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S EISMIC
CodeMaster
STEP 7 DETERMINE SEISMIC BASE SHEAR, V STEP 8 DISTRIBUTE V OVER THE HEIGHT OF THE BUILDING STEP 10 DETERMINE SEISMIC LOAD EFFECTS, E AND EM The special seismic load combinations set forth in IBC Section 1605.4 are required
for such elements as collectors; columns or other elements supporting reactions 2006 2003 ASCE

D ESIGN
The following seismic base shear equation is given in ASCE 7-05 Section ASCE 7-05 Section 12.8.3 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 5.2.3] ASCE 7-05 Sections 12.4.2 and 12.4.3 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Sections 4.2.2.1 from discontinuous shear walls or frames; and batter piles and their connections. IBC NEHRP 7-0
05
12.8.1[2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 5.2.1]: describes how the seismic base shear is distributed over the height of the and 4.2.2.2] address the determination of E and Em.
structure. The story forces are computed as follows:
V = CsW where Cs is the seismic response coefficient What is E? E is the combined effect of horizontal and vertical earthquake-induced STEP 11 CHECK DRIFT CONTROL REQUIREMENTS
Fx = Cvx V forces and is quantified by the following equation: SEISMIC DESIGN obtaining seismic design parameters using the same data that was used to
W is the weight of the building plus that of any contents that could, with a prepare the ground motion maps published in the 2006 IBC, ASCE 7-05,
The interstory drift expected to be caused by the design earthquake is limited by
high degree of probability, be attached to the structure at the time of the SDS: Determined in Steps 1 and 3 and the 2003 NEHRP Provisions. By inputting the longitude and latitude of
w x hkx the code. Some reasons for limiting drift are: 1) to control member inelastic strain, This CodeMaster identifies the 11 steps involved in designing a typical one- to three-
earthquake. In addition to the obvious dead load of the structure, ASCE 7- Where: C vx = ρ: Determined in Step 9 the building location, this method provides for a more accurate and reliable
n 2) to minimize differential movement demand on the seismic safety elements, and story building for seismic loads in accordance with the 2006 International Building
05 Section 12.7.2 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 5.2.1] requires that the ∑w h k
i i D: Design Dead 3) to limit damage to nonstructural elements. Code (IBC), ASCE 7-05 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, determination of Ss and S1. The FEMA 450 CD also contains this
following loads be included in the effective seismic weight, W: i=1 Load calculation tool.
E = ρQE ± 0.2 S DS D and the 2003 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New
For structures with T < 0.5 sec, k=1 ASCE 7-05 Section 12.12.1 contains drift control requirements [2003 NEHRP
Description Include in Seismic Weight { 1424 3 Provisions Section 4.5.1]. Drift determination is addressed in ASCE 7-05 Section
Buildings and Other Structures (known as 2003 NEHRP Provisions or FEMA 450-1*).
For structures with T > 2.5 sec, k = 2 DETERMINE IF STRUCTURE IS EXEMPT FROM
Areas of storage (other than 25 percent of floor live load For structures with 0.5 sec < T < 2.5 sec, k can be 2 or can be 12.8.6 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 5.2.6]. The first step is to determine δxe, Information will be presented on how these three documents work together. The STEP 2
public garages and open determined by linear interpolation between 1 and 2. Effect of horizontal earthquake Effect of vertical earthquake the elastically computed lateral deflection at floor level x under code-prescribed SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS
ground motion ground motion NEHRP Provisions feed directly into the ASCE 7 development process; ASCE 7 in
parking garages) seismic forces (the design base shear, V, distributed along the height of the turn serves as a primary referenced standard in the IBC. The seismic design 2006 IBC Section 1613.1 allows the following four exceptions from compliance
An example of this distribution is shown in the figure below. A k exponent structure in the manner prescribed by the code). Next, the deflections, δxe, are
Building with partitions 10 psf or actual weight, whichever is greater provisions of the 2006 IBC are based on those of ASCE 7-05 and make extensive with the 2006 IBC seismic design requirement:
larger than 1 places a greater proportion of the base shear in the upper The structural effects of the earthquake forces, meaning the bending moments, multiplied by the deflection amplification factor, Cd, (because the actual lateral
stories, compared with a linear distribution produced by a k value of 1, to reference to that standard. In fact, almost all of the seismic design provisions are
Buildings with roofs Where flat roof snow loads are greater than shear forces and axial forces caused by them, must be combined with the effects of deflections will be greater under the design earthquake excitation) and divided by Exception Detached one- and two- family dwellings in SDC A, B, or C or
account for higher modes of vibration in structures having fundamental adopted through reference to ASCE 7-05. Beginning with Step 4, only references
designed for snow 30 psf, 20 percent of the design snow load gravity (bending moments, shear forces, axial forces caused by the dead, live, snow I in accordance with the following equation: No. 1 located where Ss is less than 0.4g.
periods exceeding 0.5 seconds. For a one- to three-story building, the to ASCE 7-05 and the 2003 NEHRP Provisions are made. The only seismic
needs to be included, regardless of actual loads, etc.) using the design load combinations set forth in 2006 IBC Section 1605 provisions included in the text of the 2006 IBC are related to ground motion, soil
period is less than 0.5 second; therefore, the distribution of seismic forces δx = Cd δxe/ I
roof slope. [ASCE 7-05 Section 2.0; no corresponding section in the 2003 NEHRP Provisions]. parameters, and determination of Seismic Design Category (SDC), as well as
will be linear. For strength design, the two load combinations applicable in seismic design are: Cd is set forth in ASCE 7-05 Table 12.2-1 (2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 4.3-1). I
Permanent equipment 100 percent of operating weight definitions of terms actually used within those provisions and the four exceptions
is in the denominator of the equation to eliminate I from the drift computation
Fn 1.2D + 1.0E + f1L + f2S (2006 IBC Eq. 16-5 – Additive) under the scoping provisions. It is important to note that where this CodeMaster
(remember that the code-prescribed seismic forces that produced δxe were
Cs is calculated according to one of three equations depending on the 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H (2006 IBC Eq. 16-7 – Counteractive) provides section references from the documents, the corresponding requirements
originally augmented by I). It is important and necessary to do this because the
period of the structure as illustrated in the following figure (there are also often differ from one another. In some cases, these differences are subtle and an
drift limits of ASCE 7-05 and the 2003 NEHRP Provisions are a function of the
minimum base shear requirements for long-period structures): 2006 IBC Eq. 16-5 is the additive load combination in which gravity effects add to explanation of these differences is beyond the scope of this CodeMaster.
occupancy of a structure. The drift limit for a hospital is half that for an office
Fi earthquake effects. 2006 IBC Eq. 16-7 is the counteractive load combination in building on the same site.
SDSW
V= which gravity effects counteract earthquake effects (the plus sign includes the
R/I Level i Wi
Hn minus and the minus sign governs). With incorporation of the expression for E, the The design story drift, Δ, is computed as the difference of the deflections δx at the Areas of U.S. with Ss < 0.4 g (Shown in green)
above load combinations become: centers of mass of the diaphragms at the top and the bottom of the story under For areas outside the conterminous United States, visit
SD1W www.skghoshassociates.com/CMSDC
V=
(R/I)T
consideration. For structures assigned to SDC C and higher, with horizontal
(1.2 + 0.2SDS)D + f1L + f2S + ρQE (2006 IBC Eq. 16-5 – Additive) irregularities 1a or 1b, the design story drift, Δ, is computed as the largest difference
Design Base Shear, V

Hi At this stage, the SDC has not been determined; however, Ss has
0.5S1W
(0.9 - 0.2SDS)D - ρQE + 1.6H (2006 IBC Eq. 16-7 – Counteractive) of the deflections along any of the edges of the diaphragms at the top and the been determined in Step 1. After Step 3 is completed, this exception
, where S1 > 0.6g
V=
R/I bottom of the story under consideration. This accounts for torsional effects. may be revisited.
In other words, the consideration of vertical earthquake ground motion increases
SD1TLW V the dead load factor in the additive load combination and decreases it in the Once the drift is computed, it is checked against the allowable story drift set forth
V= Building, n stories high in ASCE 7-05 Table 12.12-1 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 4.5-1]. The first and Conventional light-frame wood construction complying with 2006
2
(R/I)T counteractive load combination. 2003 NEHRP ASCE 7–05 2006 IBC Exception
Distribution of Seismic Forces the last rows of the table apply to buildings other than masonry shear wall IBC Section 2308 (see definition for "conventional light-frame wood
Provisions No. 2
V = 0.01W For example, consider a fully redundant structure (ρ = 1.0) located where SDS = 1.0 buildings. If such buildings are more than four stories tall, the last row applies. If, construction" in 2006 IBC Section 2302).
T1 = SD1/SDS Period, T TL
STEP 9 DETERMINE REDUNDANCY COEFFICIENT, ρ with a bearing wall system consisting of shear walls used for the seismic force- however, such buildings are four stories or less in height, the designer has a choice * The 2003 NEHRP Provisions (FEMA 450-1) is a resource document funded and
resisting system and f1 =1.0. If the bending moments in a shear wall cross-section between two drift limits: (1) where nonstructural elements have been designed to published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). It is intended Agricultural storage structures intended for incidental human
The redundancy coefficient reflects the multiple load path concept – that of Exception
The period TL is given in ASCE 7-05 Figures 22-15 through 22-20 [2003 due to dead loads, live loads, snow loads and horizontal earthquake forces are 200 accommodate the story drift (less stringent) and (2) all other structures (more to capture research results and lessons learned and may contain information occupancy only (see definition for "agricultural building" in 2006 IBC
providing more than one alternate path for every load to travel from its point No. 3
NEHRP Provisions Figures 3.3-16 through 3.3-21]. The building site needs ft-kips, 60 ft-kips, 0 ft-kips and 150 ft-kips, respectively, the design moments stringent). This is consistent with the intent of the drift limit, which is to limit damage beyond that found in ASCE 7-05 or the IBC. The accompanying Commentary Section 202).
of application to the ultimate point of resistance. Just as regular structures (required flexural strengths) by the strength design load combinations (IBC to drift-sensitive nonstructural elements. (FEMA 450-2) may assist the user in understanding the basis for code
to be located on the applicable map to determine TL, which ranges between
have proven themselves to outperform irregular structures in earthquakes, Equations 16-5 and 16-7) are: requirements. Copies of the 2003 NEHRP Provisions and the accompanying Vehicular bridges, electrical transmission towers, hydraulic
4 and 16 seconds, depending upon the location. The following map is the Exception
structures with redundant seismic force-resisting systems have performed a, b Commentary may be viewed or downloaded on the Building Seismic Safety structures, buried utility lines and their appurtenances, nuclear
TL map for the conterminous United States: Mu = [(1.2) + (0.2)(1.0)]( 200) + 60 + (1)(150) = 490 ft-kips ASCE 7-05 TABLE 12.12-1 ALLOWABLE STORY DRIFT, Δa No. 4
better than those with little or no redundancy. The redundancy coefficient is Council's (BSSC) website: www.bssconline.org. The 2003 NEHRP Provisions also reactors and other similarly described structures in the code.
applied as necessary to increase the effect of the horizontal earthquake Mu = [(0.9) - (0.2)(1.0)](200) - (1)(150) = -10 ft-kips Occupancy Category
Structure
includes a CD that contains the two documents as well as the seismic design maps
ground motion to compensate for the lack of structural redundancy in the The shear wall needs to be reinforced to carry these bending moments at the I or II III IV and a program to determine the mapped seismic design values. Hard copies or 2006 IBC Structures located in areas with Ss < 0.15g and S1 < 0.04g need
seismic force-resisting system. cross-section in question. the CD may be obtained free-of-charge by contacting the FEMA Publication Section only comply with SDC A requirements.
Structures, other than masonry shear wall structures, 4 stories or less
ASCE 7-05 Section 12.3.4 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 4.3.3] with interior walls, partitions, ceilings and exterior wall systems that c Distribution Facility at 1-800-480-2520. 1613.5.1
What is Em? Em is the maximum seismic load effect and is required for the design 0.025hsx 0.020hsx 0.015hsx
describes how to determine the redundancy coefficient, ρ. The redundancy of certain elements critical to the stability of the structure. This maximum load
have been designed to accommodate the story drifts.
coefficient does not apply (meaning that it may be taken equal to 1) in effect generated in a building can be much greater than those due to the design- Masonry cantilever shear wall structures
d 0.010hsx 0.010hsx 0.010hsx STEP 1 DETERMINE SS AND S1
SDCs A, B, and C; seismic design forces for structures assigned to these level force. Other masonry shear wall structures 0.007hsx 0.007hsx 0.007hsx The first step in seismic design is determining the mapped maximum considered
seismic design categories are therefore unaffected by the redundancy of
the seismic force-resisting system. Em= Ω0QE ± 0.2SDSD All other structures 0.020hsx 0.015hsx 0.010hsx earthquake (MCE) spectral response accelerations at short periods, Ss, and at 1-
second period, S1. These values can be determined using one of two methods:
(For areas outside the conterminous United States, visit For structures assigned to SDC D, E or F, the value of the redundancy Ωo is the overstrength factor and increases the design-level internal forces to a,b,c,d
See ASCE 7-05 Table 12.12-1 for footnotes.
www.skghoshassociates.com/CMSDC)
coefficient equals 1.3, unless it can be shown that one of two described represent the actual forces that may be experienced by an element as a result of 1. 2006 IBC Figures 1613.5(1) through 1613.5(14) [ASCE 7-05 Figures 22-1
conditions is met. The first condition involves showing that the removal of an the design-level ground motion. Ωo is obtained from ASCE 7-05 Table 12.2-1 [2003 through 22-20; 2003 NEHRP Provisions Figures 3.3-1 through 3.3-14], or
The typical one- to three-story building addressed in this CodeMaster will CLOSING COMMENTS
individual seismic force-resisting element will not cause: (1) the remaining NEHRP Provisions Table 4.3-1]. Em is determined using the same procedure as
qualify as a short-period building and, therefore, the seismic base shear is 2. USGS website at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/hazmaps/. The U.S. Areas of U.S. with Ss < 0.15g and S1 < 0.04g
structure to suffer a reduction in story strength of more than 33 percent, or for determining E. Em is used in the additive and the counteractive load
determined by the following equation: This CodeMaster has presented the step-by-step process required to complete Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared an Internet calculation tool for (shown in green)
(2) create an extreme torsional irregularity. The second condition applies combinations the same way as E, except that the factored snow load effect, f2S, is
SDS seismic design as it relates to the seismic design demands. Many other code For areas outside the conterminous United States, visit
W V= only to a structure that is regular in plan at all levels and requires that the typically not included in the additive combination. www.skghoshassociates.com/CMSDC
R/I requirements need to be addressed when completing the entire seismic design of a CodeMaster developed by:
SDS is determined in Steps 1 and 3; R is determined in Step 5; I is seismic force-resisting system consists of at least two bays of seismic force- Because Em is a strength-level force effect, adjustments need to be made if building. These other code requirements cover: direction of loading, deformation
resisting perimeter framing on each side of the structure in each orthogonal S Structures & Codes Institute
determined in Step 6; and W is the seismic weight of the building as allowable stress design is used. The allowable stresses may be increased by a compatibility, P-Δ effects, detailing, structural component load effects, nonstructural Similar exceptions are found in ASCE 7-05 Sections 11.1.2 and 11.4.1 and 2003
described in this step. direction at each story resisting more than 35 percent of the base shear. factor of 1.2 in accordance with ASCE 7-05 Section12.4.3.3. components, inspections, foundations, and material specific requirements. C A subsidiary of S.K. Ghosh Associates Inc.
www.skghoshassociates.com
Tel: (847) 991-2700
Fax: (847) 991-2702 NEHRP Provisions Section 1.1.2.1.
I ISBN 978-0-9793084-1-3 skghosh@aol.com
CMSeismicNoBullets.qxp 3/19/2008 8:55 AM Page 2

STEP 3 DETERMINE SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS (SDC) SDC if certain conditions are met. The conditions that a structure must satisfy for How to The fundamental period, T, of a building may be taken equal to
HORIZONTAL STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES Vertical STEP 5 DETERMINE R, RESPONSE MODIFICATION COEFFICIENT
this relaxation to be applicable are: Determine the Irregularity
The SDC assigned to a building is a classification based on its occupancy or use Ta, as given in ASCE 7-05 Section 12.8.2.1 [2003 NEHRP Horizontal
• S1 < 0.75g at site of structure. Fundamental Δ2
• Torsional irregularity
Type 1b: Stiff resisting The R-value represents a relative rating of the ability of a structural system
and the level of expected soil-modified seismic ground motion at its site. In order Provisions Section 5.2.2.1]: Irregularity Δ1 exists when elements to resist severe earthquake ground motion without collapse. It is also the
• Ta < 0.8Ts where Ta is the approximate fundamental period of the structure Period, T, of a Type 1a: Δ +Δ
to determine the SDC, the following items first need to be determined: Ta = Cthxn Δ

> 1.2 ⎜⎜ 1 2

⎟ reduction in seismic force demand in proportion to the perceived ductility of
and Ts = SD1/SDS. Building 2
⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ EXTREME
1. Soil Classification. The soil needs to be classified as Site Class A, B, C, D,
⎝ ⎠ a given structural system (ductility is the ability of a structure to continue to
• Upper-bound design base shear is used in design. where hn is the height in feet above the base to the highest level TORSIONAL SOFT STORY carry gravity loads as it deforms laterally beyond the stage of elastic
E, or F in accordance with 2006 IBC Section 1613.5.2 and Table 1613.5.2 • Torsional irregularity Extreme soft story irregularity
• T used to calculate story drift < Ts. of the structure and the parameters Ct and x are determined IRREGULARITY is to be considered only exists when soft story stiffness response). The following table illustrates the different types of seismic
[ASCE 7-05 Sections 11.4.2, 20.1, 20.3 and 20.4; 2003 NEHRP Provisions • Diaphragms are rigid, or for diaphragms that are flexible, vertical elements of from ASCE 7-05 Table 12.8-2 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Table when diaphragms are < 60% story stiffness above or force-resisting systems addressed in ASCE 7-05 Table 12.2-1, which sets
Section 3.5]. Site class definitions are dependent on soil parameters such as seismic force-resisting system spaced at < 40 ft. 5.2-2]. not flexible. Extreme soft story < 70% of the average stiffness forth the R-values [2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 4.3-1].
shear wave velocity, standard penetration resistance, undrained shear of 3 stories above.
strength, and soil profile descriptions. Note: For a three-story building with hn equal to 30 feet, Gravity Loads Gravity Lateral Forces
depending on the structural system, the approximate period can Horizontal • Extreme torsional Loads
SECRETS OF THE CODEMASTER: 2006 IBC Section 1613.5.2 [ASCE 7-05 Δ2 Vertical
vary from 0.26 second to 0.43 second. Irregularity Δ1 irregularity exists when
Section 20.1; 2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 3.5] makes the following allowance Irregularity Lateral Forces
Type 1b:
for situations where soil properties are not known: Δ

> 1.4 ⎜⎜
Δ +Δ ⎞
⎟ Type 2: Heavy mass
Once the design using base shear computed from T=Ta has 2

1 2
⎟⎟
When the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the site ⎝
2

progressed to a certain stage, the value of the fundamental EXTREME Stiff Resisting Elements
class, Site Class D can be used unless the building official determines that Site • Extreme torsional WEIGHT (Shear Walls or Braced Frames) Stiff Resisting Elements
period may be refined through rational analysis. However, the TORSIONAL Weight irregularity exists when
Class E or F soil is likely to be present at the site. irregularity is to be (MASS) story mass > 150% adjacent (Shear Walls or Braced Frames)
rationally computed T is still limited (except in drift IRREGULARITY considered only when Bearing Wall System
ASCE 7-05 Section 20.1 includes the following statement: IRREGULARITY story mass (a roof that is lighter Building Wall System
computations) to no more than CuTa, where Cu is a coefficient diaphragms are not
than the floor below need not
Where site-specific data are not available to a depth of 100 feet, appropriate soil flexible.
Areas of U.S. with S1 > 0.75g (shown in red) given in ASCE 7-05 Table 12.8-1 [2003 NEHRP Provisions be considered). Gravity Gravity
properties are permitted to be estimated by the registered design professional Loads Loads
For areas outside the conterminous United States, visit Table 5.2-1]. Horizontal
preparing the soils report based on known geologic conditions. www.skghoshassociates.com/CMSDC
Irregularity a (supported
2. SDS and SD1. SDS is the 5-percent-damped design spectral response Once the SDC is determined, it is important to understand the impact such a Re-entrant corner irregularity Vertical Lateral Lateral
How to Ts is the period at which the flat-top portion of the response Type 2: a
exists when both projection b >
by frames)
acceleration at short periods and is calculated as follows: SDS = (2/3)(Fa)(Ss). classification has on the seismic design of the building. If a building is assigned Irregularity Forces Forces
Determine Ts spectrum transitions to the descending (period-dependent) b re-entrant corner 0.15a and projection d > 0.15.c. Vertical geometric
The Fa value is obtained from 2006 IBC Table 1613.5.3(1) [ASCE 7-05 Table SDC A, this means that the building has a minimal seismic vulnerability. All of the Type 3: irregularity exists when
branch. Ts is shown in ASCE 7-05 Figure 11.4-1 [2003 NEHRP REENTRANT d horizontal dimension of
11.4-1; 2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 3.3-1] and is a function of the site class design requirements applicable to such a building are found in ASCE 7-05 Section Provisions Figure 3.3-15] and is illustrated as follows: CORNER c lateral-force-resisting
and Ss. 11.7 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 1.5]. VERTICAL
system in story > 130%
SD1 is the 5-percent-damped design spectral response acceleration at 1- Horizontal GEOMETRIC of that in adjacent Stiff Resisting Elements
Each subsequent SDC letter assignment (B through F) means an increase in IRREGULARITY story. (Shear Walls or Braced Frames)
second period and is calculated as follows: SD1 = (2/3)(Fv)(S1). The Fv value is seismic performance requirements. Among other code requirements, the SDC Irregularity opening b > 1.3a
Moment-Resisting Frame System
Type 3: b Dual Systems with Moment Frames
obtained from 2006 IBC Table 1613.5.3(2) [ASCE 7-05 Table 11.4-2; 2003 establishes permissible structural systems, height limits, restrictions on irregular b
(Moment frames resist at least 25% of the
NEHRP Provisions Table 3.3-2] and is a function of the site class and S1. buildings, permitted analysis procedures, detailing requirements, and design seismic forces)
3. Occupancy Category. Occupancy Category is a term used to describe the requirements for nonstructural components. DIAPHRAGM a
DISCONTINUITY Vertical Gravity Loads Gravity Loads
category of structures based on occupancy or use. Use 2006 IBC Table In-plane Stiff Resisting
Diaphragm discontinuity exists when area of opening > 0.5(a)(b) or Irregularity discontinuity in
1604.5 to determine the Occupancy Category [ASCE 7-05 Table 1-1; 2003 Lateral
STEP 4 DETERMINE ANALYSIS PROCEDURES effective diaphragm stiffness changes more than 50% from one Type 4: Stiff resisting vertical lateral-
Elements
(Shear Walls) Forces
NEHRP Provisions uses Seismic Use Group in accordance with Section 1.2]. story to the next. elements force-resisting
The following table summarizes Occupancy Category assignments: Three types of analysis procedures can be used in the seismic design of a building elements exists Ordinary
VERTICAL In plane Lateral
according to ASCE 7-05: 1) simplified design procedure, 2) equivalent lateral force Horizontal offset = 2a.
when the in-plane Moment
Out-of-plane offset DISCONTINUITY offset is greater Forces
Occupancy procedure, and 3) dynamic analysis procedure. Irregularity irregularity exists when Length of Frame
Nature of Category IN VERTICAL than the lengths of
Category Type 4: there are discontinuities lateral-
those elements or
Cantilevered Column System
The simplified design procedure is in stand-alone ASCE 7-05 Section 12.14 (2003 in the vertical elements LATERAL- force- A system in which lateral forces are resisted
there exists a
Occupancy Category I is assigned to agricultural facilities, NEHRP Provisions Alternative Simplified Chapter 4). It is a conservative method of the lateral force- FORCE resisting entirely by columns acting as cantilevers
I temporary facilities and minor storage facilities that represent a OUT-OF-PLANE resisting system. RESISTING element = a
reduction in
Shear Wall-Frame Interactive System from the base
of determining design forces for certain simple buildings. It is optional for these OFFSETS a a a
stiffness of
low hazard to human life in the event of failure. simple buildings, but it should be kept in mind that the design forces will be higher ELEMENTS resisting elements
in the story below.
Occupancy Category II is assigned to most buildings; it is than those calculated using one of the other two methods. The procedure is limited Horizontal The following table provides sections indicating how to determine R-values
II assigned to buildings not otherwise classified as Occupancy in its applicability to simple and redundant Occupancy Category I and II structures Irregularity
Nonparallel systems irregularity exists where for different combinations.
the vertical lateral force-resisting elements are
Category I, III, or IV. not exceeding 3 stories where the seismic force-resisting elements are arranged in A typical value of Ts is 0.5 second. For any building one to three Type 5: not parallel to or symmetric about the major Vertical
a torsion-resistant, regular layout. Furthermore, only bearing wall and building stories in height, T will always be less than 3.5 Ts. It is not until orthogonal axes of the seismic force-resisting
Irregularity
Stiff resisting Combination Description ASCE 7-05 2003 NEHRP
Occupancy Category III is for buildings with large numbers of system. elements
frame systems qualify to use the procedure. See ASCE 7-05 Section 12.14.1.1 for a building is in the 17- to 20-story height range that T may be NONPARALLEL Type 5a:
persons such as: Framing Systems in Different Directions Section 12.2.2 Section 4.3.1.2.1
12 limitations that must be met in order for the simplified design procedure to be greater than 3.5 Ts. SYSTEMS
• Schools with more than 250 students, Weak story Framing Systems in Same Horizontal Direction Section 12.2.3 Section 4.3.1.2.1
used [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section Alt. 4.1.1]. WEAK STORY
• Assembly uses with more than 300 people, and
III Vertical Combinations of Framing Systems Section 12.2.3.1 Section 4.3.1.2.1
• Buildings with total occupancy greater than 5000 people. Permissible analysis procedures for buildings not qualifying for the simplified design
ASCE 7-05 Tables 12.3-1 and 12.3-2 define the different
Occupancy Category III is also assigned to: procedure are set forth in ASCE 7-05 Section 12.6 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section Weak story irregularity exists when the story lateral strength < 80% Horizontal Combinations of Framing Systems Section 12.2.3.2 Section 4.3.1.2.2
horizontal and vertical structural irregularities [2003 NEHRP VERTICAL STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES
• Nonessential utility facilities, and 4.4.1]. The following table summarizes the permissible analysis procedures. In order lateral strength of story above.
Provisions Tables 4.3-2 and 4.3-3].
• Jails and detention facilities. to use this table, a building's fundamental period needs to be determined, as does Vertical
Occupancy Category IV includes hospitals and acute care Ts, and whether or not it is regular or irregular – all of which are explained below. What is important to note is that if a building is SDC D, E or F Irregularity Vertical STEP 6 DETERMINE SEISMIC IMPORTANCE FACTOR, I
Type 1a: Stiff resisting
facilities; fire, police and emergency response stations; and has a T > 3.5 Ts, it must be designed using a dynamic Irregularity
IV ASCE 7-05 Table 12.6-1 (Summarized) elements The seismic importance factor represents an attempt to control the seismic
structures containing highly toxic materials; aviation control Equivalent Dynamic analysis procedure. Also, if a building meets all of the following Stiff resisting Type 5b:
How to SOFT STORY elements performance capabilities of buildings in different occupancy categories.
towers; and utilities required for essential facilities. SDC Structural Characteristics Lateral Force Analysis Determine if conditions, it must be designed using a dynamic analysis Weak story
The importance factor modifies the minimum base shear forces and
Procedure Procedure procedure: EXTREME
Building is reflects the relative importance assigned to the occupancy during and
Once SDS, SD1 and the Occupancy Category have been determined, 2006 IBC Tables B, C All structures P P WEAK STORY
Irregular? • SDC D, E or F, and following an earthquake. The seismic importance factor is related to the
1613.5.6(1) and 1613.5.6(2) should be used for the SDC determination [ASCE 7-05 Regular structures with T < 3.5 Ts and all Extreme weak story irregularity exists when the story
P P Soft story irregularity exists when Occupancy Category. An Occupancy Category I or II structure is assigned
Tables 11.6-1 and 11.6-2; 2003 NEHRP Provisions Tables 1.4-1 and 1.4-2], unless the structures of light-frame construction soft story stiffness < 70% story lateral strength < 65% lateral strength of story above.
• Not of light-frame construction, and I = 1.0; an Occupancy Category III structure is assigned I = 1.25; and an
structure is located where S1 > 0.75g. If that is the case, Occupancy Category I, II or Irregular structures with T < 3.5Ts and having soft story stiffness above or < 80% of the
average stiffness of 3 stories above. Occupancy Category IV structure is assigned I = 1.5. As will be seen in
III structures are assigned to SDC E, and Occupancy Category IV structures are D, E, F horizontal irregularities Type 2, 3, 4, or 5 of
P P • Contains one of the following irregularities: horizontal Step 7, I = 1.25 results in increasing the design seismic force by 25 percent
assigned to SDC F. Although 2006 IBC Section 1613.5.6 [ASCE 7-05 Section 11.6 ASCE 7-05 Table 12.3-1 or vertical irregularities Further discussion of the simplified design procedure and discussion of the
irregularity type 1a or 1b or vertical irregularity type 1a, 1b, and I = 1.50 results in increasing the design seismic force by 50 percent.
and 2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 1.4.1] indicates that the building is to be Type 4 or 5 of ASCE 7-05 Table 12.3-2. dynamic analysis procedures are beyond the scope of this CodeMaster.
2 or 3. (See ASCE 7-05 Table 11.5-1 and 2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 1.3-1 for
assigned the more severe SDC in accordance with the two tables, there is an All other structures NP P The equivalent lateral force procedure is discussed in the following steps.
importance factor assignments).
exception in this section that allows only Table 1613.5.6(1) to be used to determine P indicates permitted; NP indicates not permitted.
CMSeismicNoBullets.qxp 3/19/2008 8:55 AM Page 2

STEP 3 DETERMINE SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS (SDC) SDC if certain conditions are met. The conditions that a structure must satisfy for How to The fundamental period, T, of a building may be taken equal to
HORIZONTAL STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES Vertical STEP 5 DETERMINE R, RESPONSE MODIFICATION COEFFICIENT
this relaxation to be applicable are: Determine the Irregularity
The SDC assigned to a building is a classification based on its occupancy or use Ta, as given in ASCE 7-05 Section 12.8.2.1 [2003 NEHRP Horizontal
• S1 < 0.75g at site of structure. Fundamental Δ2
• Torsional irregularity
Type 1b: Stiff resisting The R-value represents a relative rating of the ability of a structural system
and the level of expected soil-modified seismic ground motion at its site. In order Provisions Section 5.2.2.1]: Irregularity Δ1 exists when elements to resist severe earthquake ground motion without collapse. It is also the
• Ta < 0.8Ts where Ta is the approximate fundamental period of the structure Period, T, of a Type 1a: Δ +Δ
to determine the SDC, the following items first need to be determined: Ta = Cthxn Δ

> 1.2 ⎜⎜ 1 2

⎟ reduction in seismic force demand in proportion to the perceived ductility of
and Ts = SD1/SDS. Building 2
⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ EXTREME
1. Soil Classification. The soil needs to be classified as Site Class A, B, C, D,
⎝ ⎠ a given structural system (ductility is the ability of a structure to continue to
• Upper-bound design base shear is used in design. where hn is the height in feet above the base to the highest level TORSIONAL SOFT STORY carry gravity loads as it deforms laterally beyond the stage of elastic
E, or F in accordance with 2006 IBC Section 1613.5.2 and Table 1613.5.2 • Torsional irregularity Extreme soft story irregularity
• T used to calculate story drift < Ts. of the structure and the parameters Ct and x are determined IRREGULARITY is to be considered only exists when soft story stiffness response). The following table illustrates the different types of seismic
[ASCE 7-05 Sections 11.4.2, 20.1, 20.3 and 20.4; 2003 NEHRP Provisions • Diaphragms are rigid, or for diaphragms that are flexible, vertical elements of from ASCE 7-05 Table 12.8-2 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Table when diaphragms are < 60% story stiffness above or force-resisting systems addressed in ASCE 7-05 Table 12.2-1, which sets
Section 3.5]. Site class definitions are dependent on soil parameters such as seismic force-resisting system spaced at < 40 ft. 5.2-2]. not flexible. Extreme soft story < 70% of the average stiffness forth the R-values [2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 4.3-1].
shear wave velocity, standard penetration resistance, undrained shear of 3 stories above.
strength, and soil profile descriptions. Note: For a three-story building with hn equal to 30 feet, Gravity Loads Gravity Lateral Forces
depending on the structural system, the approximate period can Horizontal • Extreme torsional Loads
SECRETS OF THE CODEMASTER: 2006 IBC Section 1613.5.2 [ASCE 7-05 Δ2 Vertical
vary from 0.26 second to 0.43 second. Irregularity Δ1 irregularity exists when
Section 20.1; 2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 3.5] makes the following allowance Irregularity Lateral Forces
Type 1b:
for situations where soil properties are not known: Δ

> 1.4 ⎜⎜
Δ +Δ ⎞
⎟ Type 2: Heavy mass
Once the design using base shear computed from T=Ta has 2

1 2
⎟⎟
When the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the site ⎝
2

progressed to a certain stage, the value of the fundamental EXTREME Stiff Resisting Elements
class, Site Class D can be used unless the building official determines that Site • Extreme torsional WEIGHT (Shear Walls or Braced Frames) Stiff Resisting Elements
period may be refined through rational analysis. However, the TORSIONAL Weight irregularity exists when
Class E or F soil is likely to be present at the site. irregularity is to be (MASS) story mass > 150% adjacent (Shear Walls or Braced Frames)
rationally computed T is still limited (except in drift IRREGULARITY considered only when Bearing Wall System
ASCE 7-05 Section 20.1 includes the following statement: IRREGULARITY story mass (a roof that is lighter Building Wall System
computations) to no more than CuTa, where Cu is a coefficient diaphragms are not
than the floor below need not
Where site-specific data are not available to a depth of 100 feet, appropriate soil flexible.
Areas of U.S. with S1 > 0.75g (shown in red) given in ASCE 7-05 Table 12.8-1 [2003 NEHRP Provisions be considered). Gravity Gravity
properties are permitted to be estimated by the registered design professional Loads Loads
For areas outside the conterminous United States, visit Table 5.2-1]. Horizontal
preparing the soils report based on known geologic conditions. www.skghoshassociates.com/CMSDC
Irregularity a (supported
2. SDS and SD1. SDS is the 5-percent-damped design spectral response Once the SDC is determined, it is important to understand the impact such a Re-entrant corner irregularity Vertical Lateral Lateral
How to Ts is the period at which the flat-top portion of the response Type 2: a
exists when both projection b >
by frames)
acceleration at short periods and is calculated as follows: SDS = (2/3)(Fa)(Ss). classification has on the seismic design of the building. If a building is assigned Irregularity Forces Forces
Determine Ts spectrum transitions to the descending (period-dependent) b re-entrant corner 0.15a and projection d > 0.15.c. Vertical geometric
The Fa value is obtained from 2006 IBC Table 1613.5.3(1) [ASCE 7-05 Table SDC A, this means that the building has a minimal seismic vulnerability. All of the Type 3: irregularity exists when
branch. Ts is shown in ASCE 7-05 Figure 11.4-1 [2003 NEHRP REENTRANT d horizontal dimension of
11.4-1; 2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 3.3-1] and is a function of the site class design requirements applicable to such a building are found in ASCE 7-05 Section Provisions Figure 3.3-15] and is illustrated as follows: CORNER c lateral-force-resisting
and Ss. 11.7 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 1.5]. VERTICAL
system in story > 130%
SD1 is the 5-percent-damped design spectral response acceleration at 1- Horizontal GEOMETRIC of that in adjacent Stiff Resisting Elements
Each subsequent SDC letter assignment (B through F) means an increase in IRREGULARITY story. (Shear Walls or Braced Frames)
second period and is calculated as follows: SD1 = (2/3)(Fv)(S1). The Fv value is seismic performance requirements. Among other code requirements, the SDC Irregularity opening b > 1.3a
Moment-Resisting Frame System
Type 3: b Dual Systems with Moment Frames
obtained from 2006 IBC Table 1613.5.3(2) [ASCE 7-05 Table 11.4-2; 2003 establishes permissible structural systems, height limits, restrictions on irregular b
(Moment frames resist at least 25% of the
NEHRP Provisions Table 3.3-2] and is a function of the site class and S1. buildings, permitted analysis procedures, detailing requirements, and design seismic forces)
3. Occupancy Category. Occupancy Category is a term used to describe the requirements for nonstructural components. DIAPHRAGM a
DISCONTINUITY Vertical Gravity Loads Gravity Loads
category of structures based on occupancy or use. Use 2006 IBC Table In-plane Stiff Resisting
Diaphragm discontinuity exists when area of opening > 0.5(a)(b) or Irregularity discontinuity in
1604.5 to determine the Occupancy Category [ASCE 7-05 Table 1-1; 2003 Lateral
STEP 4 DETERMINE ANALYSIS PROCEDURES effective diaphragm stiffness changes more than 50% from one Type 4: Stiff resisting vertical lateral-
Elements
(Shear Walls) Forces
NEHRP Provisions uses Seismic Use Group in accordance with Section 1.2]. story to the next. elements force-resisting
The following table summarizes Occupancy Category assignments: Three types of analysis procedures can be used in the seismic design of a building elements exists Ordinary
VERTICAL In plane Lateral
according to ASCE 7-05: 1) simplified design procedure, 2) equivalent lateral force Horizontal offset = 2a.
when the in-plane Moment
Out-of-plane offset DISCONTINUITY offset is greater Forces
Occupancy procedure, and 3) dynamic analysis procedure. Irregularity irregularity exists when Length of Frame
Nature of Category IN VERTICAL than the lengths of
Category Type 4: there are discontinuities lateral-
those elements or
Cantilevered Column System
The simplified design procedure is in stand-alone ASCE 7-05 Section 12.14 (2003 in the vertical elements LATERAL- force- A system in which lateral forces are resisted
there exists a
Occupancy Category I is assigned to agricultural facilities, NEHRP Provisions Alternative Simplified Chapter 4). It is a conservative method of the lateral force- FORCE resisting entirely by columns acting as cantilevers
I temporary facilities and minor storage facilities that represent a OUT-OF-PLANE resisting system. RESISTING element = a
reduction in
Shear Wall-Frame Interactive System from the base
of determining design forces for certain simple buildings. It is optional for these OFFSETS a a a
stiffness of
low hazard to human life in the event of failure. simple buildings, but it should be kept in mind that the design forces will be higher ELEMENTS resisting elements
in the story below.
Occupancy Category II is assigned to most buildings; it is than those calculated using one of the other two methods. The procedure is limited Horizontal The following table provides sections indicating how to determine R-values
II assigned to buildings not otherwise classified as Occupancy in its applicability to simple and redundant Occupancy Category I and II structures Irregularity
Nonparallel systems irregularity exists where for different combinations.
the vertical lateral force-resisting elements are
Category I, III, or IV. not exceeding 3 stories where the seismic force-resisting elements are arranged in A typical value of Ts is 0.5 second. For any building one to three Type 5: not parallel to or symmetric about the major Vertical
a torsion-resistant, regular layout. Furthermore, only bearing wall and building stories in height, T will always be less than 3.5 Ts. It is not until orthogonal axes of the seismic force-resisting
Irregularity
Stiff resisting Combination Description ASCE 7-05 2003 NEHRP
Occupancy Category III is for buildings with large numbers of system. elements
frame systems qualify to use the procedure. See ASCE 7-05 Section 12.14.1.1 for a building is in the 17- to 20-story height range that T may be NONPARALLEL Type 5a:
persons such as: Framing Systems in Different Directions Section 12.2.2 Section 4.3.1.2.1
12 limitations that must be met in order for the simplified design procedure to be greater than 3.5 Ts. SYSTEMS
• Schools with more than 250 students, Weak story Framing Systems in Same Horizontal Direction Section 12.2.3 Section 4.3.1.2.1
used [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section Alt. 4.1.1]. WEAK STORY
• Assembly uses with more than 300 people, and
III Vertical Combinations of Framing Systems Section 12.2.3.1 Section 4.3.1.2.1
• Buildings with total occupancy greater than 5000 people. Permissible analysis procedures for buildings not qualifying for the simplified design
ASCE 7-05 Tables 12.3-1 and 12.3-2 define the different
Occupancy Category III is also assigned to: procedure are set forth in ASCE 7-05 Section 12.6 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section Weak story irregularity exists when the story lateral strength < 80% Horizontal Combinations of Framing Systems Section 12.2.3.2 Section 4.3.1.2.2
horizontal and vertical structural irregularities [2003 NEHRP VERTICAL STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES
• Nonessential utility facilities, and 4.4.1]. The following table summarizes the permissible analysis procedures. In order lateral strength of story above.
Provisions Tables 4.3-2 and 4.3-3].
• Jails and detention facilities. to use this table, a building's fundamental period needs to be determined, as does Vertical
Occupancy Category IV includes hospitals and acute care Ts, and whether or not it is regular or irregular – all of which are explained below. What is important to note is that if a building is SDC D, E or F Irregularity Vertical STEP 6 DETERMINE SEISMIC IMPORTANCE FACTOR, I
Type 1a: Stiff resisting
facilities; fire, police and emergency response stations; and has a T > 3.5 Ts, it must be designed using a dynamic Irregularity
IV ASCE 7-05 Table 12.6-1 (Summarized) elements The seismic importance factor represents an attempt to control the seismic
structures containing highly toxic materials; aviation control Equivalent Dynamic analysis procedure. Also, if a building meets all of the following Stiff resisting Type 5b:
How to SOFT STORY elements performance capabilities of buildings in different occupancy categories.
towers; and utilities required for essential facilities. SDC Structural Characteristics Lateral Force Analysis Determine if conditions, it must be designed using a dynamic analysis Weak story
The importance factor modifies the minimum base shear forces and
Procedure Procedure procedure: EXTREME
Building is reflects the relative importance assigned to the occupancy during and
Once SDS, SD1 and the Occupancy Category have been determined, 2006 IBC Tables B, C All structures P P WEAK STORY
Irregular? • SDC D, E or F, and following an earthquake. The seismic importance factor is related to the
1613.5.6(1) and 1613.5.6(2) should be used for the SDC determination [ASCE 7-05 Regular structures with T < 3.5 Ts and all Extreme weak story irregularity exists when the story
P P Soft story irregularity exists when Occupancy Category. An Occupancy Category I or II structure is assigned
Tables 11.6-1 and 11.6-2; 2003 NEHRP Provisions Tables 1.4-1 and 1.4-2], unless the structures of light-frame construction soft story stiffness < 70% story lateral strength < 65% lateral strength of story above.
• Not of light-frame construction, and I = 1.0; an Occupancy Category III structure is assigned I = 1.25; and an
structure is located where S1 > 0.75g. If that is the case, Occupancy Category I, II or Irregular structures with T < 3.5Ts and having soft story stiffness above or < 80% of the
average stiffness of 3 stories above. Occupancy Category IV structure is assigned I = 1.5. As will be seen in
III structures are assigned to SDC E, and Occupancy Category IV structures are D, E, F horizontal irregularities Type 2, 3, 4, or 5 of
P P • Contains one of the following irregularities: horizontal Step 7, I = 1.25 results in increasing the design seismic force by 25 percent
assigned to SDC F. Although 2006 IBC Section 1613.5.6 [ASCE 7-05 Section 11.6 ASCE 7-05 Table 12.3-1 or vertical irregularities Further discussion of the simplified design procedure and discussion of the
irregularity type 1a or 1b or vertical irregularity type 1a, 1b, and I = 1.50 results in increasing the design seismic force by 50 percent.
and 2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 1.4.1] indicates that the building is to be Type 4 or 5 of ASCE 7-05 Table 12.3-2. dynamic analysis procedures are beyond the scope of this CodeMaster.
2 or 3. (See ASCE 7-05 Table 11.5-1 and 2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 1.3-1 for
assigned the more severe SDC in accordance with the two tables, there is an All other structures NP P The equivalent lateral force procedure is discussed in the following steps.
importance factor assignments).
exception in this section that allows only Table 1613.5.6(1) to be used to determine P indicates permitted; NP indicates not permitted.
CMSeismicNoBullets.qxp 3/19/2008 8:55 AM Page 2

STEP 3 DETERMINE SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS (SDC) SDC if certain conditions are met. The conditions that a structure must satisfy for How to The fundamental period, T, of a building may be taken equal to
HORIZONTAL STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES Vertical STEP 5 DETERMINE R, RESPONSE MODIFICATION COEFFICIENT
this relaxation to be applicable are: Determine the Irregularity
The SDC assigned to a building is a classification based on its occupancy or use Ta, as given in ASCE 7-05 Section 12.8.2.1 [2003 NEHRP Horizontal
• S1 < 0.75g at site of structure. Fundamental Δ2
• Torsional irregularity
Type 1b: Stiff resisting The R-value represents a relative rating of the ability of a structural system
and the level of expected soil-modified seismic ground motion at its site. In order Provisions Section 5.2.2.1]: Irregularity Δ1 exists when elements to resist severe earthquake ground motion without collapse. It is also the
• Ta < 0.8Ts where Ta is the approximate fundamental period of the structure Period, T, of a Type 1a: Δ +Δ
to determine the SDC, the following items first need to be determined: Ta = Cthxn Δ

> 1.2 ⎜⎜ 1 2

⎟ reduction in seismic force demand in proportion to the perceived ductility of
and Ts = SD1/SDS. Building 2
⎜ 2 ⎟⎟ EXTREME
1. Soil Classification. The soil needs to be classified as Site Class A, B, C, D,
⎝ ⎠ a given structural system (ductility is the ability of a structure to continue to
• Upper-bound design base shear is used in design. where hn is the height in feet above the base to the highest level TORSIONAL SOFT STORY carry gravity loads as it deforms laterally beyond the stage of elastic
E, or F in accordance with 2006 IBC Section 1613.5.2 and Table 1613.5.2 • Torsional irregularity Extreme soft story irregularity
• T used to calculate story drift < Ts. of the structure and the parameters Ct and x are determined IRREGULARITY is to be considered only exists when soft story stiffness response). The following table illustrates the different types of seismic
[ASCE 7-05 Sections 11.4.2, 20.1, 20.3 and 20.4; 2003 NEHRP Provisions • Diaphragms are rigid, or for diaphragms that are flexible, vertical elements of from ASCE 7-05 Table 12.8-2 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Table when diaphragms are < 60% story stiffness above or force-resisting systems addressed in ASCE 7-05 Table 12.2-1, which sets
Section 3.5]. Site class definitions are dependent on soil parameters such as seismic force-resisting system spaced at < 40 ft. 5.2-2]. not flexible. Extreme soft story < 70% of the average stiffness forth the R-values [2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 4.3-1].
shear wave velocity, standard penetration resistance, undrained shear of 3 stories above.
strength, and soil profile descriptions. Note: For a three-story building with hn equal to 30 feet, Gravity Loads Gravity Lateral Forces
depending on the structural system, the approximate period can Horizontal • Extreme torsional Loads
SECRETS OF THE CODEMASTER: 2006 IBC Section 1613.5.2 [ASCE 7-05 Δ2 Vertical
vary from 0.26 second to 0.43 second. Irregularity Δ1 irregularity exists when
Section 20.1; 2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 3.5] makes the following allowance Irregularity Lateral Forces
Type 1b:
for situations where soil properties are not known: Δ

> 1.4 ⎜⎜
Δ +Δ ⎞
⎟ Type 2: Heavy mass
Once the design using base shear computed from T=Ta has 2

1 2
⎟⎟
When the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the site ⎝
2

progressed to a certain stage, the value of the fundamental EXTREME Stiff Resisting Elements
class, Site Class D can be used unless the building official determines that Site • Extreme torsional WEIGHT (Shear Walls or Braced Frames) Stiff Resisting Elements
period may be refined through rational analysis. However, the TORSIONAL Weight irregularity exists when
Class E or F soil is likely to be present at the site. irregularity is to be (MASS) story mass > 150% adjacent (Shear Walls or Braced Frames)
rationally computed T is still limited (except in drift IRREGULARITY considered only when Bearing Wall System
ASCE 7-05 Section 20.1 includes the following statement: IRREGULARITY story mass (a roof that is lighter Building Wall System
computations) to no more than CuTa, where Cu is a coefficient diaphragms are not
than the floor below need not
Where site-specific data are not available to a depth of 100 feet, appropriate soil flexible.
Areas of U.S. with S1 > 0.75g (shown in red) given in ASCE 7-05 Table 12.8-1 [2003 NEHRP Provisions be considered). Gravity Gravity
properties are permitted to be estimated by the registered design professional Loads Loads
For areas outside the conterminous United States, visit Table 5.2-1]. Horizontal
preparing the soils report based on known geologic conditions. www.skghoshassociates.com/CMSDC
Irregularity a (supported
2. SDS and SD1. SDS is the 5-percent-damped design spectral response Once the SDC is determined, it is important to understand the impact such a Re-entrant corner irregularity Vertical Lateral Lateral
How to Ts is the period at which the flat-top portion of the response Type 2: a
exists when both projection b >
by frames)
acceleration at short periods and is calculated as follows: SDS = (2/3)(Fa)(Ss). classification has on the seismic design of the building. If a building is assigned Irregularity Forces Forces
Determine Ts spectrum transitions to the descending (period-dependent) b re-entrant corner 0.15a and projection d > 0.15.c. Vertical geometric
The Fa value is obtained from 2006 IBC Table 1613.5.3(1) [ASCE 7-05 Table SDC A, this means that the building has a minimal seismic vulnerability. All of the Type 3: irregularity exists when
branch. Ts is shown in ASCE 7-05 Figure 11.4-1 [2003 NEHRP REENTRANT d horizontal dimension of
11.4-1; 2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 3.3-1] and is a function of the site class design requirements applicable to such a building are found in ASCE 7-05 Section Provisions Figure 3.3-15] and is illustrated as follows: CORNER c lateral-force-resisting
and Ss. 11.7 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 1.5]. VERTICAL
system in story > 130%
SD1 is the 5-percent-damped design spectral response acceleration at 1- Horizontal GEOMETRIC of that in adjacent Stiff Resisting Elements
Each subsequent SDC letter assignment (B through F) means an increase in IRREGULARITY story. (Shear Walls or Braced Frames)
second period and is calculated as follows: SD1 = (2/3)(Fv)(S1). The Fv value is seismic performance requirements. Among other code requirements, the SDC Irregularity opening b > 1.3a
Moment-Resisting Frame System
Type 3: b Dual Systems with Moment Frames
obtained from 2006 IBC Table 1613.5.3(2) [ASCE 7-05 Table 11.4-2; 2003 establishes permissible structural systems, height limits, restrictions on irregular b
(Moment frames resist at least 25% of the
NEHRP Provisions Table 3.3-2] and is a function of the site class and S1. buildings, permitted analysis procedures, detailing requirements, and design seismic forces)
3. Occupancy Category. Occupancy Category is a term used to describe the requirements for nonstructural components. DIAPHRAGM a
DISCONTINUITY Vertical Gravity Loads Gravity Loads
category of structures based on occupancy or use. Use 2006 IBC Table In-plane Stiff Resisting
Diaphragm discontinuity exists when area of opening > 0.5(a)(b) or Irregularity discontinuity in
1604.5 to determine the Occupancy Category [ASCE 7-05 Table 1-1; 2003 Lateral
STEP 4 DETERMINE ANALYSIS PROCEDURES effective diaphragm stiffness changes more than 50% from one Type 4: Stiff resisting vertical lateral-
Elements
(Shear Walls) Forces
NEHRP Provisions uses Seismic Use Group in accordance with Section 1.2]. story to the next. elements force-resisting
The following table summarizes Occupancy Category assignments: Three types of analysis procedures can be used in the seismic design of a building elements exists Ordinary
VERTICAL In plane Lateral
according to ASCE 7-05: 1) simplified design procedure, 2) equivalent lateral force Horizontal offset = 2a.
when the in-plane Moment
Out-of-plane offset DISCONTINUITY offset is greater Forces
Occupancy procedure, and 3) dynamic analysis procedure. Irregularity irregularity exists when Length of Frame
Nature of Category IN VERTICAL than the lengths of
Category Type 4: there are discontinuities lateral-
those elements or
Cantilevered Column System
The simplified design procedure is in stand-alone ASCE 7-05 Section 12.14 (2003 in the vertical elements LATERAL- force- A system in which lateral forces are resisted
there exists a
Occupancy Category I is assigned to agricultural facilities, NEHRP Provisions Alternative Simplified Chapter 4). It is a conservative method of the lateral force- FORCE resisting entirely by columns acting as cantilevers
I temporary facilities and minor storage facilities that represent a OUT-OF-PLANE resisting system. RESISTING element = a
reduction in
Shear Wall-Frame Interactive System from the base
of determining design forces for certain simple buildings. It is optional for these OFFSETS a a a
stiffness of
low hazard to human life in the event of failure. simple buildings, but it should be kept in mind that the design forces will be higher ELEMENTS resisting elements
in the story below.
Occupancy Category II is assigned to most buildings; it is than those calculated using one of the other two methods. The procedure is limited Horizontal The following table provides sections indicating how to determine R-values
II assigned to buildings not otherwise classified as Occupancy in its applicability to simple and redundant Occupancy Category I and II structures Irregularity
Nonparallel systems irregularity exists where for different combinations.
the vertical lateral force-resisting elements are
Category I, III, or IV. not exceeding 3 stories where the seismic force-resisting elements are arranged in A typical value of Ts is 0.5 second. For any building one to three Type 5: not parallel to or symmetric about the major Vertical
a torsion-resistant, regular layout. Furthermore, only bearing wall and building stories in height, T will always be less than 3.5 Ts. It is not until orthogonal axes of the seismic force-resisting
Irregularity
Stiff resisting Combination Description ASCE 7-05 2003 NEHRP
Occupancy Category III is for buildings with large numbers of system. elements
frame systems qualify to use the procedure. See ASCE 7-05 Section 12.14.1.1 for a building is in the 17- to 20-story height range that T may be NONPARALLEL Type 5a:
persons such as: Framing Systems in Different Directions Section 12.2.2 Section 4.3.1.2.1
12 limitations that must be met in order for the simplified design procedure to be greater than 3.5 Ts. SYSTEMS
• Schools with more than 250 students, Weak story Framing Systems in Same Horizontal Direction Section 12.2.3 Section 4.3.1.2.1
used [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section Alt. 4.1.1]. WEAK STORY
• Assembly uses with more than 300 people, and
III Vertical Combinations of Framing Systems Section 12.2.3.1 Section 4.3.1.2.1
• Buildings with total occupancy greater than 5000 people. Permissible analysis procedures for buildings not qualifying for the simplified design
ASCE 7-05 Tables 12.3-1 and 12.3-2 define the different
Occupancy Category III is also assigned to: procedure are set forth in ASCE 7-05 Section 12.6 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section Weak story irregularity exists when the story lateral strength < 80% Horizontal Combinations of Framing Systems Section 12.2.3.2 Section 4.3.1.2.2
horizontal and vertical structural irregularities [2003 NEHRP VERTICAL STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES
• Nonessential utility facilities, and 4.4.1]. The following table summarizes the permissible analysis procedures. In order lateral strength of story above.
Provisions Tables 4.3-2 and 4.3-3].
• Jails and detention facilities. to use this table, a building's fundamental period needs to be determined, as does Vertical
Occupancy Category IV includes hospitals and acute care Ts, and whether or not it is regular or irregular – all of which are explained below. What is important to note is that if a building is SDC D, E or F Irregularity Vertical STEP 6 DETERMINE SEISMIC IMPORTANCE FACTOR, I
Type 1a: Stiff resisting
facilities; fire, police and emergency response stations; and has a T > 3.5 Ts, it must be designed using a dynamic Irregularity
IV ASCE 7-05 Table 12.6-1 (Summarized) elements The seismic importance factor represents an attempt to control the seismic
structures containing highly toxic materials; aviation control Equivalent Dynamic analysis procedure. Also, if a building meets all of the following Stiff resisting Type 5b:
How to SOFT STORY elements performance capabilities of buildings in different occupancy categories.
towers; and utilities required for essential facilities. SDC Structural Characteristics Lateral Force Analysis Determine if conditions, it must be designed using a dynamic analysis Weak story
The importance factor modifies the minimum base shear forces and
Procedure Procedure procedure: EXTREME
Building is reflects the relative importance assigned to the occupancy during and
Once SDS, SD1 and the Occupancy Category have been determined, 2006 IBC Tables B, C All structures P P WEAK STORY
Irregular? • SDC D, E or F, and following an earthquake. The seismic importance factor is related to the
1613.5.6(1) and 1613.5.6(2) should be used for the SDC determination [ASCE 7-05 Regular structures with T < 3.5 Ts and all Extreme weak story irregularity exists when the story
P P Soft story irregularity exists when Occupancy Category. An Occupancy Category I or II structure is assigned
Tables 11.6-1 and 11.6-2; 2003 NEHRP Provisions Tables 1.4-1 and 1.4-2], unless the structures of light-frame construction soft story stiffness < 70% story lateral strength < 65% lateral strength of story above.
• Not of light-frame construction, and I = 1.0; an Occupancy Category III structure is assigned I = 1.25; and an
structure is located where S1 > 0.75g. If that is the case, Occupancy Category I, II or Irregular structures with T < 3.5Ts and having soft story stiffness above or < 80% of the
average stiffness of 3 stories above. Occupancy Category IV structure is assigned I = 1.5. As will be seen in
III structures are assigned to SDC E, and Occupancy Category IV structures are D, E, F horizontal irregularities Type 2, 3, 4, or 5 of
P P • Contains one of the following irregularities: horizontal Step 7, I = 1.25 results in increasing the design seismic force by 25 percent
assigned to SDC F. Although 2006 IBC Section 1613.5.6 [ASCE 7-05 Section 11.6 ASCE 7-05 Table 12.3-1 or vertical irregularities Further discussion of the simplified design procedure and discussion of the
irregularity type 1a or 1b or vertical irregularity type 1a, 1b, and I = 1.50 results in increasing the design seismic force by 50 percent.
and 2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 1.4.1] indicates that the building is to be Type 4 or 5 of ASCE 7-05 Table 12.3-2. dynamic analysis procedures are beyond the scope of this CodeMaster.
2 or 3. (See ASCE 7-05 Table 11.5-1 and 2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 1.3-1 for
assigned the more severe SDC in accordance with the two tables, there is an All other structures NP P The equivalent lateral force procedure is discussed in the following steps.
importance factor assignments).
exception in this section that allows only Table 1613.5.6(1) to be used to determine P indicates permitted; NP indicates not permitted.
CMSeismicNoBullets.qxp 3/19/2008 8:55 AM Page 1

S EISMIC
CodeMaster
STEP 7 DETERMINE SEISMIC BASE SHEAR, V STEP 8 DISTRIBUTE V OVER THE HEIGHT OF THE BUILDING STEP 10 DETERMINE SEISMIC LOAD EFFECTS, E AND EM The special seismic load combinations set forth in IBC Section 1605.4 are required
for such elements as collectors; columns or other elements supporting reactions 2006 2003 ASCE

D ESIGN
The following seismic base shear equation is given in ASCE 7-05 Section ASCE 7-05 Section 12.8.3 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 5.2.3] ASCE 7-05 Sections 12.4.2 and 12.4.3 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Sections 4.2.2.1 from discontinuous shear walls or frames; and batter piles and their connections. IBC NEHRP 7-0
05
12.8.1[2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 5.2.1]: describes how the seismic base shear is distributed over the height of the and 4.2.2.2] address the determination of E and Em.
structure. The story forces are computed as follows:
V = CsW where Cs is the seismic response coefficient What is E? E is the combined effect of horizontal and vertical earthquake-induced STEP 11 CHECK DRIFT CONTROL REQUIREMENTS
Fx = Cvx V forces and is quantified by the following equation: SEISMIC DESIGN obtaining seismic design parameters using the same data that was used to
W is the weight of the building plus that of any contents that could, with a prepare the ground motion maps published in the 2006 IBC, ASCE 7-05,
The interstory drift expected to be caused by the design earthquake is limited by
high degree of probability, be attached to the structure at the time of the SDS: Determined in Steps 1 and 3 and the 2003 NEHRP Provisions. By inputting the longitude and latitude of
w x hkx the code. Some reasons for limiting drift are: 1) to control member inelastic strain, This CodeMaster identifies the 11 steps involved in designing a typical one- to three-
earthquake. In addition to the obvious dead load of the structure, ASCE 7- Where: C vx = ρ: Determined in Step 9 the building location, this method provides for a more accurate and reliable
n 2) to minimize differential movement demand on the seismic safety elements, and story building for seismic loads in accordance with the 2006 International Building
05 Section 12.7.2 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 5.2.1] requires that the ∑w h k
i i D: Design Dead 3) to limit damage to nonstructural elements. Code (IBC), ASCE 7-05 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, determination of Ss and S1. The FEMA 450 CD also contains this
following loads be included in the effective seismic weight, W: i=1 Load calculation tool.
E = ρQE ± 0.2 S DS D and the 2003 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New
For structures with T < 0.5 sec, k=1 ASCE 7-05 Section 12.12.1 contains drift control requirements [2003 NEHRP
Description Include in Seismic Weight { 1424 3 Provisions Section 4.5.1]. Drift determination is addressed in ASCE 7-05 Section
Buildings and Other Structures (known as 2003 NEHRP Provisions or FEMA 450-1*).
For structures with T > 2.5 sec, k = 2 DETERMINE IF STRUCTURE IS EXEMPT FROM
Areas of storage (other than 25 percent of floor live load For structures with 0.5 sec < T < 2.5 sec, k can be 2 or can be 12.8.6 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 5.2.6]. The first step is to determine δxe, Information will be presented on how these three documents work together. The STEP 2
public garages and open determined by linear interpolation between 1 and 2. Effect of horizontal earthquake Effect of vertical earthquake the elastically computed lateral deflection at floor level x under code-prescribed SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS
ground motion ground motion NEHRP Provisions feed directly into the ASCE 7 development process; ASCE 7 in
parking garages) seismic forces (the design base shear, V, distributed along the height of the turn serves as a primary referenced standard in the IBC. The seismic design 2006 IBC Section 1613.1 allows the following four exceptions from compliance
An example of this distribution is shown in the figure below. A k exponent structure in the manner prescribed by the code). Next, the deflections, δxe, are
Building with partitions 10 psf or actual weight, whichever is greater provisions of the 2006 IBC are based on those of ASCE 7-05 and make extensive with the 2006 IBC seismic design requirement:
larger than 1 places a greater proportion of the base shear in the upper The structural effects of the earthquake forces, meaning the bending moments, multiplied by the deflection amplification factor, Cd, (because the actual lateral
stories, compared with a linear distribution produced by a k value of 1, to reference to that standard. In fact, almost all of the seismic design provisions are
Buildings with roofs Where flat roof snow loads are greater than shear forces and axial forces caused by them, must be combined with the effects of deflections will be greater under the design earthquake excitation) and divided by Exception Detached one- and two- family dwellings in SDC A, B, or C or
account for higher modes of vibration in structures having fundamental adopted through reference to ASCE 7-05. Beginning with Step 4, only references
designed for snow 30 psf, 20 percent of the design snow load gravity (bending moments, shear forces, axial forces caused by the dead, live, snow I in accordance with the following equation: No. 1 located where Ss is less than 0.4g.
periods exceeding 0.5 seconds. For a one- to three-story building, the to ASCE 7-05 and the 2003 NEHRP Provisions are made. The only seismic
needs to be included, regardless of actual loads, etc.) using the design load combinations set forth in 2006 IBC Section 1605 provisions included in the text of the 2006 IBC are related to ground motion, soil
period is less than 0.5 second; therefore, the distribution of seismic forces δx = Cd δxe/ I
roof slope. [ASCE 7-05 Section 2.0; no corresponding section in the 2003 NEHRP Provisions]. parameters, and determination of Seismic Design Category (SDC), as well as
will be linear. For strength design, the two load combinations applicable in seismic design are: Cd is set forth in ASCE 7-05 Table 12.2-1 (2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 4.3-1). I
Permanent equipment 100 percent of operating weight definitions of terms actually used within those provisions and the four exceptions
is in the denominator of the equation to eliminate I from the drift computation
Fn 1.2D + 1.0E + f1L + f2S (2006 IBC Eq. 16-5 – Additive) under the scoping provisions. It is important to note that where this CodeMaster
(remember that the code-prescribed seismic forces that produced δxe were
Cs is calculated according to one of three equations depending on the 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H (2006 IBC Eq. 16-7 – Counteractive) provides section references from the documents, the corresponding requirements
originally augmented by I). It is important and necessary to do this because the
period of the structure as illustrated in the following figure (there are also often differ from one another. In some cases, these differences are subtle and an
drift limits of ASCE 7-05 and the 2003 NEHRP Provisions are a function of the
minimum base shear requirements for long-period structures): 2006 IBC Eq. 16-5 is the additive load combination in which gravity effects add to explanation of these differences is beyond the scope of this CodeMaster.
occupancy of a structure. The drift limit for a hospital is half that for an office
Fi earthquake effects. 2006 IBC Eq. 16-7 is the counteractive load combination in building on the same site.
SDSW
V= which gravity effects counteract earthquake effects (the plus sign includes the
R/I Level i Wi
Hn minus and the minus sign governs). With incorporation of the expression for E, the The design story drift, Δ, is computed as the difference of the deflections δx at the Areas of U.S. with Ss < 0.4 g (Shown in green)
above load combinations become: centers of mass of the diaphragms at the top and the bottom of the story under For areas outside the conterminous United States, visit
SD1W www.skghoshassociates.com/CMSDC
V=
(R/I)T
consideration. For structures assigned to SDC C and higher, with horizontal
(1.2 + 0.2SDS)D + f1L + f2S + ρQE (2006 IBC Eq. 16-5 – Additive) irregularities 1a or 1b, the design story drift, Δ, is computed as the largest difference
Design Base Shear, V

Hi At this stage, the SDC has not been determined; however, Ss has
0.5S1W
(0.9 - 0.2SDS)D - ρQE + 1.6H (2006 IBC Eq. 16-7 – Counteractive) of the deflections along any of the edges of the diaphragms at the top and the been determined in Step 1. After Step 3 is completed, this exception
, where S1 > 0.6g
V=
R/I bottom of the story under consideration. This accounts for torsional effects. may be revisited.
In other words, the consideration of vertical earthquake ground motion increases
SD1TLW V the dead load factor in the additive load combination and decreases it in the Once the drift is computed, it is checked against the allowable story drift set forth
V= Building, n stories high in ASCE 7-05 Table 12.12-1 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 4.5-1]. The first and Conventional light-frame wood construction complying with 2006
2
(R/I)T counteractive load combination. 2003 NEHRP ASCE 7–05 2006 IBC Exception
Distribution of Seismic Forces the last rows of the table apply to buildings other than masonry shear wall IBC Section 2308 (see definition for "conventional light-frame wood
Provisions No. 2
V = 0.01W For example, consider a fully redundant structure (ρ = 1.0) located where SDS = 1.0 buildings. If such buildings are more than four stories tall, the last row applies. If, construction" in 2006 IBC Section 2302).
T1 = SD1/SDS Period, T TL
STEP 9 DETERMINE REDUNDANCY COEFFICIENT, ρ with a bearing wall system consisting of shear walls used for the seismic force- however, such buildings are four stories or less in height, the designer has a choice * The 2003 NEHRP Provisions (FEMA 450-1) is a resource document funded and
resisting system and f1 =1.0. If the bending moments in a shear wall cross-section between two drift limits: (1) where nonstructural elements have been designed to published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). It is intended Agricultural storage structures intended for incidental human
The redundancy coefficient reflects the multiple load path concept – that of Exception
The period TL is given in ASCE 7-05 Figures 22-15 through 22-20 [2003 due to dead loads, live loads, snow loads and horizontal earthquake forces are 200 accommodate the story drift (less stringent) and (2) all other structures (more to capture research results and lessons learned and may contain information occupancy only (see definition for "agricultural building" in 2006 IBC
providing more than one alternate path for every load to travel from its point No. 3
NEHRP Provisions Figures 3.3-16 through 3.3-21]. The building site needs ft-kips, 60 ft-kips, 0 ft-kips and 150 ft-kips, respectively, the design moments stringent). This is consistent with the intent of the drift limit, which is to limit damage beyond that found in ASCE 7-05 or the IBC. The accompanying Commentary Section 202).
of application to the ultimate point of resistance. Just as regular structures (required flexural strengths) by the strength design load combinations (IBC to drift-sensitive nonstructural elements. (FEMA 450-2) may assist the user in understanding the basis for code
to be located on the applicable map to determine TL, which ranges between
have proven themselves to outperform irregular structures in earthquakes, Equations 16-5 and 16-7) are: requirements. Copies of the 2003 NEHRP Provisions and the accompanying Vehicular bridges, electrical transmission towers, hydraulic
4 and 16 seconds, depending upon the location. The following map is the Exception
structures with redundant seismic force-resisting systems have performed a, b Commentary may be viewed or downloaded on the Building Seismic Safety structures, buried utility lines and their appurtenances, nuclear
TL map for the conterminous United States: Mu = [(1.2) + (0.2)(1.0)]( 200) + 60 + (1)(150) = 490 ft-kips ASCE 7-05 TABLE 12.12-1 ALLOWABLE STORY DRIFT, Δa No. 4
better than those with little or no redundancy. The redundancy coefficient is Council's (BSSC) website: www.bssconline.org. The 2003 NEHRP Provisions also reactors and other similarly described structures in the code.
applied as necessary to increase the effect of the horizontal earthquake Mu = [(0.9) - (0.2)(1.0)](200) - (1)(150) = -10 ft-kips Occupancy Category
Structure
includes a CD that contains the two documents as well as the seismic design maps
ground motion to compensate for the lack of structural redundancy in the The shear wall needs to be reinforced to carry these bending moments at the I or II III IV and a program to determine the mapped seismic design values. Hard copies or 2006 IBC Structures located in areas with Ss < 0.15g and S1 < 0.04g need
seismic force-resisting system. cross-section in question. the CD may be obtained free-of-charge by contacting the FEMA Publication Section only comply with SDC A requirements.
Structures, other than masonry shear wall structures, 4 stories or less
ASCE 7-05 Section 12.3.4 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 4.3.3] with interior walls, partitions, ceilings and exterior wall systems that c Distribution Facility at 1-800-480-2520. 1613.5.1
What is Em? Em is the maximum seismic load effect and is required for the design 0.025hsx 0.020hsx 0.015hsx
describes how to determine the redundancy coefficient, ρ. The redundancy of certain elements critical to the stability of the structure. This maximum load
have been designed to accommodate the story drifts.
coefficient does not apply (meaning that it may be taken equal to 1) in effect generated in a building can be much greater than those due to the design- Masonry cantilever shear wall structures
d 0.010hsx 0.010hsx 0.010hsx STEP 1 DETERMINE SS AND S1
SDCs A, B, and C; seismic design forces for structures assigned to these level force. Other masonry shear wall structures 0.007hsx 0.007hsx 0.007hsx The first step in seismic design is determining the mapped maximum considered
seismic design categories are therefore unaffected by the redundancy of
the seismic force-resisting system. Em= Ω0QE ± 0.2SDSD All other structures 0.020hsx 0.015hsx 0.010hsx earthquake (MCE) spectral response accelerations at short periods, Ss, and at 1-
second period, S1. These values can be determined using one of two methods:
(For areas outside the conterminous United States, visit For structures assigned to SDC D, E or F, the value of the redundancy Ωo is the overstrength factor and increases the design-level internal forces to a,b,c,d
See ASCE 7-05 Table 12.12-1 for footnotes.
www.skghoshassociates.com/CMSDC)
coefficient equals 1.3, unless it can be shown that one of two described represent the actual forces that may be experienced by an element as a result of 1. 2006 IBC Figures 1613.5(1) through 1613.5(14) [ASCE 7-05 Figures 22-1
conditions is met. The first condition involves showing that the removal of an the design-level ground motion. Ωo is obtained from ASCE 7-05 Table 12.2-1 [2003 through 22-20; 2003 NEHRP Provisions Figures 3.3-1 through 3.3-14], or
The typical one- to three-story building addressed in this CodeMaster will CLOSING COMMENTS
individual seismic force-resisting element will not cause: (1) the remaining NEHRP Provisions Table 4.3-1]. Em is determined using the same procedure as
qualify as a short-period building and, therefore, the seismic base shear is 2. USGS website at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/hazmaps/. The U.S. Areas of U.S. with Ss < 0.15g and S1 < 0.04g
structure to suffer a reduction in story strength of more than 33 percent, or for determining E. Em is used in the additive and the counteractive load
determined by the following equation: This CodeMaster has presented the step-by-step process required to complete Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared an Internet calculation tool for (shown in green)
(2) create an extreme torsional irregularity. The second condition applies combinations the same way as E, except that the factored snow load effect, f2S, is
SDS seismic design as it relates to the seismic design demands. Many other code For areas outside the conterminous United States, visit
W V= only to a structure that is regular in plan at all levels and requires that the typically not included in the additive combination. www.skghoshassociates.com/CMSDC
R/I requirements need to be addressed when completing the entire seismic design of a CodeMaster developed by:
SDS is determined in Steps 1 and 3; R is determined in Step 5; I is seismic force-resisting system consists of at least two bays of seismic force- Because Em is a strength-level force effect, adjustments need to be made if building. These other code requirements cover: direction of loading, deformation
resisting perimeter framing on each side of the structure in each orthogonal S Structures & Codes Institute
determined in Step 6; and W is the seismic weight of the building as allowable stress design is used. The allowable stresses may be increased by a compatibility, P-Δ effects, detailing, structural component load effects, nonstructural Similar exceptions are found in ASCE 7-05 Sections 11.1.2 and 11.4.1 and 2003
described in this step. direction at each story resisting more than 35 percent of the base shear. factor of 1.2 in accordance with ASCE 7-05 Section12.4.3.3. components, inspections, foundations, and material specific requirements. C A subsidiary of S.K. Ghosh Associates Inc.
www.skghoshassociates.com
Tel: (847) 991-2700
Fax: (847) 991-2702 NEHRP Provisions Section 1.1.2.1.
I ISBN 978-0-9793084-1-3 skghosh@aol.com
CMSeismicNoBullets.qxp 3/19/2008 8:55 AM Page 1

S EISMIC
CodeMaster
STEP 7 DETERMINE SEISMIC BASE SHEAR, V STEP 8 DISTRIBUTE V OVER THE HEIGHT OF THE BUILDING STEP 10 DETERMINE SEISMIC LOAD EFFECTS, E AND EM The special seismic load combinations set forth in IBC Section 1605.4 are required
for such elements as collectors; columns or other elements supporting reactions 2006 2003 ASCE

D ESIGN
The following seismic base shear equation is given in ASCE 7-05 Section ASCE 7-05 Section 12.8.3 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 5.2.3] ASCE 7-05 Sections 12.4.2 and 12.4.3 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Sections 4.2.2.1 from discontinuous shear walls or frames; and batter piles and their connections. IBC NEHRP 7-0
05
12.8.1[2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 5.2.1]: describes how the seismic base shear is distributed over the height of the and 4.2.2.2] address the determination of E and Em.
structure. The story forces are computed as follows:
V = CsW where Cs is the seismic response coefficient What is E? E is the combined effect of horizontal and vertical earthquake-induced STEP 11 CHECK DRIFT CONTROL REQUIREMENTS
Fx = Cvx V forces and is quantified by the following equation: SEISMIC DESIGN obtaining seismic design parameters using the same data that was used to
W is the weight of the building plus that of any contents that could, with a prepare the ground motion maps published in the 2006 IBC, ASCE 7-05,
The interstory drift expected to be caused by the design earthquake is limited by
high degree of probability, be attached to the structure at the time of the SDS: Determined in Steps 1 and 3 and the 2003 NEHRP Provisions. By inputting the longitude and latitude of
w x hkx the code. Some reasons for limiting drift are: 1) to control member inelastic strain, This CodeMaster identifies the 11 steps involved in designing a typical one- to three-
earthquake. In addition to the obvious dead load of the structure, ASCE 7- Where: C vx = ρ: Determined in Step 9 the building location, this method provides for a more accurate and reliable
n 2) to minimize differential movement demand on the seismic safety elements, and story building for seismic loads in accordance with the 2006 International Building
05 Section 12.7.2 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 5.2.1] requires that the ∑w h k
i i D: Design Dead 3) to limit damage to nonstructural elements. Code (IBC), ASCE 7-05 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, determination of Ss and S1. The FEMA 450 CD also contains this
following loads be included in the effective seismic weight, W: i=1 Load calculation tool.
E = ρQE ± 0.2 S DS D and the 2003 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New
For structures with T < 0.5 sec, k=1 ASCE 7-05 Section 12.12.1 contains drift control requirements [2003 NEHRP
Description Include in Seismic Weight { 1424 3 Provisions Section 4.5.1]. Drift determination is addressed in ASCE 7-05 Section
Buildings and Other Structures (known as 2003 NEHRP Provisions or FEMA 450-1*).
For structures with T > 2.5 sec, k = 2 DETERMINE IF STRUCTURE IS EXEMPT FROM
Areas of storage (other than 25 percent of floor live load For structures with 0.5 sec < T < 2.5 sec, k can be 2 or can be 12.8.6 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 5.2.6]. The first step is to determine δxe, Information will be presented on how these three documents work together. The STEP 2
public garages and open determined by linear interpolation between 1 and 2. Effect of horizontal earthquake Effect of vertical earthquake the elastically computed lateral deflection at floor level x under code-prescribed SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS
ground motion ground motion NEHRP Provisions feed directly into the ASCE 7 development process; ASCE 7 in
parking garages) seismic forces (the design base shear, V, distributed along the height of the turn serves as a primary referenced standard in the IBC. The seismic design 2006 IBC Section 1613.1 allows the following four exceptions from compliance
An example of this distribution is shown in the figure below. A k exponent structure in the manner prescribed by the code). Next, the deflections, δxe, are
Building with partitions 10 psf or actual weight, whichever is greater provisions of the 2006 IBC are based on those of ASCE 7-05 and make extensive with the 2006 IBC seismic design requirement:
larger than 1 places a greater proportion of the base shear in the upper The structural effects of the earthquake forces, meaning the bending moments, multiplied by the deflection amplification factor, Cd, (because the actual lateral
stories, compared with a linear distribution produced by a k value of 1, to reference to that standard. In fact, almost all of the seismic design provisions are
Buildings with roofs Where flat roof snow loads are greater than shear forces and axial forces caused by them, must be combined with the effects of deflections will be greater under the design earthquake excitation) and divided by Exception Detached one- and two- family dwellings in SDC A, B, or C or
account for higher modes of vibration in structures having fundamental adopted through reference to ASCE 7-05. Beginning with Step 4, only references
designed for snow 30 psf, 20 percent of the design snow load gravity (bending moments, shear forces, axial forces caused by the dead, live, snow I in accordance with the following equation: No. 1 located where Ss is less than 0.4g.
periods exceeding 0.5 seconds. For a one- to three-story building, the to ASCE 7-05 and the 2003 NEHRP Provisions are made. The only seismic
needs to be included, regardless of actual loads, etc.) using the design load combinations set forth in 2006 IBC Section 1605 provisions included in the text of the 2006 IBC are related to ground motion, soil
period is less than 0.5 second; therefore, the distribution of seismic forces δx = Cd δxe/ I
roof slope. [ASCE 7-05 Section 2.0; no corresponding section in the 2003 NEHRP Provisions]. parameters, and determination of Seismic Design Category (SDC), as well as
will be linear. For strength design, the two load combinations applicable in seismic design are: Cd is set forth in ASCE 7-05 Table 12.2-1 (2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 4.3-1). I
Permanent equipment 100 percent of operating weight definitions of terms actually used within those provisions and the four exceptions
is in the denominator of the equation to eliminate I from the drift computation
Fn 1.2D + 1.0E + f1L + f2S (2006 IBC Eq. 16-5 – Additive) under the scoping provisions. It is important to note that where this CodeMaster
(remember that the code-prescribed seismic forces that produced δxe were
Cs is calculated according to one of three equations depending on the 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H (2006 IBC Eq. 16-7 – Counteractive) provides section references from the documents, the corresponding requirements
originally augmented by I). It is important and necessary to do this because the
period of the structure as illustrated in the following figure (there are also often differ from one another. In some cases, these differences are subtle and an
drift limits of ASCE 7-05 and the 2003 NEHRP Provisions are a function of the
minimum base shear requirements for long-period structures): 2006 IBC Eq. 16-5 is the additive load combination in which gravity effects add to explanation of these differences is beyond the scope of this CodeMaster.
occupancy of a structure. The drift limit for a hospital is half that for an office
Fi earthquake effects. 2006 IBC Eq. 16-7 is the counteractive load combination in building on the same site.
SDSW
V= which gravity effects counteract earthquake effects (the plus sign includes the
R/I Level i Wi
Hn minus and the minus sign governs). With incorporation of the expression for E, the The design story drift, Δ, is computed as the difference of the deflections δx at the Areas of U.S. with Ss < 0.4 g (Shown in green)
above load combinations become: centers of mass of the diaphragms at the top and the bottom of the story under For areas outside the conterminous United States, visit
SD1W www.skghoshassociates.com/CMSDC
V=
(R/I)T
consideration. For structures assigned to SDC C and higher, with horizontal
(1.2 + 0.2SDS)D + f1L + f2S + ρQE (2006 IBC Eq. 16-5 – Additive) irregularities 1a or 1b, the design story drift, Δ, is computed as the largest difference
Design Base Shear, V

Hi At this stage, the SDC has not been determined; however, Ss has
0.5S1W
(0.9 - 0.2SDS)D - ρQE + 1.6H (2006 IBC Eq. 16-7 – Counteractive) of the deflections along any of the edges of the diaphragms at the top and the been determined in Step 1. After Step 3 is completed, this exception
, where S1 > 0.6g
V=
R/I bottom of the story under consideration. This accounts for torsional effects. may be revisited.
In other words, the consideration of vertical earthquake ground motion increases
SD1TLW V the dead load factor in the additive load combination and decreases it in the Once the drift is computed, it is checked against the allowable story drift set forth
V= Building, n stories high in ASCE 7-05 Table 12.12-1 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 4.5-1]. The first and Conventional light-frame wood construction complying with 2006
2
(R/I)T counteractive load combination. 2003 NEHRP ASCE 7–05 2006 IBC Exception
Distribution of Seismic Forces the last rows of the table apply to buildings other than masonry shear wall IBC Section 2308 (see definition for "conventional light-frame wood
Provisions No. 2
V = 0.01W For example, consider a fully redundant structure (ρ = 1.0) located where SDS = 1.0 buildings. If such buildings are more than four stories tall, the last row applies. If, construction" in 2006 IBC Section 2302).
T1 = SD1/SDS Period, T TL
STEP 9 DETERMINE REDUNDANCY COEFFICIENT, ρ with a bearing wall system consisting of shear walls used for the seismic force- however, such buildings are four stories or less in height, the designer has a choice * The 2003 NEHRP Provisions (FEMA 450-1) is a resource document funded and
resisting system and f1 =1.0. If the bending moments in a shear wall cross-section between two drift limits: (1) where nonstructural elements have been designed to published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). It is intended Agricultural storage structures intended for incidental human
The redundancy coefficient reflects the multiple load path concept – that of Exception
The period TL is given in ASCE 7-05 Figures 22-15 through 22-20 [2003 due to dead loads, live loads, snow loads and horizontal earthquake forces are 200 accommodate the story drift (less stringent) and (2) all other structures (more to capture research results and lessons learned and may contain information occupancy only (see definition for "agricultural building" in 2006 IBC
providing more than one alternate path for every load to travel from its point No. 3
NEHRP Provisions Figures 3.3-16 through 3.3-21]. The building site needs ft-kips, 60 ft-kips, 0 ft-kips and 150 ft-kips, respectively, the design moments stringent). This is consistent with the intent of the drift limit, which is to limit damage beyond that found in ASCE 7-05 or the IBC. The accompanying Commentary Section 202).
of application to the ultimate point of resistance. Just as regular structures (required flexural strengths) by the strength design load combinations (IBC to drift-sensitive nonstructural elements. (FEMA 450-2) may assist the user in understanding the basis for code
to be located on the applicable map to determine TL, which ranges between
have proven themselves to outperform irregular structures in earthquakes, Equations 16-5 and 16-7) are: requirements. Copies of the 2003 NEHRP Provisions and the accompanying Vehicular bridges, electrical transmission towers, hydraulic
4 and 16 seconds, depending upon the location. The following map is the Exception
structures with redundant seismic force-resisting systems have performed a, b Commentary may be viewed or downloaded on the Building Seismic Safety structures, buried utility lines and their appurtenances, nuclear
TL map for the conterminous United States: Mu = [(1.2) + (0.2)(1.0)]( 200) + 60 + (1)(150) = 490 ft-kips ASCE 7-05 TABLE 12.12-1 ALLOWABLE STORY DRIFT, Δa No. 4
better than those with little or no redundancy. The redundancy coefficient is Council's (BSSC) website: www.bssconline.org. The 2003 NEHRP Provisions also reactors and other similarly described structures in the code.
applied as necessary to increase the effect of the horizontal earthquake Mu = [(0.9) - (0.2)(1.0)](200) - (1)(150) = -10 ft-kips Occupancy Category
Structure
includes a CD that contains the two documents as well as the seismic design maps
ground motion to compensate for the lack of structural redundancy in the The shear wall needs to be reinforced to carry these bending moments at the I or II III IV and a program to determine the mapped seismic design values. Hard copies or 2006 IBC Structures located in areas with Ss < 0.15g and S1 < 0.04g need
seismic force-resisting system. cross-section in question. the CD may be obtained free-of-charge by contacting the FEMA Publication Section only comply with SDC A requirements.
Structures, other than masonry shear wall structures, 4 stories or less
ASCE 7-05 Section 12.3.4 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 4.3.3] with interior walls, partitions, ceilings and exterior wall systems that c Distribution Facility at 1-800-480-2520. 1613.5.1
What is Em? Em is the maximum seismic load effect and is required for the design 0.025hsx 0.020hsx 0.015hsx
describes how to determine the redundancy coefficient, ρ. The redundancy of certain elements critical to the stability of the structure. This maximum load
have been designed to accommodate the story drifts.
coefficient does not apply (meaning that it may be taken equal to 1) in effect generated in a building can be much greater than those due to the design- Masonry cantilever shear wall structures
d 0.010hsx 0.010hsx 0.010hsx STEP 1 DETERMINE SS AND S1
SDCs A, B, and C; seismic design forces for structures assigned to these level force. Other masonry shear wall structures 0.007hsx 0.007hsx 0.007hsx The first step in seismic design is determining the mapped maximum considered
seismic design categories are therefore unaffected by the redundancy of
the seismic force-resisting system. Em= Ω0QE ± 0.2SDSD All other structures 0.020hsx 0.015hsx 0.010hsx earthquake (MCE) spectral response accelerations at short periods, Ss, and at 1-
second period, S1. These values can be determined using one of two methods:
(For areas outside the conterminous United States, visit For structures assigned to SDC D, E or F, the value of the redundancy Ωo is the overstrength factor and increases the design-level internal forces to a,b,c,d
See ASCE 7-05 Table 12.12-1 for footnotes.
www.skghoshassociates.com/CMSDC)
coefficient equals 1.3, unless it can be shown that one of two described represent the actual forces that may be experienced by an element as a result of 1. 2006 IBC Figures 1613.5(1) through 1613.5(14) [ASCE 7-05 Figures 22-1
conditions is met. The first condition involves showing that the removal of an the design-level ground motion. Ωo is obtained from ASCE 7-05 Table 12.2-1 [2003 through 22-20; 2003 NEHRP Provisions Figures 3.3-1 through 3.3-14], or
The typical one- to three-story building addressed in this CodeMaster will CLOSING COMMENTS
individual seismic force-resisting element will not cause: (1) the remaining NEHRP Provisions Table 4.3-1]. Em is determined using the same procedure as
qualify as a short-period building and, therefore, the seismic base shear is 2. USGS website at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/hazmaps/. The U.S. Areas of U.S. with Ss < 0.15g and S1 < 0.04g
structure to suffer a reduction in story strength of more than 33 percent, or for determining E. Em is used in the additive and the counteractive load
determined by the following equation: This CodeMaster has presented the step-by-step process required to complete Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared an Internet calculation tool for (shown in green)
(2) create an extreme torsional irregularity. The second condition applies combinations the same way as E, except that the factored snow load effect, f2S, is
SDS seismic design as it relates to the seismic design demands. Many other code For areas outside the conterminous United States, visit
W V= only to a structure that is regular in plan at all levels and requires that the typically not included in the additive combination. www.skghoshassociates.com/CMSDC
R/I requirements need to be addressed when completing the entire seismic design of a CodeMaster developed by:
SDS is determined in Steps 1 and 3; R is determined in Step 5; I is seismic force-resisting system consists of at least two bays of seismic force- Because Em is a strength-level force effect, adjustments need to be made if building. These other code requirements cover: direction of loading, deformation
resisting perimeter framing on each side of the structure in each orthogonal S Structures & Codes Institute
determined in Step 6; and W is the seismic weight of the building as allowable stress design is used. The allowable stresses may be increased by a compatibility, P-Δ effects, detailing, structural component load effects, nonstructural Similar exceptions are found in ASCE 7-05 Sections 11.1.2 and 11.4.1 and 2003
described in this step. direction at each story resisting more than 35 percent of the base shear. factor of 1.2 in accordance with ASCE 7-05 Section12.4.3.3. components, inspections, foundations, and material specific requirements. C A subsidiary of S.K. Ghosh Associates Inc.
www.skghoshassociates.com
Tel: (847) 991-2700
Fax: (847) 991-2702 NEHRP Provisions Section 1.1.2.1.
I ISBN 978-0-9793084-1-3 skghosh@aol.com