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Power line Carrier

• PLCC communication
is used for establishing communication
between two S/S using power line.

• For the smooth & efficient operation of


power systems, reliable communication
network is very essential.

• The signal that can be transmitted


over the PLCC include
• Speech signals
• Data/Telemetry signals
5/5/2010 • Signals required
Sunildatta V for
KulkarniTele
AE TCSDprotection
Parli . 1
PLCC

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Importance of PLCC in power
system
• The concept of GRID has been developed for
the effective utilization of available electrical
energy.

• Load Despatch centre will be required to


monitor & control the electrical network.

• The LD centre have to process & act upon


data (MW,MVAR, KV etc).

• PLCC is used for conveying these information


without any interference
5/5/2010
with normal power flow
Sunildatta V Kulkarni AE TCSD Parli 3
.
History behind PLCC
• The first PLCC system was introduced
by an American company in 1920.

• The power line conductors were used


for communication instead of separate
telephone lines.

• In India PLCC system was introduced


for speech & protection in 1950.
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Line trap
� Line Trap or Wave
Trap

� Name itself
suggests that it
traps the waves /
frequencies of High
magnitude.(50 KHz
to 500 KHz)
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Line Trap or Wave Trap
• WTs are provided to block
the carrier signals from
entering in the sub-station
and to allow the power L.A
frequency current to pass
through.
Switch
Power
• Achieved by providing a line
Yard L
suitable filter consisting
capacitors & inductors. C
1
1

• L. A. is provided across L C R
WT to protect it from high 2 2
voltages surges.

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Coupling Capacitor
• Offers isolation between the high
voltage line and carrier equipment.

• It offers minimum impedance to carrier


frequencies (50 KHz to 500 KHz)and
high impedance to power frequency
( 50 Hz).

• The top end of C.C. is connected to


the high voltage line and lower end is
connected to the earth through LMU.
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Specifications of WT & CC

• Coupling Capacitor
• Wave Trap • Rated capacitance:-
– 400 kV-4400pf
• 2000A/ 1.0 mH
– 220 kV-6600pf
• 1250 A/ 0.5 mH
• 630 A / 0.5 mH • Attenuation in dB:-
• Tuning pot 0.5 dB
• Freq. Band
• Blocking impedance • Pass Band- 50
to 500 kHz
• Blocking Resistance
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Connection of WT & CC
Wave trap Wave trap

Coupling Capacitor

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Coupling Device / LMU

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Line Matching Unit
• Name itself gives idea that this unit matches
something. This something is nothing but Line
impedance.
• It is mounted at the base of the coupling Capacitor .
• LMU consist of 2 units called unit A & unit B
• Unit A consist of
– Balancing T/F
– Matching T/F
– Filter unit.
• Unit B consist of
– Matching T/F
– Filter unit.

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LMU
• Balancing Transformer
– It improvises better Ph. Splitting &
couples the o/p of PLCT to the coupling
filters.
– It ensures the carrier signals are in
healthy condition even under the failure of
any of the coupled phases & voltage
isolation.
• Matching Transformer
– Impedance matching & high voltage
isolation.
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• Capacitor Filter together with CC forms
Three element protective
device
To C.C.

L.
Drainage A. Earth
coil switch

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• Lightening Arrestor
– Protects coupling device from high
voltage spikes from power line that
appear at the bottom of coupling
condenser.
• Drainage Coil
Offers low impedance to power
frequency and high impedance to carrier
frequencies, thereby power frequency
current flowing through coupling condenser
gets grounded and protects the coupling
device.
• Earth switch
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– Normally this is kept open but is closed


Technical specifications
• LMU
– Operating Band width- 80-500 KHz for CC 4400 pf.
– Composite loss- < 2db.
– Return loss > 12 db
– Equipment side Impedance- 75 Ohm
– Line side Impedance- 600 Ohm ph. to Ph.
– Peak envelope power- 650 W
• LA
– Rated Volt.- 850 V
– P.F. spark Over Volt.- Twice rated Volt.
• Drainage Coil
� Rated Inductance- 40 mH
� Cont. Current rating- 1 Amp.
� Short time current rating- 50 Amps.

• Earth Switch
– insulation withstand Volt.- 10 KV AC
– Rated current - 400 Amps

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High Frequency Cable/ Coaxial
Cable
• Connects the PLC terminal to
the LMU in the yard.
• It provides shielding so that
noise cannot get into the
cable & cause interference.
• It is a constant impedance or
HF cable.
• Now a days 75 Ohms
Balanced Impedance Cable is
used.
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HF & LMU connections
• LMU ckt earth is
connected to its body
which is switchyard
earthed. And PLCT
connected to LMU thro’
HF cable having PLCC
earth combines thro’
amphenol connector.

• The outer shield of HF


cable is connected to
LMU body which is
switchyard earthed . It
presentation
V by S.V.Kulkarni MSETCL
AE TCSD Parli to be disconnected
is
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17

in switchyard.
LMU Wattage
• Wattage of the LMU is
calculated as follows-
W = n * n* p
Where ‘n’ is the number of PLCC
s connected &
‘p ‘is the coaxial power of
individual PLCCs
For 400 KV, W= 4*4*40= 640
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Watts.Sunildatta V Kulkarni AE TCSD Parli 18
Coupling schemes
• Coupling schemes ranked in order of
least losses are –
– Mode 1 coupling ( out on 2 outer
phases, in on the center phase).
– Center ph. to outer ph. ( Push-pull)
– Center ph. to ground.
– Outer ph. to outer ph. with ground return
(push-push)
– Outer ph. to ground (only on short lines)

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PLCC Panel
• PLCC Terminals or Panels are used
as a Pair, One at each end of the
power line between substations.
• Each terminal is designated for a set
of Transmit & Receive Frequencies
(Channel Frequencies)
• The corresponding PLCC at the other
end will be designated for the reverse
value of the transmission & Reception
frequencies.
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PLCC
• The channel frequency will be either
in 4 KHz Bandwidth ex. 176/172
KHz
OR
8 KHz bandwidth ex. 408 /400
KHz

depending upon Single channel or Twin


channel equipments
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Working Principle
• PLCC works on Modulation &
Demodulation.
• Modulation & Demodulation requires
carrier frequency which is generated in
in cabinet.
• Crystal Oscillator generates carrier
frequency.
• PLCC panel/terminal/cabinet/set
consists of
5/5/2010 • Audio Frequency (AF AE)section
Sunildatta V Kulkarni TCSD Parli 22

• Intermediate Frequency (IF)section


Transmit path
• The speech signal along with other Voice
Frequency signals is fed to IF modulator .
• IF modulator modulates the AF signals to IF stage.
• Up converter converts IF to HF.
• HF signal is fed to preamplifier & then to Power
amplifier t raise the output level t required value.
• The amplified signals are then fed to HF hybrid.
• Hybrid is used to provide isolation between Tx &
Rx path at HF stage.
• HF signals are then connected to HF Cable.

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Receive Path
• The receive section receive the signals from
remote end through HF Hybrid.
• Down-Converter converts the signals from
HF to IF in connection with a band pass
filter which allow only the required signals
having a certain band.
• Demodulator demodulate the signals from IF
to AF.
• Speech, data & other superimposed
channels are separated out with suitable
filters,
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Importance of Pilot
• A pilot frequency is provided for self-monitoring &
Automatic Gain control (receiver volume control).
• Pilot indicates the healthiness of cabinets.
• Pilot freq.is transmitted during normal rest condition
& shifted dial is transmitted during dialing for
transmission of pulses.
• A dc signal whose amplitude is proportional to
receive signal is fed to the amplifier in Rx section
to control the gain of the amplifier .

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Power supply & Amplifier
• Power supply & Amplifier are most
important Modules / Prints of any
PLCT.

• They are subjected to various surges


through DC supply or surges through
HF cable.

• Hence most vulnerable parts of any


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PLCT
Frequency allocation in PLCC
• HF band 50 KHz to 500 KHz
• Voice Frequency 0.8 to 1 KHz.
• Data channel freq. called as AF 1 to
4 KHz.
• Pilot freq. 2.5 to 4 KHz.
• IF 24 to 28 KHz.
• Bandwidth 4 or 8 KHz

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Speech 3.4 kHz
Speech 3.2 kHz

Programmable Speech 3.0 kHz

speech Speech 2.8 kHz


Speech 2.6 kHz

bandwidth Speech 2.4 kHz


Speech 2.2 kHz
Speech 2.0 kHz

plus 0.3 3.6 4.0 kHz

Protection Coupler
4-command
0.3 2.0 3.6 4.0 kHz
teleprotection
plus
50 Bd
100 Bd
Speed 200 Bd
Data Center frequency
300 Bd
600 Bd
120 Hz steps

transmission 1200 Bd
2400 Bd

0.3 3.6 4.0 kHz

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Telephone Exchange
• Telephone exchange
is used to connect
speech between two
ports

• Ports include Lines,


trunks, tones,etc

• Electronic
programmable
automatic exchange
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Telephone Exchange
�Telephone Exchange used for
Dialing communication

�Microprocessor based version.

�Programmable feature available.

�Improved stability & quality of


dialing carriers communications.

�Separate earthing is very


important for stability of power
supply of EPAX,
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48 V DC Battery
• 24 No. of cells

For For fully


Charged discharg
Battery ed
Battery
Specific 1210 1180
Gr.
Voltage 2.15 1.85

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48 V DC Battery Charger
• These are SCR
control having Float
& Boost operation,
• Normally charger
should be kept on
Float & Voltage of
charger should be
kept on 51.5 V.
• Boost charging is
constant current
charging.
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48 V DCDB
• To provide
separate
switch for
Individual
panel.

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48 V DCDB

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48 V DCDB

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A.C.Supply

Exhaust Fan

Illumination

Testing
equipments

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Air Conditioner

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Exchange to PLCC panel
connection

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Emergency Jack Telephone
• PLCC terminals has
got provision for
– 2 wire speech from
EPAX.
– 4 wire Express
telephone
communications (hot
line from control
desk to control desk)
&
– Communication
through emergency
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Sunildatta AE TCSD Parli 40
Protection Coupler
• Protection
coupler
equipments can
be used along
with PLCC
terminals for
Teleprotection
requirements.
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Protection coupler
• During line fault / other fault
occurring in S/s, trip signals
can be transmitted or received
by the protection couplers
through PLCC terminal for
activating the distant protection
relaying equipment.
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Disconnecting TB

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Protection coupler NSD
“AL:
50
COMMON ALARAM (Red)
This LED lights on all the units that the alarm concerns.
“RDY” Ready (Green)
The "transceiver ready" signal (TRY)
“TRP” Trip (Green)
The tripping signal has picked up.
“GRD” Guard(Green)
Lights whenever the guard signal is being received .
“SNR” Signal to Noise Ratio(Red)
Lights whenever the signal-to-noise ration is too low.
“LEV”” Level Alarm (Red)
The signal strength of the guard signal is not within the
permissible limits.
“TX-A”-----”Tx-D” (Green)
Lights whilst the corresponding signal is being transmitted.
“RX-A”-----”Rx-D” (Green)
Lights whilst the corresponding signal is being Received
“TX-A/B”-----”Tx-C/D” (7 segment Display)
The number of commands transmitted is displayed
(00 ... 99).
“RX-A/B”-----”Rx-C/D” (7 segment Display)
The number of commands received is displayed (00 ...
99).
CONTROLS
„Loop Test“ (black pushbutton ) for manually initiating a loop test.
“RESET” (Red Pushbutton) for reinitialising the signal processor (outputs
are blocked for approx. 10 s).
„Tx“ Stand-alone NSD 50 transmitter signal (0.3 ... 4 kHz, 0 dBr)
„Rx“ Signal received (0.3 ... 4 kHz, 0 dBr)
5/5/2010 „COM1“ V Kulkarni
Sunildatta StandardAEserial
TCSD Parli for the connection of a terminal. 44
interface
“DISPLAY” Switches for selecting commands A and B or C and D for
display.
„RESET COUNTER “" (black pushbutton ) For resetting the trip counters .
PLCC counter Reading
• Note down PLCC
counter readings (Tx
& Rx) regularly.

• Note down PLCC


counter readings
after each tripping
of line/ operation of
Protection coupler.

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PLCT connection

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PLCT connection

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PLCC earthing

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Earthing of P.L.C. C. equipment

– Separate earthing system to be


provided.

– The same not to be interconnected


with switchyard earthing. Otherwise,
high voltage due to GPR may damage
PLCC’s electronic components.

– 48 volts. D. C. Battery charger to be


earthed to P. L. C. C. earthing system.
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49
Level Meter & Level
Oscillator
Level Meter is Level Oscillator is
used for dB used for
level generation of dB
measurement. level for
measurement

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dB (Decibel)
• The dB (Decibel) is a unit for
measuring relative levels of I, V,
P.
• It shows the ratio between I/P &
O/P.
• dB = log 10 (Input /Output)
• - sign before dB indicates a Loss
• + sign before dB indicates a Gain
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