cabin interior was also
extensively redesigned. The new
vacuum sewer system provided two
massive 2-inch-diameter waste pipes
running the length of the main cabin
and the upper deck. These incorpo-
rated 33 potential "plug-in" points Rolls-Royce RB.211 engines in final assembly. (Rolls-Royce)

BOEING
141-400 45
which snared the 747-400 away from
the world's largest APU supplier,
Garrett. The power unit was derived
from the company's line of turbo-
prop engines. A press release credits
the PW901A with burning 40 percent
less fuel than previous APUs, saving
up to $125,000 (presumably, per air-
craft) per year.

LANDING GEAR

The 747-400 landing gear was


extensively modified in contrast to
the earlier 747 "classics," resulting
in a l,800-pound (844-kilogram)
weight savings. The 747-400 has 16
Detail of the forward right side of the 747-400 fuselage, seen at Baltimore- main landing-gear tires and 2 nose
Washington International Airport, Maryland, on March 31, 1991. We are landing-gear tires. The twin-wheel
scrutinizing Boeing 747-406 line number 732, with a nice even constructor's nose unit retracts forward and
number, cln 24000, registered as PH-BFB with KLM Royal Dutch Airlines and apparently has no aerodynamically
first flown on May 23, 1989. This was KLM's second Dash Four Hundred. limiting speed at which retraction
(Sunil Gupta) can take place. The nosewheel is
steerable up to 70 degrees left or
ing a choice of 12 galley areas, with PW901AAPU (auxiliary power unit), right from tillers and up to 7 degrees
157 different locations. different from the APU found on all at high speed by application of full
At the end of the 747-400 fuse- earlier 747 models. This feature rudder pedal.
lage is a Pratt & Whitney Canada marks a coup for its manufacturer, The main gear consists of four,
four-wheel bogies; two, mounted
side by side under the fuselage at
ATTENDANTS PANEL the wing's trailing edge, which
retract forward; two, mounted
under the wings, which retract
inward. The two center main wheels
steer up to 13 degrees when the nose
gear is steered more than 20 degrees
CABIN SERYICES _ _
so long as speed is less than 23 miles
1~1
C.... ,NlIGHTING per hour (37 kilometers per hour). In
B8B6 flight, the main wheels hang down
ATHNOA""CALL _
at what one captain calls a "strange
INDIRECT
o angle," usually with the aft wheels
CEIUNG UGHTS-+-,--=__1Ci
lower on the bogy beam. On retrac-
AUOIOEfUeftT.o.INllEMT _ _
tion they are centered and straight-
0S
ened so that they fit into the wheel
well. The landing gear configuration
CABIN SYSTEM MODULE
is based on that of the "classic" 747
models, but because the Dash Four
Hundred has a greater takeoff
It's all taken for granted when we file aboard a 747-400 preparing for a flight, but weight and makes greater use of
the passenger cabin lightning system was designed with a great deal of user- digital systems, minor changes have
friendly thinking directed toward both flight attendants and passengers. (Boeing) been introduced. The most signifi-

46
..
AIRLINER TECH
re

cant change is the introduction of STA


2- STEPS 455
carbon disc brake units, replacing
steel disc brakes (this change was
also introduced in the Boeing 757).
FIRST OBSERVER
FLIGHT KIT STOWAGE
FIRST OFFICER
--t ;"",,---,---p

WING

Quite remarkably, engineers had


redesigned the wing of the 747 jet-
liner no fewer than 10 times by the MAIN PANEL
time the 747-400 wing was finalized,
although most changes were inter-
nal and therefore not visible to the
SECOND OBSERVER
eye. The wing of the 747-400 spans STA
456
213 feet (64.92 meters) when the air- CREW REST BUNKS: OPTIONAL SEAT
7B" x 30" FOLDS UP
craft is fully fueled or 211 feet 5 FUGHT DECK AND CREW REST
inches (64.6 meters) otherwise, is ARRANGEMENT

swept at 37.5 degrees at quarter-


chord, and has an aspect ratio of 7.0.
The wing is 17 feet (5.2 meters) An overhead view of the flight deck with the nose of the aircraft to the viewer's left.
greater in span than the wing of the This view encompasses the seats for captain and first officer, the two observer seats
747-300, but is lighter. The wing has for relief crewmembers located immediately behind the pilots, and the crew rest
a surface of aluminum alloy, dual- bunks. The ergonomic layout of the flight deck claims to reduce the workload of the
path, fail-safe material and is distin- 747-400 flight crew during either normal or abnormal operations. (Boeing)

The 75th Boeing 747 for Japan Air Lines (of all models) is this 747-446 taking shape on the factory floor at Everett.
(via Michael Stroud)

BOEING
47
141-400
guished (on most examples of the
aircraft) by the ubiquitous, carbon-
skinned winglets. The extension of
wingspan measures just 6 feet (1.83
meters) while the angled winglets
have a maximum span of 2 feet 11
inches (.9 meter). A 747-400 wing
weighs 28,000 pounds (12,700 kilo-
grams), and measures 5,600 square
feet (524.9 square meters), an area
broad enough to hold 45 medium-
sized automobiles or 8 World War 1-
era Curtiss JN4-D Jenny biplanes.
The adoption of winglets was
essentially a compromise that
enables airline operators to conserve
fuel while keeping the span of the
wing within reason for operation on
crowded airport hardstands. It
might have been easier simply to
give the Dash Four Hundred greater
span and~ing area, but that would Close-up of Rolls-Royce engines on a 747-400F freighter operated by Cargolux.
have complicated operations near (Rolls-Royce).

PRESSURE REGULATING AND


INLET PRECOOLER SHUTOFF VALVE
ANTI-ICE DUCT (STRUT MOUNTED)
PRECOOLER EXHAUST
TO AIR DRIVEN HYDRAULIC
ELECTRICAL (COWL MOUNTED) PUMP ON ENGINES 1 AND 4
DISCONNECT

P&WA
PT2/TT2
PROBE

F~~~~~~~~~\-:EX~VHAUST PLUG
ACCESS NOZZLE EXHAUST SLEEVE
STARTER VALVE
OVERBOARD DRAINS
THRUST REVERSER COWL

PRATI AND WHITNEY PW4000 ENGINE

The Pratt & Whitney PW4256 high bypass ratio turbofan engine, the first 747-400 power plant to take to the air, is a
derivative of the JT9D-7R4G2 but with an extra 1.5 bearing, shorter com buster, advanced aerodynamic shape, and full
authority electronic engine control (EEC). The engine is rated at 56,750 pounds static thrust at sea level for takeoff. (Boeing)

48 _i ..
AIRLINER TECH
the gate and on the taxiway.(As an
aside, some Classics are now being
fitted with winglets.)
According to the builder, the
additional 6-foot (1.8 meter) wingtip
extension and winglet adds nothing
to the weight of the 747-400 wing. A
weight savings of approximately
5,000 pounds (2270 kilograms) was
achieved in the wing by using new
aluminum alloys that offset the
weight increase of the wingtip
extension and winglet. The wing,
nacelle pylons, and nacelles of the
aircraft make extensive use of
Kevlar and other graphite materials.

747-400 TAIL

In contrast to the 747 "classic" As seen from beneath the wingtip of a 747-400 being assembled in the Everett
airliners that preceded it, the Dash factory, this is a detailed view of the outboard leading edge slats, showing the color
Four Hundred introduced extensive variations in aircraft metals and composite materials prior to painting. Games c.
changes to its tail section. The hori- Goodall)

PRESSURE REGULATING AND SHUTOFF


VALVE
TO AIR DRIVEN HYDRAULIC PUMP
ON ENGINES 1 AND 4

TAl. SUPPLY DUCT

FULL AUTHORITY DIGITAL


ELECTRONIC CONTROL
(FADEC) STARTER DUCT

PNEUMATIC STARTER VALVE

IGNITION UNITS PNEUMATIC STARTER


DRAIN MAST _ INTEGRATED DRIVE GENERATOR
HYDRAULIC PUMP -

GENERAL ELECTRIC CF6 ENGINE

The Dash Four Hundred airliner's most widely-used power plant is the General Electric CF6-80C-BIF high bypass ratio
turbofan engine, a derivative of the CF6-50E2 but with a shorter overall length, larger diameter fan, four-stage booster
compressor, shorter combuster, core-mounted accessory gear box and engine accessories, and relocated engine mounts. (Boeing)

BOEING
141-400 49
zontal tail has a 3,300-gallon integral
fuel tank between its front and rear
spars. The fuel tank increases range
by about 400 miles (644 kilometers).
The horizontal tailplane has a span
of 72 feet 8 inches (22.10 meters) and
it actually boasts more area than the
entire wing of a 727 airliner.
The horizontal stabilizer con-
sists of left and right outboard sec-
tions attached to a center section
with close tolerance lockbolts. The
total travel of the stabilizer is 15
degrees. A stabilizer position indica-
tor system uses three transmitters to
provide the flight crew with infor-
mation. The stabilizer control sys-
tem trims the aircraft longitudinally
(in pitch) by varying the horizontal
stabilizer angle of attack.
The rear surface of the horizon-
This three-quarter-rear view shows the right wingtip and winglet of a 747-400 tal tailplane consists of a four-piece
nearing completion at the factory. (James C. Goodall) elevator attached to the rear spar of

This view of a 747-400F freighter being assembled in the Everett factory illustrates the type of scaffolding employed on the
production line and provides a revealing look at the tail structure. (James C. Goodall)

50 AIRLIlVERTECH
All that attention to the wing of the 747-
400 produced a complex and magnificent
wing structure, spanning 211 feet 5
inches (64.44 meters), weighing 66,000
pounds (29,980 kilograms) and with
flight surfaces everywhere. In this front
view of a 747-400, we can see the
inboard Kreuger leading-edge flaps, the
simpler leading-edge flaps between
engines, and the four sets of trailing-
edge flaps. The aircraft is extremely
stable, just as its great size and bulk
suggests, and the wing flight surfaces
perform brilliantly. (Andre Ran)" GlARESHIElD FLOODUGIfT

the horizontal stabilizer, with four


hydraulic actuators plus controls
and an elevator feel system. The ele-
vator feel system prevents overcon-
trol in pitch and causes an increas-
ing artificial force to react against
control inputs as speed increases.
The fin and the rudder of the
747-400 also have been redesigned.
The vertical stabilizer (fin) consists
of a front spar, rear spar, ribs,
stringers, and skin, which together FLIGHT DECK LIGHTING
constitute a beam. Two rudders
(upper and lower) are used for con-
trol, trim, and automatic rollout in The lighting configuration of the pilots' flight deck was the result of considerable
the yaw axis. The upper rudder has thought and effort and was completely reworked in contrast to 747-400 "classic"
increased travel and three triple- models. (Boeing)

BOEING
51
741-400
IDlING ?4?-4DD The complexity of the flight surfaces on
MAINTENANCE MANUAL UPPER RUDDER the -400, especially the leading-edge
flaps, which have 14 distinct surfaces, is
illustrated in this look from above and
OUTBOARO below. (United Airlines)
ELEVATOR

valve actuators. The aircraft height


of 65 feet 5 inches (19.94 meters) as
measured from runway to fin tip is
unchanged from the earliest 747
model to the latest, as is the exterior
shape of the vertical fin. The vertical
stabilizer is designed with a remov-
able leading edge.

LIGHTING

.
LEAOING EDGE FLAPS
The engineering team at Boeing
KIlUEGER
devoted considerable time and
~
FLAPS
.
VARIABLE CAilliER FLAPS
attention to lighting on the aircraft-
13 12 11 10 9 a 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1E
from the illumination provided
within the passenger cabin to the
white strobe light at the very rear tip
of the fuselage tail cone. The sys-
tems manual for the aircraft tells us
that the flight deck includes floor
lights, dome lights, map lights, utili-
ty lights, indicator lights, and inte-
gral instrument lights, each
designed and positioned with con-
siderable care by ergonomic experts.
Flight Control Surfac~s In the passenger cabin, lighting
is controlled by the ACESS and is
completely programmable. On the
outside of this big aircraft, the exteri-
or light installation was configured
with careful thought given to relia-
bility and ease of maintenance. Most
lightning control switches are above
the pilots in the forward edge of the
forward overhead panel while in
some cases there are switches in the
compartments being lighted.

This Singapore Airlines 747-400 is


receiving attention, apparently at the
factory at Everett. Yes, there is a main
entry door located on the right side of the
forward fuselage, even though airliners
in service are almost always boarded
from the left side. (via Michael Stroud)

AIRLINER TECH
52
-- --
747-400 '~"I-ARIANTS
THE MAIN MODELS IN USE

rom the beginning, the prima- ty did not provide much more of a Included are some variants that

F . ry object with the 747-400 was


to make the aircraft better.
That meant improved systems, sim-
competitive edge. It was newness,
not size, that counted-improving
upon a basic design that looked dis-
were studied but not built, as Boeing
shifted its perception of the market
over the years. It should be remem-
plicity of operation, and the flexibili- tinctly old-fashioned when com- bered that every airline carrier has
ty to develop various models for pared to aircraft such as the Boeing its own special needs; these needs
various applications. Increasing pas- 757 and 767, and the early Airbuses. change from time to time, and the
senger capacity was never an impor- New-technology power plants, software beneath the skin of a mod-
tant motive. After all, the SUD of advanced materials, new aerody- ern airliner is constantly being
the late "classic" 747-300 added namics, and state of the art systems upgraded.
useful capacity to the basic design were the key to the Dash Four Hun-
and marginally reduced average dred and to the flexibility that made 747-300A
seat/mile costs. Nevertheless, with a possible the aircraft variants
passenger capacity of 374, even the described in this chapter. For a brief but intense period,
earliest Boeing 747-100s held more The following is an attempt to Boeing devoted engineering efforts
travelers than any of their competi- provide the principal characteristics to a longer-range Boeing 747-300A
tors. Increasing the aircraft's capaci- of the different kinds of 747-400. "classic" with longer-span wings,

The first Boeing 747-400F freighter takes offfor its maiden flight at Everett, Washington, on May 4, 1993, wearing the U.S.
civil registry N6005C that was assigned for test purposes. The aircraft, a 747-428F intended for Air France as F-GlUA, was
not delivered to the French airline, which decided to purchase Combi models instead. The aircraft was placed in storage in
Arizona for a time before being delivered to Cargolux on September 13, 1995, with the registry LX-lCV (Boeing)

BOEING
141-4~~ 53
On September 4,1988, Boeing
arranged this photo
opportunity to compare the
747-400 and the 737-400.
That month, the first example
of the smaller aircraft was
delivered to Piedmont
Airlines, while the first 747-
400 went to Northwest
Airlines on January 26, 1989.
The difference in size? The
747 has a 232-foot (70.7-
meter) fuselage length; the
737's is just 119 feet 6 inches
(36.4 meters). The larger
flying machine is, of course,
line number 696,
constructor's number 23719,
registered as N401PW-the
first ship in the series, and the
very same Dash Four
Hundred that first went to
Northwest. (Boeing)

increased fuel capacity, and new ever, it would have retained most of of a three-pilot aircraft. This model
engines. This aircraft would have the drawbacks of the "classics" in would have been old enough to
been marginally more capable of the digital age-not in the least the have the drawbacks but new enough
handling long-distance routes. How- administrative headaches and costs to need a lengthy period of develop-

The cargo-hauling freighter version of the famous Boeing jetliner has winglets but lacks the stretched upper deck found on most
passenger models. "Mega Ark," Singapore Airlines' term for its 747-400 freighters, is a Singapore Airlines Boeing 747-412F
freighter, line no, 1036, cln 26563, registered as 9V-SFA. (Andre Ran)

54
..
AIRLINER TECH
ment and testing, making it distinct- area and a roller-conveyor system variations in seasonal markets and
ly old-fashioned by the time it enabling cargo containers to be read- charter demands.
entered service. It seemed more a ily loaded and unloaded. Another reason for the Combi's
cosmetic improvement than a real Since its introduction in 1975, popularity is that it can be scheduled
advance, and was quickly shelved. the Boeing 747 Combi has helped through an airport with the same
airlines around the world meet their turnaround time as any passenger
747-400 COMBl long-range passenger and cargo 747. Cargo operations do not inter-
requirements. The Combi has a large fere with passenger service, because
"Two airplanes in one," Boeing side-cargo door behind the left main-deck cargo loading occurs in an
calls it. The 747-400 Combi derives wing, plus equipment that removes area of the airplane where normally
its name from offering a combina- passenger seats and installs cargo there is no activity. This simultaneous
tion of passenger and cargo loads tracks, giving airlines the option of passenger-and-cargo-loading and
on the same deck. A 10xll-foot carrying cargo in containers on the unloading operation is possible
(305x340-centimeter) cargo door dis- main deck behind passengers. This because of the stability allowed by
tinguishes the 747-400 Combi; this flexibility allows airlines to adapt the fore and aft arrangement of the
door is arranged in upward-opening the interior configuration to meet wing and body landing gear.
position on the left side of the rear
fuselage. The Combi has a strength-
ened floor in the rear-deck cargo

Exhibiting the familiar lines of the basic


Dash Four Hundred design, this aircraft
is the Pratt & Whitney engine-powered
...
Boeing 747-400 prototype (line number
696, cln 23719), alias N401PW.
(via Michael Stroud)

BOEING
141-4@@ 55
This is possibly the
very first airline color
scheme to undergo a
change following its
early appearance on a
747-400. Many
United Airlines
customers and
employees liked these
colors better than the
colors that replaced
them (dominated by
dark blues and grays).
Their appearance in a
Dash Four Hundred
photo, however, is
extremely rare.

The large side-cargo door on the The Combi can handle large volume The first Combi went into ser-
main deck allows cargo loading in shipments such as automobiles, vice with the now-defunct Sabena
the aft section at the same time pas- small boats, heavy machinery, Belgian World Airlines in early 1974.
sengers are boarded in the forward drilling equipment, and even small This was a standard 747-100 passen-
section. A locked partition separates aircraft or hel~copters. Environmen- ger airplane, modified by installa-
the passenger compartment from the tal control in the cargo area allows tion of a side cargo door. Boeing
cargo area, which is accessible only transportation of live animals, per- delivered the first true 747-200
by the crew. Roller trays on the 747's ishable foods, and cut flowers/veg- Combi (with the side-cargo door
aft floor facilitate loading of 8-foot- etables, while maintaining separate already installed) to Air Canada in
wide (2.4-meter) containers, or pal- environmental control of the passen- February 1975.
lets, up to 20 feet long (6.1 meters). ger cabin. The 747-400 Combi incor- Swissair was the first customer
The airplane's main deck can accom- porates additional fire protection, a for the 747-300 Combi, and KLM
modate any container or pallet used two-crew digital Hight deck, Royal Dutch Airlines was first for
in the aviation industry today in advanced engines, wingtip exten- the 747-400 Combi. The stretched
lengths of up to 20 feet (6.1 meters). sion with winglet, and new interiors. upper deck of the 747-300 and 747-

There is no outward
clue that this is a
"Combi," an aircraft
configured for a mix of
passengers and cargo.
The location is Toronto
and this beautiful
aircraft is Boeing
747-433 Combi line
number 840, c/n
24998, registered as
C-CAGL. The
manufacturer
delivered this aircraft
to Air Canada on
February 15, 1991.
(Bill Crimmins)

56
..
AIRLINER TECH
400 Combis can accommodate 44
AREA MICROPHONE
more passengers than the standard
747-200 Combi. The 747-400 Combi
is currently the only Combi in pro-
duction. More than 30 customers
operate a total of 144 747 Combis,
including 58 747-400 Combis.
The convertible, mixed passen-
ger/freight Boeing 747-400M Combi
AFT EQUIPMENT CENTER
had the same modifications as "clas- • VOICE RECORDER (E-8)
sic" 747 Combis, with the same
removable and moveable internal o 1-1 --.JI 0
bulkhead to separate the passengers
and freight and the same 120x134-
inch cargo door on the port rear
fuselage. The aircraft can carry 6 or TEST ERASE
AREA MICROPHONE

ULB----t+ll o
I",ICIiOPHO"lE MONITOR
12 pallets in the rear fuselage, with
its strengthened floor, with some air-
CAPT
craft also equipped to be able to
HANDMICS FlO
carry a 7th (or 13th) pallet in the
tapering part of the rear fuselage.
With Extended Twin-Engine Operat-
ing Procedures (ETOPS) allowing
OXY MASK MICS

HEADSETS AUDIO
FIRSTOBS
a
o+ D
VOICE RECORDER
a
o+
MANAGEMENT UNIT (AMU) AFT EQUIPMENT CENTER (E8)
smaller twins to be used on most MAIN EQUIPMENT CENTER (E2-5)
routes, there is less need to fly "half- VOICE RECORDER
full" 747s, and less "spare capacity"
to be filled by freight, so Combi ver-
sions of the Dash Four Hundred The famous "black box" (which in reality is red) is the voice recorder that records
have been less popular. Despite this, the last thirty minutes offlight crew communications. (Boeing)
Boeing sold 30-odd 747-400Ms. The
first entered service with KLM dur-
ing September 1989.

747-400D

Boeing tailored several versions


of the 747-400D (for "domestic") for
the special needs of Japan's domes-
tic air routes; Japanese airlines were
enabled to haul unusually high
numbers of passengers (up to 624)
over comparatively short distances.
The 747-400D combines the cockpit,
fuselage, and undercarriage Dash
Four Hundred with a "classic"-look-
ing short-span wing without
winglets. In fact, the 400D's wing is Seen on a flight to Auckland, New Zealand, through the lens of New Zealander Jim
unique, since it is manufactured Winchester's camera, this Korean Airlines aircraft is ready to go in April 2000.
from the new alloys and incorpo- HL7478 is the civil registration assigned to Boeing 747-4B5, line number 739, c/n
rates fittings to allow the extended 24199, first flown on July 15, 1989 and operated in the Far East by Korea. aim
wingtips and winglets to be retrofit- Winchester)

BOEING
141-400 57
ted by any carrier seeking to shift
from short-haul to overseas opera-
tions. Unlike the standard Dash
Four Hundred, the -400D lacks the
crew rest facilities and the tailplane
fuel tank, and has a very high-densi-
ty cabin layout and seating.
Boeing delivered 6 747-400Ds to
Japan Air Lines and 11 to All Nip-
pon Airways. ANA recently con-
verted one of the latter to full 747-
400 standard for use on long-range
routes. The manufacturer has con-
siderable interest in selling addi-
tional short-range, high-capacity In May 2001, Emirates SkyCargo, actually operated by Atlas Air, performs
747-400s to China, India, or even 747-400F freighter duty at the new Hong Kong airport. (Sunil Gupta)
U.s. or European trunk carriers.
"classic" -200F model, which ceased the ceiling height on the main deck
747-400F production in 1991. The newer air- by nearly 2 feet. This would restrict
craft does incorporate the new wing a longer part of the forward fuselage
The Boeing 747-400F freighter structure, increased span, winglets, to 8-foot high containers, while con-
differs from other Dash Four Hun- auxiliary power unit, carbon brakes, tainers loaded via the side cargo
dred models in not having the and glass cockpit. The upper deck door and accommodated behind the
Stretched Upper Deck. This gives would be essentially wasted space "hump" could be up to 10 feet high.
the 747-400F a resemblance to the on a freighter and its floor reduces Air France ordered 5 -400Fs in 1989,

The cargo 747-400F is especially well illustrated in this view at Taipei International Airport in October 2001. This shot shows
us not only the aircraft but also examples of the palletized cargo it carries. Note: both Mainland China and Taiwan use the
"B-1" civil registry assigned to China. (Sunil Gupta)

58 AIRLIlVERTECH "1M
but cancelled these in favor of Com-
bis. The aircraft were completed,
and the first was delivered to Car-
golux in May 1993. About 15 have
been delivered to a number of cus-
tomers, including Asiana, Atlas Air,
Cathay Pacific, Korean Air, and Sin-
gapore Airlines.
Its proponents claim the 747-
400F has the lowest operating costs
per ton-mile of all commercial cargo
haulers, with a 15 percent improve-
ment over the 747-200F in fuel burn
per pound of payload. Operators
include Asiana, Atlas Air, British Air-
ways, Cargolux, China Air Cargo, Philippine Airlines' future was unclear at the time this volume went to press, but
EVA, Korean, Singapore ("Mega this Boeing "jumbo" was operating at Hong Kong as recently as May 2001.
Ark"), and Polar (which has now N752PR is, of course, a u.s. registration, but appears routinely on 747-400s
been subsumed by Atlas). belonging to the Philippine carrier. (Sunil Gupta)

747-500X/747-600X The never-built 747-500X was Boeing never finalized a selec-


described as a truncated -600X rather tion of engine or flight deck for the
These are among the aircraft than a stretched Dash Four Hundred. 747-500X and 747-600X, but was
that might have been. In 1996, Boe- It would have used fore and aft fuse- under pressure from airlines to
ing was studying projected 747- lage plugs to increase fuselage length introduce a cockpit compatible with
500X and 747-600X designs that by 10 feet 2 inches (3.09 meters), existing 777 models to allow com-
would have increased the size of making it shorter than the -600X. The mon type ratings for pilots. In May
the Dash Four Hundred by length- 747-500X would have carried 462 1996, an agreement was announced
ening the fuselage. passengers up to 10,000 miles (16,093 between Pratt & Whitney and Gen-
The 747-600X was a design for a kilometers) with 10 U.S. tons of addi- eral Electric which would have
548-passenger aircraft with a range tional cargo capacity. . resulted in the competitors teaming
of 8,900 statute miles or 7,750 nauti-
cal miles (14350 kilometers). It was
expected to introduce a new wing
and two body plugs to lengthen the
fuselage, one measuring 18 feet 4
inches (5.58 meters) inches forward
of the wing and two others totaling
10 feet 2 inches (3.09 meters) aft
of the wing. The manufacturer
planned to strengthen the fuselage
structure to permit a maximum
takeoff weight of 1,030,000 pounds
(467197 kilograms). The lengthened
fuselage would be 262 feet 6 inches
(80 meters) from nose to tail. This Like its neighbor Malaysia Airlines, Thai International has a paint scheme on its
vastly bigger "super jumbo" would 747-400s that might charitably be characterized as unimaginative. HS-TGH is the
have required a new, four-truck civil registry assigned by Thai authorities to a ship that was relatively early on the
main landing gear with 16 wheels production line, namely Boeing 747-407, line number 769, constructor's number
and a newer, broader horizontal 24458, first flown on February 21, 1990. The location is Schipol Airport in the
stabilizer. Netherlands. (Andre Ran)

BOEING
141-4~~ 59
up to jointly develop an 84,000-
pound-thrust (374-kN) turbofan
engine for the new aircraft.
At the 1996 Farnborough air
II/lfl/I/ 111"11111
show in Britain, some potential cus-
!illlf/fl!lfll!4fS tomers reportedly told Ron Wood-
ward, president of Boeing Commer-
cial Airplane Group, of their doubts
about the economics of these
"stretched" 747-400 aircraft designs.
The reported sticker price of $230
million (in adjusted 1996 dollars) for
a 747-600 was about 40 percent
greater than the cost of a standard
Dash Four Hundred. Woodward
insisted that a need for an even larg-
er aircraft would become obvious in
the future-perhaps anticipating Air-
Close-up of the forward left side of a taxiing British Airways craft in the twentieth- bus's A380 concept, which evolved
century paint scheme that is fondly remembered today. This one is Boeing 747-436, at the turn of the century. For the
line number 1059, cln 25815, which completed its maiden flight on April 6, 1995 time being, however, the manufac-
and is registered G-CIVG. (Michael Shayler) turer set aside the Dash Five Hun-

The "Utopia" paint schemes were introduced by British Airways to mark a new century and a new millennium although,
being unable to count, British introduced themat the start of 2000 (the final year of the twentieth century) rather than 2001.
Most of the unusual tail designs created by various artists have taken a verbal shellacking from passengers, employees, and
critics. This one, seen at London's Gatwick International Airport on April 7, 1999, has fared a little better. The aircraft is
Boeing 747-436 line no. 802, cln 24056, registered as G-BNLN. The aircraft had a relatively early slot on the assembly line,
having completed its maiden flight on July 27, 1990. (Michael Shayler)

60
..
AIRLINER TECH
This side view of VOR

a generic Dash CENTER


EQUIPMENT CENTER ~
Four Hundred (E6, E9)

airliner shows the


locations of WEATHER RADAR

principal items of
radio and
electronic
equipment, and
antennas.
(Boeing) IILS GIS TRACK
VHFR AFT EQUIPMENT
CENTER (EB)
ILS GIS CAPTURE
AND LOC
MAIN EQUIPMENT
CENTER
(E1. E2, E30, E31)

EQUIPMENT CENTERS AND ANTENNA LOCATIONS

dred and Dash Six hundred in order Longer-Range 747-400 aircraft ing claim that the 747-400 is the
to proceed with improvements to its are the same size as today's 747- world's fastest subsonic jetliner.
757, 767, and 777 series. 400s, but they allow airlines and An auxiliary tank in the lower
cargo carriers to fly longer routes, or lobe of the aircraft provides fuel for
747-700X carry more cargo or passengers on additional range capability; an
existing routes. To support this optional second tank is available.
Also in 1996, Boeing briefed air- enhanced capability, the Longer- Using both auxiliary tanks and fuel
line executives on a proposed 747- Range freighter and passenger ver- in the horizontal stabilizer (on the
700X model that would have been sions have increased their gross passenger version), the Longer-
bigger and longer reaching than any takeoff weight by 35,000 pounds Range 747-400 will be able to carry
of its previous designs, although still (15,870 kilograms) to 910,000 up to 63,765 U.s. gallons (241,370
smaller than the huge Airbus design pounds (412,770 kilograms). In liters) of fuel. To support the gross
that evolved into the Airbus A380. It announcing progress with this vari- weight increase, the aircraft has
was, in effect, a lire-bodying" of the ant, Boeing reiterated its longstand- strengthened parts of its wing, fuse-
747-600X concept with a wider fuse-
lage but retaining the wing, engines,
and landing gear. The 747-700X was
meant to carry about 650 passengers
approximately the distance covered
by the standard 747-400.

LONGER-RANGE 747-400

At the beginning of 2002, Boeing


was using the term "Longer-Range
747-400" (and, at times, simply
"Long Range") for the newest ver-
sion of the Dash Four Hundred. The
first example was slated to begin
major assembly at Everett in Febru-
ary 2002, to roll out in June, and to
be delivered in October to launch
customer Qantas. Malaysia Airlines operating at Hong Kong. (Sunil Gupta)

BOEING
61
141-400
load, either in the form of extra
cargo or a full load of 416 passen-
gers. Inside, it looks a lot like a 777
interior and feels even more spa-
cious because of the 747's unique,
20-foot-wide cross section.
Freighter: The first Longer-
Range 747-400 Freighter, also with an
increased takeoff weight of 910,000
pounds (412,770 kilograms), will be
delivered in October 2002 to Interna-
tional Lease Finance Corp., and
operated by Air France. The takeoff
weight increase allows this airplane
to fly an additional 525 nautical
In July 2001, eight months after Singapore Airlines suffered its first ever aircraft miles (972 kilometers), or carry an
loss, a 747-400, at this location, a dark sky gathers behind this Singapore Dash additional 21,000 pounds (9,525 kilo-
Four Hundred flying over Taipei airport. 9V-SMF is the civil registry assigned to grams) of payload on long-range
Boeing 747-412, line number 791, cln 24066, which made its first flight on June flights at maximum takeoff weight.
10, 1990 before delivery to the carrier. (Sunil Gupta) With the additional takeoff weight
capability, the Longer-Range 747-400
lage, and landing gear, including performance to support long-range, Freighter will be able to carry 134
new tires and wheels. non-stop, highcdemand routes, the tons (122,525 kilograms) of cargo.
The manufacturer describes the passenger version of the Longer- Both versions of the 747-400
Longer-Range variants thusly: Range 747-400 can fly an additional Freighter (875,000- and 910,000-
Passenger version: Blending the 435 nautical miles (805 kilometers). pound takeoff weight) will continue
latest in passenger amenities found Or, it can carry an additional 15,000 to claim the industry's lowest operat-
in the Boeing 777 with exceptional pounds (6,800 kilograms) of pay- ing cost per ton-mile.

u.s. AIR FORCE C-33A


In the early 1990s when Boeing
was competing with the manufactur-
er of the Air Force's C-17 Globemas-
ter III (before buying the company),
business and legislative leaders in
the Pacific Northwest were interest-
ed in seeing the 747-400 in U.S. Air
Force colors. What they did not want
was a repeat of the history of the
1960s, 1970s, and 1980s when Boeing
made attempts to interest the Air
Force in the 747 as a strategic trans-
port aircraft but lost out when the
service chose, instead, to re-wing 70
aging C-5A Galaxys and subsequent-
At Taipei in July 2001, Malaysia Airlines takes off, displaying a ho-hum paint ly to purchase 50 new C-5Bs. At one
scheme that causes few to regret this carrier not being depicted more often in print. point, Boeing offered a minimum
Heading out is Boeing 747-4H6 line number 1130, cln 28426, first flown on change version of the 747-200F, but
October 5, 1997, and not likely to excite anyone much unless Malaysia hires a new with "kneeling" nose gear (using
artist and starts all over again. (Sunil Gupta) jacks to lower the nose, after manual-

62
..
AIRLINER TECH
ly retracting the nose wheels) to
allow more direct ramp-loading into
the fuselage.
When an opportunity to sell the
aircraft to the Air Force arose again
in 1994, Boeing offered a minimum-
change, PW4056-engined derivative
of the Boeing 747-400F to meet the
requirement known in jargon as
NDAA (Non Developmental Alter-
native Airlifter). This aircraft would
have been designated C-33A in mili-
tary service. It would have boasted a
nO,OOO-pound (417302-kilogram)
maximum takeoff weight and a
range of 7,800 nautical miles. Boe-
ing's C-33A won the NDAA compe-
tition, but was never procured,
although it may have stimulated the
C-17 team into solving their prob- The location is Chicago's O'Hare International Airport. The date is December
lems and getting that aircraft back on 1998. The aircraft is Boeing 747-422 line number 762, cln 24381, which completed
track. Congressional pressure for the its initial flight at Everett on January 20, 1990, and operates as N174UA with
C-33A eased after Boeing acquired United Airlines. (Tom Pesch)
McDonnell Douglas to become the
manufacturer of the C-17. ary 21, 2000 for fitting out. It is whether it will be added at Wichita.
unclear whether titanium shielding The Air Force planned to begin
u.s. AIR FORCE YAL-l intended to protect the undersides flight testing the airborne laser at
from laser exhaust gases was incor- White Sands Proving Ground, New
YAL-IA is the U.S. Air Force's pora ted during production, or Mexico, in 2001, leading to the first
designation for the laser-equipped,
anti-ballistic-missile aircraft based
on the 747-400F airframe. A team
composed of Boeing, Lockheed Mar-
tin, and TRW was awarded a $1.1
billion program definition and risk-
reduction contract for an airborne
anti missile system in November
1996. The YAL-IA prototype (mili-
tary serial no. 00-0001) was ordered
on November 12, 1996. TRW demon-
strated successful missile tracking
and laser firing in early 1998. On
June 26, 1998 a formal authority was
received to proceed with construc-
tion of the YAL-1.
Production of the 747-400F des-
tined to become the YAL-IA began
in August 1999, and the aircraft (Air When Air Canada swallowed up Canadian Airlines, the result, at least temporarily,
Force serial 00-0001) first flew on was a hybrid paint scheme with the emblem of the surviving company on the fin
January 6, 2000. It was delivered and the name of the former company on the fuselage. The location is Hong Kong in
"green" to Wichita, Kansas, on Janu- May 2001. (Sunil Gupta)

BOEING
141-400 63
Boeing is responsible for supplying the
747-400 Freighter for the YAL-l,
developing crew safety and the Battle
Management system. Lockheed Martin
is responsible for the nose-mounted
turret, illuminator lasers and beam-
control system. TRW is responsible for
the system's high-energy laser.
(Boeing)

demonstration against a ballistic enemy missiles during their boost The aircraft would carry suffi-
missile during 2003. The prototype phase. It will have a range of cient oxygen and iodine to allow the
is to be followed by one pre-produc- between 180 and 360 miles (290 and laser to fire 30 5-second bursts dur-
tion aircraft and five production 580 kilometers), with the YAL-1A ing a mission, at an estimated cost of
AL-1As. The prototype and EMD flying at 40,000 feet (12,192 meters). $1,000 per burst.
aircraft will then be brought up to Optical-based sensors (the so- The AL-IA may also be assigned
production AL-1A standards. A fleet called Electron-bombarded Charge- other roles, perhaps using its camera
of seven aircraft would allow one Coupled Device cameras) and IR system and IR detectors for long-
aircraft of those deployed to be (infra-red) detectors provided by range standoff reconnaissance. The
maintained on airborne alert around Lockheed-Martin detect a missile laser could be used for lethal SEAD
the clock during a deployed opera- launch, and cue the laser onto its (suppression of enemy air defenses),
tion, with two aircraft being target, achieving lock on between 30 the defense of high value assets such
retained in the continental United and 140 seconds after missile as JSTARS (Joint Surveillance Track-
States for home defense. launch. The laser then fires a 5-sec- ing and Radar System) and AWACS
The YAL-1A and AL-1A will ond burst at the missile's vulnerable (Airborne Warning and Control Sys-
carry a huge TRW multi-hundred mid-section, igniting its propellant tem), against SAMs (surface-to-air
Kilowatt chemical oxygen iodine tanks and causing the debris to fall missiles) or AAMs (air-to-air mis-
long-range laser (COIL) in an articu- back onto the launch nation's terri- siles), and even the destruction of
lated nose-mounted turret. The tory. This in itself is viewed by some low-flying cruise missiles. The laser
device is a powerful, nose-mounted asa deterrent against the use of may even have a degree of capabili-
laser designed to shoot down chemical or biological warheads. ty against manned aircraft.

64
..
AIRLINER TECH
COLORFUL JUMBOS
A 875,OOO-POUND FLYING CANVAS

r \' with its 231-ft., 10-in. fuse- ed that one airline paints as if they'll on the children's game Pokemon,

Wrt
), it \ 1 lage, its stretched upper
,.7 deck, and a broad vertical
fin, the Boeing 747-400 offers a gen-
transport felons to the penitentiary.
There were exceptions. From the
moment their 747-400s emerged
appealed to children of all ages. The
same is true of Japan Air Lines' bril-
liant murals of children's themes.
erous canvas to any artist wielding from the paint shop at Everett, Saudi British Airways, which looked
the high-tech air brushes that have Arabian Airlines, South African, and not merely staid but stodgy, acquired
replaced the paint brush. When the Virgin had catchy colors that cap- a new color scheme and began
747-400 first appeared in the 1980s, tured both the eye and the mind. In devoting considerable attention--
the canvas and paint were on hand, the 1990s, things changed for the and money--to individual aircraft
but the artistry was missing. Never better. Airlines were suddenly will- tails, created by numerous artists. It
in favor of brilliance when blandness ing to spend more and think harder is always a challenge to capture an
will do the job, most carriers have before wielding the figurative bush. aircraft in color in an image that
opted for color schemes that are sin- "Dreary" was out. "Dream schemes" works for the viewer. Photos are
gularly devoid of imagination. were in. Many airliners revamped square or rectangular, while air-
Qantas, Thai, Air India, their standard company colors; even craft--especially the 747-400--are
Malaysian, and Japan Air Lines all staid United, which de-emphasized long and thin. On the pages that fol-
began 747-400 operations with paint its identity as an American flag car- low, some of the best shutterbugs of
designs that enabled the viewer to rier and adopted a blue-dominated the airliner world give us a few
determine which carrier the aircraft scheme in a heavily-marketed nod glimpses at the Boeing 747-400 in
belongs to - just barely, sometimes. to globalism. Similarly shucking its full, colorful glory. The photogra-
But like the original schemes used by nationality in favor of an image as a phers, however, did not paint the air-
British Air and United, these achieve global citizen, Northwest Airlines craft. Any beholder in search of a dif-
the distinction of being colors with- came up with its "Worldplane" idea. ferent definition of beauty will have
out being colorful. A wag comment- All Nippon's dazzling theme, based to contact the airlines.

Taken on July 5, 2001, this is


a 20-second timed exposure
ofa soon to be delivered
Cathay Pacific 747-400
cockpit with the power on.
This view shows the six
multi-function displays (five
on the main instrument
panel and one on the center
console), center console, and
protective coverings on
cockpit seats. When entering
any new aircraft at the
Boeing production facility,
everyone is required to wear
cotton booties so as not to
mark or trace any of the floor
coverings or walkways.
Games c. Goodall)

BOEING
747-400 65
The low-slung engine nacelles and
upturned winglets of the Dash
Four Hundred stand out in this
aerial view ofAll Nippon Airways'
Boeing 747-481 line number 805,
c/n 24801, registered as JA8094,
which first flew on August 20,
1990. (All Nippon Airways via
Michael Stroud)

The features of the 747-400


series are displayed to good
advantage in this air-to-air view
of Air India's aircraft named the
Konark. The stretched upper
deck (SUD) and winglets are the
quickest identification features,
although the SUD is not unique
to the Dash Four Hundred and
the winglets are not found on
all. The Konark is a Boeing 747-
437 (line number 987, c/n
27078), registered as VT-ESM.
Boeing delivered this aircraft to
Air India on August 4, 1993.
(Air India)

On final approach at Chicago's


O'Hare International Airport in
April 1999, this massive jetliner
passes by a little too close to be
completely captured by the lens of
Tom Pesch, whose airline
photography has provided
enjoyment to many enthusiasts
over the years. With nose wheel
ready and main wheel trucks
dangling, this ship on the verge of
landing happens to be Korean
Airlines' Boeing 747-4B51ine
number lOB, c/n 27072, registered
as HL7489, which made its first
flight on January 7, 1994.
(Tom Pesch)

66 AIRLINER TECH
..
==============~=~~ -----.JL
The location is London's
Heathrow International Airport
in the year 2000 and the aircraft
is one of the handful of Dash
Four Hundred widebodies in
South African's modest but
busy fleet. Specifically, this air-
craft is Boeing 747-444 line
number 1162/ c/n 28468/ regis-
tered as ZS-SAK, which first
took to the air on June 30/ 1998.
The South African carrier
adopted its current paint scheme
right about the time the first
747-400s were acquiring their
livery. (Jim Winchester)

This British Airways' cheery and


colorful fin-which, like the rest of
the airline's color scheme, has not
won universal acclaim-was
designed by well-known
Australian design studio Balarinji.
The aircraft is Boeing 747-436 line
number 842/ c/n 24630/ registered
as G-BNLT, which made its initial
flight on February 26/1991. The
work of artist Danuta Wodja of
Poland's Lowicz region, this paint
scheme is known as the "Koguty
•••••••• Lowickie" livery. A tribute to
Poland appears on about eight
aircraft, all of different types,
serving with British Airways.
(Tom Pesch)

BOEING
747-400 67
Seen in print a little less often than the aircraft
of many carriers, those serving with Saudi
Arabian Airlines cover the globe nonetheless.
This look at the complete aircraft at the outer
terminal at Washington Dulles, with its fin
shown in close-up, takes place near sunset on a
February 2000 evening but is, in fact, a daily
occurrence. The aircraft is Boeing 747-468 line
number 1122, c/n 28339, registered as
HZ-AIV and flown for the first time on
September 14, 1997. (Alex Hrapunov)

This was dubbed the


'freighter with a smile" in
promotional material for the
1993 Paris International
Air Salon. It's actually the
first 747-4R7F freighter for
Cargolux. The aircraft is
named for the adjacent city
and duchy of Luxembourg.
The ability to open the nose
in this manner gives the
747-400F some capability to
handle "roll-on" cargoes,
but the relative difficulty of
loading the aircraft is the
main reason it has not
competed satisfactorily for
military contracts against
roll-on, roll-off transports
like Boeing's own C-17
Globemaster III.
(via Michael Stroud)

68 AIRLINER TECH
..
China Airlines operating at
Taipei in June 2001. This angle
illustrates how the heavy
747-400 can be in the "rotate"
position and be nowhere near
any danger of brushing its
lower real fuselage against the
concrete. One separated from
the pavement, the 16 wheels on
4 main-wheel bogies simply
dangle at a downward angle/
controlled by nothing other
than gravity. (Sunil Gupta)

The belly of the beast:


Virgin Atlantic bares its
underside at Chicago
O'Hare in April 2000.
This view accents the doors
that close over the two
inboard (fuselage) main
wheel units, seen almost
completely retracted after
the two outboard (wing)
main wheel assemblies
have already been
completely closed up.
(Tom Pesch)

"Mega Ark" is
Singapore Airlines'
name for its freighter
versions of the Boeing
747-400/ including this
example visiting
Chicago O'Hare in
August 1998. This
aircraft is Boeing 747-
412F line number 1036.
cln 26563/ first flown
on July 8, 1994 and
registered as
9V-SFA with Singapore.
(Nate Leong)

BOEING
747-400 69
All Nippon's
colorful aircraft
named for the
children's game
Pokemon operates at
Washington Dulles
in June 2000. This
aircraft is Boeing
747-481, line
number 979, c/n
25645, registered as
JA8962, first flown
on May 19, 1993.
(Alex Hrapunov)

Perhaps inspired by Japan Airlines'


success with its aircraft dedicated to
the Pokemon comic strip and
children's game, Cathay Pacific tried
its own version ofa kids' paint
scheme with its "Same Team, Same
Dream" color design. This phrase
refers, in part, to Hong Kong's
reversion to China in 1999.
Apparently the most recent photos
appearing in this volume, these
December 16, 2001 portraits were
snapped at the new Hong Kong
airport. The aircraft is Boeing
747-467, line number 877, c/n 24955,
which has been flying since September
11, 1991 and bears civil registry
VR-HOXfor Cathay. (Sunil Gupta)

As if to compete
with All Nippon's
Pokemon scheme for
the claim to most
colorful 747-400, the
jetliner's launch
Ai customer,
Northwest,
celebrated 50 years
of Pacific operations
by emblazoning
children's art on this
ship, known as the
"Worldplane. " The
name is no accident, since Northwest is seeking a global image having long ago shed the name Northwest Orient. The aircraft
actually is Northwest Airlines' Boeing 747-451 line number 802, c/n 24225, registered as N670US and first flown on August
31, 1990. The location is the Netherlands' Schipol Airport. (Andre Ran)

...
70 AIRLINER TECH
1
With both leading- and trail-
ing-edge flaps extended as it
climbs in the early moments
following landing-gear
retraction, a Qantas 747-438
lifts offfrom Farnborough,
England, in September 1994.
(Dave Willis)

One of six aircraft with a Disney


theme, labeled "JAL Dream Express,"
and painted to mark Japan Airlines'
50th anniversary in 2001, and seen
here at Haneda, the domestic airport
near Tokyo, in August of that year.
Note the tail markings, which include
a silhouette of a twin-engined
Convair, JAL's first aircraft. JA8083
is winglet-less Boeing 747-446D, line
number 844, c/n 25213, delivered to
the Japanese carrier for domestic
operations following its first flight on
March 15, 1991. (Sunil Gupta)

"The Dream Express" is the name on the nose and the theme of the color scheme of at least six domestic 747-400s painted with
Disney characters to mark Japan Airlines' 50th anniversary in 2001. Seen in August 2001 at Haneda Airport, the domestic
airfield for Tokyo is the cartoon-festooned Boeing 747-446D line number 978, c/n 26352, which first flew on May 11,1993, and
is registered as JA8908. (Sunil Gupta)

BOEING
747-400 71
The first Dash Four
Hundred plies the sky
near Seattle. Line
number 696, cln 23719,
registered as N401PW,
began the flying career of
the new airliner series.
Powered by Pratt &
Whitney PW4056
turbofan engines, the
first ship was destined for
Northwest Airlines
following a rigorous
flight test program.
(Boeing)

Boeing 747-406 Combi


line number 737, cln
24001, registered as
PH-BFD, named "City of
Dubai, " and operated by
KLM Airlines. The
aircraft is landing at
Baltimore-Washington
International Airport,
Maryland, on May 12,
1991. (Joseph G.
Handelman)

Seen on approach at
London Heathrow, a
British Airways Boeing
747-400 displays one
variation of the so-called
"Utopia" paint scheme
introduced a year early
(at the start of 2000) to
mark the millennium. It
was widely criticized by
employees and
enthusiasts as not
projecting the best image
for the United Kingdom's
flag carrier.
(Michael Shayler)

72 AIRLINER TECH
747-400 IRLINES
TODAY AND TOMORROW

·•I.'•n a time.o~ turmoil, the,makeup have [both] high passenger and largest airline. Formerly known as
! of any aIrlme company s fleet- cargo demand." Air Canada's initial
,"·jindeed, the very existence of PW4056-powered Dash Four Hun-
CAAC (Civil Aviation Administra-
tion of China), this world-class
just about any airline-is subject to dreds were early to enter service, domestic and international carrier
change from one day to the next. beginning in June 1991. has a long history of close ties with
The Boeing 747-400 population is Air Canada has numerous other Boeing, dating to before the Tianan-
more stable than airline fleets gener- aircraft types, but has retired its three men Square incident of 1989, which
ally. Still, any description of the "classic" 747-100 and three 747-200 strained ties between the United
Dash Four Hundred in airline ser- Combi models. Its first example of States and the PRe.
vice is going to be incomplete and the newer version was Boeing 747- Air China operated a mixed
subject to change. 433 Combi I line number 840, c/n assortment of "classic" 747 airliners
In the narrative that follows, a 24998, registered as C-GAGL, which before September 10, 1989 when its
brief discussion is offered for most first flew on February 15, 1991 and first aircraft (Boeing 747-4J6 Combi,
airline companies that operate, or was delivered to the carrier in June. line number 745, constructor's num-
operated, the 747-400. It must be Air Canada's paint scheme includes ber 24346) arrived to join the fleet.
emphasized that every sentence of an all-blue fin surrounding a promi- After three Combis were operating
this narrative is subject to change. nent maple leap in red. on its routes, the carrier ordered five
Since there are fine reference all-passenger models, and subse-
works which list airline fleets by car- AIR CHINA quently two more, bringing its total
rier (IP Airline Fleets, for one) and inventory of Dash Four Hundreds to
since this volume includes a com- Air China, which is headquar- ten aircraft. Air China employs a rel-
plete production list (see Appendix tered at Beijing Capital Airport, is the atively innocuous paint scheme that
B), this chapter does not attempt to flag carrier for the Peoples Republic includes a white upper deck and a
list the individual airliners in every of China (PRC), and is also China's stylized peacock image on the tail.
carrier's livery. A few airline fleet
lists are provided as illustrative.

AIR CANADA

Air Canada, the national carrier


for the Unites States' northern neigh-
bor with headquarters in Montreal,
initially operated three Boeing 747-
400 Combi aircraft. Air Canada took
over the assets of Canadian Airlines
resulting from a buyout offer of
December 1999. The airline says the
Dash Four Hundred serves as "the
anchor of the Air Canada widebody
fleet." Air Canada's Combi seating
accommodates up to 296 passengers
in a two-class-configuration as well When it came to casting its lot with the Dash Four Hundred, government-
as seven pallets of cargo on the main subsidized Air France voted early and often. F-GITB is a Boeing 747-428 Combi,
deck, so company policy is that the line number 843, c/n 24990 and is beginning to pull in its wheels during a
Combi "is utilized on routes that February 13, 1999 takeoff (Michael Shayler)

BOEING
141-400 73
Air China has been the flag carrier of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) since 1988. This aircraft, with the carrier's name
appearing in both romanized and Chinese characters, is typical of the fleet. This aircraft a 747-4J6, line number 904,
constructor's number 25879, registered as B-2464. The "B-" prefix is also used by Taiwan and carriers based in Hong Kong,
which, of course, includes Cathay Pacific. Airport vehicles give a good perspective of the size of the Dash Four Hundred with
its fuselage length of 231 feet 10 inches (70.66 meters). (via Michael Stroud)

AIR FRANCE 400s in its own livery. The current AIR INDIA
Air France paint scheme is a simple
Air France's Boeing fleet, which white design with a blue, white, and Air India, with headquarters at
includes 737s, 747s, 767s, and 777s, red tricolor fin flash. Nariman Point, Mumbai, has
is one of the largest in Europe. One 747-428 built for Air France cemented its reputation as a world-
Among its 38 in-service 747s are 11 was stored in the Arizona desert for class international carrier with its
747-200 Freighters and 13 747-400s. several months, then transferred to fleet of six all-passenger 747-400s,
In early 2001, the carrier, which calls Royal Air Maroc, the Moroccan car- the first of which entered service in
itself the fourth largest freight hauler rier with which Air France has close July 1993. Air India officials say
in the world, added 2 long-range economic links. Air France has expe- they are often overlooked in the
747-400F freighters to its order book. rienced just one fatality in 747-400 West which seems not to notice, for
Air France had been the launch cus- operations: on September 5, 1996 example, their claim to be the
tomer for the freighter when it con- near Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, world's first all-jet airline (as of
tracted for 5 in September 1989, but severe turbulence associated with a June 1962). The first of their Dash
it later acquired Combis instead. weather front seriously injured three Four Hundreds, Boeing 747-437 line
In December 1992, Air France of the 206 passengers. One of the number 987, c/n 27078, registered
absorbed the French carrier UTA three passengers later died of as VT-ESM, made its initial flight
(Union de Transports Aeriens) that injuries caused by an in-flight enter- on July 2, 1993, and entered service
had briefly operated a pair of 774- tainment screen. later that month.

..
74 AIRLIlVERTECH
1
Air India's long-haul 747-400
routes are flown with provision for
435 passengers, including 16 in first
class, 34 in business class ("execu-
tive" class, including seating in the
stretched upper deck), and 385 in
economy.

AIR NAMIBIA

Air Namibia, located at Wind-


hoek, operates a single Boeing 747-
400M Combi aircraft (line number
c/n 28551 V5-NMA named Wel-
witschia, the former Asiana HL7428)
in addition to two 747SP models.

AIR NEW ZEALAND British Airways has a long tradition of satisfied service with Boeing products,
and was an early purchaser of the 747-400. BA's aircraft were delivered
Air New Zealand, headquar- beginning in mid-1989 in the carrier's pearl gray/blue color scheme, and began to
tered in Auckland, was an early receive the current mix of "flag" and "world" color schemes a decade later. This
Dash Four Hundred user. After suc- Dash Four Hundred is lifting offfrom London's Heathrow International Airport
cess with five 747-200 "classic" in 1998. (Jim Winchester)
models dating to 1981, the airline
made its initial 1993 purchase of 747-400 in 1995, with the new cheatline. The first aircraft was
three Rolls-Royce-powered airlin- model being displayed in a new liv- 747-built for Varig. The second was
ers. The airline began to utilize the ery, including a blue green fuselage 747-475. Three more 747-419 models

Seen on a visit to Chicago's O'Hare International Airport, this aircraft typifies Air India's fleet. This is Boeing 747-437 line
number 1009, c/n 27165, registered as VT-ESO, named Khajuraho, and operated on Air India's long-haul passenger routes.
This airframe completed its initial flight on November 30, 1993. (Nate Leong)

BOEING
141-400 75
are currently in the fleet.
In May 1998 Air New Zealand
announced the sale of its -200 "clas-
sic" aircraft to Virgin Atlantic, with
the aircraft to be delivered between
1999 and 2001. In 1998, the airline
leased a 747-4F6 (c/n 27602), which
had once been intended for Philip-
pine Airlines but could not be taken
up by that carrier. This completed
the airline's second batch of three
Dash Four Hundreds, all departing
from Commonwealth practice by
relying on General Electric CF6-
80C20B1F engines for power. This
arrangement offers commonality
A recent portrait of an airborne Dash Four Hundred serving the largest cargo with Air New Zealand's four leased
carrier in the world. This is Boeing 747-48UF, line number 1240, c/n 29260, Boeing 767s. The airline added a
registered as N499MC which made its first flight on February 17, 2000. Some fourth GE-powered craft in 1999,
Atlas Air freightliners are leased to other carriers and carry the markings of those bringing its Dash Four Hundred
airlines, but most are now attired in the paint scheme shown. (Atlas Air) fleet to seven aircraft.

In February 200t a Malaysia Airlines 747-400 snuggles up to the jetbridge at gate D4 of Tullamarine International Airport,
Melbourne, Australia. Everything is hanging out here, the big jetliner in "down" configuration waiting to be stocked with
food, supplies, and people. (Jim Winchester)

..
76 AIRLIlVERTECH
l
ALL NIPPON AIRWAYS

All Nippon Airways (ANA),


headquartered in Tokyo, seemed for
a time to be gaining international
business at the expense of rival
Japan Airlines (a move helped by
partial deregulation in 1997), and to
be giving ground on the domestic
front where it once dominated. ANA
began Dash Four Hundred opera-
tions in 1990, initially with the pas-
senger and special domestic models
but with the option of converting
the domestic aircraft to international
duties. With the arrival of a new
century, however, ANA's focus
returned to domestic operations.
In May 2001, ANA contracted
with Boeing to convert two Dash
Four Hundreds back from the inter- Bangkok-based Thai International assigned the designation 747-407 to the Dash
national configuration to the domes- Four Hundred models operating on its international routes. This aircraft is line
tic configuration, converting the air- number 769, c/n 24458, registered as HS- TGH, which made its first flight on
craft from a three-class, 367-seat con- February 21, 1990
figuration to a two-class, 569-seat lay-
out. The reconfiguration primarily
involves removing the winglets and
installing wingtips, as well as modi-
fying the cabin interior with new pas-
senger and attendant seats, in-flight
entertainment systems, galleys, lava-
tories, floor coverings, closets, and
stowage units. With a new interior
layout and modified wing structure,
ANA's 747-400s will be ready for
high-cycle, increased density, domes-
tic routes in Japan. The first aircraft
was delivered to Boeing's Wichita,
Kansas, facility for modification in
September and was re-delivered in
December 2001. The second airplane
should arrive in Wichita in January
2002 and be re-delivered to ANA in
April 2002.
In total, All Nippon Airways
currently operates 111 Boeing jetlin-
ers, including 37 747s, 21 777s and
53 767s. Earlier this year, ANA
ordered an additional 9 767s for A pair of British Airways 747-436 passenger aircraft, parked nose to nose outside
delivery during the airline's fiscal the Museum of Flight in Boeing's home town of Seattle, Washington. Apparent
year 2002. ANA has come up with from this angle is the high incidence of the swept wing. (via Michael Stroud)

BOEING
77
141-40~
one of the most colorful of Dash
Four Hundreds, honoring the chil-
dren's game Pokemon.

ASIANA

Asiana, with its home in Seoul,


is recovering from South Korea's
economic downturn. At one point it
boasted a fleet of about four dozen
aircraft including three 747-400
Combi, five 747-48E passenger, and
three 747-400F freighters, although
the prospects for pending orders for
two more 747-400 passenger craft
are unclear. One of this carrier's air-
craft has changed owners and
belongs to Air Namibia.

ATLAS AIR

Atlas Air, founded in April 1992


The old and the new: United Airlines' old paint scheme (white top; red, white, and is the world's largest air cargo carri-
blue cheatline; larger stylized "U" on the fin) went out only a couple of years after er and specializes in the long-term
the Boeing 747-400 came in, so very few Dash Four Hundreds have been portrayed contract outsourcing of 747-400 and
in print wearing these colors. The new scheme (blue bottom, fin, and nacelles, gray 747-200 aircraft. Prior to acquiring
top, red cheatline) was the original paint scheme for many of the Dash Four Polar Air as announced on July 12,
Hundreds in the hard-working United fleet. (Tom Pesch) 2001, the company had 26 "classic"

78 AIRLINER TECH
we; ... _I
747 models, plus 12 Dash Four Hun- in their paint schemes, an example
dreds, known as 747-47UF models. being China Airlines Cargo. The following partial list gives the
The company is in the process of more popular names assigned to
replacing three-pilot 747-200s with BRITISH AIRWAYS some British Airways 747-436 air-
newer but smaller, two-pilot aircraft liners:
while continuing to acquire 747-400s. British Airways (BA), the succes-
A November 2000 contract with sor to BOAC (British Overseas Air- G-BNLB 23909 City of Edinburgh
Boeing for four new 747-400F ways Corporation), which hangs its G-BNLC 23910 City of Cardiff
freighters, due for delivery in late corporate hat in London, BA was the G-BNLE 24047 City of Newcastle
2002, was expected to make Atlas second customer for the RB.211-pow- G-BNLG 24049 Whale Rider
Air the largest freighter operator in ered version, Cathay Pacific being G-BNLH 24050 City of Westminster
the world even before the Polar Air the first. The airline committed itself G-BNLL 24054 City of Leicester
merger. At the start of 2001, the com- to purchase 57 747-400 passenger G-BNLN 24056 Nalanji Dreaming
pany made arrangements to delay airliners and a single 747-400F G-BNLO 24057 Emmy Masanabo
the delivery of these four aircraft. freighter. The first two BA 747-436s G-BNLP 24058 City of Aberdeen
The carrier claims that the 747- to be delivered (line number 727, c/n G-BNLR 24447 City ofHull
400 offers the lowest ton-mile costs 23908, registered G-BNLA, and line G-BNLT 24630 City of Bangor
and longest range of any production number 734, c/n 23910, registered as G-BNLW 25432 City of Norwich
freighter and is able to carry 124 G-BNLC) arrived simultaneously in G-BNLZ 27091 City of Perth
tons (113,000 kilograms) of cargo up 1989 at London's Heathrow Interna- G-BYGA 28855 Chelsea Rose
to 4,455 miles (7,170 kilometers). tional Airport on their delivery G-CIVC 25812 City of St. Andrews
Atlas Air operates many of its flights, landing together on the air- G-CIVG 25815 City of Wells
747-400F freighters for other carriers port's parallel runways.

The high perch of the 747-400's two pilots provides excellent forward vision but, as this angle illustrates, they do not have an
all-around view, and must rely on familiar tools in airport traffic. This Cathay Pacific 747-467 is following the painted stripe
on the pavement, as well as voice instructions, at London's Heathrow International Airport, heading out on August 16, 1997.
Cathay has since adopted a different paint scheme. (Dave Willis)

BOEING
141-400 79
British Airways has a number of BRUNEI GOVERNMENT 300Ers, and 10 Douglas DC-I0-30s.
Dash Four Hundreds known as In December 1999, Air Canada
"lites" because they are certified for The Brunei government pur- offered to purchase Canadian; the
a lower maximum takeoff weight of chased its sole Boeing 747-430, pow- following year the merger was com-
840,000 pounds (381,015 kilograms). ered by GE CF6-80C2 engines, in pleted and Canadian effectively
These lack the crew rest facilities of April 1992 (line number 910, c/n ceased to exist as a separate carrier.
other Dash Four Hundreds and so 26426 ex-N6009F, ex-D-ABVM, reg-
are limited to ll-hour sectors. istered in Brunei as A8-ALl). The CARGOLUX
Great Britain was one of the aircraft was nominally built to the
three European JAR nations that same standard as Lufthansa Dash Cargolux, the freight hauler
refused to certify the Dash Four Four Hundreds, but outsiders are headquartered in Luxembourg, pur-
Hundred a week before the first air- rarely invited to view its interior. chased 12 Boeing 747-400F freighters,
craft was due to be delivered to beginning with a delivery in Novem-
DLH. In recent years, BA began CANADIAN ber 1993. The fleet consists of a mix
swapping its 747 options for 777s as of GE- and Rolls-Royce-powered air-
the -400s are just too big for its pro- Canadian Airlines International, craft. More than four years after the
jected markets. headquartered in Alberta, Calgary, first passenger-carrying 747-400 took
To greet a new century and mil- received the first of its quartet of to the skies, the very first Dash Four
lennium (beginning a year early on GE-powered 747-475 models in late Hundred freighter model operated
January I, 2000), British Air intro- 1990. The first ship was Boeing 747- by any carrier (although, in fact, the
duced its "Utopia" paint scheme 475 line number 823, c/n 24883, reg- second built) was Cargolux's Boeing
with new colors and, in many cases, istered as C-GMWW, which made 747-4R7 line number 1002, c/n
individually decorated tails-a con- its initial fligpt on November 6, 25866, registered as LX-FCV, which
troversial move even among its 1990. The carrier also operated 43 completed its first flight on October
employees. Boeing 737-200s, 11 Boeing 767- 30,1993.

Malaysia wears its national flag on its forward fuselage, which, from a distance, could be mistaken for the U.S. flag.
(via Michael Stroud)

80 AIRLINER TECH
-, CATHAY PACIFIC
Cathay's 747-400 purchases:
Hong Kong-based Cathay Pacif-
ic signed on early for the Rolls- 747-467 705 23814 VR-HOO 747-467 937 25873 VR-HUB
Royce-powered 747-400 and 747-467 728 23815 VR-HOP 747-467 949 25874 VR-HUD
received its first 747-436 (the second 747-467 771 24631 VR-HOR 747-467 970 27117 VR-HUE
ship ordered) line number 728, c/n 747-467 788 24850 VR-HOS 747-467 993 25869 VR-HUF
23815, registered as VR-HOP on 747-467 813 24851 VR-HOT 747-467 1007 25870 VR-HUG
June 8. 1989. The airline discarded is 747-467 834 24925 VR-HOU 747-467 1020 27175 VR-HUH
stodgy green and white paint 747-467 849 25082 VR-HOV 747-467 1033 27230 VR-HUI
scheme soon afterward for its cur- 747-467 873 25211 VR-HOW 747-467 1061 27595 VR-HU]
rent subdued, blue-gray scheme. 747-467 877 24955 VR-HOX 747-467F 1065 27503 VR-HUK
Cathay has suffered a painful 747-467 887 25351 VR-HOY 747-467F 1255 30804 VR-HUL
decline in traffic since the British 747-467 925 25871 VR-HOZ 747-467F 1271 32571 B-HUO
colonial authorities turned Hong 747-467 930 25872 VR-HUA 747-467F 1282 30805 B-HUP
Kong over to China in 1997. In
December 2001, Cathay announced
plans to store an unspecific number were changed to B- registries when Four Hundred aircraft-the Novem-
of 747-400s at Avalon Airfield near Hong Kong reverted to China. ber 4, 1993 crash at Hong Kong's
Melbourne, Australia. It is unclear Kaitak Airport of 747-409 line num-
how many of its 19 passenger 747- CHINA ber 977, c/n 24313, registered as
467s and 2 747-467F freighters (inher- B-165, which had made its first flight
ited from Air Hong Kong) they can China Airlines, the carrier for only on May 6 of that year.
continue to operate. The status of 2 Taiwan, which calls itself Nationalist Although not all may be in use
additional freighters is unclear. Rolls- China, is headquartered in Taipei. today, China Airlines has taken
Royce engines power the entire fleet. The airline had the misfortune of receipt of 12 more P & W-powered
The VR- registrations of the aircraft suffering the first loss of a Dash 747-409 passenger aircraft and 7 GE-

A superb portrait of a freighter: Seen during an August 20, 2001 visit to Chicago 0 'Hare is China Airlines Cargo Boeing
747-409F line number 1269, c/n 30764, registered as B-18707, which made its first flight only on April 11, 2001. Like all
747-400 freighters, this one was built without the stretched upper deck found on passenger versions. (Nate Leong)

BOEING
141-400 81
powered 747-409F freighters, in
addition to freighters operated on China's remaining fleet, including engine type, delivery dates, and reg-
the carrier's behalf by Atlas Air. Two istry at the time of delivery:
further 747-409F freighters were
once on order but never delivered. 747-409 1114 28709 PW4056 OS/29/97 B-18201
747-409 1132 28710 PW4056 10/22/97 B-18202
ELAt 747-409 1136 28711 PW4056 12/05/97 B-18302
747-409 1137 28712 PW4056 12/18/97 B-18205
El Al Israel Airlines, headquar- 747-409 1145 29030 PW4056 02/25/98 B-18206
tered at Tel Aviv, has a diverse fleet 747-409 1176 29219 PW4056 09/26/98 B-18207
of 32 airliners including 10 747 "clas- 747-409 1186 29031 PW4056 11/20/98 B-18208
sics," but this national carrier initial- 747-409 1219 29906 PW4056 06/25/99 B-18209
ly ordered just 3 Pratt & Whitney- 747-409 1063 27965 PW4056 06/14/95 B-18251
powered 747-400 models. The first 747-409 766 24309 PW4056 02/08/90 B-18271
ship was 747-458 line number 1027 747-409 778 24310 PW4056 03/27/90 B-18272
c/n 26055 registered as 4X-ELA, first 747-409 869 24311 PW4056 08/14/91 B-18273
flown on April 11, 1994 and deliv- 747-409 954 24312 PW4056 01/11/93 B-18275
ered to the Israeli carrier at Tel 747-409F 1249 30759 CF6-80C 07/06/00 B-18701
Aviv's Ben Gurion Airport on April 747-409F 1252 30760 CF6-80C 07/28/00 B-18702
27. At the turn of the century, El Al 747-409F 1254 30761 CF6-80C 08/19/00 B-18703
belatedly added a fourth Dash Four 747-409F 1263 30762 CF-6-80C 02/09/01 B-18705
Hundred to its fleet. Like many car- 747-409F 1267 30763 CF-6-80C 03/02/01 B-18706
riers, El Al appears to be bypassing 747-409F 1269 30764 CF-6-80C 04/11/01 B-18707
the 747-400 in its future plans for 747-409F 1288 30765 CF-6-80C 11/16/01 B-18708
international operations, having

"Mega Ark" is Singapore Airlines' term for its freighter versions of the Boeing 747-400, including this example visiting
Chicago O'Hare on November 20,2001. This aircraft is Boeing 747-412F line number 1036. c/n 26563, first flown on July 8,
1994 and registered as 9V-SFA with Singapore. (Nate Leong)

82 AIRLINER TECH
decided to introduce three long- Virgin Atlantic has had several paint schemes on its Boeing 747-400s, two of which
range Boeing 777-200ER models into are seen here at Washington D.C.'s Dulles International Airport in the year 2000.
its fleet. This pair of examples consists of G- VFAB, alias Lady Penelope and G- VHOT,
dubbed Tubular Belle. (Alex Hrapunov)
EVA

A passenger and cargo carrier


based in Taiwan and endangered
more than most by the worldwide
airline slump, EVA Air operates 37
aircraft, including 15 Boeing 747-400
passenger aircraft, 12 MD-lls, 4
B767-200s, 4 B767-300ERs, and 2
B747-400 freighters. The carrier will
add its third B747-400 freighter in
2002, followed in 2003 by the first of
8 Airbus A330-200s, and in 2005 by
the first of as many as 15 advanced,
long-range B777-200LR/-300ERs.
Typical of this carrier's opera-
tions, EVA Air's Vancouver-Taipei
flights are operated using Boeing
747-400 aircraft in an all-passenger

BOEING
141-400 83
One of six aircraft with a Disney theme, labeled "JAL Dream Express, n and painted to mark Japan Airlines' 50th anniversary
in 2001, and seen here at Haneda, the domestic airport near Tokyo, in August of that year. Note the tail markings, which
include a silhouette of a twin-engined Convair, JACs first aircraft. Japan is the largest 747-400 operator and JA8904 is Boeing
747-4460 line number 941, c/n 26348, first flown on October I, 1992. (Sunil Gupta)

84 AIRLINER TECH
Not often seen in print because it operates solely on domestic routes within Japan, "Pocket Monsters" is All Nippon Airways'
version of a 747-400 adorned with Pokemon cartoon characters for kids. The aircraft is winglet-less Boeing 747-4810 line
number 996, cln 27163, first flown on September 7, 1993. (Sunil Gupta)

BOEING
741-400 85
configuration of 342 seats. EVA Air
offers four classes of service: Super
First (12 seats), Super Business (34
seats), Economy (128 seats) and
what it calls Evergreen Deluxe Class
(168 seats) featuring a seating con-
figuration usually found only in
business class: personal seat-back
TV, satellite telephones, 38-inch seat
pitch, and deeper, wider seats.

GARUDA

Headquartered in Jakarta, Garu-


da Indonesia is the national airline
of Indonesia and owned by that
country's government. Garuda and
its subsidiaries operate over 100 air-
craft including 3 CF6-80C2B1F-pow-
ered 747-400C airliners configured
for 405 seats (32-inch pitch in econo-
my class) on its longest-haul flights
Malaysia Airlines operating at Hong Kong. (Sunil Gupta) . and complementing the carrier's

-'

. . . . . . . . . . _~
.......'t!.':9!'? ~f(,q,!!..~f~.......... III
." "1""}
••• I I
~=..==~ .i..J • ~ -- .

The young lady on the nose of Tubular Belle is directing Virgin Atlantic's two pilots toward the gate at Washington D.C's
Dulles International Airport in August 2000. Tubular Belle is Boeing 747-4Q8, line number 1043, c/n 26326, first flown on
September 26, 1994 and registered as G- VHOT. (Bill Crimmins)

86
..
AIRLINER TECH
United Airlines Boeing 747-4225
operating at Chicago O'Hare.
(Tom Pesch)

BOEING
1 -400 87
ment acquired two Boeing 747-47C
VIP transports-newer and longer-
legged than the pair of "classics"
assigned to the U.S. president. Japan
took delivery of the first aircraft in
September 1991 and the second in
November of that year. The aircraft
are mostly white with red cheatline,
and carry the national insignia (hino-
maru) on the fin. Line number 816,
c/n 24730, registered as JA 8091 has
been assigned Japan Air Defense
Force serial 20-1101. Line number
839, c/n 24731, registered as JA 8092,
Boeing 747-458, line number 1027, c/n 26055, first flown on November 4, 1994, is JASDF serial number 20-1102. The
and registered as 4X-ELA with Israel's EI Al Airlines operates at Newark, New JASDF took over operation of Japan's
Jersey, airport in October 1997. (Sunil Gupta) VIP flight on April 1, 1992. The air-
craft are operated by No. 701 Hiko-
half-dozen 747 "classics." Although 38 747-400 and 400D (domestic) air- tai (squadron) at Chitose on Japan's
the carrier had two additional Dash craft. After many years of being easternmost island of Hokkaido.
Four Hundreds on order as recently known primarily for its overseas
as 2001, with economic woes setting routes, JAL has grabbed a significant KLM
in the delivery of these aircraft was chunk of the r;lomestic air travel
problematical. market in Japan. KLM claims to be the world's
oldest airline, and is still operating
JAPAN AIRLINES JAPAN GOVERNMENT under its original name. The carrier
operates 10 aircraft types. The carri-
Headquartered in Tokyo, Japan Japan is the only nation in the er operates 21 Dash Four Hundreds,
Airlines operates the world's largest world with a more advanced aircraft dating to 1989, including 5 747-406
fleet of 747s, including approximate- for its head of government than the passenger aircraft configured for up
ly 40 "classics" of several types and United States. The Japanese govern- to 436 passengers and 16 747-406C
Combis. KLM is currently reconfig-
uring many aircraft in its fleet to
accommodate more business class
seats, each with a personal satellite
telephone. KLM's corporate offices
are in Amsterdam.

KUWAIT

Long before Kuwait was liberat-


ed by U.S. troops and an internation-
al coalition in 1991, Kuwait Airways
had been a familiar operator of "clas-
sic" variants of Boeing's best-known
jetliner, in addition to several other
types. The carrier's home office is in
Kuwait City. Kuwait Airways has
just one aircraft in the Dash Four
The rarely seen and now-defunct Ansett Australia, operating at Hong Kong. Hundred series, Boeing 747-469 line
(Sunil Gupta) number 1046, c/n 27338, registered

88
..
AIRLINER TECH
as 9K-ADE, which made its first users of the Boeing 747-400, as well LUFTHANSA
flight on October 28, 1994. The air- as one of the earliest. Korean has
craft wears a distinctive white color ordered no fewer than 33 Dash Four With home offices in Cologne
scheme with blue trim and bears the Hundreds, including a Combi and and a history that dates to 1917,
carrier's name in Arabic and English two freighters. The passenger air- Lufthansa was the lead customer
lettering. craft are operated with at least two for General Electric engines on the
distinctive seating configurations. 747-400 and operates both passen-
KOREAN The first of the distinctive pale ger routes and the cargo and char-
blue aircraft to reach Korean was the ter services of Condor Flugdienset,
Headquartered in Seoul and hit 16th Dash Four Hundred off the its subsidiary.
especially hard by the world eco- Everett production line, this being The first 747-400 to reach Europe
nomic slump (and, unlike Asiana, Boeing 747-4B5line number 729, c/n was Lufthansa's 747-430 line num-
possessing little clout with President 24198, registered as HL7477, which ber 723, c/n 23816, registered as
Kim Tae-chung), Korean Airlines has was first flown on May 13, 1989, and D-ANVA, which first flew on April
parked as many aircraft as it flies, was delivered to Korean on June 14 21, 1989 and was delivered to the
yet remains one of the most visible of that year. German carrier on May 23,1989

Pacific Northwest author, photographer, and historian Jim Goodall was granted unusual access to the Everett factory to train
his camera on 747-400 airliners being assembled. In addition to Jim's shots seen earlier in this volume, these are additional
views of the main landing gear units on the Dash Four Hundred. The aircraft has four main trucks offour wheels each, two
located beneath the fuselage and two beneath the inner wing. (James C. Goodall)

BOEING
89
141-4~O
Lufthansa ultimately purchased 20
passenger aircraft and 6 Combis/
while Condor, which has separate
offices in Munich, operates at least 2
747-430s of its own and frequently
borrows the Lufthansa aircraft.
Although Lufthansa was the
first customer for the CF6-powered
version of the Dash Four Hundred
(which made its first flight on June
27, 1988) it was not, however, the
first to take delivery of the GE-pow-
ered version. That was KLM on May
18, 1989, followed by Lufthansa five
days later.
The launch customer for the 747-400, Northwest Airlines has taken the aircraft all In November 2001 Lufthansa
over its route system. This is Boeing 747-451 line number 803/ cln 24224, confirmed that it intends to acquire
registered as N669US, which made its first flight on August 20,1990, and has been 15 Airbus A380 superjumbos-a
serving with Northwest ever since. (Andre Ran) major blow to Boeing and to likely
future 747-400 sales.
A new livery for the 1990s the new livery emphasized this. The
appeared on Lufthansa's newly birdonthefinofLufthansa'saircraft MALAYSIA
delivered Boeings. In keeping with is a stylized c~ane-a big/ elegant
other airlines the new livery was a bird that flies great distances. Malaysia has offices in Kuala
minimalist white fuselage although Lufthansa was one of the very first Lumpur and is yet another of the
the fin design remained much the 747-100 "classicI! customers and an many national carriers pounded by
same. The circular fin logo had early Dash Four Hundred customer, worldwide economic problems. The
always had an outer yellow ring and ordering 15 aircraft in May 1986. Malaysia Airlines System (MAS) has
had 21747-400 aircraft on order or in
service at one time or another
although the maximum number in
use at anyone time appears to be 13.
General Electric engines power 19 of
Malaysia's aircraft and Pratt & Whit-
ney power the remaining 2.
Malaysia has stored or disposed
of possibly as many as 8 747-400s,
including 2 Combis that went to Fiji
International Airlines. Malaysia's
MASKargo freight-hauling sub-
sidiary may no longer be operating
its sole, leased 747-400 freighter. As
of late 2001, among 97 aircraft of all
types serving 100 destinations on six
continents, the airline said it was still
using 13 747-4H6Ps with an average
This overall view is of the final assembly area in Bay 2 at Everett. This 747-400 is age of 5.7 years and 2 747-4H6Cs
receiving final attention that will bring it up to "green" condition, meaning that it with an average age of 11.6 years.
will be ready for painting. The Everett facility has no ceiling feature lower than 80 The airline has a straightforward
feet (24.38 meters), which makes the spacious assembly area easily able to handle paint scheme with a red and blue
the 747-400's height of 64 feet 3 inches (19.06 meters). Games c. Goodall) cheatline, white top, and stylized

90
..
AIRLIlVERTECH
offices, in Manila, Philippine Air-
lines was facing a questionable
future when this volume went to
press. The carrier has four 747-400s.
The first to be received by the carri-
er, in 1995, was Boeing 747-4F6 line
number 1,012, c/n 27262 registered
as N725PR, which had made its first
flight on December 14, 1993.
Philippine has 34 aircraft alto-
gether, including the four Boeing
747-400s, three 747-200s, and a mix
of Airbus 340-300s, 330-300s, 737-
400s, and 737-300s. Philippines' air-
craft are all white with a four-color
sunburst design on the fin.
In the Everett assembly shop, this is a head-on study in contrast: although the
hinged radome at the nose cone of the 747-400 is huge, the radar antenna housed QANTAS
inside (bottom center) is remarkably small. The extra, unused space within the
confines of the radome is the result of miniaturization. Barely visible in the Qantas (the word comes from
background (right) is a poster based on a u.s. postage stamp devoted to "jumbo Queensland and Northern Territory
jets." Games c. Goodall) Aerial Services) is Australia's nation-
al carrier, headquartered at Mascot,
bird on the fin, and has set aside PHILIPPINE New South Wales, and is a content-
plans for a more elaborate fin design ed user of 21 Boeing 747-400s,
celebrating the Malay god Sraimbon. The national carrier of the viewed as ideal for the high-volume,
Philippines, dating to 1941 with long-distance routes into the land
NORTHWEST AIRLINES

Launch customer for the Dash


Four Hundred, Northwest Airlines
operates from St. Paul, Minnesota, in
the United States, and has 14 747-
400s in its large, diverse fleet, all
with a 418-seat configuration. The
fleet also includes 33 "classics,"
including a dozen freighters. With
its familiar layered red, gray, and
blue paint scheme, Northwest
(which no longer calls itself North-
west Orient) got into the Dash Four
Hundre<t~;:siness with an October
1985 aircraft order.
The first aircraft received by Lufthansa Airlines' flight to Munich is lifting offfrom Washington D.C's Dulles
Northwest was actually the third International Airport, circa. 2001. The aircraft is no more than 50 feet (15.24
ordered by the carrier. This was 747- meters) off the ground, yet the four mainwheel trucks are already far advanced in
451 line number 715, c/n 23818, reg- the retraction sequence. Boeing 747-430 line number 1109, c/n 28286, alias
istered as N663US, which made its D-ABVS maintains a comfortable, nose-down attitude providing optimum comfort
first flight at Renton, Washington, for passengers, but with a combined thrust of over 220,000 pounds (99,800
on December 8, 1988 and was deliv- kilograms) emanating from its four GE turbofan engines, the aircraft is already
ered on January 26,1989. climbing rapidly. (Bill Crimmins)

BOEING
91
141-400
gapore operated for 28 years with-
out an accident until October 31,
2000 when flight 006, daily service
from Singapore to Los Angeles via
Taipei, crashed on takeoff from
Taipei's Chang Kai Shek Internation-
al Airport in poor visibility.
Approaching 140 knots, the
747-400 impacted construction vehi-
cles, breaking its fuselage into three
parts and igniting a large post-crash
fire. Press reports indicated the
flight crew had inadvertently begun
their takeoff roll on the wrong run-
A KLM aircraft at altitude, with the wings displaying medium to high dihedral, way. The mishap aircraft was Boeing
meaning there is plenty of fuel left of the airliner's total capacity of 58,768 747-412 line number 1099, c/n
U.S. gallons (229,900 liters). Registered as PH-BFB, this is Boeing 747-406 line 28023, registered as 9V-SPK.
number 732, with the beautifully even constructor's number 24000; an early ship
on the assembly line, this aircraft made its initial flight on May 23, 1989. SOUTH AFRICAN
(via Robert F. Dorr)
With corporate offices in Johan-
"down under." Qantas is now the Moroccan carrier on October 4, nesburg, South African has 22 Boe-
launch customer for the "Longer- 1993, the aircrqft is Boeing 747-428 ing 747s of all models including 6
Range 747-400" slated fly in mid- line number 956, c/n 25629, Rolls-Royce-powered 747-444 pas-
2002 and to begin revenue flights by registered as CN-RGA, formerly senger haulers and 2 GE-powered
the end of that year. Qantas aircraft F-OGTG. The aircraft had made its 747-4F6 freighters.
are white with a red tail surround- first flight only on January 7, 1993,
ing the white outline of a hopping and thus never really performed THAI
kangaroo. revenue service for Air France.
Headquartered in Bangkok, Thai
ROYAL AIR MAROC SAUDI International boasts 14 Boeing 747-
400s, plus a trio of "Classics." Thai
Royal Air Maroc, the national Saudi Arabian Airlines, with International was one of the early
carrier for Morocco, with offices in headquarters in Jeddah, has gradu- users of the 747-400. The airline oper-
Casablanca, had just one Dash Four ally built its fleet to five 747-468s, all
Hundred, purchased from Air powered by General Electric CF6-
France, plus several "Classics." Seen 80C2B5F engines, serving alongside South African's fleet:
in at least two distinct paint earlier "classic" models and smaller
schemes since its delivery to the aircraft for use within the Kingdom 747-444 1152 28468 ZS-SAK
(ex-N60697)
SINGAPORE 747-444 827 24976 ZS-SAV
Saudi's fleet, with line number, (ex-N6009F)
c/n, and registry: Singapore Airlines can lay claim 747-444 861 25152 ZS-SDW
to owning the 1,000th Boeing 747. (ex-N60668)
1122 28339 HZ-AN The 1,000th aircraft was rolled off 747-444 943 26637 ZS-SAX
(ex-N6005C) the Everett production line on Sep- 747-444 995 26638 ZS-SAY
1138 28340 HZ-AIW tember 10, 1993 and made its first 747-444 1187 29119 ZS-SAZ
1182 28341 HZ-AIX flight on September 24. Line number 747-444 1158 28959 ZS-SBK
1216 28342 HZ-AIY 1,000 was a Boeing 747-412 model, (ex-N1785B)
1265 28343 HZ-AIZ c/n 27068, registered as 9V-SMU. 747-444 1167 28960 ZS-SBS
With a superb safety record, Sin-

92 AIRLINER TECH
ates the aircraft on long-haul routes
to Europe and North America.
The carrier took delivery of its
first 747-4D7 in early 1990. One of its
Dash Four Hundreds is attired in a
special Viking ship livery.

UNITED

Headquartered in Chicago, Illi-


nois, in the United States, and with a
growing fleet of 44 Boeing 747-400s,
United is the world's second largest
airline (behind American, following
its absorption of Trans-World) and
has enjoyed tremendous success
with the Dash Four Hundred on
long-haul international routes.
United has operated several
routes in succession, each billed as
the world's longest. The current
record holder is United flight 821
from New York to Hong Kong, 8,439
miles (13,587 kilometers), the world's
longest daily scheduled flight.
United's first aircraft in this
series was Boeing 747-422 line num-
ber 733, c / n 24322, registered as
N171 UA, which made its initial
flight on May 25, 1989 and was
delivered to the carrier that day.

Rolls-Royce RB.211 turbofan engine nacelles.protrude far forward of the swept


A look at the sequence of United leading edge of a 747-400 at altitude. The amount of dihedral on the wing can
orders shows a consistent and vary as much as several feet depending on fuel load and temperature. The
continuing interest in the aircraft leading-edge flaps are, of course, retracted, but their outline remains visible to the
through spring 1998, all with eye. (Jim Winchester)
PW4056 engines:
VARIG million passengers a year and serv-
Model Order Date Total ing 18 countries, as well as 36 cities
VARIG is the largest airline in within Brazil. The airline's offices are
747-422 November 07, 1985 4 Latin America, with an average of in Rio de Janeiro. Of interest to this
747-422 May 12, 1987 11 435 daily flights, transporting 11.4 topic, Varig operates three 747-400s.
747-422 October 15, 1990 7
747-422 February 01, 1994 2
747-422 April 20, 1995 2 Varig's trio of Dash Four Hundreds:
747-422 January 09,1996 2
747-422 August 22,1996 12 747-475 855/24896 91-05-08 PP-VPI Varig
747-422 July 07, 1997 3 747-441 917/24956 92-05-05 PP-VPG ILFC/Varig
747-422 April 14, 1998 1 747-441 971/24957 93-04-01 PP-VPH IFLC/Varig

BOEING
93
141-4~O
VIRGIN
Virgin's Dash Four Hundred fleet, with first-flight dates:
With home offices in Crawley,
West Sussex, Great Britain, Virgin is 747-4Q8 1043/26326 94-09-26 G-VI-IOT Tubular Belle
almost as big a name in the airline 747-4Q8 1028/24958 94-04-14 G-VFAB Lady Penelope
business as it is in the music world. 747-4Q8 1081/26255 96-05-28 G-VBIG Tinker Belle
The company's hip, cool image is 747-4Q8 1100/28194 97-01-14 G-VTOP Virginia Plain
enhanced by its sprightly, red-and- 747-41R 1117/28757 97-06-05 G-VAST Ladybird
white logo and its nose-art carica- 747-41R 1177/29406 98-09-30 G-VXLG Ruby Tuesday
ture of a scarlet lady carrying the
Union Jack. The carrier boasts one of
the youngest fleets in the air, with Altogether, the fleet totals 6 747- Virgin was the first operator to
most of its aircraft named for 400s, 8 747 "classics," 10 Airbus 340- start using the Boeing 747-400 with
famous women. 300s, 2 A320-200s, and 1 A321-200. GE CF6-80C engines.
r

A Qantas Dash Four Hundred from below front. The aircraft is in "clean" configuration so this is probably an air-to-air view
rather than a ground-to-air shot. (via Michael Stroud)

Before a real 747-400 had been built for


Japan Airlines, the manufacturer gave
...........r;....... wide circulation to this artist's
=:::==:=l~~~~J;AP;;A;N;.;A;I;R~L/~~)E.S.' J••_ - : ._ _ ~,
conception of what the future jetliner
would look like. The picture was created
in the era before digital manipulation. It
is faithful to the physical appearance of
the aircraft, although the paint scheme
was destined to change. (via Robert F.
Dorr)

94
~ ..
AIRLINER TECH
APU GENERATORS

CENTER EQUIPMENT CENTER

• FUa QTY PROCESSOR


• BRAKE TEMP. CARD ALE
• P-54
• BRAKE CONTROL
• LRRA
• AOF

FUGHT COMPARTMENT MAIN EQUIPMENT CENTER E8 AFT EQUIPMENT CENTER

• ELECTRICAL SYSTEM CONTROL PANa • GENERATOR CONTROL UNITS • APU BATTERY CHARGER
AUXlUARY ELECTRICAL SYSTEM CONTROL PANa • BUS POWER CONTROL UNITS • APU BATTERY
• MISCaLANEOUS SYSTEMS TEST PANa • POWER PANELS • APU CONTROL PANELS
• SCAS DISPI.AY UNITS • MAIN BATTERY • APU CONTROLLER (APUC)
• BATTERY CHARGER • FUGHT RECORDER
• TRANSFORMER RECTIAER UNITS • VOICE RECORDER
• STATIC INVERTER • FQIS FOR H.S. FUa

This chart shows the distribution of power sources, including integrated drive generators, throughout the 747-400 airliner.
(Boeing)

VENT SURGE TANK --*i:-:l"\


VENT SURGE TANK ----+~

NO.3 RESERVE TANK - - -.....

NO.4 MAIN TANK --.....,~...

HORIZONTAL STABIUZER
FUEL TANK (OPTIONAL)

NO.3 MAIN TANK ---'::~.HI

The fuel system of the


Boeing 747-400 is made
up of seven fuel tanks
plus pumps, sump NO. 2 MAIN
TANK
valves, shutoff valves, NO.1 MAIN
TANK
fuel lines, and other
components. (Boeing)

BOEING
141-400 95
A plan view of the left wing of
a 747-400 showing principal
components and features.
3 KRUEGER FLAPS (Boeing)
FRONT SPAR

TANK END

FUa TANK ACCESS PANEL


BODY
BULKHEAD

OUTBOARD FLAPS

ACCESS PANEL
WING

UPPER DECK
CARGO COMPARTMENT-
DOORS (RH)
TYPE 'A' DOOR EACH SIDE
(EMERGENCY)
PILOTS' FLOOR
WL312

MAIN FLOOR
WL 199.8

AIR CONDmONING
EQUIPMENT BAY
WING GEAR
WHEEL WELL
FUSELAGE BODY GEAR
WHEEL WELL

SEC 41 SEC 42 SEC 44 SEC 46 SEC 48

A side view of the 747-400 fuselage depicting the sections and stations used to identify locations within the aircraft from nose
to tail. (Boeing)

96
..
AIRLINER TECH
747-40.~ OSTER
By THE NUMBERS
/"
>

T h i S listing pwvides basic identity infonnation fm Type Line/msn Date Reg. Operator
• .1 the 591 Boeing 747-400 aircraft built, delivered, or
,:. ordered, as of the beginning of 2002. These are 747-4H6C745/24405 89-09-08 9M-MHM Malaysia
line numbers 696, 700, 705, 708, 711, 715, 719, 721/723, 747-438 746/24373 89-09-21 VH-OJB Qantas
725/1305; the line number 724 was assigned to the last 747-430C 747/24285 89-09-15 D-ABTA Lufthansa
747 aircraft which was not a 747-400. 747-485 748/24200 89-09-13 HL7479 Korean
In some cases, the operator did not take up the air- 747-430C 749/24406 89-12-22 D-ABTB Lufthansa
craft after ordering it, or the aircraft has since changed 747-438 751/24406 89-10-14 VH-OJC Qantas
operator or registration. A handful of 747-400s on this list 747-436 753/24047 89-10-15 G-BNLE British Air
have been lost in mishaps. 747-430C 754/24287 90-02-03 D-ABTC Lufthansa
747-412 755/24064 89-11-01 9V-SMD Singapore
Type Line/msn Date Reg. Operator 747-419 756/24386 89-12-14 ZK-NBS Air New Zealand
747-430 757/24288 89-10-26 D-ABVC Lufthansa
747-451 696/23719 88-04-29 N661US Northwest 747-446 758/24423 90-01-25 JA8071 Japan
747-430 700/23817 88-06-27 D-ABVB Lufthansa 747-422 759/24380 89-12-08 N173UA United
747-467 705/23814 88-08-28 VR-HOO Cathay 747-446 760/24424 90-01-25 JA8072 Japan
747-451 708/23720 88-09-21 N662US Northwest 747-412 761/24065 89-12-13 9V-SME Singapore
747-437 711/24159 88-09-26 VT-EPW Air India 747-422 762/24381 90-01-20 N174UA United
747-451 715/23818 88-12-08 N663YS Northwest 747-406C 763/24201 90-01-24 PH-BFE KLM
747-412 717/24061 89-03-15 9V-SMA Singapore 747-438 764/24481 90-01-16 VH-OJD Qantas
747-437 719/24160 88-11-08 VT-EPX Air India 747-438 765/24482 90-01-31 VH-OJE Qantas
747-451 721/23819 89-04-04 N664US Northwest 747-409 766/24309 90-02-08 B-161 China
747-412 722/24062 89-02-06 9V-SMB Singapore 747-446 767/24425 90-02-19 JA8073 Japan
747-430 723/23816 89-04-21 D-ABVA Lufthansa 747-446 768/24426 90-02-26 JA8074 Japan
747-406 725/23999 89-04-15 PH-BFA KLM 7:47-407 769/24458 90-02-21 HS-TGH Thai
747-451 726/23820 89-07-27 N665US Northwest 747-406C 770/24202 90-02-23 PH-BFF KLM
747-436 727/23908 89-06-03 . G-BNLA British Air 747-467 771/24631 90-02-09 B-HOR Cathay
747-467 728/23815 89-05-02 VR-HOP Cathay 747-436 773/24048 90-02-28 G-BNLF British Air
747-4B5 729/24198 89-05-13 HL7477 Korean 747-436 774/24049 90-02-27 G-BNLG British Air
747-436 730/23909 89-07-07 G-BNLB British Air 747-4J6C 775/24347 90-02-27 B-2458 Air China
747-438 731/24354 89-07-03 VH-OJA Qantas 747-407 777/24459 90-03-22 HS-TGJ Thai
747-406 732/24000 89-05-23 PH-BFB KLM 747-409 778/24310 90-03-27 B-162 China
747-422 733/24322 89-05-25 Nl71UA United 747-436 779/24050 90-03-28 G-BNLH British Air
747-436 734/23910 89-06-28 G-BNLC British Air 747-446 780/24427 90-03-90 JA8075 Japan
747-406C 735/23982 89-06-30 PH-BFC KLM 747-438 781/24483 90-04-08 VH-OJF Qantas
747-412 736/24063 89-06-21 9V-SMC Singapore 747-406 782/24517 90-04-11 PH-BFG KLM
747-406C 737/24001 89-04-24 PH-BFD KLM 747-406C 783/24518 90-04-26 PH-BFH KLM
747-4H6C738/24315 89-10-01 9M-MHL Malaysia 747-436 784/24051 90-04-21 G-BNIJ British Air
747-4B5 739/24199 89-07-15 HL7478 Korean 747-430 785/24715 90-04-27 D-ABTD Lufthansa
747-422 740/24363 89-07-20 Nl72UA United 747-430 786/24740 90-05-15 D-ABVD Condor
747-4B3 741/24154 89-08-01 F-GEXA UTA 747-430 787/24741 90-04-05 D-ABVE Lufthansa
747-451 742/23821 89-07-31 N666US Northwest 747-467 788/24850 90-05-11 B-HOS Cathay
747-4J6C 743/24346 89-09-10 B-2456 Air China 747-436 789/24052 90-05-23 G-BNLJ British Air
747-436 744/23911 89-08-16 G-BNLD British Air 747-436 790/24053 90-05-25 G-BNLK British Air

BOEING
141-400 97
Type Line/msn Date Reg. Operator Type Line/msn Date Reg. Operator

747-412 791/24066 90-06-10 9V-SMF Singapore 747-428C 843/24990 91-02-28 F-GITB Air France
747-4J6C 792/24348 90-06-21 B-2460 Air China 747-4460 844/25213 91-03-15 JA8083 Japan
747-485 793/24619 90-06-27 HL7480 Korean 747-430 845/25045 91-03-14 O-ABVH Lufthansa
747-436 794/24054 90-06-14 G-BNLL British Air 747-430C 846/24966 91-03-20 O-ABTE Lufthansa
747-436 795/24055 90-06-28 G-BNLM British Air 747-430 847/25046 91-03-26 O-ABVK Lufthansa
747-430 796/24761 90-07-06 O-ABVF Condor 747-430C 848/24967 91-03-29 O-ABTF Lufthansa
747-446 797/24777 90-07-10 JA8076 Japan 747-467 849/25082 91-04-05 VR-HOV Cathay
747-446 798/24784 90-07-10 JA8077 Japan 747-406 850/25086 91-04-11 PH-BPI KLM
747-451 799/24222 90-07-20 N667US Northwest 747-446 851/25064 91-04-17 JA8081 Japan
747-451 800/24223 90-07-26 N668US Northwest 747-412 852/25068 91-04-23 9V-SMJ Singapore
747-438 801/24779 90-08-18 VH-OJG Qantas 747-4B5 853/25205 91-04-29 HL7482 Korean
747-436 802/24056 90-07-27 G-BNLN British Air 747-406 854/25087 91-05-03 PH-BFK KLM
747-451 803/24224 90-08-20 N669US Northwest 747-475 855/24896 91-05-08 PP-VPI Varig
747-451 804/24225 90-08-31 N670US Northwest 747-430 856/25047 91-05-15 O-ABTH Lufthansa
747-481 805/24801 90-08-20 JA8094 All Nippon 747-438 857/25067 91-05-21 VH-OJK Qantas
747-422 806/24382 90-08-07 N175UA United 747-4H6 858/25126 91-05-29 9M-MHO Malaysia
747-422 807/24806 90-08-14 VH-OJN Qantas 747-412 859/25127 91-06-04 9V-SMK Singapore
747-4H6 808/24836 90-08-20 9M-MHN Malaysia 747-412 860/25128 91-06-06 9V-SML Singapore
747-412 809/24226 90-08-23 9V-SMG Singapore 747-444 861/25152 91-06-13 ZS-SAW South African
747-422 811/24383 90-08-31 N176UA United 747-433C 862/25074 91-06-19 C-GAGM Air Canada
747-481 812/24833 90-09-13 JA8095 All Nippon 747-481 863/25135 91-06-25 JA8097 All Nippon
747-467 813/24851 90-09-18 VR-HOT Cathay 747-4B3C 864/24155 91-06-28 F-GEXB UTA
747-419 815/24855 90-09-28 ZK-NBT Air New Zealand 747-438 865/25151 91-07-05 VH-OJL Qantas
747-47C 816/24730 90-10-90 JA8091 Japan Govt. 747-422 866/25158 91-07-11 N179UA United
747-436 817/24057 90-10-09 G-BNLO British Air 747-422 867/25224 91-07-11 N180UA United
747-422 819/24384 90-11-08 Nl77UA United 747-433C 868/25075 91-07-24 C-CAGN Air Canada
747-422 820/24385 90-11-08 N178UA United 747-409 869/24311 91-07-26 B-163 China
747-446 821/24870 90-11-19 JA8091 Japan 747-481 870/25207 91-08-02 JA8098 All Nippon
747-475 823/24883 90-12-11 C-GMWW Canadian 747-446 871/25212 91-08-08 JA8082 Japan
747-446 824/24885 90-11-13 JA8079 Japan 747-428C 872/25238 91-08-14 F-GISA Air France
747-446 825/24886 90-11-20 JA8080 Japan 747-467 873/25211 91-08-13 VR-HOW Cathay
747-438 826/24887 90-11-27 ZS-SAV Qantas 747-4B5 874/25725 91-08-26 HL7483 Korean
747-444 827/24976 90-11-27 VH-OJI South African 747-438 875/25245 91-08-30 VH-OJM Qantas
747-436 828/24058 90-12-04 G-BNLP British Air 747-446 876/25260 91-09-06 JA8085 Japan
747-436 829/24447 90-12-11 G-BNLR British Air 747-467 877/24955 91-09-11 VR-HOX Cathay
747-4B5 830/24621 90-12-14 HL7481 Korean 747-4460879/25214 91-09-25 JA8084 Japan
747-412 831/24227 90-01-03 9V-SMH Singapore 747-48E 880/25405 91-09-27 HL7413 Asiana
747-481 832/24910 90-01-04 JA8096 All Nippon 747-422 881/25278 91-10-03 N181UA United
747-407 833/24993 90-01-11 H5-TGK Thai 747-422 882/25279 91-10-08 N182UA United
747-467 834/24925 91-01-10 VR-HOU Cathay 747-438 883/25317 91-10-15 VH-oJN Qantas
747-438 835/24974 91-01-18 VH-OJJ Qantas 747-428C 884/25302 91-10-21 F-GISB Air France
747-428 836/24969 91-01-25 F-GITA Air France 747-446 885/25308 91-10-25 JA8086 Japan
747-475 837/24895 91-01-30 C-FCRA Canadian 747-467 887/25351 91-11-07 VR-HOY Cathay
747-412 838/24975 91-02-05 9V-SMI Singapore 747-406 888/25356 91-11-12 PH-BFL KLM
747-47C 839/24731 91-02-08 JA80n Japan Govt. 747-428 889/25344 91-11-15 F-GITC Air France
747-433C 840/24998 91-02-15 C-GAGL Air Canada 747-407 890/25366 91-11-22 HS-TGL Thai
747-436 841/24629 91-02-20 G-BNLS British Air 747-4810 891/25292 91-11-27 JA8099 All Nippon
747-436 842/24630 91-02-26 G-BNLT British Air 747-48E 892/25452 91-12-05 HL7414 Asiana

98
---AIRLINER TECH
..
Type Line/msn Date Reg. Operator Type Line/msn Date Reg. Operator

747-4B5 893/26392 91-12-11 HL7484 Korean 747-45E 942/27062 92-10-08 Bl6401 EVA
747-436 895/25406 91-12-20 G-BNLU British Air 747-444 943/26637 92-10-27 ZS-SAX South African
747-406 896/26373 92-01-08 PH-BFN KLM 747-422 944/26877 92-10-03 N188UA United
747-446 897/26346 92-01-14 JA8087 Japan 747-4D7 945/27093 92-10-23 HS-TGM Thai
747-430 898/26425 92-01-20 D-ABVL Lufthansa 747-48E 946/25777 92-10-30 HL7415 Asiana
747-428C 899/25599 92-01-23 F-GISC Air France 747-45E 947/27063 92-11-01 B16402 EVA
747-436 900/25427 92-01-30 G-BNLV British Air 747-446D 948/26349 92-11-11 JA8905 Japan
747-428 901/25600 92-02-05 F-GITD Air France 747-467 949/25874 92-11-17 VR-HUD Cathay
747-446 902/26341 92-02-11 JA8088 Japan 747-4D7 950/26615 92-11-23 HS-TGN Thai
747-436 903/25432 92-02-17 G-BNLW British Air 747-4B5 951/26396 92-12-02 HL7486 Korean
747-4J6 904/25879 92-02-01 B-2464 Air China 747-481D 952/25646 92-12-18 JA8959 All Nippon
747-446 905/26342 92-02-07 JA8089 Japan 747-412 953/27067 92-12-12 9V-SMP Singapore
747-428 906/25601 92-03-04 F-GITE Air France 747-409 954/24312 92-12-17 B-164 China
747-446D 907/26347 92-03-06 JA8090 Japan 747-412 955/27132 92-12-22 9V-SMQ Singapore
747-436 908/25435 92-03-16 G-BNLX British Air 747-428 956/25629 92-01-93 F-OGTG Air France
747-428 909/25602 92-11-20 F-GITF Air France 747-4J6 957/25881 93-01-15 B-2443 Air China
747-430 910/26426 92-03-25 A8-ALl Brunei Govt. 747-4B5 958/26393 93-01-20 HL7487 Korean
747-422 911/25379 92-04-01 N183UA United 747-436 959/27090 93-01-25 G-BNLY British Air
747-475 912/25422 92-04-07 C-FBCA Canadian 747-428C 960/25630 93-01-29 F-GISE Air France
747-422 913/25380 92-04-13 N184UA United 747-446 961/26350 93-02-05 J8906 Japan
747-481D 914/25639 92-04-14 JA8955 All Nippon 747-412 962/27133 93-02-12 9V-SMR Singapore
747-430 915/26427 92-04-23 D-ABVN Lufthansa 747-446D 963/26351 93-02-16 JA8907 Japan
747-438 916/25545 92-04-29 VH-OJP Qantas 747-436 964/27091 93-02-22 G-BNLZ British Air
747-441 917/24956 92-05-05 PP-VPG ILFC/Varig 747-4H6 965/25699 93-02-26 9M-MPB Malaysia
747-446 918/26343 92-05-11 JA8901 Japan 747-422 966/26878 93-03-05 N189UA United
747-422 919/25395 92-05-15 N185UA United 747-436 967/27092 93-03-10 G-CIVA British Air
747-481D 920/25640 92-05-21 JA8955 All Nippon 747-428F 968/25632 93-05-04 N6005C Boeing
747-412 921/26547 92-05-22 9V-SMM Singapore 747-406 969/26373 93-03-23 PH-BFN KLM
747-4B5 922/26395 92-05-03 HL7485 Korean 747-467 970/27117 93-03-30 VR-HUE Cathay
747-412 923/26548 92-06-05 9V-SMN Singapore 747-441 971/24957 93-04-01 PP-VPH IFLC/Varig
747-438 924/25546 92-06-15· VH-OJQ Qantas 747-481D 972/25643 93-04-08 JA8960 All Nippon
747-467 925/25871 92-06-12 VR-HOZ Cathay 747-422 973/26879 93-04-12 N190UA United
747-4J6 926/25880 92-06-25 B-2466 Air China 747-4H6 974/25700 93-04-19 9M-MPC Malaysia
747-481D 927/25642 92-07-01 JA8957 All Nippon 747-481D 975/25644 93-04-27 JA8961 All Nippon
747-481 928/25641 92-07-21 JA8958 All Nippon 747-45E 976/27141 93-04-25 N430EV EVA
747-446 929/26344 92-07-23 JA8902 Japan 747-409 977/24313 93-05-06 B-165 China
747-467 930/25872 92-07-16 VR-HUA Cathay 747-446D 978/26352 93-05-11 JA8908 Japan
747-422 931/26875 92-08-06 N186UA United 747-481 979/25645 93-05-19 JA8962 All Nippon
747-4H6 932/27042 92-08-11 9M-MPA Malaysia 747-446 980/26353 93-05-21 JA8909 Japan
747-419 933/25605 92-08-17 ZK-NBU Air New Zealand 747-412 981/27134 93-05-25 9V-SMS Singapore
747-428 934/25628 92-08-24 F-GISD Air France 747-45E 982/27142 93-06-03 N405EV EVA
747-446D 935/26345 92-08-28 JA8903 Japan 747-48E 983/25778 93-06-09 HL7416 Asiana
747-438 936/25547 92-09-03 VH-OJR Qantas 747-422 984/26880 93-06-14 N19IUA United
747-467 937/25873 92-09-10 VR-HUB Cathay 747-451 985/26473 93-06-25 N105UA United
747-406C 938/25413 92-09-16 PH-BFO KLM 747-4B5 986/26394 93-07-08 HL7488 Korean
747-422 939/26876 92-09-18 N187UA United 747-437 987/27078 93-07-02 VT-ESM Air India
747-412 940/27066 92-09-28 9V-SMO Singapore 747-451 988/26474 93-08-16 N106UA United
747-446D 941/26348 92-10-01 JA8904 Japan 747-422 989/26881 93-07-14 N192UA United

BOEING
1 -400 99
Type Line/msn Date Reg. Operator Type Line/msn Date Reg. Operator .'
747-412 '990/27137 93-08-04 9V-SMT Singapore 747-4F6 1038/27827 94-07-27 C-FGHZ Canadian
747-4810 991/25647 93-07-29 JA8963 All Nippon 747-4F6 1039/27828 94-08-18 N753PR Philippine
747-406 992/26374 93-08-13 PH-BFP KLM 747-412 1040/26550 94-08-31 9V-SPA Singapore
747-467 993/25869 93-08-05 VR-HUF Cathay 747-4H6 1041/27044 94-09-08 9M-MPH Malaysia
747-45E 994/27154 93-08-25 B-16461 EVA 747-412F 1042/26561 94-09-17 9V-SFB Singapore
747-444 995/26638 93-09-01 ZS-SAY South African 747-4Q8 1043/26326 94-09-26 G-VHOT Virgin
747-4810 996/27163 93-09-07 JA8964 All Nippon 747-48E 1044/27551 94-10-13 HL7419 Asian
747-4H6 997/25701 93-09-10 9M-MPD Malaysia 747-412 1045/26551 94-10-12 9V-SPB Singapore
747-45E 998/27173 93-09-20 B-16462 EVA 747-469 1046/27338 94-10-28 9K-ADE Kuwait
747-4H6 999/25702 93-09-24 9M-MPE Malaysia 747-407 1047/26610 94-11-11 HS-TGP Thai
747-412 1000/27068 93-09-29 9V-SMU Singapore 747-436 1048/27349 94-11-23 G-CIVD British Air
747-4D7 1001/26609 93-10-07 HS-TGO Thai 747-412 1049/27070 94-12-08 9V-SPC Singapore
747-4R7F 1002/25866 93-10-30 LX-FCV Cargolux 747-436 1050/27350 94-12-08 G-CIVE British Air
747-437 1003/27164 93-10-21 VT-ESN Air India 747-45EC 1051/27898 94-12-28 N406EV EVA
747-45E 1004/27174 93-10-25 B-16463 EVA 747-412F 1052/26350 95-02-02 9V-SFC Singapore
747-4F6 1005/27261 93-10-31 N751PR Philippine 747-45EC 1053/27899 95-01-26 N407EV EVA
747-48E 1006/25779 93-11-08 HL7417 Asiana 747-4J6 1054/25883 95-01-25 B-2447 Air China
747-467 1007/25870 93-11-08 VR-HUG Cathay 747-4B5 1055/26397 95-02-16 HL7492 Korean
747-4R7F 1008/25867 93-11-24 LX-GCV Cargolux 747-412 1056/26552 95-03-06 9V-SPD Singapore
747-437 1009/27165 93-11-30 VT-ESO Air India 747-4B5 1057/26398 95-03-11 HL7493 Korean
747-412 1010/27069 93-12-06 9V-SMV Singapore 747-436 1058/25814 95-03-22 G-CIVF British Air
747-4U3 1011/25704 93-12-13 PK-GSG Garuda 747-436 1059/25815 95-04-06 G-CIVG British Air
747-4F6 1012/27262 93-12-14 N725PR Philippine 747-4810 1060/27436 95-04-16 JA8965 All Nippon
747-4B5 1013/27072 94-01-07 HL7489 Korean 747-467 1061/27595 95-05-14 VR-HUJ Cathay
747-406C 1014/27202 94-01-06 PH-BFR KLM 747-458 1062/27915 95-05-15 4X-ELC ElAl
747-412 1015/27178 94-01-17 9V-SMW Singapore 747-409 1063/27965 95-05-16 B-16801 Mandarin
747-45E 1016/26062 94-01-18 B-16465 EVA 747-48E 1064/25783 95-06-14 HL7420 Asiana
747-4H6 1017/27043 94-01-22 9M-MPF Malaysia 747-467 1065/27503 95-06-29 VR-HUK Cathay
747-436 1018/25811 94-02-03 G-CIVB British Air 747-4810 1066/27442 95-07-18 JA8966 All Nippon
747-4B5 1019/27177 94-02-07 HL7490 Korean 747-4B5 1067/27662 95-07-31 HL7494 Korean
747-467F 1020/27175 94-02-21 VR-HUH Cathay 747-469 1068/27663 95-08-28 N754PR Philippine
747-4J6 1021/25882 94-02-18 B-2443 Air China 747-412F 1069/26553 95-08-20 9V-SFD Singapore
747-436 1022/25812 94-02-21 G-CIVC British Air 747-412 1070/26554 95-09-28 9V-SPE Singapore
747-412 1023/27217 94-03-08 9V-SMY Singapore 747-407 1071/27723 95-10-23 HS-TGR Thai
747-446 1024/26355 94-03-07 JA8910 Japan 747-412 1072/27071 95-11-09 9V-SPF Singapore
747-4H6 1025/25703 94-03-16 9M-MPF Malaysia 747-4B5 1073/28096 95-12-17 HL7495 Korean
747-446 1026/26356 94-03-23 JA8911 Japan 747-412 1074/26562 96-02-09 9V-SPG Singapore
747-458 1027/26055 94-11-04 4X-ELA ElAl 747-412 1075/26555 96-03-01 9V-SPH Singapore
747-4Q8 1028/24958 94-04-14 G-VFAB Virgin 747-45EC 1076/28092 96-03-14 N408EV EVA
747-4U3 1029/25705 94-04-27 PK-GSH Garuda 747-45EC 1077/29093 96-03-29 N409EV EVA
747-412 1030/26549 94-05-04 9V-SMZ Singapore 747-436 1078/25809 96-04-11 G-CIVH British Air
747-446 1031/27099 94-05-16 JA8912 Japan 747-436 1079/25814 96-04-22 G-CIVI British Air
747-458 1032/26056 94-05-18 4X-ELB ElAl 747-430 1080/28086 96-05-05 D-ABVO Lufthansa
747-467 1033/27230 94-06-03 VR-HUI Cathay 747-4Q8 1081/26255 96-05-28 G-VBIG Virgin
747-437 1034/27214 94-06-15 VT-ESP Air India 747-412 1082/28022 96-06-09 9V-SPI Singapore
747-48E 1035/25780 94-06-23 HL7418 Asiana 747-4B5 1083/26400 96-06-18 HL7496 Korean
747-412F 1036/26563 94-07-09 9V-SFA Singapore 747-412 1084/26556 96-07-09 9V-SPJ Singapore
747-4B5 1037/27341 94-07-18 HL7491 Korean 747-422 1085/26890 96-07-20 N193UA United

100 AIRLINER TECH


-)
Type Line/msn Date Reg. Operator Type Line/msn Date Reg. Operator

747-48E 1086/25784 96-08-07 HL7421 Asiana 747-407 1134/27725 97-10-30 HS-TGX Thai
747-4B5F 1087/26401 96-08-23 HL7497 Korean 747-436 1135/28849 97-11-18 G-CIVO British Air
747-422 1088/26892 96-09-06 N194UA United 747-409 1136/28711 97-11-17 B-18203 China
747-437 1089/28094 96-09-21 VT-EVA Air India 747-409 1137/28712 97-12-07 B-18205 China
747-406 1090/28195 96-10-03 PH-BFS KLM 747-468 1138/28340 97-12-17 HZ-AIW Saudi
747-4H6 1091/27672 96-10-16 9M-MPI Malaysia 747-4R7F 1139/29053 98-01-17 LX-LCW Cargolux
747-4B5 1092/26402 96-10-20 HL7498 Korean 747-45E 1140/29061 98-01-16 B-l64lO EVA
747-437 1093/28095 96-11-04 VT-EVB Air India 747-422 1141/26902 98-01-19 N104UA United
747-412F 1094/28263 96-11-15 9V-SFE Singapore 747-481 1142/28283 98-01-29 JA402A All Nippon
747-4B5 1095/26403 96-11-18 HL7472 Korean 747-430 1143/29101 98-02-07 D-ABVM Lufthansa
747-48EF 1096/28367 96-12-12 HL7422 Asiana 747-436 1144/28850 98-02-17 G-CIVP British Air
747-407 1097/26616 96-12-10 HS-TGT Thai 747-409 1145/29030 98-02-25 B-18206 China
747-4B5 1098/28335 96-12-14 HL7473 Korean 747-436 1146/25820 98-03-02 G-CIVR British Air
747-412 1099/28023 97-01-12 9V-SPK Singapore 747-4H6 1147/28427 98-03-20 9M-MPK Malaysia
747-4Q8 1100/28194 97-01-14 G-VTOP Virgin 747-436 1148/28851 98-03-13 G-CIVS British Air
747-412 1101/26557 97-01-21 9V-SPL Singapore 747-436 1149/25821 98-03-20 G-CIVT British Air
747-436 1102/25817 97-01-31 G-CIVJ British Air 747-4H6 1150/28428 98-03-30 9M-MPL Malaysia
747-430 1103/28284 97-02-10 D-ABVP Lufthansa 747-45E 1151/29111 98-04-27 B-16111 EVA
747-436 1104/25818 97-02-22 G-CIVK British Air 747-4H6 1152/28435 98-04-14 9M-MPM Malaysia
747-412F 1105/28026 97-02-28 9V-SFF Singapore 747-445 1153/26359 98-04-30 JA8913 Japan
747-430 1106/28285 97-03-04 D-ABVR Lufthansa 747-436 1154/25810 98-04-24 G-CIVU British Air
747-4B5 1107/26404 97-03-13 HL7460 Korean 747-485 1155/26407 98-12-30 HL7402 Korean
747-436 1108/27478 97-03-23 G-CIVL British Air 747-436 1156/25819 98-05-22 G-CIVV British Air
747-430 1109/28286 97-04-04 D-ABVS Lufthansa 747-436 1157/25822 98-05-15 G-CIVW British Air
747-430 1110/28287 97-04-14 D-ABVT Lufthansa 747-4F6 1158/28959 98-12-30 ZS-SBK South African
747-4D7 1111/27724 97-04-19 HS-TGW Thai 747-45E 1159/29112 98-05-28 B-16412 EVA
747-406 1112/28459 97-05-01 PH-BFT KLM 747-48E 1160/28552 98-06-18 HL7428 Asiana
747-422 1113/26899 97-05-08 N195UA United 747-4F6 1161/27602 98-10-07 ZK-SUJ Air New Zealand
747-409 1114/28709 97-05-17 B-18201 China 747-444 1162/28468 98-06-30 ZS-SAK South African
747-48E 1115/25782 97-05-22 HL7423 Asiana 747-4B5F 1163/26408 98-12-30 HL7403 Korean
747-436 1116/28700 97-05 G-CIVM British Air 747-407 1164/28705 98-12-22 HS-TGY Thai
747-41R 1117/28757 97-06-05 G-VAST Virgin 747-47UF 1165/29252 98-07-29 N491MC Atlas
747-4B5 1118/26405 97-06-12 HL7461 Korean 747-446 1166/26360 98-07-23 JA8914 Japan
747-4J6C 1119/28754 97-06-23 B-2467 Air China 747-4F6 1167/28960 98-12-30 ZS-SBS South African
747-422 1120/28715 97-06-23 NI97UA United 747-422 1168/26900 98-08-20 NlO7UA United
747-422 1121/26901 97-07-09 N197UA United 747-470F 1169/29253 98-08-12 N492MC Atlas
747-468 1122/28339 97-09-14 HZ-AN Saudi 747-485 1170/26409 98-12-30 HL7404 Korean
747-4B5F 1123/26406 97-07-23 HL7462 Korean 747-422 1171/26903 98-08-28 N108UA United
747-422 1124/28716 97-08-05 N198UA United 747-436 1172/28852 98-09-03 G-CIVX British Air
747-4R7F 1125/25868 97-08-13 LX-KeV Cargolux 747-412F 1173/26558 98-09-03 9V-SFG Singapore
747-422 1126/28717 97-09-08 199UA United 747-4F6 1174/28961 - A6-YAS Abu Dhabi
747-406C 1127/28196 97-08-28 PH-BFU KLM 747-4J6 1175/28756 98-09-28 B-2469 Air China
747-4J6 1128/28755 97-09-06 B-2468 Air China 747-409 1176/29219 98-09-28 B-18207 China
747-436 1129/28848 97-09-18 G-CIVN British Air 747-41R 1177/29406 98-09-30 G-VXLG Virgin
747-4H6 1130/28426 97-10-05 9M-MPJ Malaysia 747-436 1178/28853 98-09-29 G-CIVY British Air
747-48E 1131/28551 - HL7424 Asiana 747-47UF 1179/29254 98-10-21 N493MC Atlas
747-409 1132/28710 97-10-12 B-18202 China 747-419 1180/26910 98-10-31 ZK-NBV Air New Zealand
747-481 1133/28282 97-10-29 JA401A All Nippon 747-4J6 1181/29070 98-10-28 B-2470 Air China

BOEING
101
141-4~O
Type Line/msn Date Reg. Operator Type Line I msn Date Reg. Operator

747-468 1182/28341 98-11-18 HZ-AIX Saudi 747-438 1230/25564 99-09-30 VH-OJS Qantas
747-436 1183/28854 98-10-31 G-CIVZ British Air 747-4R7F 1231/29732 99-09-29 LX-PCV Cargolux
747-47UF 1184/29255 98-12-04 N494MC Atlas 747-451 1232/30269 99-10-18 N674US Northwest
747-422 1185/26906 98-11-16 N109UA United 747-438 1233/25565 99-09-30 VH-OJT Qantas
747-409 1186/29031 98-11-20 B-18208 China 747-446 1234/27650 99-11-21 JA8918 Japan
747-444 1187/29119 98-11-30 ZS-SAZ South African 747-4R7F 1235/30400 99-11-23 LX-RCV Cargolux
747-446 1188/26361 98-11-30 JA8915 Japan 747-446 1236/27100 99-12-16 JA8919 Japan
747-4R7F 1189/29729 98-08-12 LX-MCV Cargolux 747-430 1237/29858 99-12-22 D-ABVX Lufthansa
747-436 1190/28555 98-12-14 G-BYGA British Air YAL-l 1238/30201 00-01-21 00-0001 USAF
747-430 1191/29492 98-12-21 D-ABVU Lufthansa 747-438 1239/25566 00-01-24 VH-OJU Qantas
747-47UF 1192/29261 98-12-15 N408MC Atlas 747-47UF 1240/29260 00-02-17 N499MC Atlas
747-422 1193/26908 98-12-29 N116UA United 747-412 1241/29950 00-03-30 9V-SPM Singapore
747-436 1194/28856 99-01-17 G-BYGB British Air 747-47UF 1242/30558 00-04-05 N409MC GTI
747-436 1195/25823 99-01-19 G-BYGC British Air 747-4J6 1243/30158 00-05-02 B-2472 Air China
747-436 1196/28857 99-01-26 G-BYGD British Air 747-47UF 1244/30559 00-04-25 N412MC Atlas
747-422 1197/28810 99-01-29 N117UA United 747-422 1245/30023 00-05-12 N128UA United
747-436 1198/28858 99-02-05 G-BYGE British Air 747B5F 1246/26416 00-05-25 HL7448 Korean
747-481 1199/29262 99-02-25 JA403A All Nippon 747-4H6 1247/28432 00-05-31 9M-MPN Malaysia
747-436 1200/25824 99-02-17 G-BYGF British Air 747-4B5F 1248/26411 00-06-08 HL7449 Korean
747-422 1201/28811 99-02-24 N118UA United 747-409F 1249/30759 00-07-06 B-18701 China Cargo
747-446 1202/26362 99-03-18 JA8916 Japan 747-481 1250/30322 00-06-28 JA405A All Nippon
747-4R7F 1203/29730 99-03-03 LX-NCV Cargolux 747-45EF 1251/30607 00-07-20 B-15481 EVA
747-481 1204/29263 99-03-30 JA404A All Nippon 747-409F 1252/30760 00-07-28 B-18702 China Cargo
747-430 1205/29493 99-03-13 D-ABVW Lufthansa 747-446 1253/27648 00-08-17 JA8920 Japan
747-451 1206/26477 99-03-29 N67IUS Northwest 747-409F 1254/30761 00-08-19 B-18703 China Cargo
747-422 1207/28812 99-03-29 N119UA United 747-467F 1255/30804 00-09-12 B-HUL Cathay
747-446 1208/29899 99-04-20 JA8917 Japan 747-412F 1256/28027 00-09-28 9V-SFI Singapore
747-422 1209/29166 99-04-12 N120UA United 747-409F 1257/30753 01-03-02 B-18706 China Cargo
747-48EF 1210/27603 99-04-14 HL7426 Asiana 747-406MI258/30454 00-10-24 PH-BFW KLM
747-422 1211/29167 99-04-22 N12IUA United 747-46NF 1259/30809 00-11-13 N451PA Polar
747-436 1212/28859 99-04-29 G-BYGG British Air 747-46NF 1260/30809 00-11-16 N452PA Polar
747-47UF 1213/29256 99-05-26 G-GSSA Global 747-430 1261/29859 00-12-11 D-ABVY Lufthansa
747-4D7 1214/28706 99-05-11 HS-TGZ Thai 747-446 1262/27645 00-12-19 JA8921 Japan
747-458 1215/29328 99-05-24 4X-ELD ElAl 747-409F 1263/30762 01-02-09 B-18705 China Cargo
747-468 1216/28342 99-12-09 HZ-AIY Saudi 747-430 1264/29870 - D-ABVZ Lufthansa
747-47UF 1217/29257 99-06-30 N496MC Atlas 747-468 1265/28343 01-01-26 HZ-AIZ Saudi
747-422 1218/29168 99-06-14 N122UA United 747-412 1266/28031 01-02-08 9V-SPN Singapore
747-409 1219/29906 99-06-25 B-18209 China 747-409F 1267/30763 01-02-20 B-18706 China Cargo
747-47UF 1220/29258 99-07-15 N497MC Atlas 747-443 1268/30885 01-02-22 G-VROS Virgin
747-422 1221/28813 99-08-02 NI27UA United 747-409F 1269/30764 01-04-11 B-18707 China Cargo
747-4R7F 1222/29731 99-07-12 LX-OCV Cargolux 747-412 1270/28028 01-03-29 9V-SPO Singapore
747-451 1223/30267 99-07-19 N672US Northwest 747-467F 1271/32571 01-04-18 B-HUO Cathay
747-412F 1224/28032 99-08-05 9V-SFH Singapore 747-443 1272/32337 - B-VGAL Virgin
747-406M 1225/28460 99-08-16 PH-BFV KLM 747-467F 1282/30805 01-08-22 B-HUP Cathay
747-451 1226/30268 99-08-24 N673US Northwest 747-6NF 1283/30811 01-09-26 N453PA Polar
747-47UF 1227/29259 99-08-26 N498MC Atlas 747-4B5 1284/26412 01-09-28 HL7465 Korean
747-419 1228/29375 99-09-08 ZK-NBW Air New Zealand 747-412F 1285/26559 01-09-17 9V-SFJ Singapore
747-4J6 1229/29071 99-09-22 B-2471 Air China 747-B5F 1286/26413 01-09-28 HL7466 Korean

102
..
AIRLINER TECH
-,>
Type Line/msn Date Reg. Operator Type Line/msn Date Reg. Operator

747-41R 1287/32745 01-10-31 G-VWOW Virgin 747-451 1297/33001 - N675US Northwest


747-409F 1288/30765 - B-18708 China Cargo 747-412 1298/28030 - 9V-SFK Singapore
747-412 1289/28025 01-10-31 9V-SPQ Singapore 747-430 1299/29872 - D-ABTL Lufthansa
747-4H6 1290/28433 - 9M-MPO Malaysia 747-409F 1300/30767 - B-18710 China Cargo
"' 747-4B5F 1291/27073 01-11-30 HL7467 Korean 747-4H6 1301/29901 - 9M-MPQ Malaysia
747-430 1292/32445 - Lufthansa 737-406M 1302/30455 - PH-BFY KLM
747-430 1293/29871 - D-ABTK Lufthansa 747-451 1303/33002 - N676US Northwest
747-409F 1294/30766 - B-18709 China Cargo 747-47UF 1304/32837 - N415MC Atlas
747-4B5F 1295/26414 - HL7400 Korean 747-48EF 1305/29170 - HL7426 Asiana
747-4H6 1296/29900 - 9M-MPP Malaysia

At the start of 2002, with the airline industry reeling from economic setbacks, terror attacks, and the deterrent to travel posed
by inconsistent security measures, some analysts were saying that twilight has come for the era of the four-engined jetliner,
even one that saves money for its operators by having just two pilots. Nevertheless, even though older 747 "classics" were
clearly a liability to most airlines, the jury was still out on the impact of the economy on the 747-400. Boeing, even after
setbacks and layoffs, has a healthy order book for the 747-400 and no one is ready to say, so far, that this great aircraft doesn't
have a bright future ahead. (Tom Pesch)

BOEING
103
141-400
SIGNIFIC T DATES
KEY DATES IN THE HISTORY OF THE BOEING 747-400

February 9, 1969 1990 1996


First flight of a Boeing 747 Boeing offers US. Air Force a 747- Boeing briefs airline executives on
400 model dubbed the C-33; USAF a larger 747-700X model, which is
May 1985 doesn't buy studied but eventually also can-
Boeing announcement of 747-400 celled
program launch 1991
747s participate in Operation October 1, 1998
October 22, 1985 Desert Storm, carrying 644,000 U.S. Air Force announces planned
Launch customer Northwest Air- troops and 220,000 tons of equip- purchase of YAL-l airborne laser
lines orders 10 747-400s ment to and from the Middle East aircraft, based on 747-400

April 29, 1988 May 7, 1993 November 1, 2000


Pilot James Loesch and co-pilot First flight of a 747-400F freighter, First Singapore Airlines aircraft
Kenneth Higgins complete the first for Cargolux loss, ever; 78 killed in 747-00 crash
flight of a 747-400, powered by at Taipei
Pratt & Whitney engines, at Everett September. 10, 1993
1,00Oth Boeing 747 rolls out April 10, 2001
June 27, 1988 United Airlines announces 747-400
First 747-400 sets a weight record November 4,1993 operations on the world's longest
taking off from Moses Lake, Wash- First loss of a 747-400: a new China air route, flight 821 from New York
ington, at 892,450 pounds (404,994 Airlines 747-400 makes a bad land- to Hong Kong, 8,439 miles (13587
kilograms) ing and comes to rest off runway's kilometers)
end at Kaitak harbor, Hong Kong;
August 28, 1988 all 269 on board survive. September 11,2001
First flight of a Rolls-Royce-pow- Terrorist attacks on the United
ered 747-400, for Cathay Pacific 1994 States exacerbate airline industry's
Boeing offers the US. Air Force a economic slump, causing some
April 15, 1989 derivative of the 747-400F dubbed 747-400s to be stored
First flight of a General Electric- the NDAA (Non Developmental
powered 747-400, for KLM Alternative Airlifter); USAF buys February 2002
C-17 transports instead Boeing scheduled to begin assem-
September 1989 bly of "Longer Range 747" for far-
First 747-400 Combi enters service 1995 reaching overseas routes; launch
withKLM Boeing acquires McDonnell Dou- customer: Qantas
glas, leaving the United States with
January 1990 just one manufacturer of long- June 2002
Boeing announces plans for a 747- range airliners Scheduled rollout of "Longer-
400F freighter to replace 747-200F Range 747"
on Everett production line 1996
Boeing studies 747-500X and 747-
600X designs, which are subse-
quently cancelled

104
..
AIRLINER TECH
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The Boeing 747-400 is the transformed ver-
sion of the airliner that changed the world. PRECOQlEA
PRESSURE REGULAlING AND
AND SHUTOFF VALVE

In many ways, it is a new aircraft rather TAl. VALVE

than a development of the wide body


"jumbo jet" that brought air travel to the
everyday citizen. With an outer shell that
dates to the mid-1980s and an interior that
PNEUMATIC STARTER VALVE
PNEUMATIC STARTER
reflects a digital revolution and a new cen- _ INTEGRATED DRrVE GENERATOR

tury, the 747-400 is a complex and smooth- GENERAL ELECTRIC CF6 ENGINE

ly functioning thing of beauty. Many


regard the 747-400 as the most majestic flying machine plying the world's revenue routes.

Author Robert F. Dorr takes us through this modern jumbo jet, giving us a look at details
both obvious and obscure, many of them never seen by the flying public. Also included is
a complete list of airlines flying the 747-400, a description of each major variant, a list of
each aircraft produced so far, and a look into possible future
versions of this fascinating aircraft - the Boeing 747-400. II
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