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.-

J· ••• ohn aMace

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2 I

, . ~ _, ",_,

J fL! J ~ 'arafa yat rifu to know .Jj dl

:-:'I~ ~3 kataba yaktubu to write .Jj

1 I



ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

ACTIVE

Imperfect

~ ."

..Jr'

, ~~~ ~

, .;s-

- -

.. _... ~

__ 4\4







., ~'''. ,

. - ..

'-' .

;'::::5

- ..



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,

_, . ..,

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~.;AI

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.JIll ..,,;

,:,u..,a3

, ".

,; ."

,:,u_,a.t

;;:~

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,

...... . ....

vi~

,

, , ...... •

i.uJrt

<. ~~~ ~

...

'"

~~

· ....

,;

~



'-'. -

;;~

· ...

· -



, ~~~ ~

-, "'WS

4._ +t"_

. ..Pi J_



Jussive

Subjunctive

.". , 0 --1

~ __ 3"

Jussive

, • #

J~

,

I ' • .",.

~_;AJ

,

". ...".

~_;AJ

,.

, ~ ...

'Yr'..

; ~~-: ~





~

. ~

,_)_;aj

- ,tI'

. ..,.



u_,A!

. ~~~ ~





l:~~

..



c.£:;

..





., ~~~ ~

o ~~:: ~



~

.. - -



...

.... . .,;

~~

.;-

t ~ • .. ~;L!

~

-



~

- ,

.~~s:.;

. -

~

- ,

~.;~

· -

.,

." .,

li 'JA!

~

, . ~

u__,aJ

G~

· -

J~

. ...

,;

. . ~

. -

u~

~':_t;

· -

· ..

;~

. -

. ...

f"~_~:; ~



a ~~: ~



Verbal Noun kitaba

Participle katib

Imperative uktub

~ ~ ~~

~ .~~ ~

.. ",.

Verbal Noun mat rifa! irfan Participle f arif

_,

JJ~

I)~'

." ,

;)i~t

Perfect

,. .J.,,,

l....:.i_r

,II' ,., ~

~.r

L(,j:

8~

Subjunctive

;' .-1.

J~I

,,;

. ~

~__,AJ

oM ,.,

.... . .... •

u;L!

Imperative it rif

:_;~I

, ,



~r'

.. ;~ ,.

PASSIVE

, -:~' Imperfect yuktabu -~

, .,.,. ~ "" ,

PASSIVE Imperfect yu' rafu J ~ Perfect' urifa ..J f

~ ~

Perfect kutiba ,-+i!

..

.,

~ !~~A Participle maktub y~

7' Q g d - -

... ..;

Participle ma'ruf J.J/_.A

L F _ Izbi _.. •• r - .. r

, ~ . ~

-'-- l,,_; laS t ,-&.t_,aj tariff

., ,

J[,;~e I confession

announcement

'"

;-

'y J J ~ familiar with

... , .... ,.,.. I



~ u.J::.u

~G! writing ~G:! written, textual l;w- in writing

,. .. , #I' (II'

J... ~S ~.t ,,:""- 11",# ,( .I-:'~ _·t

.-... ... ~. ...... \.A:J book ~*aa+;;5 booklet ~ ~ dictation

.. .. .. .

• I~"' . ~C'""'_ .. "'... - ~ "' .. '"

"':"""'!~~ [. Y ~ letter (f.) ~lS" ,(m.) yl:S' ~ torilS' clerk

,,:rt.1~ ~ ~ office, desk"' ~_;.~';' library, bookshop

,

~lS' -i:_~l.. \ ~lS' ~1 typewriter A:.5U L, ~3 to type

.. ..

well-known; kindness

acquaintance with be so kind as to

~t~Li~

~

y ll~1

it is well known that

• , ,.

....

approved. gratitude

in recognition of

j

,

I

,

J

I •• " .......... " ..... ..... .,. - ~

,. .. ,

4 I

:r ... ~ J.;S. 'amila ya'malu to do ~

" b ~ • ..,

If I-".~ ~

PASSIVE Imperfect yu' rnalu ~ Perfect "umila ~

"

J , . .fI"

Participle marnul .., ....

f

Imperfect

~i :r:,j

3 I

t.':'o! ~ jama'.a yajma'u to collect ~

ACTIVE

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

" .;. 41



~

., ". _,.

~

, . .,;, ..

\u ........ ...,..

..

-: f~·_:

~

.11".;;

l .......



• ~ ... III' -

.... .,.

, .

- ,. #I '"

~~

., _,.. .,

• 1-. ..

tJ\JtA~

_,.

"',. ,;

tJ~·tu

,.

,,,. ~

Ii·' l. .1"1.1

W' ._

,

,. ..,. ~

• 1- ..

cJ \J'..:I!U

.,- . .-. ~ ...

4u rt-_._' .,.



. , ~

;:,r:.j J:~ ::,r.'~

r!' ....

........



"'" . ". , -

va-.t:u

, ,,,. , •

'tL· • ..., ~ ._

-

L_... ..



~ ....

at"



.; . ~. -'

...,.."U

. -

, • .fill' '"

......

V" •

. .,.; ~ -

+-LU-:t'" __ .""



Jussive

Subjunctive

Jusslve

'"

~I

~ P

.,;

J;.'~

:J::.;

Participle t amil

~ ,. ~ ..

e.tJ:U

, .,. ,

1.,...r:U

.'.111' •

~

I ". ;

~

t;.,. -:

-.'U



....... , ...

e--:u

~ ... ::

.......



41".,. ,

..

&)".=:u

t ~" • .,

,.,.,. .......

. -

_, • ,. .,It

-

v-.~

("" ::

___ ·,.PLI



...... ,

~ ... ~

- . .,_,



..

Y"'.':'J

~

. ". ,

~

. -

. "'. , ..

~

-

~.,.,

.;

, .; . .;

~

-

~ .....

.."'U

· -

G. ....... . .,.,_.

· ..

~

• •

~ . ~ ......

_, . "'. '"

iJaft..,.,

. ...

Verbal Noun jam'

Participle jami f

~ e:.

Verbal Noun "amal

Imperative ijma'

. .,

I' .,. , ... ...



~

l~ ~. ,

... .,.





* •

iIIIIi_

PA , .... ,

SSIVE Imperfect yujma'u ~

.. ~ "

Perfect jumi' a ~

,.

P . j I "" ,. ~

':' .; .." . ,.. artie ~ ~ maJ~? tr::!"" .

Perfect

Subjunctive

~

~I

~

-

Imperative i' mal

11

~ ..........

to treat 69; IV J:.S.' to put to work .. 10

III J..~ VI J..W to do business with one another 12; X j.::.':;: .. 1 to use ,Jl 23



~ .

JG.s. j ~ j:..:&. work c.F- practical J:olJ: effective

J~ ~ J...t~ worker J..['s' t J..~ factor ~1:c. operation

'" ,. ~ ,.

J..a~ [. ~ laboratory ~ currency ~w transaction

,."~ (;: ~ client il;:"~ brokerage J~l ~li,; trade union

~li U;~ full employment J...o~ ~.Jt.::.. acti~e participant

, ~ ~

-1 '" .. , ~1" I" f ' ,... ..., • ...

~U:.._,.i workforce iuwl ,. _y-'I illtreatment J.. •. ; .. ·tJ (_r.:i:.) (dis)used

, ~ ~ in accordance with J~I yj:... Labour Party

&I!I&&&JJZl d lIf,

n ~ ... 4 ,

~ to assemble .. 7; IV ~J to agree on ~ 10; V ~ to

~ ~,.

congregate 11; vnlt.;~1 to have a meeting 14," X,...,;· .". I to

; ~~~

,

summarise J/j 23

~ collection, addition, plural

. . -

........, . _,

A..~(J' -r-~) Friday

. . ,. _.

umversity ~ community t.~.... total

, .,.

collection, group .! •• '!" association

b~ all (plural)

,.

_. .

~l.~1 socia1

.. , ",.

.,. .

t t ':L"!" t meeting

,. ,;

'"

~

_.... ,.,

4,1;. __,.::- __

~. ,; fill"

. ~ . ~

t-"'rA Junction, assembly ~ .'!" altogether

. "

~ .,,; assembly (of parts)

,., ~; , .... ,. ........

bJ \4! ..".ie.~_., ttl! to collect one's strength/one' s thoughts

..



zzIt& b; b

I

I

r '

~~_ ~~c-

..,.",.., kathura yakthuru to be numerous

6 IQ

5 I

ACTIVE

Perfect

Imperfect

ACTIVE

, ."

~?

,

,; , . ."

~_;J

~

"". ..;,

~~

w)S' w;S-

G!f u~

~'. ,;

. ... -

..,

,

~JI • .;-

. .. -

&J

Jussive

Subjunctive

~ fit

~ ~ ~ ~

~ ~ ~ [,!_~

I

Verbal Noun kathra

.)5

Participle kalhir

Jlt

Imperative ukthur

I.J~ (;s1 :,!S1

~:,!S1 (;s1 ~_;;1

...

, . ." .,.,."

~~ f':..i tarjama yutarjimu to translate ...

, from ... into ull··· ~

IDlperfect

~ • .,,4

~.;I

,

, ."

r::?

-'

• fI'f'

~ ." · L.,. _-

&J .:JW

Jusstve

. ~. , . ,

~.;

.,. "."

- -

~J

~?-

,

, «:»

r:~

. .".. ...

~.;1

,.

. ."

f1!?

,.

.",

~?

.. ,~

. . ~~

~?-

,

• .,1

r'!.iiJ

,

i

l

1

:I

\

j

Perfect

, ...,. 0 """

.. -

LZL#A3:.rJ

" ." . ."

.. w

... ·--':r

.;.,

. .".,. ~

.. ..

.... ,.----':J

Subjunctive

; ...... "-

t'!';- t

"..

.# • ."

~_;;;

,

~~

, ~

" . ~,

f1!_;:J

,

Verbal Noun tarjama Participle mutarjim

Imperative tarjim

. ,;,

. . ~

~

.,;. . ....

..

~J

,

. '"

PASSIVE not used

,~.",

PASSIVE Imperfect yutarjamu ~fi

" .,

. . -

Perfect turjima ~ J

,;

IIill .. J lS"\ ( .&C-) :;~_ "'AC" "" ".... ..._"

..r rw _JJtJ to outnumber ... ,. 1,9; HIIV ~f\)r to

increase ... 7/10; VI }~ to band together against ~ 12

, ~~".

X ..,a.."MI to find excessive ss 23

", . "' ..

Participle mutarjam f'!'?

..r.f5 much ( adjective)

,.: .....

VA.fit more than

~ much (adverb)

'-

7~1 most

-;:75""

-w majority

~~

~ abundance

i'.)u! $1 more useful

~

L..(#' often

7"it.~ at most

~;;. JS\';~ (God) bless you

much better

moreover

- ~1\ J .. ~ .t-- "'t

..... ~ .. ~ absolute majority

~

translation, preface translator

. .;,

translator

translated

saro

8 IIQ :rJ;:; ,JJj, tazalzala yatazalzalu to quake ~ j

.......... __. -(said literally of the earth, or figuratively otherwise)

I

7 ~ 1:~ "1:

n 'r:-"! '~ - t allama yu' allimu to teach .A".

~

ACTIVE

~Lt.J

II'

~

,

~

Perfect

ACTIVE

Perfect

~ ~. f;~ ~

(~. r"

• t~ e

~ ~

~ ~t~

:.-.

Jussive

Subjunctive

~j

.".

~

" ",

-

Jussive

-

, ,

Verbal Noun ta' 11m

Participle mu' allim

Imperative t allim

Verbal Noun tazalzul Participle mutazalzil Imperative tazalzal

, JJj

'If) Vf)

r , •

, 1

F

I.

Ll

• , , I

PASSIVE Imperfect yu' allamu .~~~ Perfect "ullima ~

f:"~ ,

. ...,' _ , Participle mu' allam ~

-. "

P ASS~V:E ",does not exist ~n FO!1!1 I~Q., n

- &&

1<,.1:> ~ ~ to know 4; N ~1 to notify ~\ .. ,~ 10 V rt~ to learn .. : 1; X F .... ! to inquire of ... about .A • VS' \. 23

111

I _

IQ (Jf;l]\Jf;lj) Jf;' J1; to shake .. ,. 6

I' nrw.

, r p. .t:: ,.1: knowledge, science ~ scientific ~ teaching

,. ~ ~~G:. scholar j~ t.~ \ . 1:': ;eacher c ... !iJ educational-

, , .. ~ T

F apprentice r':ts.! notification ;."t.;. of course

,u(.~ infonnation" (~~) r.~ (trade-jmark

r1~ [~~ world ul:::J:~ mstrucuons ' r~:" inquiry ~.J.~ in theory and p"'ractice·:~t' r1c' ~

~ ~ psycho1ogy

.# • ", • , ,

~ ~'~ programmed learning y r1c -uk aware of

~

4-

Jj"lj '[. .41'1; earthquake Jfi) j \JJjlj convulsion, earthquake

, ,

, c)(~j seismic Jfjl;J1 ~ seismology

t' , , ,

~Gl! ~ seismic survey ~t)! ".,.H~ .. :.,! seismic exploration

J

l

J

t

t

I

~

l !

j

1

I

f



ACTIVE

, ... ,

,-~l:;



Imperfect "

" .;

~lil

Perfect

ACTIVE

Imperfect

'ak,hbara yukhbiru to inform y ,0 Perfect





9 m

~ .,J.JIII' ~ ,;

.~~ \i., '-~'" li nasaba yunasibu to suit ... ,.

. ...

"

10 IV

C~



G:.,u



;,

, . ,



.. ""-'

J.--- ..

,

, . ,

. -

ft"'U

",.

,

, " 1-.--

'- r+ t .. '-'-'

-~



, • 4

. ,

.;'I'"





,.

, . ,

. -

_y.;_4t1f.j

,

. ,

. -

~~



Subjunctive

., .... -'

'w .... L; I

Jusslve

Subjunctive

~ • 4

. I ;:>

Jussive





. . ,

• •

.._ ""U ;:

.,

I • ,

l.J...r.~

. ."

• t .;:>

" ..... "li.

,

. . ,

. ..

.r.ru

~

.; . ,

. ..

... "-1 Jf

",.

1 ). Ct. !

'.JJ'iI"W

" ...... l-

. - •

&j_y.j",-,

,

, . ,

1.J..r.~

.,

, •• I

• ~., ... $tJ ."J._J _

,;

~ 0 ,

I ...

J! .....

,

, . ,

. -

'-"'U .;:

,

. ,

. -

,.;~



....

L:..,~

· - ,

G.w,t.:.1





,

L:...,~

• til""

L:..,lZ

· .. ;'

t:..,Ui



,

,.,.,

l:J vr:

~ ~,

...... Hl:..t

• • ,

~ ,.;~

'-art t .,l:J



I

r .. ~

'J".2"CJ

,

r · ,

. -

.*'1.1 ..,.-'-

"

r · I

-*v

ft -

,

r · ,

. -

""".-u 'J.---

r'· ,

. ..

;t_z""U

,

... l:~

. . ...

u-:-"



"

L:i

~

.. ~.;

. ,}

........ l:.t

· .. ,

. "

t.1t .. l:J

.. ;

<

-

" . . ,



. ....,

J.-- -







I I

t i

I

f

Verbal Noun

c"

J. ,.

.;

'ik.bbar

Verbal Noun rnunasaba Participle munasib Imperative nasib

PASSIVE Imperfect

I "" ~J. ,

yunasabu t-:11"~ Perfect nusiba

, 41"

Participle mnnasab ,-:",u.lia

,,,. ,

- .

PASSIVE Imperfect yukbbaru . .r."'-!

, . ..\

Perfect 'uk.b,hira .r.>'



appropriate relative (adj.) proportionate affiliation

I i

I ,

I I

". .J d J JiI , ",;, "1 n · to notify

I (i_#V.) .r.~.r.> to test, to expenence.Ja ; .~

u 7; I~ ;'\i.. to write to • 9; VI ;.~ to write to each other 12



vm .. :~, to do research into .It 14; X ;;';:NI to inquire of ... about , 0

_"c

A ,

Participle mnkhbar ;.';..,A .

• I In lIE ,. I""

T

.. '. ) .tII J )~., , IJIlI' ---- I L _. _ .. "'1110 .... _._ - d FF

I . (4.0 c to ;) ·k,A Oi';" \ kA UWkrt aN; to correlate with t I Ja , to relate to t I .A

• • -. -. t..I'". t..I'.

, ,

~ ,. ~",.

1,2; VI .-. .... l:.1 to (be) relate(d) to each other 12



• •

,,~ ~,

;~l:.:.. . suitability ~ occasion. opportunity

.;,

t..-tt.t.fI ~

~23

, , . ~ , ._,.

vm ~"tCt;jt to belong to 01! 14; X ~rt.,.i.d'N' to approve of .Ja 23

,.



--

-

,.

- . .

.a; experience

ozI

. )

.. .- - .

.

j

.:

j

relationship, ratio relativity associate ( d)



reporter J~! test

~ ,

~J ~-$..I experimental

experienced

A

.. .

... ~ "'4~ , . 4.22

,

- . "

.. .

4.t t tttJ

...

news

.... .-. ,

'y-;.~.J+ laboratory

,.

, ......

ul! YJ'''':'' pertaining to

". , . , , ......

.N I y..,.....;. sea-level

intelligence service

news bulletin

_.

\....t--__.__ .. ~ t A

. ...ao •



,

, .

ul •• ""

.... ~

~! ~~'N :14 in relation to, by comparison with

.;

a message for

" ,.

... -.

~ .~+,., percentage

I



, ,.,~, ." , , ~

J.>~J>..u tadakhkhala yatadakhkhalu

to intervenelintetfere in .;

11 v

12 VI

ACTIVE

,~ 11.~_-:

jt~

ACTIVE Imperfect Perfect
J!: " J!.' '1
.~ 8i." ~;'
JJ J.j
Jj
~'" ~'~' J!.'" ~;'
J"- 4J J;j J,;;j ... Jj ~'~ ~;~
tal Jj JJ
;;.' " ,
~'N ;:,u!.' " ~;;
1--: \) J.::j ..ui ~" ~"
WlL"-zJ ss Jj Jj
-
, ,,_
.. Ji.'" ~;N J!.'" ltfi.:u #II'
&J. • ~ • J..:.., J.tI ~" Jl.' ,
IJ _ » J"j
-
Jl'" ,
~'N J!:" ;;.'; Gli.' ..
• J.;., fJ J;j • J.:ij ~'
Jj ss .. • JJ
-
;
Jussive Subjunctive
Jl'" J!.:u1 Jl.'"
J.;j Jl.~1
J..:j
ltfi.' " ~'" Jl'"
• J.:;j sa · .u.; l,f!.'" ~'" Ji: "
• .l::J J:;j J.:;;
;;.' " ~;N ~';; ;;.' "
ss: J:;J ..u3 ~" ~'"
J:;J sa x:;
l,f!.~ ~n - "
Jl'" ltfi.~ ~;" ,
.u., .~ Jl.'N
..L;., ..u..
... -
;;.' " - ..
~" Jl'" ~;"
J..;.., sa • J,;;J ~" Jl.'"
wU.t J;;.j • J.;;j
-
- ,,, f 1. ":" ""., f 1. :::

jt~ ~ua3 tazahara yatazaharu

to demonstrate against ~ , to feign y

Imperfect Perfect

,,~ 11. -:"'1 ..... ,. .1.:

..I' \Jjj ~ ~ uij

, • 1. ~ -: • ,. ~ 11.:::

.J Galla:a;~ f f'..a;

, - ,. , 11. ~

.J Ga lla:a ~_;'lhi7 vJ ~ \Ai

~Ga~:'~ IJ:;'tli;

~GalA~).lhi7 ~)~

~

Jussive Subjunctive
... ~ · 'llzj1 "~ ; .. ~1
.,- • _e ~ ._ ..;i" ••• ~ ._
I ~"lhi7 ~lla:a .'~ I ' .. ~ ~llii.7 ' ~ lhi7
~..IA .. - ..It · _- '.J~ • _- ~ ._-
,., Ua;J r" Ua;J ~;lli:.7 ".'Ua;J r' lli:.7 ~;llii.7
~ _- Ij' _- IJ~ • _- 'JIi _-
- .,
,
, " tli~ f' UL:; )llir! , ' .. ~ ~~ ~~~
~ ...... 'J~ .- .. ~ ... _
~~ -
..... ~ r" Ua;J ... ~ ; ... ~ ~lla:a ~lli:.7
'-'.-'" - .. ~ ...... .It · _ .. iJ~ ... _ Verbal Noun tadakhkhul ,!_, ..

~JJ

Participle mutadakhkhil

Verbal Noun tazahur

;l1i.i

Imperative tadakbkbal

ltfi.~ ~J.7 ~~

;;':u ~Jj ~J.1

-"

XlIII ,..... l1li_

,. -

_w

Participle mutazahir Imperative tazahar

..".lht. 'J~ l1ai

-. $



PASSIVEO Perfect tudukbkhila J.l..~

,

I ,. -,,,, ..

,mperfect yutad~bk~~l u ~~ "Par~~Cjple mutadak~hal J>J;~

I ( J _,.;. ~) Ji.~ Ji-"l to en ter d! \vi \ ... 1; II Jl.:, to insert .Jb 7 '

.". ..... 1-

N J,>') f to admit .. ,b 10; VI Ji-fJj 12 = V Jl.:u 11

P ASSIVEo Imperfect yutazaharu ~ lli~ Perfect tuzuhira ~ _,hi

.,

Participle mutazahar ;l1;;:

. ,;

J.>,) income ~r.) inside (noun, preposition) u1>f.) internal

Jli. . .)) introduction ~W\JtJJ intervention, in;;~erence

J "

~,) entry. entrance (act)

It' ~ , ,

v-: .dt j.J.J:. non-intervention

~I ~l the innermost heart 4b(.) u. ~ civil war

, '.f

.. 1· (' l t J (' ".,,;

4:.~ JJ J.r ~O ..r'-..iJ \iJ~_' MinistrylMinister of the Interior

I ~ C1:. 1':. I=--· , ~-

~ \:.. iYw'tJII entry, entrance (place)

ll..;.~ core

-

back (noun) appearance demonstration demonstrator exposition

J Q; j l:..AJ; midday

.Jb Ua:. [_ ~ appearance

-» 11.-::

~ua; demonstration, dissemblance

..".[,1; ri:,_.t1; phenomenon

.. _Al; ~ on board

G:z.,'" "'. l!.' he seems (to be) ill

~ J'fA'!

~; (d) ~UiJJ it seems (to me) that

...

..

In appearance

upside down

I



i

r

I

, '" • _, _, 1'-:" ~

vn~,J~ ~I . inqalaba yanqalibu to be overturned

13

ACTIVE

Imperfect

, ~ . .,,;

1-· ·

L ...... a",,- I

__ ~L_



,

~IA::.

.;

~ . " ....... .-





.; ..... "'"

lJl{liZ

~ ,

.; , . .,.,.

· Lt-·· '" ~.4t_.

,. .,.

"" ; .....

:', U_i.; ,

...,. -

~

~ ...... ".

1 .. · ..

kr"- __ .Ji_c...."



~

<. ,~~~ ~

....

,.,

. ..... .....

1-·

ka f"\.. .' ... w

· -

(//I'

~ri.:

• •

. -

,

~[t:

• •

. .... ,

" ,

, ...... ..,..

· L 1 .. • ...

'" ~.a_JZtJ

.... ~

,

~lj;1

,

, _.,.,. , ......

L r .. t I ...Ad _LWX



Jussive

• ,.-1.

~#JA.;1

." ............

1 .. ••

\",. .. 4'.£""



~

, ; .....

I~

I'

" -1"-·" . - ...

•• • t • _ .. v.z._



,

, , .....

~li:.,

. -.;

<t1' ...... ,

1"·

~.·JLW

. -





~

,~' .........

... -



_.

. .....;

1"··

.., * .....

." ..........

L1"··

+_J '...:sAJ





,

, . ,..,.. """

1-··

..J-!'" l

,.

, ,..., ......

1y,1i.:.,

· - ,.

_, ·l':_~ ~

,:y_nLf_a-tJ

· - ,.

,

.; ",.;

L 1 ... • ...

..._'___'



,

l"l-:'~'

. --. ... ,J

. -

,..

........... 1--.-

-U ... t

ur.

.. ",.,

. .... .....

1"·

6 .. -.Il .... j

· .. ,;

• L~·~ ......

..... "."-.1.......,



Verbal Noun inqilab v)UJ1



14 vm

-~

~ -'lflii

ft··c.1

,

it tabara yat tabiru to consider JA, to esteem.

..

J"' _.... t

sa __

. -



Perfect

, ·1"'·

- -.

"'rt,,AJI

a_

..

ACTIVE

Imperfect

" ,. 1-

~,"I

~

# ". .I' .. ..

... "'W J.-

,

, ~. ,.

,JJ~

, ,."" ... .

J'! ,_taj

,

.,; " ......,. . ..."'

uJ_x,, 1

"

". ,."

· .....

tJ; .. "".,

. ..



,

~ .. ,. #I'

. ..

fJ.JJ:-tsA!

"

.;. .,.,

"".

, ·1 •

- .

'- ,\r_J1J ,



" . ,. ~"

f.r._t&1

# ~ ,."."

~~,

" , .",

1..1.;#1

,

lli.11



",

l::~1-:'~'

_~'t __ ..L



J.t -:.J

. ..,

. ..

~

, ...... --

- -

JZz..tU

,



;" • '1"""· .. ...

...*.,:A,) ,



" ~ . ,.."..

4J~1

,.

Subjunctive

, ;.-1.

\wtl\l;1

Jussive

....... 1-

..r.:~ I

"

· ...... ~

- ...

~---'

"

..... ~

- ...

UJr:-J_l

..~,

• ". 4fI'

. ,. . ." •

r.*JV

,

" , . .;

I..1J.':..tU

,

". ,." · --

" ..._ f ...

\tttIJ: .. ___

,

I .... ,

t..1J'! ~""!

,

.,. .... _,

· -.,

UJ!t~

."

-

~..,

. ..

,

• ..... ,#f .. ..

J: .....



.;

...........

1" -

.. f ~ •

c.s-:a ._.

- ",.

,. ,It,

~rtJA.: •.

· .,

~ ............

1- - f.__zz ......... ~



Participle munqalib

Imperative inqalib

Verbal Noun it tibar

Participle mu'tabir

, ,;.0;1



CWt



" "

0111

. _, .

... ~.[ij t

,.,. ,

, ..-.

1.Jr.~'

~I

.J •



., ,



, j"'.'

P ASSIVEo Imperfect yunqalabu ~ .. ~

, ... ~

Perfect unquliba \: .. .1i.,i,

Imperfect yu'tabaru

J ,~. ,

~

. ...

, ,. 1 Perfect u ~ tubira _y:; I:-

PASSIVE

,,,. ,

Participle mu'tabar d-.A

", f-:. \ ( , -:.) .- _t~: f~

IIII ~ ~ '-s4L ~ to invert .JA, to reverse .It 2f7

. . . ~. ,.

V ~lii to be inverted, to be reversed 11



..

Perfect

, 0,.,..,

~ ./': i~t;.1

, .,; .,.,.,

.,:..~,

, . ~"

~ Jik-ci

, ,;

" ~;

.ft~1

,. . ~ "'~

.,:.. _r.-j..&..1

SUbjunctive

, .... 0 1-

r.~'

r c:

~t'U

---•

,

r ...... ~ .

- ..

~.I

_ L4..



til"

r ...... ",.

'J'f:; IU

· - ~

r c.: ~

,.

~ ...........

.. ...

J!+ .... J

..s __ 'W'



,

... ...

y,_._.'

...ar _



...

,,,

~ ..,..,;

J. .. -: LI

va

. ..

".

." ...... ".,.

- ..

.;: ... _t

Imperative if tabir

. .-.

.r.-~'

'" , "" .

..s~1

..

I~ ., __ ,. fJI' ", .I "

I (~~),r.A!. ~ to cross .A 1; II ~ to express ~ 7

heart ._)i

-

""

variable u)U;t

cardiac, cordial

••

coup d'etat





mould, matrix

J~.' 6.:hi:.,. place of defeat, one's 'Waterloo'

~ . ~ ~Jij I to be turned upside down ~, ... ;..hJ

fainthearted



-



-

Tropic of Cancer

- ,

cordially

across, beyond

;.



'-'~



,. JI'

'" ~

i_)~

• •

mversion

Hebrew



expression

ex pressive of

with all my heart

inverted

, -'.Ill' ,

~ J*:a ....

kindhearted

",

~ I consideration, esteem J •

" ,

J ( , ..... ----I

~ in view of' 'J •

J ~ t'J}.,.) in every respect

..

Tropic of Capricorn

i

j

..

.,-



crossing

admonition, precept

expression of

crossing-point

with effect from

to take into account

,

~

I



j .

..

16 vrn

to collapse

15 VITI

, _~ ",4,

-C::f-!. r:I ittaba' a yattabi' u to follow ss -,. ,

, ,

to comply with .IJ

, -'~"I lld

jI'-~ ..J"'.) Iddahara yaddahiru to be repe e ~

ACTIVE Imperfect Perfect
, -, , !j A ""_ , . _"
~ l;·.sl .. ..,
._ __.._-.;
~ ._~
• .~--- ~

., ~ • I • .,i". ,.
, , II, , -,,; , ." r~· ;!, "'" .,-
~ · L _- C:f-i - -, .. -I
,_,_ .. J .......... .,·w " ""*'
-LX , ,_y • •
• • •
, ~ , ., - ,.~ .. ~ JI. ,,1". ,
~. .., ., .41 , -, . ~-
_- . ~ _ .... . _- - -I l. +-=-._."; I . ..,
LJJ':v u"" · ~ .;yZ_._J!~ ..__.... .......
L _ ..-.. ~
• • •
, ." ,. ,~ " ~ ;' ,
~ , -" "" -~ , " ,.,- , '!I
~ · l, - ~ WI
..,1 .. .-.1 ~
- • • •
~ f1I' ~ , .. • '!, "" J ,
,,_ . .", " .tII' , -, . ,;;-
.. - • l:. _- C:f-i \:'_ • .,; 1 - -,
~_""'_--' "' _ _6 '" t ~_' karl"-A.r_'
wv_
. ... • • •
_, .." ~ , , Jill ,
Jussive Subjunctive ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

,.

Jussive

Subjunctive

.. ,

ttJ

# -,

l,.-~iJ

., ~. -,

Verbal Noun ittiba'

Participle muttabi'

_ ..

va:-t='

~

I '41'

),.,.....w'

. -

,

, .. ,

f· ... t~

'-' . - .,

,.

.,. .,

lJ?.N

",

tJ?.4

,

.... ,""

4J~J.j

,

1;?~

muddahir Imperative iddabir

I;_"-~ J 1?"~ I -"'*:J I

, , ~ , ~ ,

~-"'-:J I ~~ t '-i_r:~ I

~~ -"

wi t .~ ~

Verbal Noon iddihar JG.. .. "I

, "

Participle

PASSIVE Imperfect yuttaba' u ~

. Perfect uttubi' a ~1

",.- .. ~

Participle muttaba' ~

PASSIVE none

-

L1 ..

d L F

-

." ,-'. rJII' ~~"

I (?~),~ ,,) 3 to repel

,~.,. ~" ".,. _,,. .# , ~_ , ~ 41'

I (u.\:;\e:J) ef4. C:f 4 = vm e:.sl 1 5; ill t!13 to follow up ... 9

A ,. ,

" _.,.- ..

N ~I to subordinate someone to someone _ • 10

~", ., ...... ,..

VI C;!W to occur successively 12; X &_ ..... 1 to entail ... 23

~

F F

T1

• m _ r

v

-

, d



, . ."

.;..,>J.Je repelled; expelled

... ,

e ,.

*

consequence

, "'-' ,

i.~!;- l:. ~lJ subsequent

.;

nationality

su bordination, su bordinate

'G

t! _- succession



successively

complied with adherent of

Wi compliance with

t .....

J G:.QI in compliance with

client/satellite state

.1

......

saro

~ ,.,;., ,,~"""".

vrn ~.) j! ~.)j I izdahama yazdahirnu to throng with y

,. ,

17

ACTIVE

, ...... "'"

~.)_;;

.;

.,; , "",.,

fJJA>.)jJ

,

_". ......"

..

~.)jJ

o " It .....

~.)_;;

,

, .........

I_,..>.)j1

.,

,.. , . ,

Jussive

Verbal Noun izdiham



Perfect

.".,,..

l.; .,...) jJ

....

t"~'" ""of

.... ,-.,.~J

,..

.'" .. '" '.,

~~J

~ ,

, , ......

r>.)~

",.

, ..........

r>.):}

,

. ...... ~

r>.)j I

.,.

. , . .;

r>.)j1

,

.., ..........

r>.)j

,.

, ...... "

L,..,.J:;

I

;. ,

~.)y

,; ,

. ..... . ,;

r>.)~

....

. ,..,.

f':"J:J

",.

"

" ..... ,

'''''''''.)~

,

,. ~ .....

Participle

....... ,

................ 1 .istana' a yastani' u to manufacture ... ~



r"'.J

18 vm

Imperfect

, fIl'. 1-

r>Jji

,

, .o". 41""

r':.):;

,.

Subjunctive

,; ..... "1.

r->.)j I

,

"" ..... ,

r:.).P

"".

ACTIVE

~

Imperfect

.# .,,.,.

.. .,

'- •• >~J

I

J !

~ ~

, .

Jussive

t t 1

l

. . ....

~

., .. ..,.

l._;1artad i

j

I

I

t

t

~.)~

,;

, ,. . ,.

f':JjJ

"

izdahim



~"'JjJ

.,. , ,.

~.)jJ

-

". ,. "".

f

Perfect
... ""lz' , 0 "la'
t: .. : ..s?J ";+ ... : ..41

,
, , • .... 1. •
• , ..... 1.. .... , ..... 1,.
.. iL_..et1 L.. ;-.;eL'1 ,_:,, __ .,; ~ I
t , " ,.
I ,. "1' "" ,. "'la,' • "lz°
~.~_"",1 l. ; • __ : "'" I ~_,,: ~I
... 4 , ,. II" ,
, "lz' " "1' ~I
1..".-;_ ,,4 , L.~:'..L'I
" ,. ,.
.. 0 'J.; 1 .... "'la· o ""1' ,
l; __ ._:.A1 .. "" ,__._;_.....,
.y~!J:' ....

.,-
" ~ Subjunctive --t

~,

,

.". • JI

~ ~

Participle mustam

•. , , 1·

~~~ I."...:n J'1

.. ~ t

Imperative istam

... lag ._ .1.' -I

L.._;_~ I c:--

, .,

. ,

...

Perfect ustum a

• t

muzdahim Imperative

, .... .

t_,.,.rJj , ~ ... ~ j I

III"

1· ~

. -

• t-'2 t

ur---

-.,.".,

. ."

t

PASSIVE Imperfect yustana u

, " ,

PASSIVE none

". "., ~ ."

rb..)jl\r>.)_;" \rb. j\;.,..j throng

, ~ ;

r>t; rival

".

J" ........ r' r> ,~ \1.,.. LiA

~.,

r>.)j--

,

competition crowded

production craft, industry

l

Participle mustana'

kV- IT • "

......

~..4 synthetic

~ ~ artificial

-..,. ,.

. ,.

e:: :.~i industrialisation

~

~ t.·

t.t~...,' manufacture

,. ,

.; 0 ,

artificial

~ G . .aU ~J industrialist

- .".

craftsman

industrialised country

p ,p lpnl Jll , ~

I <?,?> ';'4~ e;:, to contrive Ja 3; II ~ to industralise .. 7

_, -, ., ~...... .,. I d 23

V c!-'~; to feign .. 11; X e!-,4'W.H ... to cause to be rna e Ja

,

."..... .....".

~LA.o ~ e::~A factory

,. ,,,_ ,

e3..ai pretence

,. .,..

t.Y",AJ'. product

.... ..... • ~, I

i_~' 1 y t:.,_.., .[. ~""" ""'"

,

pn

• 1

1

t

i

19 vrn

ACTIVE

.. ~"

• •

4...J



E:OJ\C)

y ~ y~1 iQ~araba yadtaribu to clash

Imperfect

, ~"

'--' . I

• ,

'~~

....., ....



".

~)a:a7

Perfect
G:~I
,
• ~~I ~~,
~ ..
,
II~~, ~~t
~
" ,. -- ,
~]';"I GJa~1 y~1
, _, I
~~f ~I
, ,. , Jussive

y~l

G ,.,ll :;., 7

,..

~h:4J

~

G""lz :;.,~

'"

C._)h:i27

Verbal Noun idtirab

y~,

Subjunctive
;~ A
y~i
• •
f..J

~ ,
t;.,JL:d1 L~ '~
....., .....

, ".. ".
'~ L~~; ~
,;.x .- -
(Jt.
" " "
,~ C.)t:;,.! ;~
...., .
~ -
. ...
".. , .,.
;:;~J,:~ 4_,k:47 ;~
u ...

, ,. ,. '"

. ~'"

. -

......



Participle mudtarib

20 vm .~ ~ I ittala t a yattali' u to become aware of ~

"" , ...._... .......... _,.

ACTIVE Imperfect

~ ~1

~~ .Jwlz; ~ '.~ ~

'-' -

". ~ ~It~

.., - ~

~

,



.~

,

wlz; ~ ~

..

~

Jusslve

I

\

t

I

Perfect

~I

,.

~1

",

~I

,; .,

~t ~,

f i

,

,

I

Subjuncti ve

~1

wlz; ~

~~

~ "~

~ ~

, '

Verbal Noun i ttila f

.. .

Participle rnuttali'

Imperative ittali'

Imperative idtarib , ~ 1.. -, _, .r.y~

.". ,..

~~,

I

t

I

f

,

I

I I

f 't

.

~

PASSIVEO Imperfect yuttala' u ~ Perfect uttuli' a ~1 ~ ll'_

Participle muttala' ~

PAS 0 ' ,~L- .? :.' 1~· . ..II,

SIVE Imperfect yudtarabu y ~ Perfect udturiba ~ ~

I (y~) y _;d! ~;:.. to strike .A., ft, to multiply by ~.A 2

,

~ ~ ~ ~ ~. ~

III YJ~ to fight with it 9; IV Y~' to go on strike 10

~ , I' ...

VI Y JLt:a.7 to fight one another 12

I (~\~) ~ tll' to rise, to climb .. , to mount .... 1 III tlll, to examine .. 9;N ~i to notify \r\~ ,0 10 V ~ to watch for ~! 11; X; :.! to consult 023

.... A;

LI~ blow, stroke

~~-~.~~ tax

,. ~

. ,

'-:-' J...c,. striker

. ~

Y ~ beating, multiplication

ur·· I strike

. ~.

ti' i, rising dUa::. ~ .~

t?'1' examination, information ~

d lL: reader W Ua:.

, .

t.'j)., ':: II t research

, ",

~ ~ • , Ii _ ·

;..AJI\v-* ... !,t,t..P sun-, moonnse

,

4A1\],. .,.;..J unfortunately for him

incompatible

,.

y~, conunotion

",;

1· ,

Y ~.t2. agitated

., ,

y ~. bat, racket

,

, I ...... ~

YJ~ conflict

point of departure observer, aware of ~ perusal

exploratory

,

t

t

Ji..jJr4_~ income tax ~:t;.,~ y~ . to levy a tax on uLa1'~:;-tfJ ~ -~~ value-added tax, VAT

d lJ,.J , · · ~ 100 and upwards

,.

i I ~ ,

I

I

Verbal Noun izzilarn Participle muzzalim Imperative izzalim

21 vm

ACTIVE

, It..~

~

,

~., ,;

. - ..

EQJ\D

~ ~r izzalama yazzalirnu to suffer wrong

~ til'

~ ....... -.... d

,r"'"! ,jA,..1 ihmarra yahrnarru to beltum re ,

,. to blush

22 IX

Imperfect

Perfect

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect
..... "",.
l;_; ....... '" I

,...
,- ... - ......... I
• ~ ....... 1 .... , • .- .... t
W.;r'"
...,;",J _)J."
r-'J~
'" "..
",. ...........
, ,. ......... .. , ....... I U.Jr'" I
tYJ .... 1 WJJ • .,.
~
~ ,. ""
, # .... I
,~. ( ..... I
fJ_r>1 r>
.r>
,
,. ., D _ ...... I
-: D ..... a , .. tJ ... I
lj J"'>
~_)J.> t..-.tJ.""
." .,.
,. , 11:."

~I

'''1 1.:. ~

~

'. ~~. :: ~

-

~

, '1:.~ ~

,

2Ji;1 ~ ~"'I

.. ~I

~,

l:';.:Jl;,

,

l:~:J1;1

lJ~ ~~ ~~ , r"· ..,

4J~"v

-

~

"". ;.",.. . ..

f.JJJA-"U

., .",,.. ..,.

-

~~

,

,~ ......

.IJIIU J ..

, ,. "

~ 1 ..... ,

, ,.

Subjunctive and Jussive (i)

Jussive

Subjunctive

Jussive (ii)

• ".-1.

J~I

LJh.7 GJh;

.,

(Jh;

..

GJh;

• 11.:.";'

~I

,

• It.~

~

~ ~ ... ~

·1t.~ ~

",

, ~

Participle muhrnarr Imperative il}.marraJibmarir

• • ,,,......... -",. J

,J;. ... I r.,.,.,..1 .;.......,.1\..,.",

( ., • '1 ,. .# fill .; • "',

r> ,.;~

.. ~ "".

• ~ . ..,.

J~
I a .... :: r"· -:.
~ . ..._, .. ~
J J
,. . _, . , r"· -:.
;.,~ ~
'J
, , 1 ... , (~ ....
r
~ ~ ."rJ ~
!
'J ..
~ r .... -:.
t ~ . ,. ",
• ...,.._,
IJJ.r"-!
r;
, ,

. ...... ,,; ..

J~

.,

- ,. ,.

..... 0 ~. ,

;_,_)~

., ,. .,

t,r"!

-",

.. ,

. """. ~

1.,,:d; I (Jl; I

~t ~

Verbal Noun iI,mirar

Jr,.~1

, ft.~ PASSIVEo Imperfect yuzzalamu ~

Perfect uzzulima

• •

PASSIVE does not ~xis! in=fo~m ~X.

a.,

dE

-

I 1 Fir

IT ..... :. to make red », to roast .It , to fry .II 7

~u .. _ PI ,

I .(~\~) rl);~.~ to oppress - 2; IV ~1 to be(come) dark 10 V ~;J;7 to co~lain about ~ 11; vn rIA;t 13 = VIII ~f 21

_, fI"

WI jJ

L I I

_) ~ t reddening

iniquitous

~ .,-

ft.> [. J\...,.,.. donkey

., ,

..... ,

• •

oppression, suppression

infra-red

redness

injustice wronged

the Red Cross

the Red Crescent the Red Sea

redder '

injustice l

wrongfully dark

darkness

" ....... _" A .

~*~,"!. ~A.t 1 istaqbala yastaqbilu to receive J) ,0

~

Imperfect

,. 1-

~~;; I

,

~ ...... '"

J! i: "Mooi

~

.; 1·""'· .",.. . -

, '\r_.,.' ' • 1M i

...,.. - .. .

,."

, ..... ""

_ L~ tl'l tJ-. •

;!If

J' .........

... ..

:AA .... t

23x

,

, t .,. ~

~~ttt1j

.,.

., 1 •• ,,01'. ,

. ... ..

~ .. _" ,UJ

,

, t·.,- ~

'.,Y_j,; uk'

. - #"

" .,. 11'"

.• i; __.._ .. I

• _Q_ -.

-

,

~ .......

. "_ ..

6" ...J __ t _,." J

..., • J

, ",

':Aa ......

-

.. ...-

c.J ~4-·-*t· ~I

, ,,-

~ .......

. -

., -' __ 'M tt •

...,. ...

, ,

Jussive

Verbal Noun istiqbal

J'. • l_J.i3t dNJ



PASSIVE Imperfect yustaqbalu 'L__'·.:·' p ,. J...~'-. A,

U : ... WMII! errect ustuqbila -!".4..w#



P tici I , ...... ~. ~

, " ar IClP e mustaqbal ~ i; • ...-

I (J J!\J J-:.) )r":~ '"ts nw " --"

~ ~ ~ ~ to accept y\"". 4; III 'l~U to face ... --: 9

.. .... of... I,,/"!'" , ..

N - r -: f t I ... .. '-:." '

vr 0 approach ..r- 10; V P. to accept .. 11

VI ~ili to face each other 12; vm ~f 14 = X J.;l:;:',f 23

1 III' 1&& ."

~' before (prep.) ~j"~ &before(c~~~)"')t:jW be;or~"h·a~d

J " # •

~\J..,.;i acceptance ~lL. encounter interview I j.1~' ~

J .... " , LI"!........ remuneration

t:;i! approach J-jO r. ~J.~ tribe ~.f "next

.... -:; .. [. .. ~

J.;z; ...... (radio) receiver J~i;/"; future Jl'· ... :·, '"

.. .--:-__.. ... reception

rL..a~ ~li noteworthy .l,,~~.,.[i renewabl'e' ;"': " th f

... ...... .. _. loX ~ . .;ya on e part 0

, .: ~, _"u J'! !):;,i1..... ..... ...

i~... ~ . ~ J ('please accept the highest respect') Yours

faithfully

, ,

", ...........

J.:.i;,oII

,

,. t ... ". :.. ~_.t.:; .. t t '

,.

. "",. ...

l.. ...

... ;., .. c",srz.--.. .

.. ,~

.; . "

J.;~ ,

_._-z .

. - ..-

J~ ~". ~

.';."

• •

",

Participle mustaqbil Imperative istaqbil

. ~.(.:."

l::l ... • ... • -1-\_" is ••• ., ,



J.: ._... ~ '''~_.f,_M'

.R""

11~·'· ~

~~J_";"¢, ;

,

." t ~,. ~

. .- ...

f",Y¥--' t" •

~

J r «- • ."

~ .. ;_":." " U J

.- ;. ,

"'\-.".. ,

.• .. J_;t ... '

W' • - ,

",

.J."'. ~

.. ..

Z't 1M'

,

....... ,

~i...i 'M-

Subjunctive

Perfect

#I' 'SA ........

.i-:++'f



,.

r7r~:· __ ~I



....... .,,.. ..

.. ~ -...... .... -- . ,

.,. _,

... -

~t'"

,

, .. --. .-

~.i.;,.....

. - ~

.,.,. ,

- - .£t •• s; .... t



".

~ ..... t_;~CdJ

~L __



, ~ ~ ....

SICA,; .M I



f ~

I

I

) i

i

I

~ j



HAMZATED VERBS

Hamzated verbs have ". as initial, middle or final radical. In most hamzated verbs both other radicals are sound; one example has a weak middle radical ~ ) but as the verb occurs in Form II the weak radical is

-

, 1 .. · ... ·

~1" .; -; otl f



",. .. 1 ... · .. ·

~,. • ..i.;,.#1



stable (i.e. is consonantal or sound in form, y).

Verbs with _ as middle radical and a weak final radical (" or u ), or vice

-

versa, are counted as doubly weak verbs, for which see p. 177"

The standard conjugation patterns shown in paras. 23, 25 and 29 to 33 of

the introductory chapter (tenses, imperative, participles and verbal noun) apply generally to hamzated verbs, with the following exceptions:

• Initial hamz»:

_ In the affirmative imperative of Form I (see para. 31) of three

important verbs, the whole flfSt syllable is dropped:

, JI' .... , ",1. • ,

J!l! JS'I I~ to eat, affumative imperative J! (etc.) 'eat'

'.' ""... -'."" 1., .. '

..l>,-! -.b- I, to take, affnmative imperative .,b.. (etc.) 'take'

'''''''''~ «»

~ 4 ~ 1 I. to order, affmnative imperative f (etc.) 'order'

· ,,, ""., ., "" ,t · , , ..... ~

Their negative imperative is regular: .r-U ~\» lj 1 \j!lJ ~ etc.

In the affirmative imperative of FOIDl I of all other verbs the -. is

dropped and the imperative prefix becomes ... _J1 or .. --!I.

.. Initial $ combines with a neighbouring non-radical ~ to form .. .1 .

..

_ In Form vm of root .1,;.1 the radical ~ plus the ~ of the form

rI », .» '" ".' -,

become oJ : ~ J_.__.;.u 'to take' ·

-

, II'"

In Fonn VIII of the remaining roots there is an "alternative 15t

principal part, affinnative imperative and verbal noun which all

., ,;/', ,,_,,,.

begin .• ..; . or .. -!I: J* '!'!I\J .... ~' 'to deliberate'.

, , , ,

• Middle hamza:

.. One common verb in Form I (no. 37) has an alternative jussive

and imperauve. in which ~ and the imperative prefix are dropped, Everything else (including all parts of final- -. verbs) follows the standard or sound pattern. The only difficulty is the writing of ,..

The perfect and imperfect stems are formed from the appropriate

principal part in the same manner as the sound verbs.

In the tables the verbs are grouped under initial e , middle= and final= , in

all forms for each group.

, , " ...... ; .

~i.udJ

~

! I



J

i

j

. . .".

~.,.I

j

1

t !

,

,

I

I 1

i

I

-

,

i f

~

.

-63-



ACTIVE Imperfect Perfect ACTIVE Imperfect Perfect
~'~ a,.'"
JfI GlS'1 8:.1
li ~;' , ... '.,. J..1 1
I
, J.-li
~' ,," ~' ~i ~'u f.t-l ,::J:.l ::r.'"
li ~~11 l; '~..l?1 ~i ~' " .. 1
• \.j ~~\;;
~' ..- " (';Ll ~:.r,"f,
l; cJ~l; &&' ~\?i t:~1 ~", ~' ,. ,," ~'\;; :;tol 1
\J , L; ~~\;
-
.. ,. -1.
~'t~ , :is-\ 1):.1 ~1
~' .. 1)$'1 ~1 ,; 1- ' ';i.'" ~ q.. j:.t
· l, ~4 ~~
J.S" ~ 4
u -
JS'~ ,. " Gr.'" :.:£'"
~)tj13 ~' ~1 GJ.?l ~-t ~'4 ' ,.., ~'\;; J:.." 1 .. ,
\s . ,
. .. 1 ~'j;.. \;;
,
,
Jussive Subjunctive Jussive Subjunctive
~'Lj JS1 J?'lj JSi . " ..... ~ ~'U ~1
J.W
I~'l; '%' ~' ~' j:.'U l.,t'li ';t..' ... ,'-
'J.k' J?'
li \; , l; t.,t'\J ~' \J J..olj
l; l7 \j
JS't; ~' ~' ~' ":i.' ,j.'t.:;
li l.; ~' ~' fl' ~' ';t..' J.'l3 • l.; l.;
l; l; lJ · l; l3
L$4 ~'L jkl~ 'j?'~ I.,t'~ ')l.'G ~j:.'~
1~'4 ~l; I.,t'~ ~'G ' ..
j:.~
- -
• • ~'l;
JS'4 'j1' ~' J5'4 ~' J?' 'i.' j:.'u ~'~ 'i.e'
1.7 L; ~t! \J
l; li L;
Verbal Noun 'akl Participle 'ikil Imperative kul Verbal Noun "amal Participle 'amil Imperative umul
-t J.,t.J1 )l..J1 j:..J1
$' ,., L$ ~ -i. ,...
J!I ~ J...I
j:.1
,; ~ ~.J1 ~.J1 ~J1
~ ~ ~
~
~ PASSIVE Imperfect yu'kalu J.S'~ Perfect 'ukila J!t

Jl:'-' ..

Participle makul ~ \..e

,. ;..,. ", .. d *

II/IV J!' \JS" I to feed _.,. 28/31; HI JS1 to dine with • 30 VNI J,S""lS\JfL1 to be eaten away, to be eroded 32/33

HAMZA TED - INITIAL

, J'~ _, ;'" .

J.S'"lt J!f 'akala ya'kulu to eat ..

24 I

.1-

J!' food, meal

J!l:-.[ft'L. , J)"~

Jli"l J!~\JI~ ; AlS"t"ji

jSi . eater

-"! ~

,~~, ,~~·1

1J"'.1 - .r: dining room

JI~ -~I\ t:.-r~\ I~:

~ ~ \J ~ \J erosion. corrosion

..

JlS'I pustule

HAMZA TED - INITIAL

'"

25 I ',' .... ,. ... _ ... , ........ , h f t t \.. ' ... ,

~ \J ~ 'amala ya'mulu to ope or, 0 expec y - ~

fr

J51

,.

l'

~\ .. 32

. -

food

edible glutton(ous) eroded, corroded to bear fruit

I

t

I

i

~ .!

~

-

~\y JQ .~ j:.1

~'" .,. ...

J..- L. '[. J. L.

, , ..,

~;.. \J...t hopeful

gj:.1 to hope for the best

III'! " .. ~,

j...tl:..t contemplative

y\~j:.i"'J there is no hope of

" ....

hope/expectation of y.ilS',~ I false hope

.. J :. 'c. expected

hope ~-

, ---' ;' .. \

~ ~ V'" 1 "amina ya' man u to be safe from VA ...

HAMZA TED - INITIAL

HAMZA TED - INITIAL

,. ......... ."." ...

J*fI ~ ..)'*'i J 'asara ya' siru to capture • ,

.",

to captivate (figuratively) .A ,.

27 I

26 I

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

I ,""

e,)001

, ...... '-

~li

'" .... ,

~\3

....

, . .-,.

... 1

'-'fJ.A

ACTIVE Imperfect
, , ..... , -
,..,-.li ~I
" ,'" ... , .... ,
~J"*li .J~U J"*lJ
.".,. . .; " ~ "" '" ,. ...
iJ..,.., \j ~~l1 4r'_,..l.;
" ,~ '.., , ,. '-, ,,; ~ "
~J~lt c)~~ , L
..J*M ..
.......... 'J ' "" ." "
~..,.- 4 .if.,.., l; ~li
,. , ., ,
Jussive Perfect

. ~.'" .....

~I

, ,.~1

~:.1

" 1-

t__,.:...l

,' ....

&,)AI

",. -1.

l. 7: .. J

It..,:, 1

.,. ... 1.

r-1..r"*'1

_ ,. ~ -1.

~,.,....,

l,~1

" • .,. 1-

cJ.J"""'1

, .;-1.

u~1

" .,-1.

~~1

. ." '""

~.......,J

" ~." ....

.J*'"

.".'-t.

1.7~t

Subjunctive

Jussive

1

i

I

. , .....
...,....G
" " '-
'J..,.,.., 13 [,..,\3
."...' It. ' "
iJ_,..., l.; ~l;
," , ...... ~'~
fJ.r- 4
..... ",. ,~ ,.. '"
~J"* 4 [,..,li
, #fII . .,

...,....'

..... ,

.J*"\3

~ ..

..s..,..., l3

Subjunctive

~

'.JJ"' 41c! t

- ,.

Gli

iman

~1

.,.

~,

, ,;

-, <

Verbal Noun 'asr

Participle t asir

Imperative isir

Verbal Noun "aman 1-

.:,(.1

Participle "amin

~

~,

Imperative

La,

, , ~ , , ,

~ .

.JJ fAd!' [''''''! t (.).)"'1'

, , , '" -.#'~,

, ..... , ".. 4

PASSIVE Imperfect yu'manu ~~ Perfect 'umina ~1

",

.. '.,

Participle ma'rnun ~ C.

PASSIVE

'" . ,

Imperfect yu' sam ~J.!

.; ....

Perfect ' usira ~ J

., .... ,. ", _,,1. "" .-1.,

I (Ail.. t)~~ ~ I to be reliable 25; II ~ toinsure .. , to reassure

"'" ..... '". ~."", t "". , ...... ,

.28; N ::;'1 to believe in y 3L vllllX ~~!\~'l.!~'c.)4-\.i: to trust 0

captive captivity

_.,.

..".,..,J captor; captivating

34/36

di ts

,,"

Participle rnasur J..J*'I L.

X ;"G~M' to surrender (oneself) 36

,

l ..

~(..1 security ~ peaceful

,.

... · t, ~t · llt belief in

reliable ~ l. ~ ; 1 tI ~ .... trust. credi t ~ 4J _

".".. " '" . ,:,

~:,.,. faithful ~.;.,:' '7;" entrusted with ~ U insurance

... ~ ,. .. ,. .. .. "..... . .

~ u: _;.. insured ~ _;.. insurer i ~ I ~ .~ \j hfe Insurance

.". II'" ,,"

~'GJt ~a!t~ insurance policy J..ou, ~G comprehensive insurance

,." '" -i .". ~ ;- ~

.• G::.' .~ .J:o' reliable; trustee r ~ 0::' secretary general

"

* F

. ~

• .J"* ~ in entirety

",.

Jt:." captivity; enthralment

..... '

y J.J*M l.o captivated by

safety

_.., .".

J~!'''; ~~ 'to fall into the clutches of

, ~.

~

.,

,

~ ~

,_: ~ ,," ::-.

";, ".: I

HAMZA TED - INITIAL

,~#" ......

J.:5 J.! -J)I 'akkada yu'akkidu to confirm ...

... to assure ... ,J

28 n

ACTIVE

Imperfect

:Jji

Jussive

Verbal Noun ta'kid

JG

Participle muakkid

~~ r_,~i

....

, 1-

~~I

Perfect

w:J'l w~i r.J-l 0$1

, • $-1.

uJSI

~~1

Subjunctive

.l

JSjl

fJS;1

,.

r.1.5'j.1

Imperative 'i

rJ3'1

,; 1-

~I

'akkid

~

~I

... ~

4.SJJ'1

-

PASSIVE Imperfect

, $"

yu akkadu Y- Perfect

,.",

m u 'akkad ..\S";..

Participle

., ... 4-

'ukkida J.!f

,;!

~ - -_,.

V JS"'u to be sure of ~ 32

f. ." 1

con irmation, assurance ~ joe \J.$I certain (of things)

,.til! '

certainly .uti assurance

sure of, convinced of

,



~

,

~ , ..

t' •. '.

"_" .

.. , .....

t .

29 n

ACTIVE

HAMZA TED - INITIAL

'ayyada yu'ayyidu to support .A ,&

IDlperfect

Jussive

Verbal Noun ta' yid

''''

J..w13

.-

Participle mu' ayyid

~:;:. 1_,~1

Perfect

-

Subjunctive

Imperative

(~1

-

r~1

..

..

~ ._""

u.lJl

..

" ... '""

~J.,.1

..

• $1-

~J., t

-

., ~, "1-

J.t. t

-

...

I

1



'ayyid

I

1

~

t

, -~ , ." ~

PASSIVE Imperfect yu' ayyadu.lJ.J! Perfect 'uyyida ~ 1

'fill ,

Participle mu' ayyad JJ_;'"

,.

~ ,,:

V ..l! u to be supported 32

, ....

.L.Jl3

.. -

~ ...

J (J.w G

...

.,

-" ,

J..,.J.o supporter

~ .,

_.4t:.:. \~~-; supported

support

in support of

'\ ...... ,

?l+ ott.. tenant, lessee

.... tI"" f'A. ..."

(f.) i~' .un.) ~ ~, -~ J!"': I day labourer

~ ,

HAMZA TED - INITIAL

HAMZA TED - INITIAL

'. ~ - ., '" ~

.Ji.. tJ.! j;.. t 'akbad,ha yu' akhidhu

,

to blame for ~ \~ ,.

Imperfect

, ~

.l>~ I

30 III

~fj,;.fP

, .;

~r..b.[;5

, .;

• (.l,;. r·"

LJ ~

,. ,..

;.,f.l>[;j

J ussive

fl;.[;j

."

(.i>[;j

Verbal Noun mu' akhadha Participle

' ..... r." ,

i..b- fj.- .l,;. (;..

'ajara yu'jiru to hire out » ,.

31 IV

Perfect

ACTIVE Imperfect
, · , , ~
,.. J'!" -' I
.i":Y
, ,
.; , · , r ... ~ I ,
. . .. . ,,- ...
tJJjl:jJ '-' J":~ jl:jJ
,. .." , ,
." . · , r ... ,. · ,
. .. .. · .... .. ..
u~y '-' J":.Y .:y...r:y
, ". , ,.,
., ~ . , r , .. , · ,
. '" · ,. •
4J_Jj':j! &J Jl':j! j':j!
". '" ,;I' ,_,
.,. . , r «» , · ,
. ,. · .... .-
4J..I':jt. '-' 'j':y ?..,.,
..,. , , ,.
Jussive
• . , • 4
.... ..I':.J 1
?oy
". "
I" , .. r ... • . ,
.... . .. ...-
'Jjl:y jl:jJ ?..,.,
,; , ,
" 0 . , r ... · ..
. . .. .. ... . ..
u?..,., ~y 4Sjl:Y
..
, , "
I" ',,' r '.' • · ,
,.
!Jj':j! Jl':j! j':J'!.
, , ,
..- . . , r ." • · ,
. ,. ~jJ .. -
U?J-!. _r:jJ
~ '" ~
Verbal Noun ,_._ Participle ' ..
ijar mu J1T
bul . ,
.r.-j.A
J ._,..
" , .",..-

u.l>1

• -:»>:

uJ.;.t

Subjunctive

" (."'

.l;.rj I

Perfect
lJ ~ 1 ' . .,.,. .....
c-I
'j': J':
.,.~- w~1 ,. . ~ -
f_.P.'1 ut
j': J1':
;;;'1 LJ;l . ,; ~
u_.P.'1
j':
.,..
1 .. '1 (P.J ?,1
'J../':
~., JIll" ~r~1 . "',; ~
.~, ~,
LJ. ..r: j>:
Subjunctive :f

!

I

,. ., ••

_r:.>l

,

." ., ,,-

.T:Y

,.

. ,

..-

4SjI':jl

..

,,~

, ., ,.

j':Y_

;>

~ • J ......

Jl':J'"

.".

, ,. .,

. -.

u?.Y..

".

Imperative "ajir

, ,...

1.J..r: 1

,

". ,,_

• I .!I-I ,.)J.

I

1

!

,

~

-

, ~. ~

PASSIVE Imperfect yu'jaru ..p."J.t

'Perfect 'iijira?'-, I

PASSIVE Imperfect yu'akhadhu t..~ Perfect 'ukhidha J>JI

,11 • J

Participle mu'jar .,...;.-

__ .. _ •• d ..... T

Participle mu' akhadh .li. r?

• 1. , , '-,,_.. ,,~1. ", ......

I (p.- I) J'!" 4.,.1 to remunerate • 25~ II ? t 28 = IV

"", '""",.

X ..r: l:i.,." to take on hire ... ,0 36

I (.li.I) j;.1' ',=-, l! __. to take ... ; to begin ex 24; VIII X.;J, to take ... 35

iJ.i.t;: objection, blame ~(;. -;1\ l~~'

_ , ~ taking, acceptance

-, ~, " ,

tS_ ~ ~rjj 'J pardon me .. ...r, -( to" .: ~i!.__ 1,

_ _ ...,-- r#~"'-- to get an idea of

~~ ,

jl,;., captivating .l;.L. ~ ~ '(. source

r: ' ,..... ",.

u ~ · I· t k· I _ • _ " • , ,,-l

oJ..» u a ings _)~ J I ~_.~ j,;. f to take into account

loS i~ Ji..l to take the opinion ~of'" ,C'~&~ Y~u!'1

_ ,.,y- ,.A,;I-. to take the form of

u I,. I";" J ~! to take measures/steps r,'I.:i ~ ," d

:- _ J .r: to a opt a resolution

i ~I\ G.wl

J • -,. J .- ..

rent, lease

,.. "

,

..;et': lJ leasing

;',.

»": L. salaried

,,", .1-

1· . ·

JY. [..r: I rernunerauon

...... "'-

i..r: t rate, fee, fare

", ..... ,

~j..o landlord, lessor

,

~ .....

J~{U ~""!~ house to let

,

HAMZA TED - INITIAL

"~

HAMZA TED - INITIAL

32 V ,~ l:'~ .. -: t: ';'~I

..;> .... .;>.y tat akhkhara yata' akhkharu to be delayed, .r:

to fall behind ~

to be in harmony with ~

Imperfect Perfect

:.ffG1 8fG

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Jussive

<II"!.

r;W

r;t;

..-!

r;~

ttl'!

r;ti7

Perfect ACTIVE
: .. AJf'
lS- "t ~ • IJ ~ .... .u.;
.. .. u_;"lj
? ')f8
. ,. - ~, ;;I! '" ., 1.." tJ ~-
(J'l5
~ _;'l.i -;.. .. u_;"tj
;)il8
~ w·" ·t • I~ ...
$ ,. - .. ,
oJ.}-lj .. ? .. u}-U
~~
t-,;'t ttJI! .". rfI'!
r" iO .. .;, .......
~L1 _}-U-
:)f~
, .. t G .... l~ ~
• .. - 'G
iJ~ .. ..? .. - . ..
~? , -i .....

Verbal Noun ta' akhkhur "";'\.1

~ -1. ..... "

Participle muta' akhkhir .;> l:i..

33 VI

, .17'" ~ .17"'"

'-'" li, ....AJ lj ta' alafa yata' a lafu

-

:.ffGJ ~G ' , ·11~
l_.. ~ lJ
~8 ~G ' J. n ....
.. ..
- l.: i.l.i

-
, I).fG
:.ffG llfG
...
:.ff8 :)fG GiilG J ussive

Subjunctive ~lJ1
" ~8
~Gl
~Gj t)f8 WG] ~8
~G :)fG dfGJ ~G ~
~
~
!
t
... I
.. f'" '"
~~ t)f~ Uf~ ~G
.. M' ..
~GJ :)f~ l1fGJ ~G ~8
t)fG; llf8
::)JGi llf8
,)f~ Uf~
...
~;r~ UfG1
<
_" Verbal Noun ta'aluf Participle muta' alif Imperative ta'alaf
JL7 ~" , I)fG UfG ~\5
~l::.-.
fill' ~
;erG illG ~U
- ,. , .1i"" '" , ,

PASSIVEo Imperfect yutaalafu ~~ Perfect tu'filifa ~.Jj.1

Participle muta' alaf $G~

,.1.." .", "',,,

PASSIVEo Imperfect yuta'akhkbaru _;..~ Perfect tu'ukhkbira .,.,>jj

,;

., - ..

II _;. t to delay ..It, to suspend 0 28

.\'" ~ .1'.... '" ... f',

I ('-'II) .~ 4 ~, to be familiar with .It,. 27; II ~ to fonn

(committee etc.) ..,;., to compose .. 28; V ~G to consist of ~ 32

vm ~tl~ 1\~i&~' to be united/form a coalition with y 34, = VI ~G 33

.....-' ,,4 »>:

(f. I.S_? 1 )jt- J .[. .;.' other

-..; , '1. .....

· \J\ · tJ d I

..r?' .r- e ay

.... "" - ~

r " " "! t:

;.. 's [, _;. last .;>"

". '~ ,.

.r..> I last, most recent

~, ~

· r ~ ~;,

..d-- 'JI the latter . ..:J r..;> L:... arrears

".. ,;

......... $,.

I,..$_}- 1 i..,... once more

.,11 • _ ."

A.:uifl\~I';'1 the end of the month/year .

,,_ • , , 1-

~uJl\~1 ...,;.& t the last part of the month/year

-",

delayed, retarded ;.,;... rear (noun)

...,.

~ J recen tly, finall y

., "...

""";'1 u1! et cetera

" ,

..- ." .....

_}- t d! ~ -' ~ from time to time

J6 harmony ~'G:

...... " .....

jj)i farniliari ty '- ij'J' ( ~ 1

; ;

~r ~\~1J ~ ~'G (artistic) work ..AT";:'

-lY .. \:.. ..

: .. ijl; f0I111atio~ (committee etc.) J )t .

...

._j~'\J~1 coalition ~~;:.

i

f

)

harmonious

close companion

composer, au thor

familiar, custom composed of

1

coalition government

HAMZA TED - INITIAL

34 vm

, ,OJ"", ~ , , ., .".

.. ,- .. 1\ .. -r·' ali

JA-I ~ ...,.. t~ j' •• w 1 tamar tamara ya' tamiru

... to deliberate about ":-'" to conspire against '-'





Perfect ( .... ';~ t\ ... :.it throughout: )

ACTIVE

Imperfect

~

, .;.,. , . .". .....

,,;_, .J ..::-! '\~ ~ I

Jussive

Subjunctive

; .... '.,

~lj

l,~'l3

Verbal Noun i ' timar/itimar

Participle mu'tamir

~t\ ~I

J - J

PASSIVEO

, '" A ,

1m perf eet y u ' tamaru ...".; ....t!

.,. "'1 Perfect u ' tumira ;aJ j

, "'. "

Participle mu'tamar ~;...

I ( :"·1) ,~, .. _ .. :.. .... , ...

..r .r \J.r to order ~ '\y ,., 24; III :,:.' to consult 0 30

~ ~ ,.,,~

VI r\J to confer, to conspire against,).;:. 33

_) j: .. oJ .. ' ~'ounse 1: conspi;ac; "jj ~ c-onfe!en~~ ~ t . [. ;. i m~tter

~ ~ ~

~! .\ c-onun~nder -: r" t:_;" command (;.T~ counsel, conspiracy

,. ~, t::.~ I prince, emir .~(.t principality, emirate .":", authority

~ ... : -F- ,.

I ,,~ ~

'-?~ state (adjective) ~ l.. official (noun)

.; ~;J!

(.. • ~t f ", • 1. .;'

_.;A I or one reason or another ~ ..,..I~h""yat your command/service

~~1 ;. ~, which (fact), (relative referring to a whole clause)

,

! i t ~.

I ~"~~

. ",':

~ -i"t~~ .

Verbal Noun ittikh3dh Participle muttakhidh Imperative itta.khidh

35 VIII

ACTIVE

HAMZA TED - INITIAL

Imperfect

,

Jussive

itta,khadha yattakhidhu to take ..

». rl,

l· - .. ~ .......

Perfect
...... ~, } .... , 1
\j~ . ..
~;.,.u

e h ... ", ",
w'" " ........ , 1
- 1- ., ... 1- .. .. ~ ..
r' .---""'-' ...... ~ ~ . ....,
fII' ,.
, !-.~ !, l:.;·· .. " .... , 1
.. J.i,..j ... ..-
,jJ'-"'" ~J-.:.-~
ur __
, .; ,. _,.
, '.~ !, e; '1 ..... "
l· ... l~-
Jt....., w~"._,. _-----A-I
W.L-
...... 1', u .. · .. -, "
. .. .... "
. .. .. J.i,,; - 1.. - I
. \ .... ~ ... "'-'
&J .....
, ,. ,-
Subjunctive
". 1
. ..
)..,._......,
(1.;..5, e.. , l
i" ..
-_ .. '......,

.. e,;" "I ~ , t1" I'" I
(i.:.. -, . . I
. - ~J-wr.u I
.J l"U ......... AJ
.......
.. ,
.,. ~ " ., ,. ,
.... '1
Perfect uttukhidha 1. ...
........ ....,
,. PASS IVE Imperfect yuttakhadhu

."" .,

Participle rnuttakhadh J.._;'.:A

dT •

See 30

d

III

:I!I

I ~

i

j

Verbal Noun istinaf

.,... ..

Jl:!:,w .. 1

36 X

ACTIVE

HAMZArED -INITIAL

ista' nafa yasta' nifu to resume .It

Imperfect

Perfect

'" ',. "

• I-!_· 1 ..

U ULI __ f -waJ

;' ,

, , ..... ,.

• I~!· l ..

'-"\.1.1 .; ..... '

• ...,.'~o ~

.. ··~t

.... _. J -

z __

w'G:J wtu:.:1

Jussive

Subjuncti ve

."

, ' .... 0 ...

· .l.:....;;

i!J - ..

L • _;db

.,. '\...... ....

~l.:,_j

.. , "

.", ~ ..... ,;

••

'- &J ..

sa

of',

ll; G·u:'

..

U;l;~

-

~ ... , ..... '"

• • t ~_ -

l4J~

--

Participle

'-". , ... I ~ ..

,,'J ..... M.

".. ,

PASSIVE I ' .-;',"'. , " • J. J

. mperfect yusta' nafu -L JJ." P' t ,9.&,.. ... ,

.. JilL' 6f'! errec ustu nlla l __ 1J y+d

P tici I ' ·~L';· ,. ,

ar lCIP e musta naf .& c.i -zt 1 ...

(I.

to scorn ~t\~ 27

resumption, appeal (legal) preceding

~ .4

J _,.;' ~ .... 4;' nose

y.ul ~i;T aforementioned

,

" - ,..,

liil previously

..

f. l

t

;' . ,

",..

.. ,

&...AJ

>

t

!

;{

~.

_. ,.. I __,

ul;~tOttt rJJ to make an appeal (legal)

; fill'

.. ...

.. '

.. . .:\:

. .' :":.;

HAMZA TED - MIDDLE

JL

,\1.. , "'f',,;

u~ uLt sa'ala yas'alu to ask.A .0

(NB: This verb is anomalous in Form I: alternative jussive + imperative without middle radical. Other verbs of this pattern do not have this anomaly.)

ACTIVE Imperfect Perfect

37 I

,_ f, ~L,

~~ dt~ ~ J~

::J~t.w

:ft.M; JW

<I"'!

::)rW

J~

~

J~

~

JW

WW

.,

jtv:

..

Jussive

Subjunctive

J~i Jw ul~t:.S

.. ".

J~

tu tJU

.,I!

~w

'J~

;J!

)~

-

Verbal Noun su' alJrnas' ala Participle sa'il Imperative is' al/sal

~t.,:.\Jr;:, ~L., t,L\tJ~t ~\ ~L.,1 ~\t~,

~ \J~I ~ \ 'l~~1 ~ \J~I

-- , ... , .,;

PASSIVE Imperfect yus' alu J~

Perfect s u' ila ~

J ,. " J ..; Participle masul :.; .M~ \ _,;. ... oA

In l L.., to question ~ 4 r: V ~.:_, 7\Jt: .. 7 to beg 43199 VI 'l (.7 to ask each other, to wonder about ~ 44

~~ [;j-tL.:..o matter

;

$ J., I .I t '"

~ Y_w.4 \43 J;'~ responsibility

question responsible for

.,.

Jj W wondering

~ JtM~ ~ to be responsible for

,

II 1::..:.0 interrogation

Jjc:.. petitioner

~

J' _" ~ oJ#' ,

J 4"';'_" beggar v ., '0"/: beggary

.j

i



HAMZA TED ~ MIDDLE

J _.~; J",

u-w.Y.~ IJ""~ ba'usa yab'usu to be brave

38 I

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Jussive

, . , . ...,. . ..

~J-:-!

Perfect

Subjunctive

, . ., . ... ,. ..

~~

Participle not used Imperative

J '-'. -1 c.,':1

~~ 'J-t

c.,":1 'J-l

Verbal Noun ba's \"

~~

, ... ".. - ,.

'__". tty.

., . , "'" .. ~

...... af ... J-!

1 .....

ub'us

PASSIVE None

-'- .. l:.: ;"

I (~J.!) ~ •• ~ to be wretched 39

\ ......

f..YI ~ courage

I" " , , ,

• WI ~ [. .t.JM !~ \~4 wretched

,_ "- .... ",' .....

~ l,,)"I ~ U 1 what does it matter?

..

. ,

,. ..

'-"'" ..J-l nu sery

\,

L 'i never mind ~ .

1
~

t
i
I
~
.c
<
,
.~
~
~
..
i 39 I

ACTIVE

til'!

; , t~

. -

~ .

, l:;

IJM •

, -s..

I G ~ .

HAMZA TED - MIDDLE

, i..,. ~ ,.;

~ ~ ~ ba'isa yab' asu to be wretched

,..

Imperfect

.. 1:;

cr .

Jussive

, "'w V* •

-f..

W ~ .

-,.

, "c:: ~ ._

, t:;

~.

Participle bais

-G ~ .



Verbal Noun bus

. , ..

..,,-J-l

Perfect

...... ~

l~t.1



" . ,. .,

.. IlL

• • t 1'''' I

ts•

,

.}. .,

- ..

~

,

, ,

t.".....~

,

~. ~ ..

4Jttt-!

'"

'" ,. .,

l e if ~_,

• II"

." ,. ~

l- ,.

... + ." t.J



I



,. "" .. ..

'-t .... t· •

,1

, .,

, . " - -.

L ........

.AU



.,

i

F 1

t ,

.. ,. ....* .. * '



, ,.

., ".

~

, . ,. ""

... tL

.....tU+rJ



Subjunctive

., .

i I i

t

;

.

I t

I

1



ib'is

~I

<

I

~

PASSIVE None

See 38

& F

Imperative

, .

1.Y".t~1

~ " ~. .

I .... H~ I' '-' aa;

,. ,.

~I



.; III'

~I

• .,. ,.

lIP at

de

-

F

j

1

i

" u

40 n

;

,. ~ _., ..

. .. ..

'-'jrtdt 'J

,.

",. tfI._."

. .. ....

t.J-." '_;J

.".

, " ""., , . ..

IJJr*M 'J!.

"..

"... -,,,, ...



U·M 'J!

,

HAMZA TED - MIDDLE

HAMZA TED - MIDDLE

, ;"",. 4. '*'

~J!. LJ""1)ra' 'asa yura' 'isu to appoint as head b

.,

JL

41m

, ""t"'",

J;~ 1J,.l..-, sa' ala yusa'j lu to question b

Imperfect

J .,..,."

~J'

Perfect

.. 0 4. .... '- -__._ btl, , ~ .. ! .II

.-"'! '" .. ii(. .....

~'WH I.;

• 4,

'- ... , ~f' .. .<Ad > J

~",- 4;

V'" I.;

o , 1.."

~ •.. I.J

Active

J;l: .. ;

Imperfect

~

J.:L., I

".

&J~W J;W

Perfect
8~t:, ~:~
~:~ t:,;):~ ~: L.,
:;r c, L.,;)~L ~~ L.,
. ... -.
,
,. I
l.t~ \': ~ . J:c, ~
[
f
r
.
I
J:~ 8:~ :.:J: C
Subjuncti ve
J;c.J . ~
J.:LuI
, ""
tJ;W )\;W ' ,,.
j.;W
~ , ",
~W )ljt:..j .,. ,
c.PW
,. ., ... ,..,.
lt1;~ ~c...; J;~ ,
-
, , ,.
~~ ~W J;W ~
;
i

'*' fill ;' •
~
?
musa'j l Imperattve sail ."

~w

,

~w

,

~~

~~

".

,. ",

~w

- ,..,

J;Ltt~

Jussive

Subjunctive

,_

, ",~ ~

~)I

Jussive

,

~ f/I., J

l, .... '';

~

". -" .. -

Jj+Mau1.r

~

, " -" ~1ftj J"!

, ~. _., ,

..

v· •. & I~

L

-

,

J;w ~W ~W L,1S~

~~

~

tI" ,.

.. -

u.t;' l_f

... ;, ,.

~ *"", J ~

~J!.

""., ~ ,

~W

,

'iCw

,

)Uc...;

-

_,-

.",. ,

l ~l .. -

crt""

- ,~

J;~

"*

J;W

Verbal Noun tar'is

Participle mura' 'is

Imperative ra" is

. , .. ..

~J

Verbal Noun rnusa' ala Participle

il:~ J:~

, ,. til, ..

,;,'" 'J

..

III." & I d

n

PASSIVE Imperfect yura' 'asu ~1;. Perfect ru' "isa ~ .. ~

" , 4JII

Participle mura' as ~':'"

I (~: .. ~ \~:"UJ)~ t :,..;~ to head ~ 37 (but no alternative jussive/

~ ".. ' . .; (_.. ,

imperauve [unlike no. 3 7)); V f",)"I f..; to be appointed head! chairman 4 3

,

- _fir f1fdb

,

J

't-' '" ,.

PASSIVE Imperfect yusa' alu Y," ~ Perfect

Participle musa' al J ~

.,

. ,

"l~':'

sii'ita IJ"'.,,_ .

I

-, "

-r

See 37

r. Fl. * F

,." 1" h ., ... .J... = = •

f",)"IJ.J_) [ 4J* o_) ead " l:..,jJ 'c:, ~J chief, chairman, president

, ~

~.~J ~l:y~ \t.oI6UJ leadership, chainnanship, presidency

c.wfJ"'. .. J' ,

,directly C C \Jl.. cJ-M'~ capital (finance)

te 'j". ":-'~_ t ,~. "',,",

0,. V; capitalist ~ .... I\ .... "" J capitalism

LJM (,JI"bi: .. ~ birthplace ~ l,j}, ~ Prime Minister

;:- J, ... ,~ N ...... ' .

- '''4J* J ew Year ~ fJ ~ gladly, certainly

.. ,.

,

t

-

, .

I

J

f ,

, r

f

)

. ~ ...

'4!

~ :_..

i'i

...... {':



HAMZA TED - MIDDLE

, ~~': .1:,.. "',

~ - ~ 'ak'aba yuk'ibu to sadden 6

42 N



.. .

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect
'" -"l , .1:. 1-
GtS-f
,"_.,\!J
---
• •
• ,."'-. -J , -t ... .",. .-t ......
~lrJ ~LS"I 'z -:v lrJ
• •
_,a1..'" , ~ ~ ."'t. -"1
~B'" ~tS'1 ":'4J l!'
• •
f AlS'; '" 1- _, ." ~. ""
ClS"J 6...J lr'
'J-t • •
, .-£. "t. 1. -"i • fie ""
~lS"1 ~lS'1 ...::.v lSI
• •
Subjunctive •



f' £~! .~

'-'.



,

,.~'. " . ..

u.. ..

#'

.,._ .. ~!

~

...

~,

~

. ..

.,;

~



Jussive

• £~-!

~

A

. . ..

L • :5"1

--

~


,.
~ ~
-

ttl' ,.
~ ~
.. ..

• •
, '"
l,;~ ~
• ..
, .....
~ ~
,. ..
- •
., .". •







~

• ,.

~

• ,

C~

. ..

.".

, .. ~~ ~





"'"



Verbal Noun 'ik' ab u~,

Participle mukib Imperative

~ ~1 ~;

'ak' i b

. " ~



- & .... II' zr,

. , 1. , "". • ~

PASSIVE Imperfect yuk7abuy~ Perfect 'uk'iba ,;.:51

"'. J

Participle muk'ab u~



~m ~l;~f\(y1s-) ~~ ~~~ to be sad about ~ 39/45' " ,

. ,. \ ....

,-,l:.:3"J\ul! sorrow

• •

, JI'

~ \ I..ot!? sorrowful

• •

HAMZATED - MIDDLE

, "_" ~;" ~ (I"" .",. , ,

IjtM I?. 4.JM"; tara' 'asa yatara as~

to be appointed head, to take the chair

43v

ACTIVE Imperfect Perfect
" .. • 4., ""
II 1 .... ~ " "~i ~J) - J-
t..,.." " J

~? ~J' ~') ".,. (...,.~ ., .. 4..,.;
~"'i II 1"-:~
, II 1iN l. '; ot' f.,; .. ,-
':.s • .,' .;J
iJ ;a
~;a ~~ , ,. 4.,. ~ • 4 .... .,
,. "N ' c,1," , 1'N - "'1' ~
l. tAM I.,; - t ..
. .. .. . .... .. . - y \.. •• 0 J'
~? aJ ;iJ ~ _jiJ ~( " rI" "" 4,.. ,,;
.. II 1'" .. ~"N II' ,'-:' I;" J) ~,:; U""' t.;
~ .i4. 4J ?.'
~~ , . , .. :: u:,1) • JI' 4., ~
.. ,1'N ~,~
.. . , .. " .. , ..
• I .. - 4.J*Mr '_____ ... L1' ..r
~ ..i4. iJ'-" ~
, Subjunctive
Jussive
.. 1 .... ~ " ~
. , .... ~ • (" ..... 1 ~ ,'" :. t
~I_;I ~? \J"~
? .. "N .. ,.. ....
v-( (..,~ . , .. -::: "
t;" I~ L.,~ tJM_';;;
,;.. ,~
sr" _jiJ .. . , .. ;.- c,1~ 4..". .,; .,
, . , .. '~ t:..1~ 4.~ " til' J _-
v" t,.,:.i ~~ ~.;W
.? c,'~ - .. ' 1':'
~4 ~,? . ' 1 .. :' , II ,'-: ..
I " r-:" ~~
'J'*M ~
~ »« .. 1,- .. , 1' ....
'..J*II Ji-! , . 1, ....
C-,~ . 1'"
.. . , .. " c...,~ ~_;:;
~_Y; ~?
~?
Participle ' , .. Imperative tara' 'as
Verbal Noun tara' 'us mutara 18
:Ii ." 4., ~ . ".". ".
,,,.,. .,""'., , , " r~ l....,t.; V*t.;
.. -
.. .. ~.rA ~.r
4J'IJr ,; (,,, iII. ........
, . , .. ::
,
~'_; ~J_;
~J
- ,. " ", .. :"

PASSIVEo Imperfect yutara asu tJI'../"""J.

, -"

, ,. II- ..

Perfect tUTU isa ~ J

See 40

,.

~~.,.

f I

~

t

1

I ,

t

I

I

:~

~

I

~

f

j

t ~

I

, ,

,

~

!

HAMZA TED - MIDDLE

HAMZA TED - MIDDLE

~" ,.1"'1 .. bl ·

~.. \.:J ilta' ama yaltaimu to assem e mtr.;

- i

~ , to be mended

Jli

l u.;.~ J; ill tafa'ala yatafa'alu to be optimistic

44 VI

45 VIII

~ '.

j

~ ~

!



i

,

, .

,

~

ACTIVE

l18 "" ~ ~.-;. ..... ;-

. ...-

u "

Imperfect

l ilil

Perfect

Perfect

Imperfect

ACTIVE " ~~1~

r

,

"~~"'"

. ,. ... .-

u

~

, . ~"

6.. .. \..:.J'

~:ili ~ili ~:ili

l l

J

f f

\ i

,

ttl!. ,.

(.~:. tJl

(.~81

G:81

J;~ ~~ ~; ((7~

,

~_, _,.

....... •

"'. ._~~' ~ ~

..

'~"" '"

....

...

"

, ,.:l;

r

~

I): ili \t; ill ::):UJ GJ;ili

....

Jussive

Subjunctive

xlii \t~lE l~ '1: U~ d: li;;

... ,.

y; u.-;; It ~ ;:,

Subjunctive

Jussive

•• ~\!

r

~

t~ '&:'-:

~

1);(8 J~ u.a ,):~

, ,.:,~

r

~

~

,. .,

~

;

~

~

'1: G:; "": ti;j

-~

, ,

~#

,,-

... ,

.. :\~

r

,

... -

,

i

l

I

• ,

,

-

.... -

Verbal Noun tafa' ul Participle mutafail Imperative tafa' a]

Imperative iltairn

Participle multaim

~

"'"

Verbal Noun ilti' am

t,tili ::,l:ili

lill u-';U;

... ,

I

t

~

)

!

, ,

, ,

PASSIVEO Imperfect yutafa' alu l (r~

., ,.,

Perfect tufu' ila J.i._,..i1

"lJ~

PASSIVEo Imperfect yulta' amu r .. -

Perfect ultu'ima

~ ..... J " J~""

u _;j J \ ~jJ [.. u good omen

J.iL(~ optimist(ic)

I .(;~) ?~~ ·r~ to mend ..It, to bandage .. 37 (but no alternative jussive/imperative [unlike no. 3 7]); III r ~ to suit .. ,. 41

Jj ili optimism

~ ~

JWJ f) to tell fortunes

,

i

j

t i

I t

1

f

1

l

i

o

i ~ repair, bandaging

J ~~ suitable for

,

46 x

ACTIVE

VerbaJ Noun

HAMZA TED - MIDDLE

, . .,. "" ~ ~ .......

'-.&:.1'4 Ut! '-'1";::041181 istar'afa yastar'ifu

.,;

.".

to beg mercy of VA

Imperfect

.; . .;. ". • J -!,... ...

tJ \.LIJ · 1 ct.·

". .".

"". . ,.,.. .,.

• f -!_.. _

&JUIJ..,. ......

~ ,

W., _. "'. ., . ...

'-' 'J t t"~

, ,.

.; ..... oJ

• ,-!.. - - cJ \AJ ..1*' ¢ ,.)

Jussive

,

,; . ...". ."

W

.. .

:/'" At .. t b

Perfect
....... ~ ",. ~ • '1. ......
WI.;3u'
~ '..,;",,'

.... ~ ..... '
,:~t:· , .~,j'
,..=a ';1 H"
.1"',1.,1 ~ '.rt •• 1
- ,.~ " . .",. l:~t:· .. • '1. ...... "'"
&ti I J'';''''''
J"" · .. 1 .:;"; , J'; · N f
I .. ~ ... '" ""'~ i' • .,. ." .. t .. · ..
~ '.fu., Ufj1YJI
J .;;, .. 1



... ··t .. · .. ., .", 1. ". ,. . ~~ ""'. ~
V' ..1'1''''' lti'J, ... I ~I.".._f
".
,
,.
Subjunctive JI • .;. ""

t-__;:~ "'" ,

"

, ...... "'"

...

. ... ...

4 __ r_'fJ*1 t tt..

,

, ...... .",. . .,.-

.. -

';1 gf". I

i .. G,

..

,."

, . "'. ... . __

" "'..y t ,"-!

,

, ., . ." ...

L - ... '-- '_J1 tt'J

ttl'

" .. """'. .-; • •

L I.J JA t t· ,

b

,

, ~....... "

.. - -

~..r" *,. I

,

"' .. ~. , ••

4JAlJA ftc;

~

, ~ ...... .,

.. ..

'JA-I J* t c taL

"

;II' • • """. ,

._

...,-"1,,1



-

~

istir' at Participle

1117 n

• &I

mustar'if

Imperative

.,. , . .,.

'- .. ~. ttt.

~

, , .......

f.Lt,i ",f

:..r-: LU

, ,. ., .. ,..

... ,

4,;AJ~tt/

PASSIVEO Imperfect yustar'afu ' .1., ~. 6

&..oJ J" 1 .. ~ Perfect usturifa

Participle rn tar'af .~,,.. ~

" '" u~ . u J* '., •

to show mercy to u 38



ACTIVE Imperfect Perfect
A., • '" "", .... a,. , 0.., '"
J~ I __,i I UIJ ~'_)
, J .... ,,\ .. 1 ....... ,.." . " A. ..... " -1'" w1) ., a.. ..... ."
.. -.. " .. ~1..,.i3 'P f__,i uJ.)
4.JJJ.;'J iJJ _,AJ
"1"~" , 11 .... w1) ' .... '"
"ttl'. ", '" ,."'"
iJl;i3 . .. .... ._;__,i ul;i
4.J~ Lf:J.;AJ
"" J ... ""," ;, ... , .4:' ...... " 4 , ......... .;
.. ,. , fJJ)\IJ J) T) J.)
j. .. .. . ,~ J ..
~_,_,J'-! "'.1 JA.!.
U - J'-!
, ;""~ ... ~ 4" ...... " '...,., 1- • ""l"",..,..
,..." . , 01)
iJ f.,.i1 1.)3 ~J.) ~,.) I
4JJ'-! I
t
"
Jussive Subjunctive HAMZA TED - FINAL

'.

J

~.,., 1. ...... ." J

'.;i.!f.) qara'u yaqra'u to read ... ,~\

47 I

..... ...,... ~

, ..

~

J

qari' Imperative

.4-

JJj) I, tJ t) 1

'.,..

~I)I

9 ~

lqra

Verbal Noun qira' a

'9

istar'if

Participle ~Jli

;)f

,

;)1

I

4 .... ~

, , ..

PASSIVE Imperfect yuqra u .;A-!

Participle maqni'

,. ~

Perfect quri' a ~.,;

• II' •

., .r> AI

.. 4.J";: .. d

,

,.,

1. .".

X '.;.;",.~t to investigate .It 5 7

mercy, kindness

mercifuJ, kindly

Jut:) The Koran/Qur~an

" Gi ~~.Jli reader, Koranic reciter

,,.",

"-J,).. read, legible

reading Koranic

I

I

i

investigation

I

HAMZA TED - FINAL

49 I

HAMZA TED - FINAL

j1t:~ jl,~ batu' a yabtu' u to be slow

1~ f>; bari' a yabra' u to be( come) free from ~

48 I



,

ACTIVE Imperfect Perfect ACTIVE Imperfect
~ ~1 ~~ '~ ~ ..... a'-'
, - ,. -' ...... ,
• '--' '_r.'
I ·

• •
_r.J
~ .~ W~ ~~ -'-,,0;
~~ ·rw ' ...... ... -'...... ,,, ...
. '" - .. ... u- I ..
IJ,J • r-' ·
u . • t ~Jj~\~)J t_r? 4J .r.1 ..r.-'
, '~ W~ ~
~ ·rw ~ ;' ..........
... ,. ... , ...... · T'.~ ,.
.". .. ... .. JjJ • . .. -
t.:J tJ~ ~._.r.J
u . - . ..
• uft
,.
" ,. ~ ~
;~ .~ ~ J~ ... ,...... .. -' ......... 1 .. · .. ..I ...........
. -. I
U.J ._ '-' .. - ~JJr.! \~J 1ft 4J ..r.!. r.!
." Gjiz; .~ 4...,.."
~~ ·rw ~ ... ~ ;
. ., . - u" -: i .. · ... ,...."., , ..
lJ • . I -
u ._ ..
'-' . •
• uft ~
., ~ft!
",
Jussive Subjuncti ve Jussive
-1.
~ ~~ ~ ~l ' ...... 1-
I a,.~ ...... 1..r.1
• I ·
..
.. • •
_r.J
, ~t:.3 rw ~ , ~l:~ rw ~ ".'" ......... _, ~" . ., .. ..". ...
1 -
- t -
- ~ . • J..,J_d\ tJ 1.r.J
~ . • ft" ~
~ ~ ~ ~
~ ~ .... - -: l·· .. r·:: ..... ,
- • ...
- .. "'~
.. •

• - " vft! J":J
-,
I~ ~ ~ 1~ ~ ~ ... ;' ..........
,_., ." ,
~ ... ,...... t I .. • .. ,
~ ._ .... r.!
.. IJJ.r.! \ 'J ft. r.!
~ ~
~ ~ ~ ~ ........ fIII'
. .. ... • • -: j ..... ~~ ., 1 ..
- I ..

.- • ._ _r.J .ft.l
Ur.!
but' Participle bati' Imperative ubtu ,
Verbal Noun Verbal Noun baraa Participle
• •
~~ ~~ t~1 ~1 ~1 'G. ~C
~ .
• J .
~ ~1 fi,1
~lz~1 ,
... , PASSIVE none

PASSIVEO Imperfect yubara'u

II ~llz; to retard y ., ~ 50; IV "'~i to retard a 52

L ~ ~

-i1 ~~ ~4"~ ;.1 .; ~1...~. ,

VM y,Q\ ~ 53/54 = I P. 48; X \ z'H. to find slow .A ,b 57

Perfect
.... 0 ,
L:;
f.
." .". ,. ""
• J. ~
.. L..:;J"!
t=-'J!
"
., ,., . .,.,
, ... "
.. l.,:;_r.
~Jl
" ;
1 ! .. U ~
~.r. ...r.
, ~
", 0 .... 8;'
..
,JJJl
, ,
Subjunctive 1

~

,

j

i ,

l ~ ~

(

,

,

.

~ 1. ..... 1-
".; . ~ I..r.l
I ·
~
-' A
- .... 0,. ,. .........
I;;~\'_jl~ I .. t -
_r.J _r.J
-: , ..... f·:: ..........
,. ..
,J.r.J
Ur.! .r:J
.. ~
A. ~; 0" "1. ...... .,
,...... 1 1'." 1 ,
I Jj.,r.-! \ '.J ..It! ft! r.!
~
-: i .. · .. 1" .:: f., .,.
I -
uJ':'! ft.l ~
Imperauve ibra ,
bari'
, ". 4,. G,-
y., ,..., ~
1.,.;.,. t\ '.J 1.".1
J. J. 1
, I
'-a,. " ,
-: r·, y., i' .,
'[
tJJ! !
uJ'l fl f
J
,. - ,. ., ~
,; I
I
.4.., _" _,; , i
I Perfect buri'a ~..r.
r.! ,
,. f Participle mabru' ~.J~

,

"' ... '" ~ '" 50/52

IIIIV '...x 1\ '..r. to absolve from ~ b

V "t;.; to clear oneself of 4,)-6' 53

-;j ~ discharge, exemption

~

i: ~ being free, innocence, diploma. patent

,. i -I~~.~ &\; .t;.,

jl:'..., ~ slowness

11 • t

~ \l:IJ, retardation·

e_

,

~ .1. ,

~ ~ L...;! t [. UJJ. free of

",. iI"

,[;. ~ innocent

/b

•• ,

~~! ~J~

.;

r : t, .. t G \.oJJ •• I ~ _j» •• ~~

."..

slowly

without delay go-slow (strike)

slow

low-frequency, LF

VA ~ t;. free from. exempt from ~ r·, acquittal

J-l,.

I

HAMZA TED - FINAL

51 m

, ", 1.~ .;

uS ~ u lS" kafa t a yukafi' u to reward -It ,b

i

i

i

I

,

j

1 ,

t

,

I

HAMZA TED - FINAL

50 IT

., ~;,. .~.,;

Us·! .! l::.A hanna' a yuhanni' u

... to congratulate on ._)&. \y ,.

Imperfect

, ~" ....

~,

ACTIVE

, "", ... . .

U t~j

".

.., # -; ,

~

'"

., • f#" ,

,. . "'- ..

~ ••• J

~

.; ~ II, ,

~

".,

." • -" J ,. .

~·J4!

,

,

, ;.t"

.. . ,-

f _J

(J

11"

, fIl, ,

~

"

J tI,'

.. ·4

t _ •

u ·

,

, tI,,' ,. . .,*_1

U

,

Perfect ACTIVE
, '", .... '~
ula
~.
W'~ ,. " ....
,..
ul:A ~ ,.~
~~ -
W'ta 'If ..... "
..::..l:A ; • 'lS::5
~-
.,
-cr. It, ,.
~ '.~
~ -
lila • 1.,,~ ~
~~
-~
\.J
..... Imperfect

4

£,il5'J

,.

, 1~~

uJw

, "I~! L,f\!.i~

Perfect
G'G~ ~CljlS'
• ~GlS" ;~U~ ~Ct~l?

~
W'GL? ,~ l?
~GlS'
uU
'__,JllS"\ J_J -1GB" '" lil?
U~
~ll~ 0ll\S' ~
~U~ ,

, ~J

~-

Jussive

,

. .,., ~

,. .,-

, _ &

U

;I'"

fI,. ,

".,. .... _ .

~

• II~' ~ : Id U .-

,

• #If//"

,. • A-

U'r'

,

~ -'; $ & • •

, , i

(J

,

, "., ~

t,.:.:, ;

,

., . _'., , ,.. ..

\J-tma' 'J

,

,." "

~:4!

;II

" . -" , .. .

u'Jlt

",

Subjunctive

." II.,. 4

u-al

• til ~ ,



~ ·A

U ow'

,

, III,. "

L,.t; 4"

,.

,.; • r/I; , ... ..

\J-kec, •

'"

, II"", "

IJ! :4t

".

~ . -" ~

• .... ,l

V'JJUt it

~

Jussive

Subjunctive

~

~151

,

~~

,

, ,

c?~

~~

,.

~~

,

~ • .,'t"

~~

~ ~lS"J
~~I • •
'-.r
,
,. '~
~~ .~ J,,_ti ..
w- u-i"
,
". ~ ~. ~
~~ ~ ~ ..
w- ~ ..
.. ,,,. ",.
~ '~
~~ ~~ Iy.i ..
W
-
,
, ,. ~ .. ~
~~ .~
W .. ~ .. ~-
_..
,.. ,; ,

~ iI~'

.. · ,-

t _ 1

U

• lS7J'

• •

Cs'

~

, I~~

l_,ti~

Verbal Noun tahni'a

Participle muhanni'

Imperative hanni'





"

• IE

Verbal Noun mukafa' a Participle mukafi'

~ II! u-'.~'

"II'" I~'

iu~

Imperative kafi'

~lS' LtilS'
., "
J.i~ 8lS'
II' , ,. :1. U ..

,

,..

., . "" . ,. . ~

&.J-* '--

,.

t.,,.., J

PASSIVE Imperfect yuhanna'u ~

'" ",

Perfect hunni' a u-:.

I (ta) t't i_;. do good to;f~r J,. 49

""'~ ; ,

V 4" to enjoy y 53

~.d' L

PASSIVE Imperfect yukafau "G~ Perfect kiifi'a ~_) Participle mukafa' U~

Ll ....



Id

"._~ J

Participle muhanna' lif:.

I ( .. ~) t~ ~l1S" to invert ... , to turn away from ~ 47

,;II!

N 1.lll"'1 to invert .Ii 52; VI ULS:J to be equal to each other 54

~

VII Us:; I to be repelled 5 5

,." ~.",

Uoi If.7 ~ A ~ • i congratulation

, ,.

,_ La well-being

_,.

c.;~ happy

reward

,. u.s-\u-i~ equi valent

wellwisher

servant-girl

good health! bon appetit!

,..

I- ~ wholesome

- ,

.., ,

equal to, suitable for i: liS' equality

,

,~~, f. tI '"

!c1~,; .! ~, same to you! (reply to l: !_.a)

equivalence

".

~~ corresponding

HAMZA TED - FINAL

to create, to construct JA

52 N

, ansha' a yunshi ' u

ACTIVE

Imperfect

, .4

~,

,." • .l-

• t .. A .u- ... ,. 'te'

,.; "

". . ,

• l5 &. ... c.J_1•4 ..... •

,. ".

..- • .I

• l& ~ ...

r ""-""-"- t ' -=3 _e

-

; ,

" .. ~ . l. A .'-"_.tdtW

,.

". ., · ....... -

'-"'at t t ..,

~

"'" , .,

. ... ....

u~ .• ' ~ ,

- ..

"

,

",. ."

• " A •

• Ote,1

- ...

Jussive

. .,

.. ~ ..

•• ,. ,J

U

"

- , ."

J .. A ...

'Y tuN t.J

,;

,,;. .,

• .. A ., _ .. ",-_.ow I

'-' wv_

. .~

~I

~ .J

.. a ...

_t . .,)

US

,-

, • l-

I c- &. .'j_tz_1/JaW

,. ,. .,

• -.. A .i ... OUt t '-' .

~

, ."

I .. A • ~t .,, ta!

,;

". ., . ,. ...

u-W'4f,,!

· ., ,. ... -

U"-W

"

.,

II. ... - ......... ,

v:

· .,

~ &..

u'ttt!

~

· ., ~ .\ ....

U ......

,

_, .,

l" ,. .-

.o.e"_"_& ~ va:

,

, .,

, ,. A •

~ $" *!

,

-- . ~ l .. A • J"~""

-

,

". .,.

. -. .

u-' t~

,

.; ....

l: & .-

... " '"" I

-

Verbal Noun

~ l::JJ

tl

"

'in.sha'

Participle munjhi'

Imperative

, anshr

,. .1-

r..,:. .!+j I

,.

.,. . .....

... A.' V".M j

~

PASSIVE Imperfect

Perfect

Participle munsha'

.........

l A •

a to.twA

Perfect

" A...,. .1.

W L:.;'

G5t:.;1

Subjunctive

".

~ ."

l: A •

.¢tt.'

-

-

,.

, .,

l .. &. ... ,t • "' ....

I

-1,.-. ...... 1" ~ 1._

~ L!J to arise 47; II L!,; to bring up (a child) t 50

I

.". ... ~ A.lid' taJ

u-

t. (~t;1

.. ,

., .

~L!Jt creative, editorial

..... ,.

, ,

~. ~;

"l.!J' ,i.)~' re-creation

-. . , ~ ,

ilo..... _,

-l A

.0 ... :...

creation, construction, composition

.,

,. A.

l.SftA' +A

,

... .;1' .....

l At ..

....... A

aa.

creation, production

younger generation

~

&&- .~ li arising from

_..... .,. . .,,~. ~

.J" &. .-\ A _-\"1· &, -.

~ .. ta. " ~+ ej _b '--'-'

, - .,

evolution

creator, author

place of origin

upbringing

HAMZA TED - FINAL

!

I

I

,

..

.a,.~~", 1.""

L!.~! 4:.1 tanabba' a yatanabba' u to forecast y

53 V

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect







" ."'~ '" . ,. ... -

~

.(t:.~

...

. ..



Subjunctive

Jussive

1.$ ~

l ..

t ..,t J LiZ =





$.,,,-, ,. . _-

..... 4 ... J

o+:

.... ~

L:~

+_

. -

"" ., ,. ......

.......... _. t

~= •• --

.....

l:::~

.....

. ...

1'"'' ..

. ....

t • '11)

,



*"" ,

-- ....

t to.



"

Imperative

I J -,,~ \ I tL.:_j4"".."

.. ... .-

~y.~' IJ.,

tanabba'

Verbal Noun ranabbu' Participle mutanabbi'

, 'l.:~

. .-

u .

P ASSIVEo Imperfect

.4 ... """ , " ttJ "

yutanabba'u Ly.;! Perfect tunubbi'a ~

".

\

L~"-_'

a t -.A

- •

Participle

mutanabba'

.

I

~

II

~, ~~.~

Q toinform ~\y ,0 50~ IV QI

to inform '--' ,. 52



x

'i.."."".

lr;;, .. d 1 to inquire after jJ 57

,,..,,.

-..... f t

.Y:* t orec as

~ C1 notification

. ,.

". ,.. .

~ 4;;;.'d 1 inquiry

news

prophecy

weather forecast

., ,

HAMZA TED - FINAL

~1 ,-,.-' 11 ~~

y,L:~ U:::t~ tabataa yatabata'u to be slow

54 VI

Perfect

lbG



'"

GU,W



Jussive

Subjunctive

55 Vll



ACTIVE

~

,. .

,

,~, . .",. . .".

• It ...

&.J

,

~. ,;" .....

,. . . ..

-



.~."

• •

.. .

,

II !!~~~

~

.,.. "

'. ~:~~~

~

,

~.rtI"."'"

. .. .

-



HAMZA TED - FINAL

, ~ • .of ~~~~

· · ~I inkafa'.a yankafi'u to be repelled

-

Imperfect

~1

Perfect

"".

: :~~~ ~

". .,..

' ... !"~::

~

-

Jllssive

Subjuncti ve

~Q~l

~.~

.. . ,. .

,

11 ~ :~~~ ~

"". ,.

~., .....

.. .. . .. •

.,..

~D'

. - .. .

Verbal Noun inkifa'

~ u.s:;r

mutabati' Imperative tabella'

f .... t.G\ J 1hG u,G 'u,G

'J'. ~. . ·

-: 'u,G u,G ~t.Jw.~

"'. · t.r

,

Verbal Noun tabatu'

;bO

Participle

~~

PASSIVE none

PASSIVE none

See 48

See 51

Q L

&

HAMZA TED - FINAL

HAM2A TED - FINAL

, • __,o .., .-t.",. 0 ".

~ l" :; ":" ot,' , PoY·' is taqra' a yastaqri' u

\..7J"'* -

56 VIII

57

to investigate .16

x

i btada 'a y abtadi "u to begin '---'





Perfect

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

Imperfect

, a..,,, .... J u ..l.:.t



~ i:G.:~1



a,. ....

,~ .".0 I ._:., ..1..:.J



,. ""

.......... _.1 0

t..1..:.JJ

~ '" .-1

~J_7~1

ACTIVE

, .......... ~ .

v~

",.

~ , .........

• "1-"

uy~-:-_j

,

.;. .... .....

.. 1M ...

~ .. -w+~

,

, , .... II ...

• .. 1

\.Jy~_7JO~

.. ~ ..... o.;o

u 1.).;+&1

~ , .... 0 .... ., ~

~.:.tI _;i-;:. .. J

, ........ 0 "..

~.:.dPAMI

, ........", ,. .. .

'It! _4~ttt' ...,.r-*

~

... ' 0 ~

. -

J'a"J a tU'

'-'-.TJ~



a.. ,..

L:.j,J.;1

• "'"

1~1



,;

.,- . ....... .,.

... - -

4.;JJ ~ .6AJ

.".

~ ,....... .;

. ,. .. -

'-'y~t .Mr!

",

~ ........ ,. ~ ..

,y;f;''''!

,

, ,

, ..... ,.,

:, U..l_::...,

'-' .-

""" '

'" ......

1.);_1

o ""'.............

u l..ti-;ttll



1. ""

G t:G::,

, .......... ,. l-·

t.5~'

",.

;~ ......... 0

~ I .).;:'101 I

, ...... .". .. - ...

• ~ • ~ _6f • '-"'J --~





Subjuncti ve

.....: , .... 0,.

~J..:.tl

Jussive

I_" .... ... .

\.S~

Subjunctive

Jussive

, . ...... ,. ~ .. .

4$/" 1aA' j

f""

, ...... _,

I"'; ."i;" + .. ;

,

.." . ....... .... ,,- ...

0J_r;.Mt

.,

, . .".. .....

I"'; _}:v;,!

,.

, ~."

I~~

,

.".. .... .....

,.";1- -

....,-- ~~taL:sJ

"'"

, ........

1 ~ Jz71L-+x'

~ .-

. ..........

" .1- .~



, .........

1'''1- .. \..J .r_.,-eJ

• ~

... ~o,

I -" i" .. u.,_.w

• II"

., ..........

I -,._ i ~ ~ I

\.1 .. _

...

"' ..........

UJ.;~

• ,

.", ..........

liJ.47zutJ

• ,.

" """' ......

liJ...:.w

....

,;

""'" .,. ......

1-" 1- .. \J __" __ 1J



.; ....... ~

.. - ..

I..) r----; • ... J

".

~. .....~ It l _ ..

,y~ __ _t

,

,. ..........

, ~J.:..w

..;- .".

". ,..,. ......



• 1- wrst-JrJ

. ..

· . ..... " .. .. ..

,.,s.;4 -: 0" t

,., .~. ;'

U.):;".i

~

...... """' . .;

1-" • -! • H -; \J J--U ...

~

..... ,. ~

l:_;';~!

.,

..... ..;. ,.

I ~- .. -:- $ tt .. U.ro

,-

~

., .. .,... .;

.... .. ~ • ...J '-: • .,t cr.r:

.,

, . ..,.... .;

I_,;pou!

,

.- . ....... .,; It ..

•• ..,,; 4 i ..... , v- J.J$L -

~

• II" 0 ~ ..... ..

...r _r.; $41 •

- ''''''

,; . ...... ."..

II-- ..

\.S~,ttt!

. ...... ....

-- - ....

j "" ,,:: _L H J 'ft7' _.., ...._..

." ....

· ......., ,. ...

J'-~'

-.r~

...

,

· . ...... ." " ... ..

,_s _;I-=t • .w j

~

."

" ....

t - ...

\.J.;'j tt.!

",

..,. .........

I -,. i - .. \J IIF ..u/IJ-_z_J •

,

,.. "'" . ."

. )..:-

• wv+ t _j

--....

,.

..... 0 ~. II" ~ ..

• AI"

J'" ... "J

z

-

.... II ..... "

,. - -

I..)~wt" l

Participle mubtadi' Imperative ibtadi'

I ~ "., ~~

Verbal Noun ibtida'

. .. ..

istaqri

" r~1

• ,. ,;

. ,

mustaqn

Imperative

. .. - ,

isnqra

Participle

Verbal Noun

, .,.

I_,; _),; u' ,

" ".

.; .,;.

U_); ·.,1

., ,

. .

~_;'; I

-

,.~ II"

"' ..... .,.,

Imperfect yubtada'u . 'J..~-.t

Participle mubtada'

PASSIVEO

Perfect u bt u di ' a

4,. """'. ,

I.) ... ft ,

---

-

........ ~.,

IJ41 ••



Perfect ustuqri' a

yustaqra'u

PASSIVE Imperfect

....... • ...... J.

Participle mustaqra' J_);; o'wI'

..,. 4 ..... '" -1. .... ; ~ ""'"

I (,,.It) 1~ '~to begin a\)\y\ .... 47; II IJot to give priority over ...

~50

See 47

: ......... , _ .... (" \ • ., t' ••

JJ.,;{.4 \At t~ \" ~ \" f~ t beginning (noun)

~ ,; , ,

~., ~ . ~

~J.: ~ .. \~.)~ beginning (adjective) ..J 111 ~,)~

beginner

the first-mentioned

i

,.

..,.

fundamental, original

principle, origin

in principle, originally

~u.:;1

.. ,., ""'-

~~I&A

initial, primary from the beginning primary school

,j-A: r~ I with effect from

, ,;

"r~"i,\~ri;J'~ at the beginning

....

".

"rJ.i,1 ~. ~ elementary education

t..r .' ..

....... _, - ,

i

. ,

, ,.

,.

DOUBLED VERBS

Doubled verbs have identical middle and final radicals, These identical radicals are sound (i.e. not ~ ,irS or. ). The initial radical is almost always

..

sound; one doubled verb has initial-radical J and is listed here, as the .J is

mostly stable (i.e. has consonantal form, w). A few doubled verbs have initial-radical ,., but they commonly occur only in Forms II or V and conjugate like hamzated verbs, among which they are listed in this book. Conjugation. The standard conjugation patterns shown in paras. 23,25 and 29 to 33 of the introductory chapter (tenses, imperative, participles and verbal noun) apply to doubled verbs, with the following provisions:

• The identical radicals remain as two identical but separate letters:

• whenever the personal ending begins with a consonant

....... ~

('consonantal ending', e.g. uJ/, 'I passed',

- whenever the measure requires a long vowel between the

r· ·

radicals, e.g. J ~ ... wf 'continuity',

,. ,

.. whenever there is no personal ending, i.e. the verb form ends with

. .,."

... , e.g. the rarer jussive fonn.J~ 'you pass' (see below).

• The identical radicals fall together as a doubled letter, which can be

til

pointed with ... , whenever the personal ending begins with a vowel

I",.

('vocalic ending'), e.g. tJ.r 'they passed'.

• In all forms except II, III, V and VI there are two jussives: a commoner ('contracted') form identical to the subjunctive, and a rarer ('uncontracted') form in which the identical radicals separate



when there is no personal ending, i.e. the verb ends in .... In the

tables the commoner jussive is marked (i) and the rarer one (ii), Similarly, there are two imperatives, one derived from each jussive.

• The contracted and uncontracted pairs (see above) are found all over Porms III and VI of the doubled verbs. The alternatives are shown; the contracted form is the connnoner of the two, though none of the verbs concerned is very common.

The perfect and imperfect stems are derived as for sound verbs, but allowing for the separation or running together of the identical radicals. The participles and verbal nouns are formed as for sound verbs, except that the ... vowel which in sound active participles follows the middle

.."

radical, in doubled active participles follows the initial radical in FOI'IIlS

IV and X, and is dropped in Porms I, vn and VITI. Verb no. 64 (Form IV), shown here has, exceptionally, an irregular verbal noun .

- 99-

!

,

!

!

I I

I !

.

f

;

I

DOUBLED

DOUBLED

.

to continue a

58 I

59 I

't'k~"tt.. f r

~ ~ zalla yazallu to become I. to remain 1

,~., s ;

..r!. yA marra yamurru to pass ~ \ y,

to contin ue a

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

Imperfect

ACTIVE

Jh; '~

. . ..

u

~

...



~A ~

w:,; W~;' ,~

0:;0

Jussive (it)

Subjunctive and Jussive (i)

Jussive

o ... 0 ...



(;J I~ j -' ~

J-!.

(;J

..

J..}"tJ

~ ~ ~

-

~

,., 0..10" . ..

LJJ~

1 ,-' ... 'Jr-t.

JI'.'.~ . -

4JJ_rJ

1 ,-' ... ~~

........

_J,

. , .....

Verbal Noun munir

Imperative murra/umrur

b'; s; ~;1\~

"

Participle marr

~(.

Verbal Noun zall

..

JJ;A

Perfect

,.

~

.;

~

~jl;

::Jl;

,.

t:.;tll;

Subjunctive and

Jussive (i)

, t h -1.

~I

IQt1!.~

~

~

"' ,.

~

$,h.~

~

Participle zall

Imperative zalla/izlal

1)1; ;)1l;1

'<II" ,

P ASSIVEo Imperfect yumarru..r!.

II' Perfect murra J"

PASSIVE none

,.

... d

aH; I L

I 2I11III... R

- 1. .... , f 1._ I , 1!_ -:.

IIIIV J1;' \~ to overshadow ... ,a 62/64; V ~ to be overshadowed

-Ih.:· .

by Y 65; X ~I to seek the protection of y 70

" . ."

Participle mamrur J.J_"'"

_,1. ~#; _~".

IIIIV r 1\.;..,.. to let pass _. d, 62/64; X /' : ..... 1 to continue a.\u-i\~ 70

,. ...

-

:b W'P

continuous

shade, shadow, patronage

~ shaded

sunshade, parachute ~ paratrooper

-,. ."".

J.!; .~~,.,; \J.!;.~ under the patronage of

..

ttl ,.

_) l.o passing, passer-by

,

tTl .... • ,

insertion

..... .

_;'.r, • ....,f continuity

,. ,

",$ " ~" .",

~)I J.Jr r:- with the passing of time .)J)I i~l..!,! traffic light/signal

- J tI', (l-IJ..,.. D~$~ r'- r

oJ.> .s &..,-0 \0.,.,.., once ~;O twice u ~ iJ..c \~;" often

4' ~ ~

• I _,,, - -"~,, ".#1.... ~IJ';

I..S? i.r\~lJ ir\i~~ ir again ~i;' rs how often?

i~ fi\~ ~ for the first/last time .)-,)1 o{..Jjj laissez-passer

." .,. ~ ".

~ ~~ :;0 1 to glance at

continually

direct current, IX

to maintain the opinion that

He continued studying engineering.

/JCJUBLED

DOUBLED

60 I

~ ", ~

~ ~ tamma yatimmu to end intr .

.",.

61 I

"

.)J'! ')J wadda yawaddu to like, to love ~I\.JI ,~

ACTIVE , .;



~

~ ,,,.. ~

.. _-

V.J-6 t.J

Imperfect

Perfect

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

~ ..... .,.,

. - ..

~ .. *J

..". ~, .". . ...

~J'_*~

- '"

~L..:J

.,; ~

- ...-

~L..:.7

, . .;

.. ...

l_ r' ....

WE

.. -

~ ....

., , . ." .".

";,.~,,

l.. ..

.......

~ ...... .-

• "0 , ;

.; ,. ~ ,

l - ..

.. ... '

, 0 ~ ,

... ..

l_ .,,~

..,

.#'. . .....

...

t'

f~~_J

.,.

,}. ....

';';~~J I., IJ.)_J

-

~4t

. -

u· ... t--!

Jussive (ii)

o 0-1.

.. J

~

o 0 ""

........... •

~~jJ

1.)'.)')

Subjunctive and Jussive (i)

, ~ $ -1.

• - f

r ~

" t" _: $ ...

~t ~ ,..;.;

.,. ".. 1 ~

...." l.._:j- ""' ....

. ..

~t '

J ussi ve (ii)

Subjunctive and Jussi ve (i)

............ ,.

I.)) (.)'j

i.)~ (.)"j

I.)'j J.)'j J.);, i.))

..,

,. 0 ....

..

;1 "

I."....~

";

......

. - ..

..,.... ...

;, ~

IJ..;'--:!

,. ..". ..".

. _... -: .

--= ~ •

_ ...

... f

u--

-"

, .,..

. ..;

. ..

~

,

....... "

~~~

Participle wadd

.. .)(,

~ ...........

Verbal Noun tamam Participle tamm

Imperative wadda/idad

I.) ~~ (.)~ • .)~ 1\ ".)~

;

(.)~ v".)~

Imperative timrn/itmirn

~ W a ~I\~ ~

r: ~

Verbal Noun wadd

,

,,; 0 0

~I

-

~

P ,~, ASSIVEo Imperfect yutammu ~

#,

Perfect tumma ~

,;, "

PASSIVE Imperfect yuwaddu ~Jrt Perfect wudda ~J

IIIIV fl \~ to finish .Jt 62/64

,. ,;

Participle rnawdud l.J~_'"

jW completetness), perfect(ion)

.. t::':Jlt\ CL:,; completely, perfectJy .. wl\ ... :i

, , 1 ~ ~

jW;:":; full moon BWI ~WI ' W j

, r ..

i~ ~ '! I d-~ i l.; ~ in the full meaning of the expression

.. ' -~ ! ~ I t I J ' , :.-:

~u.: ...r! ~.J ~ a decision was arrived at

, • l' $

t~..,...1 ; .I_)J .. _;....r the matter was studied

complete, perfect

i'.)~ \ .)f.).J \ .. .)~ friendship, love l.S".)~ \' • .s".)~ friendly

- ~ .. ,

.)r.)~ 1 ~ #J~ affectionate J.t.)~ \ J.J'.)~ attached

~ J ,'l <, '~-'l

.)f,J friendly relations ... ~'~I ')J I I should like to say ...

., ,,~ ~~, ,,.8 J

... .Y .4.$.)y. ~lS" I would be pleased if. .. ~ .).Jt...J L:... friendly contest

-~ , ;

~" .- ~.." ., • 1 ..,..

~').J ~_,.-J amicable settlement ... (;,j5 y w.).).,J 1 wish I were ...

~ , ~

I !

r

1

. ,

l

e

~

~

at 3 o'clock SJ1LlfJ1

+

~

;

completion

I

I

i.

..;"

f .

) .

,

r "

1" ..

K ,

. . ,,:

.. t~··

r3:" I'

. ~ ~ ':'

. l" ~I<'

" .:

.... ~-:

~n

.. Imperative ..
muqarnr qarnr
IJ~) r"~ 00 ~ ~
-
.J~
~~
'" , ~
.". . ; ~ r"~ -~
- -
l.JJ~ l.S.Jf
J~
., ~ .... ,; DOUBLED

, ~,.I ,.$..;

.. ..

J~ ~~ qarrara yuqarriru to report, to decide ~

62 II

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect
A I"
l,j .,.)
o ,. I, .; h $"
f_)~ W"J_}
$ ~o 'I .; ~ "'0 $ ~
~.,.) WJ.)
Ij~~ raf~
Jr
"., ~ $ ... G~')
...
(JJ.r
Subjunctive
..,. riI ~ ,
...
~f-J
~
, ,I .... ,I r ..... ,1
J~P 'Jp
." ,
~. ~,;, r .... ,I
l.J_)P )p
,; .,
, ,I .. ~,1 r .. -:.'
J_)J'-! ~~
" ...
.". 0 " , , r ..... ,
.. ....
1.J_)J'-! J~
." , J ~ .... .1

M •

.J~

Jussive

D " (II' ,
...
Jf-J
.,
I ,I .... , r" .. ,I
J';_); j_);
, ~
., .... "" , r ..... ,1
~_)p J;A;
". ".
, '''-:.' r .. -:.'
J.JJ'-!. 'J~
~ ;'
",. ,;,~ r .... ,I
M ~p
4J_;.;'-J_
.,.. , ,

• "" J

_;p

,~;,

4.SJP

Verbal Noun taqnr

Participle

PASSIVE

,~ .... ,

..

Imperfect yuqarraru.J.J'-!.

Perfect qurrira J_)

'''''

Participle muqarrar .)_)...

I (Jfi j) '~ "j '.., .... ,

.r: ..r-....r to settle down 60~ IV..} to settle, to establish Jj ,b

",

;~~"" ,~~.

64; V JP to be decided 65; X fl· .. 1 to become stable 70

ttl",

,.;_. site, habitation, headquarters

.)1) stability, fixedness .;1)\,.),,1 decision ..r'...)W [. J-P report

, ,; ""

"J ; .".. , ro 0

_)~ decided, fixed fo"A stable, settled J ~ ..... J stability

,.. r' .".

Jf)! establishment, confirmation ~li permanent

GJ) ~f to take a decision i~Li ~ standing committee

,

~I .;J_)j self-determination

.JJ'-A reporter

,

i".)~1 ):0 command headquarters

DOUBLED

, """ """ .,;

~~ \(~ (l> hajja yuhajju/yuhajiju

, to dispute with b

63 ill

Perfect

• •

~6.

• •



Jussive

(ii)

4

• 6.1 ~

,.

·GJ ~

,



~~\

• • ,;

t:.W

,

.... . .",

~w

• •



Verbal Noun

Participle

DOUBLED

DOUBLED

63 (continued)

L ttt>

~ ...



, ,_ ...... 1. ~

64 N ":~ ~~ I 'ahabba yuhibbu to love, to like ~ I \... ,0

.". ,

PASSIVE Perfect hujija r!:'!Y""

,

. I~p~erfe:: ~y~~ajjUlyubajaju .. ~,~\~~ ~arti~!ple mubajj, ~~

I (~) ~ c::> to make the pilgrimage (to Mecca) 58; VI &~ to dispute with each other 66; VIII p' to plead y ; to justify something

,.

J ; to object against ~ 68

ACTIVE

Imperfect



, ", ,

• •

Perfect
-' 0 .... 0-1.
..:--~I
• •
.,.. '10 ...... -1 A
, ..... "
l .. W.I> J ._:~~~...> J
• • • •
.". , ...... "'" 0 ..... 01-
l. -; ... -> , ~...>,
." .. • •
L;.i ,.,. , ... -1.
~~I" ,
• ..
0-:'~ 1 o $ ... 1.
l_ .. -"'-,,..1
...za;z~ ___
• • I

.... 0 ..........

L~J>1

..

'-~



.;

JI ~ ,

~

- .

. ~ ~,

..<c t ....

t tL=u

• •

, , ....... "1.,

.....

LJ-' t"

=\IlI

• •

~

· ..

.... \ ~\ f~; w' \~" ~ ,; ",

~u .,. ~~ r::. ~ c:-- pilgrimage destination

~ ,

l._~_j.r _j~ (the month) dhu l-hijja

'" ....... ,

,. .,,0 1

~t""

-!l.-

• •

,., .. - ,

..

~ ",. .....

.. \.:..... ---

Jussive (ii)

· . ~ ....... ..,"> ,

• • ,

• 0'

Subjunctive and Jussive (i)

argument, pretext

o .,.

..

- ,.



~





." .

[~, plea, objection

,. ,;



$ ,

-

~



.,.. ...... • J

..,

..... • .J

01", ,

I~

. ...

~

.. ...

,

.. ~,



-

~

••

.; .."

· . ~



.... ....... ,.

"...

.... • 0 ,

-

~

• •

..



l

.

I

f

I

,

Verbal Noun mahabba Participle muhibb

(NB irregular for this verb)

Imperative "ahibbazahbib

I '"" $ -1. • 0 "'1 $ ""l

,~ I 4> I ~-;"_J!_,..I \ ';-'-'> I

, ...... .... -1. ..". .... '""

~ •• , ~I ~ I

~. t...r:>

- ,. ,

, ~ Perfect ' uh i bba '-~ t



PASSIVE

Imperfect yuhabbu

t

j

I I

- ; ,

Participle muhabb '-:,. ... ~

_" , ,_..,. $ ... -1.

I (~) ~ ~~ 60 = (but less frequently used than) IV ~-<> I 6 4

~",., _, ,

4·.,.. ... \t.....> love

• •

>II'

~ amicable, fair (also in law)

...

,.

~ ;,

l . .::-

~ ..... 1-

,;--<> I preferable

_,,., ~ '" ..... .... , rII .,

I.;.J~ (£ ~~ .... !y~ I (£ ""; ... .:-!'-".. \~.-> beloved, dearest (m.; f.)

,,. "

~ -" , ,. ..,

(J'u..:.-i> \U"X~,. darling (rn.; f., form of address) y ~ beloved

"",."... -..,..".

; ,

- .

amicably, fairly (also in law)

• 1..; t t ~. ~ ... .- A patriotism ifJN--

",. "'"

wW'~;' egoism ur.i.~ ~ egoistic r~ ~

~ lover, amateur ~

• • •

J.~ for love of J_;) I ~~

agreeable

popular

,

j

patriotic peace-loving

,

J

DOUBLED

,~ ~ ";.,, ~ ~ .".,r" .# " _ /

,),)L:a':-t \ ,)L.a~ ,)W:a; radadda yataQaddu

yatadadadu to contradict each other

J$",,,, ~S".~

.) ~;:..t .) ~ ~ taraddada yataraddadu ;

..

to hesitate in/to LJ I \~ ; to keep coming back to ~

..

65 V

66 VI

~

I

I

,

I

I

Perfect

.~CTIVE

Perfect

ACTIVE

Imperfect

-1.. '1

,." ". ',\iI' I <. _:: ,

.)~~ !I~

Imperfect

, , J' ... 1.,

~~.J

..... #.; ....

f ~~.;J

- ,. , ,; .;

~~~.;

'J~~)

, , "" ,,,,..

~J~l.a;j

,.,,.,,

Jussive

\ •

i

, ..... , ~ .,,~

~.J .) l.", 7-t

....

~j'~".)C4~\ ~r.)".)(,,,;~\

.' . •

t

L_)~~"';;

,,#,;,;,;

IJl~J4.

4;ll;;';

, ,-;.", 'J~)J4.

..

,;

. ,~""

Jussive (ii)

• .... L"· "-; • ,", (:a :;1

.).) ~ i..J fill rJ

Subjunctive and Jussive (i)

,.., l""· .... "":\' L .... · .. -: ....... , C,a;,-i1 \', La; 1

~.!J totO +_J .) ~... rJ,. WI

J , " ,,_ ,., ,;

Verbal Noun taqadd/taQadud ,:,,:,La.i\,:,Wa.7

Imperative taqaddaltaQftdad

Ij',:,",:,Li:2;\ tj',:,La7 f,:,".!1 La;\ 1''1" LaJ ",)",:,L~ \',)(a~

~·.)".)L~7 f,:,",:,(07\ (.)L::,; ,:?,:,".)l..aJ\i,:,L.aJ

""

Verbal Noun taraddud Participle rnutaraddid Imperative taraddad

~~j ;,";,? 'J'.)~) r~"lj .~$:J)

r. ,. ",,;

. _-

~L.a ,.1

,

,,, ~ ;"

IJ ,) ;, l:.a ';.j \

~'''',

PASSIVEo Imperfect yutaraddadu ~)?

" ~ .. ,

Perfect turuddida ~:J~

'",,,,1

Participle mutaraddad ~)?

..

,.

, .- ,.,

'J:Jl.a'4,

:II '" "' ....

IJ,)l;,.,~

~'" ,,; «: ,.,

I (.))) .!IJ!. -:J) to give/send back J; ,.; to reply to ~ 58; II ,).)) to repel

" ...... ~ ., ~.

.A ,b 62; VIII JJ)' to abandon ~ 68; X ;'J,; ... I to reclaim, retrieve .. 70

,,, " "

Ij:J.)l.a7!\

. .... , ..,,,.

l · _ .. .).) u..a. ,_,

~., ;II' ,.;

L_)');' l:.a~

" -,

')J') _) [..)) restitution

. ,

.l! :, ~ reiteration

tI-", ...

J.;A rejection, logical basis

I.,,,,

~~.; hesitation, frequentation

,.,.

.)j)..,. (financial) yield

( • r· •

.) J.j_)J desertion '),')._.,;.",J retrieval

.; , ,. ,.

~~;_; reaction ~I ~.L:. ~ *',:,~ a strongly worded reply

.J ,. ,. ,.

"" , • til",

~.;!. ':JJ..:J.) indisputable evidence _)~~I.)_) (political) rehabilitation

, ",. "

s ; • r." I",

~ '_;a 1\ .) _tl; .) ..? .... 1 to withdraw money/one' s proposal

" ,,' ~ " _"

Participle mutac;ladd/mutaQadid .),:,La:.o \ .)L"':A

,

, ,.

,.

"' L· :~\

,.; ~ ~_..a t .1

.-

""

, ~ ~~

~ L . .Gt ~

..

", ; .;~

~ ,:, L~ 'i'-! \

i



I I

,

CDUBLED

DOUBLED

67 VII J;:~ J;JI inhalla yanhallu to be (dis)solved,

to be untied

66 (continued)

, , ..

P ASSIVEo Perfect tUQ udida .).) J0a,j

,

~ '" .",

Imperfect yutadaddu .)L""i'.!

ACTIVE 'l':_~~

~

~~."

. . ..

u

Imperfect

Perfect

.

against

~1

I,:._~~ ~

." ,.. ~ "...,

.) Wa.7 \i .) La:.. contrast, contradiction

~ r ..... '

.)~ opposed, contra-, anti-

.,,-~.; .....

.. .

u -

~ .",

In .) ~ to contravene .A, to oppose a ,. 63

'". _ 1"- ~:: ~

-

fI~

...

~JcA opposition

, ~

.".. ",,,,

.)l, •. i.U .)c.a:. antiseptic

contrary, opponent insecticide

".

~lt~1

, :WI

",

::.WI

-~' , ...... .".

.. • .. .&

..• .) bJ>'l counter-revolution

.Iussive (ii)

"

~I

Subjunctive $,:_~:

~

'"

'tl:"~~ ~

I_t._;;

~

-

- J'._' , , .~" II '" ,

.)\.o.rAO i~ counter-offensive ";j!,'_ • .)~ antibiotic

. ~, '

·cl..,.:.i~t ~ lit I am against the proposal.

~". ~

.. ,

~

"".

·ll:_~~ ~

,.

,~ &-~~

".

if 1:" ~~

,_,.,..;;

Participle munhall Imperative inhalla/inhalil

~ ,_,W,~, ~I\:WI

,. "". ""'" II'"

J.LJ' )t;.j I ~ I

"'", , .. ,; ~

Verbal Noun inhilal



PASSIVE. none (a<;tive has pa~sive meaning) .

..

-

til ~ I", ""

I (J.» ~ J.> to untie .... , to (dis)solve .A, to release-A d 58

.. , f" ;J t :_ ",

II ~ to analyse ..Ib , to absolve b , to permit cs 62; IV 4..J'" to release ../b,

- .....

to permit ..A , to relocate Jb 64; VIII ~ t to occupy .... 68

J__,b. ~ J;.. (dis)solution J)L,JJ (disjsolution ~ \J~(dis)solved

.... ,

~ place ~ local

.. ,

~ analytical J~J occupation

~ analysis

, , ... 0 ,

~ occupying, occupied

~ul) occupying forces

stopover

psychoanalysis

the occupied territories J_;.JJ J.:li soluble

,..

~~ in detail

to take the place of

....

DOUBLED

, ...,0 .; , ..... 0

J- __ t.. l J.7.o1

imtadda yamtaddu to be extended

69 vrn

68 VIII

-

ACTIVE

, ...... ""

1- • w_.,t ....

Imperfect

, ..... -1.

.\.:A ,

A , ",.

lj .)J;.-'

I .... ,

1- .. ",t .. J

-= __ 1.

.".

• ,. .", 0

r.J .)J. I

~

$ ,. , ,,;.

Lii .)J;AI

, ...... ..".

1.J"t1A I

_, ~ ..... "'"

· J.: .. 7

....

,;

, ..... ,.

J..~_.J

-

(II' ,. .... ,..

~,).l;..o I

..... .... . ..,.

~.)J.~ ... !

,

~ ,.~' . '"

• •

fJ-J -

.;.~"

• •

'-'J. ..

Perfect

ACTIVE

~

,; ~' . .;

. ...

4J.J

,. .........

U .)_l;A'

...

,. D,. ... O

U ~ . .1-=-:.., ,

"" . ..,.. ......

~ .)).7." I

f .... 0 '

'J.;..1

,. ,.

$ .....

J-_;:_" J

".

.." .,. D

\jJ._:'"

",.

• ' .... D

~J.: __ A ,

f

• .... 0 ;'

.).l; 4 ;

.Iussive (ii)

• ..... 1-

J;"" ,

Subjunctive and Jussive (i)

4......... ~ .... o"'J.

1- • 1

• t.' i-

s ¥P'aA

~

• .... II .;

~J.;.j

...... "

I).:. i

.... 0 ~.-'"

• "J'" ..

V..,riA • •

, ..... ,.

J-,; .. j

.". ". '" • '" 1- .. '-' -' lWzts4 t

# ~ J t .. ;

~ 2 -4Q_&

-;

· .;."

.)J::. t

-

-

..... . ,.,... ~

LJ~"l; .~

f ,. ,

'J.;' ,.j

",..

· ..... ~

.,J.i .i

.., . ...... . .;

4J.)J. •• !

,;

...... ,..,.

~.)~I

i. ..... ,

J.,: .. 7

- ........

i'" .. .,.,.J

. ~. ~

• •

.JJ ..a t

J~~

II ..... 0 .,

JJ;.J

,_$J.; ... '

-"

, ~. ,

wl-: ."

..... 1:.. ... . . ...

"')')J • ..aL'

I ..... .;

,-Lt. ·

,'" 'L- .:

IJ~

~.~'

• •

tJ,J -

-

, ........

i" - ...-ust ,._J

DOUBLED

'1_- .-~_ $LO ·--1

~ ~ idtarra yadtarru to compel to d! b

Imperfect

, .. 1-

~1

Perfect



.r:'

Subjunctive and Jussive (i)

~ ~1

'.J~

Jussive (ii)

• 1- ", .-_ 1-

J~'

t),:"'7 ~ ~ ~

.,. ~. '"

. .-

tJ.JJ'-" ;

" '1-- .:

J~

.... ~,.

• •

1,).1 ..

Verbal Noun irntidad Participle mumtadd Imperative irntadda/imtadid

(l • 1 ~ ...... , , , .... • , ..... • ..... • , .....

~ J_jj-;" ~ •• • I • .l-; • , '~7 • , t\ J

oJ .) J i.JI J.;_'

~ ,.

• L· «:

J~

,

.~~

. -

J

I~ I~

~ I~

$1._- • ~

~

Imperative i4tarraJi4tarir

'.J~t ~t ~~t\~1 ~~~, ~I' .... ~~,

-,

Verbal Noun idtirar Participle mudtarr

I

";,, '"

~ .,...

\S J.:;...o I

.. " ""

PASSIVEO Imperfect yumtaddu ~_;:~

...

,. .,.

Perfect umtudda

- '-1

J;:..

'1_ •• __ ~ PASSIVE Imperfect yu(ltarru ~

~ 1_·. _'t Perfect udturra ~

~-" ~" ,,~ e : ~

IIII )J..e \ (oM) J~ . ..Lt to extend ... 58/62; IV ,J::.I to provide with j;j 41

.". _, ....

y 64; V .)J..j to extend intr. 65

period of time

rtI l' ,

Participle rnudtarr J,bc.ar4

f/, " ~ $." ,.,. "

I (~) ..J"'A!·~ to damage .,J6, 058; IV ~I to oblige to ~ 0 64

" .

VII ..ra i I to be damaged 67

" .,'"

~.J.l,.o c:::....\.e extension

~ , - ,

.).lot c:::. iJ..-

.) G.:. J

; ~

.)G .. :, extension, extensibility "'.)c.

.. .)[,:. ~ i~~ material, clause (of document) lS"'.)L.

~ ~~

.. III ." ,

.. J" 'II". ,~, ,.'"

~ .. .) '-A materialism J 7 .... \ .)J •• \ .) J..\"""

rl> "'.)[;' \~~i "'.)[;" raw materials

, .. ' ... ~ ,; r "

4J;, _,:va· .) 'JA manufactured goods

supply extending material(ist(ic) )

",,,,

..r4 damage

~ .

extended

}

,

t

c ommodi ties

foodstuffs

" A

J~i ~;~ damage

~JJ~ necessary

.. ,

i~.J'_;;:J~ necessarily

"

~ "

..:J"v.J..r':' necessities

.;" .

iJ;~1 J_.;c if necessary; in an emergency

,.

... L>i4.S_);~l ~ .(~) it is (not) necessary that ...

..

".

i J.J.,.,..4 necessity. emergency

J~I compulsion \SJ~l compulsory

,. , ., , II"

~~~\~G, harmful ~! ~ compelled to

" ,; , ... ' ,;

. ,.".. ~ "

bolt..Lo to hold out one's hand ~.>!. i...\.6 ~ within two days

..

J

70 x

ACTIVE

, ...... ;

.. .. .

~Jr.wJ

, ,.

, f# ..... .,

-

. .. .. ..

~ "Y--"'-'Jk... '

'-' 21

, J .....,

lyi->.jA440 "

,.

.;'. . ...... .....

--

. .... .. -

~ __ D'~'" • t H •

$

".. J .......;

l._,.i.,.,...; _... •

ra

-

,

". . ...... ~ ... -

~G 4~ta:; t .. !

IXJUBLED

Assimilated verbs are the first sub-class of the weak class. They have a weak letter . .J or 4.S ' as initial radical. and two sound radicals (in one or

..

two roots, middle ~ and a final sound radical). All common assimilated

verbs have initial j ; initiall.S verbs are few and infrequently used.

- -

One root with initial j and identical sound middle and final radicals (').J)

is studied under the doubled verbs (no. 6 1)6

Conjugation. The standard conjugation patterns shown in paras. 23,2S

and 29 to 33 of the introductory chapter (tenses, imperative, participles and verbal noun) apply to assimilated verbs, subject to the following

ASSIMILATED VERBS

~ ..... 0,.. _ ~ ..... D

~ ~ 1M J istahaqqa yastahiqqu to deserve .A

Imperfect

., ..... 1.

~I

Jussive (ii)

. .. ..... "

..... I

~'L:"~

""

o ....... ....

... -

.. - - ~ ._p.~ ... ,. fA t

V -L- __ VA •• ,

". ,.

, ..... 11"

~ l i ~-._._. !

, ;. ,

l_.i~:'wt i

Verbal Noun istihqaq

,

,. . ..... ."

-. .... .. -

va' fa"_" •• , •

.".'1 ...... ,

..

• .& -

,-,y_._>-_.. +4' !

... .".. • .... 0 ,; .. -.

• a If .. ~ ... 0

~-- -- - .. - ..

, ~,;

Participle rnustahiqq

Perfect

.... t .". ".

l;.i~wJJ

.;' ..... ""

,. . , ............

...... I

.. -: .... ",:, t'

14 -- ~

,

$ , ..........

.... f

v:;--o a .,. "': «tI

-4- j$

...

D .... 0 0

~*;_i> _;; .... t N ,

,; ,. ""'. ....

L ..; it ,.._". tI I

,...

., 0 0 ... 0-

- ,

'-- --".44 ... ;tt'

--.--»-~-

,

.... , ..... 0 .....

L. 7;b~"'_" J

," ,

..... . "

.. ~

~ ... ttl!

I" .... 0 ~

l,i,...; · N I

.". ",.

"11..,,, .... 0 0 $ ........ a

l;~;L$LttY J 4-':";~ I

.,.. ...............

...... f

~4~.+,

provisions:

• In the active imperfect tenses of Form I of all common verbs with

initial j, , the initial radical and its vowel are dropped. In the affirmative imperative of such verbs, the initial radical and its vowel, and also the imperative prefix, are dropped. In a few exceptional roots, however, the initial w remains consonantal in Form I and the conjugation is sound. All verbs with initial-radical jj are sound



throughout Form I.

Subjunctive and Jussive (i)

" ...... , tI .... D "'-

- - . I

~_"I" J~

. ~-~

• •

...

~ .....,; ..

- -

4 ..... """+,u1

U_J!_ - ......

••

.... ,.

. . ..... ., ,. ......

..y~"6b+V!

,

. ...... ,

_" -

"-,,,_ .. _;; ~ «. '



1 ....... 0 ,.,

t;.,._.; w.:;

;

..... .. .... . ,

.. -

it IJ .. _ - ..

...,. il?" • t 1t J

Il .... p ~

Li,._; .. ' ...

,

, .........

l" ..

0>, __ + .,. I

-

U L~_;_""J

••

, .".

#I .... D '"

~

;'

, .... 0 "

~

,

,.

* ......... li--4-~ __ -; ." t t

I

.... , .... 0,

'_';~y!

",.

".... . ...... ,

- ..

L.r' I; >I.; . tc !

."

-

~

- .........

lj" -

~ •• tt

....

.... 0 •

Jli->_w.1

Imperative istahiqqa/istahqiq

• The theoretical combination uwluy becomes j... 11 and the theoretical combination iwliy becomes -! ... i .

"

• In Forms II, III, V and VI the weak radical stabilises as a consonant

(w or y), and the conjugation follows the standard pattern

completely ·

~

• In Form VIII the initial radical _J plus the v of the form become'; ·

Verbs with inital j are listed, in all forms, before verbs with initial v ·



, .....

!P_-:.NJ

~ ...... ,

..

~.-7z' U.A

,.

" ." ..... . .....

.. - I

4.JA I ~~ t.tl

",. ,.. ."

, ".

~;4rl'

" , ,

fIJi "...

U p>-7 .... 1

~. ... ,. .,

PASSIVE Imperfect yustahaqqu

I '(:;;..> ~m~ to b~ ;rue fl 60; II'~~ t~Wrealise, to implement. to

....

_~4 _

confmn .A 62; N ~ I to be right in ~ 64; V :;.;~ to materialise intr.. to

...

be convinced of./6 65

$ II J

Perfect ustuhiqqa ~ I

fIl ~ ..... ,

Participle rnustahaqq ~

" .- "'"

Li';_._'" t J> right (noun) ~u;.. [. ll!,ii:' truth, reality ~ true

~! .. ~ realisation, confir~ation, ide~tification ~~ - ~e;'ificatlon

-l-:'. 0, . "' ...... , ~ . ., .,.". ~

LJ .A_.,.j, .N ment ~ \J~ deserving ~i.~..:O investigator

" " ,,,.. _,.~ ~, , .,.;

~ truthful ~;_300~convinced of ~~\ ~\A~t~\ll!~ in truth

~·eu: due (payment) - .. ~ indisputable ' J.."i~ jurisprudence

1 \ ... -1 , -' .,.#' _' 0 "

~* ~~ ~ he is right/wrong A!_i~ \~W! J_,.i_._,. human/civil rights

I

, .'

"-: .1" ••

.. ". ~r

~ . ?::~.:"'-

- 115 ..

i

ASS/MILA TED

ASS/MILA TED

I

.J

I

~

j

1

I

" ~,." .-

~ ~.J wada' a yada' u to place, to set down JI;

71 I

, ~ ."",_,

~ ~.J wajada yajidu to find Jlj

72 I





ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

; .., ~ •

~e.o!

..... ,. ,

L· ·

o.~.J

, .... " .. .

.....,._---.-~ J

,. , ....

.... . .... .....

I

i

1

~ 0 ~ Jt" .. .

......... __ v::' J

J.,.u

. ...

i l

~

1

t

\

~

~

I

.

.", .,., , . ...

,y*xv:2 •

. ~ '-'J ...

, ."

:,Ji_~

..." ....

~" .,..

,."..~..oJ

., .,. ." •

~_'~J

Jussive

Subjunctive

Jussive

Subjunctive



, .

~

L ,

.; 1-

. I

~

o 4-

..1.>'



..,..

fw



",

~ 0 ..,

· i -

IJ--':U

,.., --

t ....

~.

, ~ ,;

I ...

~_.t4J

.".

J J ,.

~ J .

rw



~ ." ~ . ..

,JA-rJ:JJ

,,; ..,

~!

..,. .; , . ..

~·a.



..

• oM

... ~

t_rV-

- ,

,.,. ,



~

,.

(i"'_;

.. ~

· .,.

,. ,

o ..,.

J.:,.u

• •

.... "

. -

.,41

~

., ,

-

-

, ~ ~

'.,.,.-.4!

. ,

J.>V



-- .

.., ., , •

~L>4!

." "" ...

~

,. ..... _, •

~j""'!

Imperative jid

~

• ",

r~

. "

Participle

~G

,

wadi'



Imperative da'



...\:l-

f

I

Verbal Noun wad'

Verbal Noun wujud Participle wajid

..

,... ....

f

l

l

I

1

,

t }



~_J

. ,

} (

, I





~

- ;

~ ,

Perfect wujida ~J

, , ,

PASSIVE Imperfect YUQa' u ~ Yo.

,

, _, ,

PASSIVE Imperfect yujadu ~~

Perfect wudi t a ~ J

,..

Participle mawjud ~$':yt

~

1

, r , ,

, . ~

Participle mawdii' t~.,.,..

, . ,;

.I, ".". ,

I, passive J::,;y. ~.J to exist, to be there 71

.......... -l "".

N ~.J I to bring about, to accomplish .A 77

VINm ~'\~I) to humble oneself 79/S0

,

J ,

~ , ,

-

4.!~$':'.J existentialism

i

i

I •

~....... .,. .~ " .

t.l#.J I ~ ~.J setting down, position, situation

r ..,. " · .....

4/:~ situational ~ ~~ ~.,.,.. subject, topic

- ; ." ~ . ,

, • _, ... iti ·

~~..Y' objective (adjective) ~04.J POSt visrn

~[,::. [.~;" spot, passage (text) (,..~. ~~ to make a report

.. l;;, 71\ ~. t; humility ~~ .e:;.; to lay down one's arms

t.: ...... ~ "..... .

I,. .~~ ~;.; to lay hands on l...:a~,~..,... focus of attentton

~ i ~ ~ .....

. ,.

4.._~ jA ~ in its place

kz '7 ) d

). ~

Isa

, • dszIa

)

6 6

-'-':yt onginator

~y.J existence ~_':;;JA found, present

~ ~ r , . .,

(l._! lJ\i!J.jL,) U l..T':..r (liquid/fixed) assets

, "

l~! production, supply

.",.

. ;

~

j.

t

J

,

,

~

~.J passIon

,.; ~ » » ,

J:>:~\~~ there is/are (things)

4S ~$':'_J existentialist

..

~ ~

. ,. , ,

~~.J ~!\~-'~! if there is/are any, if applicable

.,.. ,

;, ~,

J.:J:-""; ":i\J.:I:-~ ~ there is/are none, ni1

(in statistics, reports etc.)

rl , ,.,. t..~.;.a.

It:. _,..4 ""'.J »w! in form and substance

-

.

4 ! )

i

ACTIVE

ASS/MILA TED

ASS/MILA TED

7 3 I ~;. ~ J~ waritha yarithu to inherit from ..A '1.J-6 \~ \ b ":.J _)J

74 I

" . ." _""

4:I:.Y-. 4:I:.J. wajuha yawyuhu to be distinguished

Imperfect

J 1

,

I

I

I

J

~ t ~

i I t 1



.1

!

ACTIVE

Perfect

Imperfect

".-1.

~JJ

Perfect

, .,,,

~ "" ~

~~''!'J1

,

o ,

- -'

L ..... I 'I.

wcz-J#.JJ

. ,. , '"

. ,. tJJ .~

~.J

_ J. } (II'

0-7 ,~_,

, , "

I." ,"'!" J

., ..... J ,

l. t:''!"J

.;'

, I • .;

, J • .,

4> - .~

Jussive

Subjunctive

Jussive

Subjunctive

. ,; A ..

CJJ'

.; . , . ~

~_,;

t " • .; ~''!-..J-!

• .I • "" ~ ..

.~

, » s » ~ 'J '~J-l

o

~J

,

I !

I

J t

I J I

~

i

.~

) I . •

~

i

,

;

i i 1

I

, ".:. ~, '!-J-'

, . "

. ,. . ,

4> .. .:J-'

,

..;

~

, <

~

f

,

i

Verbal Noun wirth/wirailia Participle warilh Imperative riib

Verbal Noun wajaha Participle wajih

Imperative

~J1 ~J1

ujuh

., 1

4:I:.J

~.J1

~

, .;' , , ,

PASSIVE Imperfect yiiralhu 4!J JY. Perfect wuri!.ha ~_'J

PASSIVE none

,. ",-

Participle mawruth t.!.J .JJ..r

II ~ to turn towards intrJu11 ..A, to direct towards u1! .. 75 III ~[, to face ..A ," 76; V~) to head for ,-,,!\J 78

VI ~[,1 to face each other 79; vm ~t to be directed at u-'! 80

~ ..... -1. .... _ .....

II/IV +.!J J.J f \0 J.J to appoint as heir It , to bequeath to Jb ,b 7Sn7

VI ~~[,J to hold as a bequest Jb 79

, , . ."

0F..J[_ ~J face (also figurative)

. ,

hereditary heir

,

i ,'!' side, direction

,

~ ~ .,.

O~I\A f'!".J direction, orientation, trend

facial

0 ~G.J
I. Jegacy
c,)J_J
". -
", "" ,. ,
\J A heir jj~~ ~ ~JG
~ JJ[ ...... ~J
, "..
, II , ~ '0 ....
6Jy\6,)J-O testator ,.
CJ.JJ~
., "
.. ( .. , , r"
6J~ inherited 6_)r_,j
confrontation

-I

,

inheri ted, tradi ti onal

..

~..J

- . .".,;-

guidance

opposite (preposition) point of view

. ;'

heredity

...... -l .; ~

f..S_j-1 -~ -~

,

~~v-o

on the other hand

if' .~ -~ for my part

.. , ",.

, . ., ~ -'

~!. !L":Y (i.)~) school-leaving certificate

", ~

;4~_J ~ ~ in every respect

Ctt;\~GJ inheritance, heritage

on all sides

.,.,

~ . .;

4.r'l;.. -kJ:o Yo es pee i all y



'1 - :~ .. "',' :.

~ J;. ~ J wassala yuwassilu to convey .A ,~,

ASS/MILA TED

, r',,;"r

J.S ~ J.i ~ wafaqa yuwafiqu to suit ~ ,

ASS/MILA TED

~ ~~ ~~

,

~~

• 1$ ,;

b: +.....,;;;t _J

76 III
I
ACTIVE
J
1 ~r;
i
)
I
1
! ".
.. .. ( ..
t L>_,.ii ~
.,
I ... r"
&ii~
i
J #'
... .. (JI
, L>_,.ij ~
r
i
t ,
J ..... r JI
t ...
o-u~
t
~ ..-
! 75 n

to connect ... with '--' _"



Imperfect

.. _, ......... ..t.

~.Jt ~

t

I

t

J I ,.

.".
... (JI JI 0rJl
~li.i ~ (,J~
,.. , iI'
~r" ... r JI
o 'J1 ~ -
_ J-l
".. ." ,;;
. wf JI .. r JI
~~
4J 'J-!
, , ,
We' JI • r '
~ ~ ~~
" ,; ,.
Jussive
o ~ ~
~I.J I
,.
lit[,i · r'
J!~
".. ,.
litt; .t
u-U(,J
, .. "'''
liir' .... r ..
~ ~~
, ,..
l,ij r JI D r JI
.. J.i~
'.Y
, , ~

to agree with ... onlto ~ ,a

Imperfect

~

~1~ 1 G:ijl~

· ,." r

...

~~

- , . .; r

_.

~~

Perfect
JI .... (
- .....
~". ___ u J

.". .... ; "" ...... r
l .. :;i"J .. _.
,-=...u ~
.... .J. #" ,; · .- r
l •.• i; IJ .. .
~,_ ___ o J
,.
lllG JjG
8_;G · .. " r
.. .
~~u It
- ......I ACTIVE

Perfect

muwassil

. ~

Imperative wassil

. ~

I~~ )L.,~ ~

". ",

~ ~

Verbal Noun muwafaqa/wifaq Participle

.; '#"#f' ,.

J U J \ iu 'Y J.i c,..

Subjunctive
... r JI ... r.t
~~ ~J I
, ,. l
l_,ii [,.7 .. r' .- r"
W~ J.!~
, " ..,.
.... r JI ... r JI u-U[,5
~~ W~
.; ,.,. .. ,. ,
1 e • r JI ~r' .. ('
J..i~
~~ 'J-! ,
I
~
.# .; ,. F
.... r" .- r' ~ (JI ~
,
..... w~ ~~ ,
~~ ,
,
t
",. ", ,. ~
muwafiq Imperative wafiq >
~ WG JJG
ltUG
,. , ,
.-. r WG ~G
wA-i~
... • fill ~, D _, .;..\
~~ ~.JI
,-
I).:;; ,;
)L.,) j.:,~
~
~~JI '" ~
~) ~)
..
~
,. "" - ",.
I).:; , )L.,; JI ~ ..
'J-! :Yo. 'j!.
, ,,-
~.- .. ,.
)L.,--; J_:;)
~
,. ,.
,
Verbal Noun tawsil Participle

~~ ~;
.",
." Jussive

Subjunctive ... ... ... '"
J_:;)
~JI
""
I).:;; "
~; ~)
",. ,.
~JI .".
)L.,) ~;
-
~
~ , -
~JI ~ .. "
~ ... '
'J-! ~ 'J-!
"" ~
~; .. ,
~; J_:;)
~
",
, ,. t j

I

I

f

'''f' ... ,

PASSIVE Imperfect yuwafaqu J.! ~ Perfect wufiqa ~ J.J

.,.

~r' Participle muwafaq J.i ~

PASSIVE Imperfect yuwassalu J:;; Perfect wussila ~

Participle muwassal s.;; ...

j

l

I (,:;~) ~~ Ji~ to be suitable 73; II Jl~ to adjust .A. to reconcile ~

~ ,

, ~, J

~_, ... .passive J-iJ to be successful in ~!\ 75

",. ~ ..".~

YIn ~ , to agree with ... on ~ 'c:o ' to happen by chance 8 ()

, .

(J .. , , " ....... ;

I ~J) ~ ~.J to arrive at u1!\.A ,~7tHI ~[, to be connected

-1.

with.A 76 IV ~~ t 77 = II ~ 7 5; V ~~ to gain access to ~! 78

VI ;t' ~r ~ be i .... , .,

s. ~ry to e interconnected 79; YIn J..a.;J to contact w gO



~~r ~\~\~ connexion il~::';\~:,J connexion, contact J~I\~r;. connexion w~[;. communications JWt (written) re~eipt ~[,J continuity

J JI .; f ed ,.- ( .;, ,. - .I-

'":" ~ _,.. IX to v-« '..Y-. \J..~'" continuous '-' JLa ~1 contact with

tl t' _;.... ...... 0 .... ;

t...r. ~_,; attainment of .L~ .~ .:;,,"JW, telecommunications

J ' ,

~! '..J-4J arrival at

,,:;~ \ liJ'; ~greement, co~fon;~~y, (diplomatic) agremen't

,. • ,. $, ,

JUJ agreement ~_,; adjustment, reconciliation J.i_,..o successful

~ ,

jl) consistency Jl1j1 agreement, coincidence LjLljl by chance

..

,

j



l

!

t

J



appropriate

J \l;~ ~ Ji~lt ul~ I;' 'il

in accordance with

..

written agreement, treaty

the measures agreed on

t

ASS/MILA TED

,

~

~

,

I

I

!

,

, , ..... 0 -i

~",,!"J-t ~~.J I 'awjaba yujibu to impose on .. ,uk

Imperfect

e:::,;i

77 N

78 V

ACTIVE

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

J J



'=--> ..J

•• ....,r

.,.

.... , .J

~~

, 0_.-.-1.

..: r1 c""J J

• •

,,0' ",

_-

~_";'j-'-J

....... ~ "'; •• c'" I ,

•• ..J

,,-

; , ,

i !

t ~

, , ........,..A.J

. "..",.-;.

,

~. J

. ,., ......

!;. .$- .1

... _J

-

VA t t'...".-!.

Jussive

Subjunctive

.,.. .t

':-~J I

. ,



Vw.>&.J

.. ~

,

J ,

I_,.!.~ ,_,.1

. " ~.,

., • J

, $ ".. ... ""

t_,..~~

,

J ,

lYL • ...,

•• ...."T";.

.,.,

~. "

,

, ,

'.Jol'> ...,

•• ..,T;.

,

.,. ,

. ,

-

ks~ a.J

. .~

,

..

t...,rA> &.J

. ...,;-

~

Verbal Noun tawassu

Verbal Noun 'Ijab

~J

u

. . .. -.

~

Participle mujib

Imperative 'ajib

~ " "1-

IJ':-~ J ~J

,- .'" ....

~I

, , '"

. """

~1"" I

• •

ASS/MILA TED

Perfect

, 0 $. ... ,

... ...

.... <" __ • t '~y

... '0 #1 .... ;

l.w.A 'oJy

- . -._

~*d.jJ

.. " .... ,

l_,... .. I_,J

.. D-SJ ... .,

..

~t4Jy

Su bju neti vc ~

,. $ , .... ~

c: __,.J I

~

..... $ ",....... ,..,r"JIi /~ ....

LA- _,.:; t-' _,;.;

J ~ ... .,.,.,.

I>, d;/ _,:;.;

.... ~ .... .; ...

l..-,_?

.... $ ........ ..,

L.....w - ~

" ~ ,Ii' .... .,..

L..-_,;;

, {I ~ "... ...

1_,. .... ,,~

. ~

Participle mutawassi

~

Imperative tawassa

~:,; ~)

..... , ... , -

~y

,

, ..

" ;( 'ujiba ,":~.J I

JoI!. J .., _"

~ ~ ~ ~f ~

PASSIVEo Imperfect yutawassa' u ~?. Perfect tUWUSSl a C;:'.>J

ppqzs ..... - , • ._

, .; ,

PASSIVE Imperfect yiijabu,,:~~

Perfect

I (t:.:tI) ~"_~ ~~ to be wide/roomy, to be wide/roomy enough for ..A ,b

" ......... -1. ,$,

perfect 73, imperfect 72; IIIIV ~ J I \~ -' to broaden ,.j) 7Sn7

VIn ~I to be expanded, to be wide/roomy enough for J 80

,.

I",.... ,.;.... ~.

t:"~ expansion ~~ expansrorust

t ~! [ r:::'~ \e G wide, roomy

.,.. CI ,

~+I-' wideness, roominess

.; ~

Participle mujab ':~_,...

J, , .,;, ..

I . (u ~.) .,-= j'IU ·L~ A

• ...;--. J • ..J

.".

• ., ,__ " ..... --t.

to be necessary ~, 71; II '":~_, 75 = IV ":~.J I 77

uGu I obligation

. .-. 01

positive

,,:-~G necessary, duty

Y J>:jA moral duty

,

-' ,

'-:~_,... compelling, exigency

,

':~_,.. obligatory

....... "

4..> ... moti ve

•• .,r-

,

_" • , • III .I,

• ... ~ 'U j." ( 4.l __ t:.) k~--"'"

.J .. w ... • .....

"

", . "" . ... , ~

· JA~'"'-!tJl (~t:.) l:4-,,!,-!.)lS' he had to attend

, ,

":"~JAuk on the basis of

-

t:tt -.A

,;



extensive

he must attend

~ .;

-

o ttl

capacity (also mechanical/electrical)

~?' ~ by extension

.;

I

I

j

;

. .

expansiomsm

o ...

C:-""; broadening

...

i

.I<

j

extensiveness, extent

t·" ';" Ii space, room

within my' capacity

ASS/MILA TED

79 VI ~~ ~[,J tawajaha yatawajahu to face each other t4.:J:~

80 vrn

ACTIVE Imperfect Perfect
,.- r~'- ~r ::j ~r:: ' . .- r ...
A> _. oM _ ~
.~ .'J-1 'Y ...... f~'Y
.. , .... r ...... , ... ( .... . , . .- ( .. r' ~ ... r:: ...... ( ..
~Jf':'~ A> _ .. ~~ Lrt'':~
i 'J--l Am. f=:- 'Y

",.
~4~C~ ~r"'''' ... ~ r.;; - , ... r ::. [" ~ ... r::. • .. r'"
. .. .. ~~ C.4~~
\J ,_,-.J ~f':~ • +4~ 'Y

.; ,- ,;
.. s : r"''- · ~r:'- .. .- r .... .. .. r" ~r:: J.;. r :
. ,.,. - 4> .- JJ'':~
U . ry-!
iJJ. ~ .~ t_y .'J-'
".
... • .. r'-'" ~r"''' .... r ...... &.~r.,; ~r:: · ..... r ...
~ ~ 4> .. - ~*4~~
~~ .~ ry
.". ACTIVE

Imperfect

,. .,. -,

......

VA&AJ

.;

, , -.;

....

4JY'~71U!

", .;. ,,,

...

0-'~

i"

Jussive Subjunctive
~[,7j ~r:l ~'" r;" J;.. r ::.1
4> _ •
. 'jJ .~ .fJJ
s ; r'-" ~(::: ... r ...... L,;~~ ~r::: ~, r'''''
t,.4'!" ,_,;; 4> _- 4> N-
fJ--J · 'J--' ~ .~
... · .. r ...... ~r::: ~r :::. ... · .,. r .... ~r::: ~r:::
~~ ~~
'J--l ~ fJ-W 'J-'-l
.. .. ,
;'
, .... r.'-" ~r:'- ... r ..... I .. .,. r ..... ~r:' ~r:'
f> .. 4> .. f> ..
~.~ ~ .~ 'J. ~ ~ .~
.. · .... r .... ~r::: . .... r ..... .. · .. r ..... ~r::: ,;,; r'"
4> .... A> _ ..
~~ ~ .~ ~~ ~ .~
Verbal Noun tawajuh Participle mutawajih Imperative tawajah
, r .. r .... .. .. r'" ~r:: ... r ..
4> .. 4:t:~ IJ'''!"~ J.> ..
• 'JJ 'JJ .'J-l
,..
::";~[.J ~r:: ~ r ::
'jJ ~'Y
"" Jussive

,

I ~.": rJ-'~t::.J

.".. ". -,

... -

~L7~'

,

J ,~

'__,ij~

,.. .,. $, ....

.. . ": .

_.EL

- ,.

Verbal Noun ittifaq

,. .,

JlA.it

ASS/MILA TED

to agree with ... on ~ 'r:o ' to happen by chance

Perfect

,

t" ~ ... ~~,

"",,' __ '--'

,.. . ..,.,-

....... ,

.... *., d_.)

,., ('~, ~ "

PASSIVEo Imperfect yutawajahu -~~ Perfect tuwujiha ~J__';

Subjuncti ve

; ,.",

lJ"· ..

A_4 ~ I

-

,..

11" _ ,.

...

~'::';'

Participle muttafiq

Imperative ittafiq

, - ,. #

L,.iA j I lllJ I

." ",.

" $

li.ij I

P ASSIVEo Imperfect yuttafaqu

.,. I,

Perfect uttufiqa ~I

See 74

,IJ,

Participle muttafaq J.4..:;..o

See 76

j

ASS/MILA TED

81 X

, .,... _, ~ ....... ~ Ii

~ J"": t1i!.) Jr ... 1 istawrada yastawridu to import ..A

ACTIVE

Imperfect

"

~.J~~ ;;:~/; &J (~~: •• 1

..-

.; .. . ..... ,

o ...... • .".



~~

~

, . .;. .;

I.J .) JY AM j

,.

~. ...... ,

.".

J' • "". ~

.) , ...:......." J~_

,,-

...... . ...... .,

• .) ,a..:........ '-' ~---

Jussive

Verbal Noun istirad

, ......-1.,

J~

A_". ,.,..

L; .) JY .... ,

..... . ,. ..........

f~J"""4Ht

" # , • ., .......

o-i .) j"'" tJll

Subjunctive

, ...... 1.,

~~

Perfect

Imperative

(.,;':;: .. 1

ASS/MILA TED

;

.I ....... "

• • .... ·--if

~~

, ....... ,; •

~ .JJ-'; iM 1

~

'.J~~

, ..-0 ..".; .,iT

"'f'! ... .:! ~ yabisa yaybasu to be(come) dry

fII'

~

D ...... • '"

"

.-. ....,... ""

., - ..

'-' ., J_"'" 14.1

82 I

. ..... .".

..

~ ....

. . ..... .;

,.

1 ' .,...,. ~

.) ,a..:........., '.J J....r----

,

. ....... .,

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

. .) ,....:......., '-'~

, ."" • ..".. I

.U~~

..... .,. ............ t

..:,t~~

....0 ....

l_.: • 4t* + _j

....

Participle mustawrid

. .,. ,

~J_'::"'"

, ..... 0 ...

• I ...... v.'

It!.'" ...

,.

,;' }. , L. ; OM t_.t

...

....

,... , 0, ,

l..:sz"'_'"

.-

...

i. .... r4 ..... v

.-

, ... 0 .,

-

~"'"I'''

...

. ,.

, ............

U.)J'y"tf"

,.

, ...... ."

· l ...

I .. ..W--1--;J ..., ...

I""

." .#

~., l6tt ...

'-' -

~ ...... .; .. ._f_'o' .... ,,_w 2 _z

. -

. -

u--ntt t,J

._

,.

, ..... 0 ~

",. " .;

t_, . tt tsJ

._

._

; • ""............ I

~~~

,

~ ..... ""

· l -

j '- ttd tJ.J

V ._

"" JI' ....

l .... ,_...._.

..

...... *t....,~

...

-

V,. traAJ

.. -

';_""U-twI

...

....

Jussive

Subjunctive

,

II'" ....... .....

• ,0 .,.. • 1'" , • __ t ..

.....

" ,0 .; •

~

.. ...

J ..... 0 ....

t,· ..... ~

. -

,.., D ~

l ...::

. ..

.... .....0 ....

...

~ ...... v.t '-' ....

, ..... ,

IJAM""':;

. -

~ .... 0,

L~

J

...

.6 ........

..

I tat t • .,._:1 ...., ....

..... ,

JI' ..... 0,

l.utt":

eo

.~

-

.......,.,;

tr .-

... ~ ....

, "". ~

,. ..... ,

l +dt +."j

...

". .....D ~

-

~ .. ,.=,

••

-

W--_o_.t..t. 1"- 1

._,_ -* ------....

..

-*-MI:wAJ

~ ....

.. ,.

o .... 0 ,

~ ..... 0 II'

l __ -t ...,_,_._j

......

..

". ,

" . .;. .""

J ...... ."

I'Y~ ~ ..,

•• ......

, ...........

l. "''-_J&_-,_t

... _

.,.. a ..... ,

, .........

~~

...

" ..... 0 ,.

..

J .... k'__.)

'-' .-

o ...... _"

..

, .. ,. t.u....J '-' .....

." ,. ~

l.&,-J

...

",- ........ ."

~ .. v.J

. --

istawrid

Imperative ibas

yabs

Participle yabis

L ~-

~J

..".

~I

• ....... f

~~

Verbal Noun

" '"

I_,--J I

.-

.".

, 0- ,

~MAJI

.....

.-

, ............. ,

PASSIVE Imperfect yustawradu ~~

, ..I. 1

Perfect usturida ~ ~

.". ..... ,

Participle mustawrad ~ ~

PASSIVE none

, ..... " , ,~

IIIIV ~'\~ to dry .. 83/85

" , ~ ,;",,, ~.,

I (').JJJ) ')J! ')J.J to arrive at ~!\ ... , to appear 71; II lJ.J to supply

,; ,,..-1-

with ... 'y 75; N ~J.J I to transfer is, to import ... , to quote .. 77

., ~~ .. " importation

....... ,

l J"'; tMA importer

~ LJt\ ·"tl ~- ~

"

dryness, dried, arid terra firma

dry, arid

~J.JA

,

')J[;'[ ,,;;.

• ~~ .r, y ~ .) j ,.,.. government revenue

, , ;,

.)I~ .:JA ... .)J[,1, .,. ~~I the news from Baghdad

import (goods) ~~f quotation, importation, revenue

_,.

supplier ,) G~ ~ ,) J (, arriving, import, income

,.

source, revenue uf.;~L,.,..Jur.)JG imports and exports

,. . .,

.lI.JY supply

ASS/MILA TED

ASS/MILA TED

, ~ ", ~- .,

J .... !~ J ve! yassara yuyassiru to ease ... ,UL=-

J".1 ,

!

..

84 ill

, ,,~~ ~

..J*'I ~ ..J*'I ~ yasara yuyasiru to indulge ~

83 II

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

ACTIVE

Imperfect

, ~ ",



..r---'" t_.

~

..

Lf~C;

.r: ..

II '0" ~

f~l:

I 'D ~ ~

~_rMl:

I , .. G

J..r -

"'"

~ .. ~ ~,

. ...

l,,).JJ*Ma::-t

.",

..... r7I "',

. -

U.;-t~

,

.; ,~ .:»

. ,., .,.,

..

t'.r""-!

$ J.' "..

-

~~

J' ....

'J~

-

J ""'-!-'

0' ;'

..

~-.J dNi!-'

.,,,..

, 'Ii ;,



LJ~~-=!

",.

,. ,

Jussive

Subjunctive

Jussive

. ,. ~,



.J dd' !--'

. ~ .... "_J"I .. ! t

,

• til ~,

..

J-*" !-'

,..

~ ~,

~

., 0 .;"

· W t,J_rM ..

.,.,. - ..... ~ t ,. J I

J w~

~

,. ~ _,~

..

fAt"', ... •

....

,..

, ~ ,J

fJJ 1"~

.,

~. ~ ",.I

,

,_, ~J.

L,J w;:

r w

~ -

"

r w

~ -

,.

r c.:

~ --

,

I' ~

JJ*M --

~

...... ~ ""

. ..

fJ~1H t.J

•• ..

. -

f.J~_f" h'

ro_

..

,;

s » .,-'

b.)'''-'u~

,..

" .. # .,-, •

UJ tM :.-!

I!l'

...

4.S J' ... ::J

-

;;

" ttl "".,

~

, #I _"

lJr"~

...

.... 0 _, __ ,



"'J ott!'!

.",

-

..rt" _..._ _t

_Ua

-

_,

-

..r-t., -::'

Verbal Noun taysir

Participle muyassir

- ..

muyasir

f'L

'J~ -

Imperative yassir

Verbal Noun muyasara

Participle

L::.

J*M -

.~

r - .;

r;-t if!

",.

r fII ,til

J .... !

,.

, #I ,

1.J .. r·"!

. _, ;

...

J! tt' ,sJ

• • ;

;-ttt"_A

• ..

II



U.; teL!

,.

Perfect

.J ..... ~

~..J"-"~

0~4

Imperative



yasrr

~ G

~-

r c

J4M -

s : ~

_r"I __ Perfect yusira ..r'" >!.

,.

" ,. "

muyasar ."..,l;.

., .; ,

Perfect yussira ~

PASSIVE Imperfect yuyassaru

PASSIVE Imperfect yuyasaru

.J+tt tJ

--

~ _"

Participle muyassar J'sUu:..A

Participle

41' ~ ~ _" ........;' , ", ." ,

I ("/"4!) Y •• :'~ ."....! to be(come) easy 82; In J**~ to indulge. 8 4

See83

~ - ~"

V J'''!ei to flourish ·86

ease.Jefu-hand)

left-wing

. .,

-

.;

",

~! .;cAM! easy for

~ , ~,

~ .. !A facilitated

r:sMe:J facilitation

"

~., .I .....

.,r.- ... c;. .c:. ~ easy to do. prosperous

"..

WI I,. on the left J • c..r--

~, , _, 611'''~

.;! .NL;o [. ~..,.. \)E~~ prosperous

, , ~

1

r



I

ASS/MILA TED

J .,..., ,..1:

~J"!. ~l 'ayqana yuqinu to ascertain y\..A

85 N

~~CTIVE

Imperfect

-

" ,

r·' [:j N

'-' ~-

.". .,.

" ,

cJW_,.;

Jusstve

. ""

~JI

.".

. ,

~_,;

.;

,

,_;J~

- ".".

. , ...

~~

Verbal Noun

,- -

iqan

Participle muqin

Imperative

Participle

,

, • "'1

~J

, ". .....

~I

6 "t:'!. ... :... ..t." ......

8 V . ~~~ &2j~. tayaqqaza yatayaqqazu to be vigilant

~

I

I

I

t t

~

.

ASS/MILA TED

..

Perfect

ACTIVE

Imperfect

'1;'" " , , . - .

&.. ;...

&

"13!lf" ..

........

l~ a t t

-...

-

", , ....... -t

L.,:.; iJ J

..

... 0 " ,'"'l

- ... ,

\.. ... : l.'

1;" ...... · ... _-

'-' L f.!-,-'

-

..



A

0 0 ,..

.. f

l _...!ct_lJ

.. _--

.. Jj"""'" · ... _-

",l_~

... li., .... "' ... . .... ..

'-" .. , -;.,

.... -

- -

t

L I

,

!

-

..

" li:- ,

· ...

.. ·,l iJ

.., -

.... h! ......

. . ...

fJJ • '.' '

......

Subjunctive

Jussive

-

-

lz' .... ' ... ...

. ..;.,

V-*·

,

.la!-" -: ..

• ... .... I

~.-

- -

..........

.1a'" ....

. - ...

. .; ..

.~ - ..

...

, .

ayqin

Perfect

Gh!'-:

" « t t



..

Subjuncti ve

. -

1;.." _'; ~ . ... .

l •. :J

..

..

,. h' ......

- .....

....'w

..

• lz' ....

.......

l. *41 • .as n.aw

..

-

.''1a.' ......

... ..

1 ... ";1

UZA~.)Q.



Verbal Noun tayaqquz

,~,;

... -

• t l ba

-

rnutayaqqiz Imperative tayaqqaz

lJatJ

• o~

~,

14 ~ .. ",-'

. ·,.A



-

~~~

... - •



..

PASSIVE

..; "

-

Imperfect yuqanu ,jJJ'!.

Perfect

..., ~

'uqina viJI

'1;.-" "',

PASSIVEo Imperfect yutayaqqazu ,~;~;--!

..

Perfect tuyuqqiza

~ ,

Participle muqan.:".i _,..,.

..

"1; .. "

. ... -

. &...J

, , • .. • t. -;'" .. .1:. .... " "t. ~'"

IIX t:.i.:-.o"'\C..;o!)~io1"!~ to be awake, to awake

IIIIV ];i~f\""t:.i! to waken .' 83/85

0" , ...... ~, .,

I (vi--!) wA:d ~ to be sure of y \ ... 82

....

., "...... ; #,..,; ~ ,.'""

V!X ~~''''''\~y\.A 86/87 = IV ~'85

,..

82/87

0, ",

y u-i! \y ~ certainty of

.;' "".;~,

Li..i.!-..... convinced

r;'''''

. - ..

• t I. _JUS

-

certain of

..

indisputable

vigilant awaking vigilant

..

t

87 x

ACTIVE

'1;.. ..........

. .. .

a1L~~"" ---_v I

..

.1; 0..-0 .; . ... .

'.,_t ." j

-

,

h· ... · .... 'J:' i.t_; u"

- ....

."

" 1:. ...... ; . ...

c.J ..... ¢t1j

4.= b

.. - II"

ASS/MILA TED

HOLLOW VERBS

Jla ..... .- ... .... .....

:~?t1C! t;;~v_,1 istayqaza yastayqizu

to be awake, to awake

Imperfect

h· .. · ..

. - .,

· L· ... oe:c1t•

lV_

..

Jussive

h· ... · ...

. .. ..

l .~':.ttt

~~-

-

,.

:& .........

. .. ..

l .... -:<tMJ

..

,

1; e_... ".-

l~ i .... ".tt t

... ,..,

,..

1; .,. ,.

. ... ..

l'_'_W--'1 "J

..

Verbal Noun istlqaz

,.&lL;:MI

-

..

Hollow verbs are the second sub-class of the weak verbs. They are those with a weak letter, _J or ,_, , as middle radical. The other two radicals are



~

't; • ..,.. ,

. ... ..

La':: t_Ala'

-

Perfect

sound; a few roots have initial" and a sound final radical. A few roots have alternative middle radicals .J or ~ ; their conjugation mostly follows

...

the pattern of J ~

Conjugation. The standard conjugation patterns shown in paras. 23, 25 and 29 to 33 of the introductory chapter (tenses, imperative, participles

~

'"

~ ........

. . - ..

.a ""7 .....

_ LU

.. ...

.",. fI"

..J 1:. ." 0 ". . ..

a_..; -"# I

~ u

.. ..

,

, i ... '·"·

~ 12 ;.:ri *H I

'"

~ ..... ..... ,

. .. ..

..

and verbal noun) apply to hollow verbs in the active voice, subject to the following provisions:

• In Form I, the weak middle radical vocalises, i.e. becomes a vowel: J

, ,

becomes short ... or long J ... or L. ,4.S becomes short ... or long ~ ...

or L .. One small but important group of middle-j verbs follows an anomalous pattern, with .J becoming short ... or: .. , or long L ..

,.

• In Forms IV, Vll, vm and X the weak middle radical vocalises:

- in Forms N and X, both middle J and middle ~ become : .. \ r... in

..

the 1st principal part (i.e. the perfect tense) and the verbal noun;

and ... \-l'" in the 2nd principal part (i.e. the imperfect tenses),

" ,

imperative and participle.

- in Forms vn and Vlll, both middle j and middle &.S become : .. \ r. ..

-

,

'l:.. ...... ..

. .. -

' __ 1 -: CrMJ

..

..

-

'1; ., D ",

. - ..

, t -: _.._ .. I.

x ___

..

Subjunctive

... 1; » -» ~

'Lt.:...'

..

1:.: ..... '"

. .. ..

L '-..Ad ... J

~

"t. .... 0 ...

· .. ..

, "~..w '

...04 _. a



"'"

't:.. ..... ..

.. .. -

,L.._ -: ,,_H t

--1 • ...

~

. ..... ~

f·.. ..

'J '--!-~ t 11 J

,

, h ..... 0 '"

.. .. ..

~~7 t.ftIJ

,

~- ...... ~

ItaW t tI f

J • III'

~

, 1; ....... "" . -

,·,4.w t'1!

...., .. ..

".

...

,.

!i ..... 0 ,.

· .. ..

u·'-=:? .... ·

-

,. ~

"'t; ....... ,.

· ..

I .. ~ ... L~ ,

IVS ..

. ..

- ...

,

.1:3 ...... ..

. - -

'_Ja_-W .wi J

-

#'

1; ....... ",

.... ...

l,..:: t 01 .'

..

,.

~ ..........

1;" ..

.L.; ...... '

...

Participle mustayqiz Imperative istayqiz

h· ... · la. .... 01:;. .....
L,: i..: •• JHJ l..:.; .t_t ,_., I . ~ ;Jis' atW +' ,
... ..
, ",. ,. ". ,. , •
.... 12 .... lh .. • .. • I h· .. ·
~:;,,':tHI .ct..-:trM :A_, ~t# t
---- u ~ _=
- ..
, , ~ , - ". ,,; " throughout the tenses, imperative and participle.

In Forms II, III, V, VI and IX, and in a few anomalous verbs in Forms IV, vm and x, the middle radical stabilises as a consonant, and the conjugation follows the standard (i.e. sound) pattern completely ~

• Whenever the middle radical vocalises as indicated above, it becomes a long vowel when the final radical is followed by a vowel Cvocalic ending'), and a short vowel when the final radical is



followed by a consonant ('consonantal ending') or by .iU ~

_,

• The verbal nouns of Forms IV and X have i ... after the final radical.

The stem of a hollow verb is derived as follows:

",

• Perfect (active) stem: the final ... is dropped from the first principal

part; further, if the middle radical is vocalised, it is long (always ... 1...) before a vocalic personal ending and short before a consonantal personal ending (see above), e.g.:

, ~ ...;

first principal part J L., • perfect stem.. i ... \ .. ...i ~

" ,

• Imperfect (active) stem: the prefix .. -! \ .. -! and the final ... from the

I

I

PASSIVE none

1:. .... ,

. ..

........

..

I

See 86

- 133 -

..

HOlLOW

I-KJLLOW

88 I

, , ~ ~ ~

J~''''.! J l..., saqa yasiiqu to drive ...

second principal part are dropped; further, if the middle radical is vocalised, it is long before a vocalic personal ending and short



before a consonantal personal ending or ... (see notes above), e.g.:

, , ~ .~ ~

second principal part ~j_! , imperfect stem .. ,.i,~ ... \ .. ...i _,...., ....

Middle j and middle..; verbs are listed together V first) under each

..

form (I - X).

ACTIVE

, , ~

- .

...,..,....t

Imperfect

, ,-"

J..,..,I

, J"

... -

'-'JaM'

Perfect
C.:' J .,
.. - ..
"'_"'_·~rIJ
_._
. ,., " ,. , , • oJ
.. l.7=-4 .. 1' .. -
~ ... ,.t ...
• #. , .; I •.. .J
.. [';4.,., - ..
~'\#I '----" ~..,
._
.,
1)(.., lll:., Jc.
W~ • -:'L:.,
":4 ,; , , ,.

... ...

~__"'."J

~ , , f1I"

..

L.uJ.,..~

.; ., _.. -

~

; ,.,

... -

~J-'t' '

,.

, ,,,

..

~-t_.._t •

_._

-

Jussive

• , 1.

- I ~

~ ..."

.. .

a.JJ''' •

Subjuncti ve

.", ,-i

J,.,..,I

• J '"

, , ."

t,.i yu.'i

~ . ~ ,. - -

c.JA 1M t

, ,,, .. - f ... II' t".,;iI.."J s.

, , ."

I - - ~J"'"

, , , I-~ - '-'J.M'

. , ,

_, ., '" .. -

~.4'·

., , ~ I-~ ..

U....J-' l' I

, I ~ I-~ -

u >' 1h'

ffI' } .,.

U_,.. •• ;

'" , .,

li~

, ,

~ -

~..JiM'

"

..". ,"'

..

...,...,.. tt!

, , "

L,.iJotO!

"" ., ~ ..

4.JA'f'!

Verbal Noun siyaqa

~L.v;

.......

4J



Participle sa'iq Imperative suq
~t:., ~~ U~ . ,
-
~
, ll~ ,
,. .,
.. -
,JA.d ~J*"
>
~ 1
, _, ,
yusaqu J~ Perfect
,
, ~ Participle masiiq Jy ....

'TIfF' T

- -

PASSIVE Imperfect

II ;:,';... to market _" 93; III J~c:.. to accompany 0 95

VJ-';w1 to deal in the market 99; VI 2;~l:M7 to form a series 101 vn JL ... ;I to be driven 103; vm 2;G: .. J to herd ... 105

~ ~

free market

~ . ~

~ t:.:. course, trend ~L, driving force, driver .jJ_"""; marketing

~ ,

"",'" ,.,

- ,,;- .; .. -1- t,.. .. drivi I'"'

~,.b. -Jl.... to pursue a discussion 4.5,-! .M ..... ,..J vmg icence

-/;::J ' ",4 , 0#

4) ," A J -4.:: !J~' -J;-JI the Common Market

. "" ,

(m.lf.) J("" t [. J..,....,

i'IJ..,:J1

market



senes

black market

- 134 -

, ,

• ~ # , ~

I~ - ~! -AJ l...:. it comes down to this

i

, ,~~,_

y-J.~ yl 'aba ya'ubu to return intr .•

to incur '---' , to be left with \..J

• •

• •

UJ>

90 I

HCJLLOW

, .,;'" ",

J ~ J l,;. khafa ya,khafu to fear &'" \ ... '.:r \ a

HCJll..OW

89 I



, .4

.. "_... t

..

ACTIVE

, [;J"

. . ..

t...J

Imperfect

:_; l.i.l

Perfect

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

, , .; ••

YJY

.....

l.:A>

-

, ,.

l · ·

.. f.A>.

, . ....

4r...re-.' "

• ..t

wi



t

\

I

., ." ., ....

~

~G~

.".

~li~

l~1



J i

D .. . .,

,,__...4,.

-=- __





",. . ••



. /"':

~ •• 1



, . .,; " • •

. .. .,.,_.

...,._z_ _

. ",., .. -

'- ""-'

--

Subjunctive
~~ ""
. . ... Jli.l
'-'
I .. ~ II ~ ~ 'Ij.,j
~ . - L;.; · ...
u
~ .", "'" U~ ~~
.. - . ..
~~-.u

-
,
1 {~ G~ ~~
• •
u
~-
- -
, ..... .", Li~ ~~
• • · ....
~ u

klla'if Imperative khaf
t)~ uLi-. .. ~
••
,-4>
.... .,,, llLi. u-ili.
• •
,jA>
- ,.. Jussive

Subjunctive

Jussive

· ,. ~ 4t...J ...

.JJ

o .... "

•• •

"-..,...,

Li~ U~ li~

o "

....

..._.u.u

· ,,,,. 4....J ...

.JJ

, , --

'-'..JJ-l

.. ".

· " ,.

~&.J

• ..,T" ..

.; ., ,. ....

~jJ

, , .I ....

'J-'J~

~~

.. ,

. ,,, • •

t...U\J

..

i

<

Verbal Noun khawf/mukhafa Participle

~11-; "\~ .0';' ~

__ ~ -r.r ,-4.:: l>

Verbal Noun 'Iyab/tawbta)

......... ."

~JI\YJ'\Y4!

Participle 'a'ib



Imperative 4

LJI

4

LJI

'ub

~ , . ~

~l;.I\,-i,~ intimidation

,.

, .;

J _,.;.... feared



, ~, ~

PASSIVE Imperfect y ukhafu J~ Perfect khifa '-~£_';"

PASSIVE None

IIIIV J~ j\~_(,.; to frighten ../b ,1# 93197; V J-;';'; 99 = I Jli.. 90

yt:. homecoming

G Lie La. ... ~ there and back

• -!-J •

"

-.; "

yl..J y_"~ coming and going

. ~

Lr J __,;. fear of

~ ";J~ t A.l~ fear of

~

. ~ ~ "

'-:" J' J5 ~ on/from every side

y4G yll,") iJjJ return ticket

6u; .. J __ ';'''' dreadful

..

''''' .;

J~ dread

IJ , ,.;

~ Jl,> (. ._;;l;. anxious for

.",.

~ U:'; fearing for

, ' , ,

~J Lt> (\.,.ijl,;. frightened of

, ,. ~

4r u __,;. for fear of

", -~~' ..,

- ..

~.... for fear that

i

, J ~ r:

,J.,.J! .) ~ zada yazidu to increase intr./..A

91 I

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

A

l;~j

,

.,.

f~j

"".

-,.

.. .

~~J

"

'J~G

, .

~.)j

,

". , .,

J.J_Jj

~ , ~

~JJ.j!

~rJ.,.)

",. ,

~r:u_)

, ..,.. "'"

, .

Jussive

Subjunctive

. " •

.)jJ

."

G.._i

,

r:, .. :. wItJ.jJ

.",

1.J~:;

,; , ~

l,J,,~

~

rJJ~

,;

r: 1 .• ~ wW.jJ

Verbal Noun ziyada

-" .. 1" •

-.~\J.J

,

Participle za' i d

..l>1j

,

Imperative zid

(..\.tj .~j

" .;

u.,..J v JoJ_j

..

_, ,. ",.

, r' ,

PASSIVE Imperfect yuzadu ~ ~ Perfect zida JJj

,

~

Participle mazid JJ..jA

~

" 'II ,,; "r. ' ~~ ~

II .JJj to increase .IJ 94; 1II-4tj to outbid. 96; V J.J...J to increase intr ..

to exaggerate intr. 100; VI ~fj to intensify intr. 102; vm ")()jt to in-

".

crease intr. 108; X .. "fj:: .... J to aim for more .. , to demand more of • 113

tJII' <r? r~

i"",-! ljot \ .) ~ auction

~r'"

~ 'ji increment



Increase

", ,,,'~

JJ.j1 exaggeration

J.iW[iJ.itj appendage

, ,

~ • t • ,,,,.~' I"

~~ c.r-i~\JJ moreover

• .. ('t

Jl&.. ~1· ')'')jl price rise

,,~ \ ~',,"'t ...

.. I AII' ~I ~J olJ....H with many thanks/much regret

_,

JJ_;'" excess, increased (verb) form

~

~LLI ,y:. J.SU surplus to requirements

it; ~t ·~fi to make matters worse

HOLLOW

~ laysa not to bey\(

92 I

ACTIVE

Perfect

(with present meaning, 'I am not' etc.: see para. 8 of the introductory chapter)

U ~

~

• ~ 0 J

'-- ..•• t+ + -.&&

..

NB: 1 ~ Personal endings are always sounded, even in short pronunciation.

2. For future. use (.)~ '1 88; for past, use ~lS' L.. 88.

3. For present affirmative, see para. 2 of the introductory chapter.

Imperfect, Subjunctive, Jussive, Imperative, Participle, Verbal Noun: none

PASSIVE none

Increased Forms none

1-

~~lS" ~ I is that not so?

., ;'·1

... ~ ... ~ not only ... but also ...

,

:J ~A:" .)\~ he has notlno ~ ~ ::':No·J\~ there is no

J;llt ~ he cannot say

I.

I

HaLOW

HOLLOW

93 II

94 n

J~*: .. J ~_~

mayyala yumayyilu to incline J,t , b

'tlllf .", .,- t' ~

v ...,.~ u ~ mawwala yumawwilu to finance .A ,

to enrich 0

Imperfect

Perfect

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

~~ ~~ .:;j~

,.

J';'

~;.

..

~~ ~~ ~~ W;'

-

_,

~

.. ..

.,."

J~'~~

...

..

-

Subjunctive

.t

J.,:;-I

Jussive

Jussive

Subjunctive

,

,

.

""

Verbal Noun tamyIl

Participle mumayyil Imperative mayyil

t_,4:. ~ J;;.

,-

~

!

Verbal Noun tamwil

Participle rnumawwil Imperative mawwil

• *"

J.:.-, .. i

_ .

.,.

Perfect muyyila J. ~

, «:

PASSIVE Imperfect yumayyalu ~

PASSIVE Imperfect yumawwalu J~~ Perfect muwwila J;'

,

Participle mumawwal J""::'

- ~ ,

Participle mumayyal j;..o

I (~) ~ J(. to incline towards~! 91; IV J(.l 98 = II ~ 94

,

~ , "" .", ~.."..".

vtv: ~W\P to sway 100/102

X Jr~:dl to attract towards u1! J,t ,u1! b 113

,.

vJ' ;. 7 to be financed, to become rich 99; X -J l:'; IA' I to become rich 111

J[,:.l-~J(' wealth, property J(' financial J_':~ financier

J(. _,.; \J;; wealthy ~_,:'7 financing 4J~ ~:.. "financial year

, , ' ,

'-"'l:.. ...... ,D. inflation JU'i" .. .a(' ~:':"':.. a wealthy foundation

.. ~ 1 ~ J""

~~lS J[,:.; [.:~U JG. fixed asset" J(.':_;;_' financial status

.. -,' . ., J"." ............ J" -... \...

A:lti ~ f 'r:: JZ - L. movable asset

~"tUI ( .. ~ ~",

~ JjA ~f) ..r.J.J \iJUJ MinistrylMinister of Finance

JC;\J ~ ,..... inclination, trend

.. 'J-: ~~

u1! J.i~ tilting, tending towards

u1! J~ biased towards

""

~! ~ I more in favour of

,

~

,

"~

,

,

l ~

,

J

. . ,

i

,

~



HCLLOW

J.J~ .J:,G. hawala yuhawilu to try ~i\ ...

95 ill

Perfect

c.;_t,G. l:~G. ~~b. ~G.

~~ ~~b.

~~~

fI"

~b.

::JJG.

Jussive

Subjunctive

.4

J_,~t

,

J_,w

~

v'_,W

,."

J~

~ ..

.;

J_,w

4

J _,t;;.1

".

~.JW

,.

,).J~

.,~

~~

~ ..

,

:J_,W

~JGJ

,

J)-,~

,.

J_,W

,

I f ~ '_YJ ..

,.

:)-'~

J_,GJ Jj,W

II"

~_,~

,

,f ~ ~J _

,

~J~

~J~

~

~JW

"

~G..:

_, -

,.

\t_,GJ

Verbal Noun muha wala Participle

~ b:. J _, G.:.

muhawil Imperative hawil

,)_,b. ~-,G..

,. ,

~.J' ~.Jt;.

PASSIVE Imperfect yuhawalu JJ~ Perfect huwila J__";

Participle muhawal J:,~ ..

I (JG.) j~ JG. to be changed into u11\ ... ,(1JJ..:;:}to prevent ~_J;88 II J;' to transfer ... 93; IIIIV J b.l \ J _,;.. to transform from ... to u1! \ ...... 93197; V J.,,;J to be transferred/transformed u-'! to/into 99; VI ~t,;J to stri ve for c..J.s. 101; vm J ~, to dece i ve c..J.s. 1 05

~ .

IX :.r_;., to squint 109; X J~:tlf to be transformed into""" 111

~ ~ .

Jr,;..l[_J'condition, state 41'- case J~ present. actual

Jj[,;..E jib. obstacle "G. at present J~.7': variable

,., , ~

Jr.,.;. \~.,,;. about, approximately J'.;J'\~_~ transformation, transfer

~~ attempt AJ'- ~ in the event of J~ J,S-c..J.s. in any case

HOlLOW

96 ill 'c; .... C baya' a yubayi' u to make a contract with b

t; ... ~. ~

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

- .

~G

.. .

. , .... ~

~~

- .

- .

" • .1 ,

It, -+ __ ~ L

- .

. ,,;'

~L,

.. .

Jussive

Subjunctive

- . ,

w •

.. .

- .-

.. . ....

,

.-. C~ VA! .-

.. . ,

Verbal Noun mubaya' a Participle mubayi'

Imperative

.. . .".

, ~ ", , }

PASSIVE Imperfect yubayau ~~ Perfect buyi' a r:~

."

., ."

Participle mubaya' ~ ~

i

. ,. , .",,, , ~ .... ""'-

I (~) ~ t 4 to sell Jj j u1!\o 91; IV t. ~I to offer for sale j; 98

,

, , ,., ,., .....

VI ~ ~ to conclude a deal 1 02~ Vll t 4-i f to be sold 104

.,.

.,,- .....

VIII t~J to buy ... , ~\o 107

.,.



. .,..

tran sac ti on

sale, sold

buyer retail

t

t~ (~ sale

L.:;

t _. salesman

~~~~~ seller

, ..- .

t~' purchase

" ,

~ for sale

,.

~1· '. L ."

~ . t= wholesale

'"

• '. ~ 11 t ' , ~ c=-:"' .b _'r terms/conditions of sale

I

I ", ....

~ i u I "aqama yuqimu to organise .A ,

,; to rectify ... , to raise .... to reside

Imperfect , -1 G:J1

~

_,

, J

~

.,

,

..

r_tJ

I-KJLLOW

, ,_,~ ..

98 N ~ ltt_I') f 'adha f a yudhi' u to broadcast y \ ...

,

HOLLOW

97 N

ACTI\lE.!

~

,.

,.. ~ ,

.....

'-'J4:J--'

,

,,;. ,

.. _

';"'AJ

,

., , "

..

4,)...,.. ::'J:.

, ,,;. .I

-

· .11 t

~z;.,

...

Perfect

" 0." ""

- .... ,

....... '

ACTIVE Imperfect
, .' , 4
J.i t!~ 1
~
,. .".
., , .' , .' .I .'
· JJ .l.uJJ JJ
1JjA! &J - ~
,. , ~ ,
,. . .' ,; .' ",. .J
~Jj .l..uJ..i • JJ
&.J M ~
-
, ,. ,. , ,
, , .' ~ .» ,J .'
~-'-! • J.J ~~
'" ..-
~ ,. " ,
~ . .' ~ .» , .'
~...\.t • J.j ss
u - t!
, tI'" ttl' "".
Jussive
o .' • -l
t~'
J.j
t;
.,
J' .» G.., .» • .'
rJ#4.J..i Jj JJ
t;
..
, ,.-
~ . .' Gu .» .'
~Jj JJ JJ
~
..
,. , - , "
I' .» ~.L • .'
~ __ tJ..t ~~
.. -
... ..
,. ,.
; . .' ~ .' • .'
~-'-! s: ss
t;

, ,.
Verbal Noun 'idhaf a Participle
~r~J .'
t!-~
I-
, , Perfect
..... .,-1. , ..... 1-
~j' ~ttb ~,

r~'~1 "" J. ,~ " • "" "1-
L .... ,,~I ";.JL_t;. ~ t
g, " .....
- .I. ,.j .... , ..... ""
L .. :; ___ e ~ 1 ,:* __ e ~ ,
.-~.)
~
J 1- ..... .; tr;j
tyr~ I L&- r~ ,
........ -t " A
· , r ~
~51 ~r~t ~#~e ~ J
Subjunctive ,,; . .._

~

L ~. -:."'1

.....

..... iii .... '1.

.. - ,

\. , .. '

~ , , ,

l ..... " .,II_,

• _d .ld

...

,. ,..

." J

.• , L. '; __ ,

v .-

"" ,.

, ,

, ......

~ \ •• _..AJ

,,- " .... "'"

L .. ;.i'

II ..... ~

.. -,

"ct.'

';'Li1

, • ,,'1

~I

1-

ColJ I

.....

Li:. Li f

..

Subjunctive

Jussive

-

. ,

...

~

.. .I

I_"':i~

",.

". ..

......

·.IJ va

~ .-

...

~

,

I ' -! ~!.,_,

,.

..... .J

.._

· .Jt I

4,)-_J&

.."

, .,

I_,...';"

.. -

,. ..

l ~ ..

.. la' '

-

.,. ~. ,

..

'-'.'--!

. -

,

., ,J

l " ..

• .---' l

,

Imperative

, "1. , ......

I~j' ~I

; .'1- ., .... 1-

~I ~,

" .",.

'aqim

o 1-

- ,

r-:

.....

... i J (.JJ.

-.",. ,

..

,

, ,

I..,. ,_iJ

- -

" , ,

l...l.

- ..

",.

,.,.. "

l..t.i I

- ..

,; .". .6

-

.....

..,.--_

~ , ,

l ....

..,I-_}

..

Verbal Noun 'iqama

r.li,

- ~

Participle muqirn

...

, »» ., ~

PASSIVE Imperfect yuqarnu r~ Perfect 'uqima ~t

,. ."

. . _ _ Participle muqam C ~ ,.

'adhi'

o ..."

t~t

"'""

~~,

...", ",

j

mudhr'

Imperative

, -1. ""

I~~I ~~,

".. ..... ....

~~I ~5'

". ~ ,.- )}"".-,

I (4-. .",.i\4.~) r~ ru to rise, to undertakey , to take charge of

'"

~ 88; II r-; to raise .A , to evaluate ... , to adjust J; 93; III r~Li to resist

~ , .

J; ,6 95; X r u. 1 to stand up 111

"".

_ _ L1U_

pm

PASSIVE Imperfect yudhafu t ~ Perfect e' Participle _ mu~'wt:J,..

I (~~)~~t.r~ to spread intr. 91

,

. ,..,. - .....

v: _; nationa1(ist) ~ ,_,.i nationalism

~ [1:!"; value r4J uprising ~[,.:i t ~:'jli list, register

...." , ".,

rtf. site r(,i~ ~li rising, upright 4:.li! raising, residence

J.:.li:: .. t probity uL=-'r(,l custodian of ~ -if,; stewardship of

, ; ~,

~Jli7~r' __ ~; raising, adjustment J~ \t~ r(,i c:. ~li charge d'affaires

~ ~ "

nation

.I'.

t~.)

~rr. -~t~.i..

, ,;

~r~

III"

L_j11-~r~!

~.;! ,;

JQ..~I-~r~!

diffusion, circulation

~r.;1 broadcasting

.. ,.

.'

~~ transmitter, announcer

,

~ ~~r;, radio broadcast(ing)

microphone widespread

television broadcast(ing) news broadcast(ing)

I

HOLLOW

,$, ~..,." _, .;

... ..

JJ-'i2 t~ J..J'<1' tasawwara yatasawwaru to i ..

y 0 unaglne ",/J) , .JJ-*~

to be portrayed

99 V

.-\.CTIVE

Imperfect

. ,. -.". ,

~_;_,.aJ

- ,. #..". ,.

~_;_,.aJ

J_J~<27

, .~,,~ . _-

4,)J -.JJ' ~ • •

,0_-, ,"" . .. ..

4J")J-~#LUt

Jussive

t $" .",.", •

JJ-a 7~'

. ~ _, ..........

J..>,ai I

.""" ,,. •

Jya:-..,

f ~-~ ,,,

.JJ~-;~'

"", _,.,

JJJ.r4 ;.;

_-

JJ"tD' I

."." ,.,..

u~

..

.-

._." ,,,

JJt'a~

,$" ",;

I_J_J...,...'" '4.

J# ... .,,~

I_JJJ"''''_~

Verbal Noun -ta~awwur Participle

mutasawwir



'_J~a7

..

Jya •

"'.~." "'"

.. ..

uJ_"'.:2 t

Subjunctive

"$,, ,.~

.JJ'.ai I

Perfect

J-OlLOW



, .", _,,, ,#I" _, ,#I

. . ..

J!,_:j-! ...r.:AJ taghayyara yataghayyaru to change intr.

Imperfect

100 V

Perfect

ACTIVE

, .~.,..,.

.. . ..

,.__,;~

., 0 _., ,

"' ...

,_; .JJ-iV

• • ...

~

i ._,." - .. -

....,~

.... tI, ., . . ..

f.&'

~~

...

. ,. -, .;

... ...

C"";!JU

r -, '"

._

t • t J_a ...

'" .,.", ..,.

.. -

'--' ~j"a t

, .. ,.;~

. . ... -

ulJ'{ • .. ,

z._ .o~



II ..".".. "

.. ...

'-' .JJ'Q t

Jussive

Subjunctive

..... - ..... ..,-:11

....

~~

~

..

r" ,;

. ..

'¥- __ 9 __ -:_f

.. ~ ,,, . -

r..~

, ~

..

_ ...

_;..J-.Q.t_t

;._;,; . . ....

l.J~

."..~"..,

. ..-

UIJ';' • ~ I

IV.

-

, -,." ;"

b.r.A.;>!

..s~

... ,

.,-$~ ~""

..JJ-'4h!

,-~ .".,

1.JJ!1i!

'" . -" "",

. . -

UIJ'!.~ I

_ ...JL_

- -

r'411 "

. ..

~! • ..,

Verbal Noun ta&.hayyur Participle mutaghayyir Imperative ta:.nayyar

Imperative tasawwar



Participle mutasawwar;;';;:'

",tI, ~

G_"'~7

rll,. " JJtta7

illustrated

for mal, artificial



J .......

-- ~ ..

~

-

J_yal



r-' -'

-.

ft·"

-- ....



Perfect tug.huyyira

,. _" ,

o.

r"·

_---.a

-

I.", ,~

PASSIVEo Imperfect yutadlayyaru .)'!.A;;-!o

PASSIYE Imperfect yutasawwaru ~a~~ Perfect tusuwwira ~;~7

,

~, _"

Participle mutaghayyar ~

I (f;;c.) ~ J II to-be jeal;~~ , of V-- 91; II ;:e t~ ~hange -.A 94

."

;~ ,,; 1-

In J!. U. to differ from .. ,0 , to compete with 0 96; IV ~ l1 t to make

." --.;

jealous 0 98; VI ,J!.lA1 to be varied 102

II.,.~

to depict .A ,b , to photograph ./fA ,. 93

. ~

..... ,

..

J~ [. IIJ..J-P picture, form

depiction, photography

catnera

,

I.; .;

l,$_;_,.·a j imaginary

-

.. ~ . ~ . ~ ~.;, . -

~ .... J ~ bJJ-t~! unofficially

s :": ......

~I ~u (~) (un)imaginable

I,.,.: ~;,

- ~ --~tt 1-·. .".

.J~ ~ \I~.~ [. '-'_!=~ unimaginative

.".

.",.

II' .,.". ,

....

bJ..>,a ..

ph otogra pher imagination

-

J...J-*62 I

, ,

-' . ., -' .-

-

4.!.'MJ tJJttO!

officially generally

"".

~~i~

.... • -1 ." "

~J' iJ_J'"4!

more clearly

,.~ . ,.~

..r.:i other than, dis-/un- .r.:i- except for ;JJI other people, others

". ,



6 ~ J et cetera

. ~ ._

r,-- --.

~~

.....

.~ " •

..r::aa.; •

_,- ,,,.,,

._

r."J

alteration

change

variable

,

- ."

- .

4I..,r.:S- altruism

.,

..s.r.:i- altruist( ic )

.,

, . ., ."

• •

v.Jp ~ unknown

*'

,.. ."

lJ'·_r.i:. except that

moreover

without

i

.

unreasonable

unacceptable

HOLLOW

101 VI .~~Gt.:~ ~~ G.5 tar awana yata' awanu to cooperate 0~

Imperfect

~~wl

Verbal Noun ta' awun Participle rnuta' awin Imperative tat awan

iJ~W ~J~ ~~w ~~W ~JG.j

",

~~W c;~~ ~~~

-"

,.,.. .,.,~.1 ~ » »

P ASSIVEo Imperfect yuta' awanu cJ.J~ Perfect tu' uwina LJ.J...,.,;

ACTIVE

Jussive

lj~~ G~c;.;j

HOLLOW

102 VI ~~ ~Jj tazayada yatazayadu to intensify intr. wLtj

Perfect

ACTIVE

Perfect

Imperfect

, , r .... ""', JJ ._'f

l:;JJL.j d~w

......... W,..,..

- . ..

~.JJ

0.... .....;

". , ~

L_Q& .fL ... '.J \.A.I

~JW 8~w

,

r. .; (' , ",

• J., t • _'-' .. ~

Subjunctive

Jussive

Subjunctive

~ " r .... ""'t .1t~

o'r .... -1.'

.).., ...

.. f

C;J~ U~Lt;j

, :Cr~

.J _..,--~

t:L f·:::

-~

r~~

r~~ r~~

• ", r_,;' .lJ ._-

.. J'-'

- ""

Verbal Noun tazayud Participle rnutazayid Imperative tazayad

~GJ -4J~ J.J~Jj r~1j ~r;

" .... ..".,

Participle muta' awan ~.JlAio

. }"'r~'

PASSIVEo Imperfect yutazayadu '~~

""(;'

Participle mutazayad -4 ;; ..

." "

Perfect tuzuyida J.J..JjJ

,.

A

IIIIIV ~~ ;\~J~ to help b 95197; X ~G,__-;: .. J to ask for help against

uh ,~ 111

See 91

1J~~ \;;~ help 0[;c 1 (~assistant 0~W cooperation

~~~ cooperative ~j~~ cooperativism 1J~! subsidy

- ,. ,.#' .....

~J~ assistant. adjutant ~~Lt:'d' rt~ uncooperative

, ~

L>~G.:-dJ rJS. non-cooperation ~~L.J rr r cooperative society

.; • , , .. '" • .,. t.. ._ '_

i!.:.:H ~ &J-'W development cooperation ~;..r' ~ aid donor

...... ",.. ."..

~rli ~~ food aid c_J.:J' iJ~ commodity aid

..".. " ,

,

f

I-/CJLLOW

HOLLOW

J "" 0......" .", 0

j~ jL,....;f inhaza yanhazu

to withdraw from w-o \~ . to join u-f!

103 VII

inbaa yanbau to be sold

104 vn

ACTIVE

Imperfect

J ... 0-1.

jwl

Imperfect

Perfect

ACTIVE

, l~ t :.

J ...........

WI t·

, .........

t.~

, .... D ....

j~

r .........

.. .. I.--

'-'~~

W~J W~I

""

IjWI

,.. • .- Do, '. . ..

U?....J

,; 0 ..... ,. .•• .. t t

--=•

"C

. .-

# .

'"

} I' ~.,

.~

) -

,.

, L;~ t· -

" ..... ,

t~

,

IJ]WI

,

~~I

.... 0 .... 0 ....

....

r .... 0 ....

• to I - . -. :..

4.JJ~

, .... 0 ...

j~

, ..... 0, •

':;----..J

. -

J u ss iv e

Jussive

Subjunctive

,. ~ ,; D ~

j~'

~

I ' I ..... ·.::

~~

o ..... .,.,

0 .... 0 ....

~

, J ... 0 ..... JjL,.._;;

~ ifQJ

,.,.

...... "'"

Cf-!

a ..... ;t

cfJ

0~ O~ r·~

.J _

0~

'j~ Q~

r·~

_) ..

O~

,.". ." 0 ..... .. .. -

'.Jr--'

, ...... .; ...

• • & ....

.cu.



.... CI .... 0 ....

.. . ....

. ,..,.._...

"-'J we

~G

. ...

D ... 0 ....

I '.G..j~

JJ ..

.............. • •

• L"_ J

v. ~

Verbal Noun inh iyaz

,WI

_) ..

Participle munhaz

Imperative inh az

Verbal Noun inbiya'

wI t -.

;> ,.

Participle munba'

t~

, ' ., 0, Jj~

..... ~ .

IjWI

,.

JjWI

~I

",. ......... 0

~~I

..

Perfect

,. .......

.... .j

'-- __.._. _.._ J __ --JV_o

..

,. .". .....0

" .,

4us ..... • -t- 1

_ • ...sa



,

~ ..... ~ I

• -. j

t..r .-

... "" W ..... ~l

l_ ,.&.

--



Subjunctive

~ 0 ..... ", .-

~



· ..

~ ...... , •

• ...... & i

~

. ..



Imperative inba'

~GI



"

~wl



,;

.; ..... ~I

• • t , v-r-.e ".

. .

i

;

t

~ l

, JI' ."

PASSIVEo Imperfect yunhazu · ~

.J _

Perfect unhlza ~1

PASSIYE ~o~e (~~tive yerb ~l!.~mpass~'ye mean}ng) ....

, o~

Participle munhaz j6..:...0

See 96

±

-

I (ij~\j~) j~ j~ to gain ... 88

,.

V (~) j~ 99/100 ~ VII j~' 103; VIn jG.1

to possess ../b 105

....... -,,0 .,.. 0 ....

;j4> \ijy> \j..,t> possession, tenure

isolation

possessor, tenant

~ partiality, bias

as much as possi ble

j ~", .. __ ; A parti a], biased

isolated, outsider

.... 1 -1. ... 0 ....

j ~ I (j.:> range

HCJLLOW

1 06 VIII r!~:;" r~'-.)j.-I izdawaja yazdawiju to be in pairs (JJ

I-/OLLOW

} ..... 0 ~ ,. ..... D

t~ rl;::..1 ihtaja yabtaju to need u1!

.",.

1 05 VIII

_-\. CTI,rE

1111 perfect

.J ... t-1.

[ l;,.1

, .... " ....

~ (

Perfect

ACTIVE

~I



, ..........

(J.)j

,.

,; , ,...,0 ....

;;Y':J~:;

, J.o ..... 0

L..:.~I



~ ~ 0 ;0

- - t

'--_.....,. .,.

4-- __



.... "'" .I 0 .... 0

l •. t __ "'7*-~ J



." 0 .... 0

~I

....

Jussive

Subjunctive

(J.)J

....

~ ..........

I..P.' J').J

..



....

,

o .... 0 ,

~~

· -

6.-GJ

..



-

..,. 0 .... • '"

...........

Verbal Noun ihtiyaj

((~I

"" ....

Participle muhtaj

I;' c;. ,

Imperfect

, ... D ~

(J.)j I

....

;' ..... 6~ " ... 6 ....

.:,,~-'.).P (J~..?

, , ....

,.". ..... 0 .... ..,. ..... D ....

~ 4- -' .) .P 4.f.::>: _) .) jJ

,,. ;' ..,

otI' .......... , .... ,.,. ......

~~-,.)j! o-»

, .... ....

." ......... ~ ..,0 .....

;;~-'.).P (--'~;;

, , ....

Perfect

, 0 ......... 0

..:~--'~ j I

....

~~~~.}jl

...

$ JD ......... 0.,

~_J~_)

.... , ... .,;" 0

IJ'!" J .) j I

,.".

.... 0 ......... CI

~J.)jl

.... .I 0 ........ D

l~J,)jl

....

.... 0 ........ D

":~J.}jl

",. ".'0 ......... ~

L..;~J,) j I

....

D ......... 0

~"",!"--,,)jl

o " ........ 0

~~--',) j I

Jussive

Su bj U ncti ve

-"" ..... G -"1.

(J,)j I

...

.... .... 0 ....

(J ,)Y

,..

~ _, 0 .,.,



(--,:, jt

,r

, ..... 0 ....

I~ _),) _;

..... .". 0; .,..

~-',).P

.,..

_". .... 0 .,..

~J,)_;;

,

.... .... 0 ....

~J.)~

.... .... .....

6. ~." .J J

,

o .... 0- ",..

.;

,. ..... ~

L,.. s-s .J 'f

,;

.... .... 0 ....

~J~~

Imper ati ve i Q taj

Verbal Noun izdi waj

Participle

muzdawij Imperative izdawij

J ..... D ,., .... 0 ., .... 0

I~ -',) j I ~ --' ,) j I ~--' .) j I

",,. ,.... , r

... lit .... 0 .,; ..... 0 .... 0

~-,,)jl ~J.)jl if.--,,)jl

i

j

I

j

i

t

I

i ~ ~

i

" 0 J

G..G.,



~

c;.G;..1



...

.... .... ....

, ........

PASSIVEo Imperfect yuhtaju .~~

Participle rnuhtaj

, · 1

Perfect uhtija ~

~

PASSIVE none

II t~j to pair oil 93; III (~0 to pair'" , to join in marriage 0 95

.., $"' ....

V r-'.? to get married to ~ \~ \ b 99

VI ~r) to intermarry, to be in pairs 101

.".,,1 -1.

IV r_,.,.1 to need, to require d!' to compel d! 'b, to impoverish b 10

.... 0 " .... 0 ., _, •

(~needy ~! (~needed d! (~I need of

. .; /

.... .... .... ...- ~ 0 ....

(J> need, destitution u-1! ~6. necessity for ~6. .r.._c unnecessary

~~ (. ~~ necessity (thing needed) w~b. (basic) necessities

....

.".. ..,.

~ ~ ..... " . .... ~,. _'..,.,...

~~ J.:.._c if need be .i.wv·L...-l'I ~L>l> our basic needs

- ~ .

I

!

(~j 1 ~ t~j husband, pair

(J,);.o double(d)

, , ........

.

tJ:P marriage

(;? married

- .....

-

~Jj matrimony

.... ,

~Ll' ~ J.jlj surplus to requirements

"'"

~ .... 0,;" ~ J

~! L)_~~ Lo JS' everything they need

• $ .;' , ..,0 ....

J.._, ... ;.1I ,,)A ~! ;5 ~I t::_l.;"..,; L.. the (,whatever') finance the company

... ~ needs

...

~_Jj wife

,. 0. ,

r~,)jl

.... ....

~ (Gj

(Gj

"..

b"r::

.-' J

painng

duality

duplication

"

HCJLLUW"

'.)r.)~ ... .)r.)jl izdada yazdadu to increase intr.

I-KJLLOW

107 VIII

imtaza yamtazu to be distinguished

108 vm

, L:..; ,.

. .

J

Imperfect

~. G:o j

J

Perfect

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

~~CTIVE

.. 0 ..... 0 ,

- .-

....,~

(,)br:J"j

/

LJ r., r.,j1

, D ~

., r., j I

_'~r~)

~.,r.))

~

'., (.,~

_.~ (.)j_7

L.!;" .,"., j I

",.

W.,".,] I

6"

(., (.,j I

.... . ..... ,,; . . - -

iJJA ....

r ...... "

. · ,-_ " ..

'-'~~

"

r ...... ..,.

• .1-.. ~

u~~

, .,. .....

jl.i:,.j

"'"

• .I. "" 0 I

f?

".

fJ .......

~?l

".

J •

'_,jL:...1

" , c.~

. . - -

t,)J.)

J ..... ~

jli.,j

.,.

W~'.". 0 J

....

yA

,.

O~I

,

Gjt.::..1

o ",. I

u.,.,jI

.... ""

'., r.,j I

, J 1:_ .;

• • \.4.t

J.)J_) _

............

, 0 .,

. -

l,,).,;* ....

o ...... ,I

, ~"o , . .. .

.J

I ' I:· ~ ~j~

Subjunctive

... .... 0 ""1

j l.:..o I

Jussive

Subjunctive

Jussive

, ""

. ..

4.J~

o ..... 0 ....

~~J

I_,'.) r.)j;

..........

,FA I

.. ....

u; ...... · ..... !

..... 0 .... 0 ,

(., f.)j1 (., j'".)jJ

r.:. r.,~ r., j'".,j;

I '. G:.:

~J -

(., r.);J (., (.)j; (.) r.,~ r., f.)jJ

... ~;. ...

.)1.,.;

#"'0 ....

\oS~b_;

, J Lw ..... .;

. - ...

'J~

.....

~

o ..... ,

~~~:; IJ'.) r.)~

(J~ :JjJ

, ... 0 ...

IJ.)b~

-

~ . _.,.. .; .....

u_,. ......... ..,!

,. ,. ....... ,

~?

Verbal Noun izdiyad Participle muzdad

,0 .... o} ,. .... 1

.) 4 ., j f ~ I,:, jA JJ .) I., j I

Verbal Noun imtiyaz Participle rnurntaz

j~ ~f jG.:. I_,jL::.1

Imperati ve imtaz

", •

.s j l.:i.o 1

Do .... 0

.).)]1

,. .... .,

\oS ,:,1,:, _)I

..

PASS IVE none

P ASSIVEo Imperfect yuzdadu _.~ r~~

r.0,

Participle muzdad ~ .)...;0

",. 0 ....

Perfect uzdida 004.,_;1

, .... " ...... , ,. .... .,; ".,.,~

IIIV jl. t\ (j-;J) ~ .! jL. to differentiate .A 91198; II ~ to distinguish

,

",.-,,, ~ ..... ."." ..... "

A,~ 94; V ;:-.i 100 = VITI _;l.iol 107; VI _jtW todifferintr. 102

See 91

.~

;:.... preferment

..... 1-

uL:- ;: .1 preferable to

. .... ~ .

~j distinction, preference j~' distinction, honour. concession

.",. ",.

_,,, ", -~ ,

.r:. ";..0 \.j.;: ....

"".

,., . ".

.,... ..

4.$J...:£W- J!.-! • I

..

". ,

distinguished

racial discrimination

i

r <

}

t

~

I

I

I

1

t

"~ .

,

..... ,

jL:..... outstanding

,; ",~,

ij-!'" distinctive feature

'"

diplomatic privileges franchise/concession holder

sex discrimination

HOlLOW

109

IX

, ,,0 ~

~""'rlt!

iswadda yaswaddu to be/turn black

ACTIVE

Imperfect



~_"'d"

"" ~.., 0 ~

iI ...

'-'J :J j 611 •

I .".. ,

..

~Jc,,1

" . , . .". ,. .

f .).)..,..,1

",.

~·:;".)~I

'J~~I

~ ~",. 0 ""

..

~ ~j.t1J

~

,,,.. 0 .".

~ J eM!

, ,. "..

,1'. .,. 0 ~

Jussive (ii )

Perfect

,.

W·:;"J~I

(.)~I

,.

J--KJLLOW

ibyadda yabyaddu to be/turn white, to blanch intr.

110

IX

~O.)"~~I

;" , 0 ......... 0

u,).)~1

....

uO:;'J~1

". ,.

~~I

ACTIVE

Imperfect

~ .........

.. .

'-'Ai t ~

_ ... -....

=' ,1'0'"'1

i .Q.tJ 1

'-' "

~ ....

. -

I t <3. ,cor.) ...., ...

.... ~ ,. 0

L· I • J

t .. .a .£2 t')

.. .

,

• , 0 ~ .....

_.. ,

.. ' 1 at q a_. J

t-4D

.. .

....

"0 ~ .... D

_.... I

~ 1.0 ° " t __ '

... .

, j .... 0 .... . . ..

u'yI2!=!~

,,0 ,0."

.... ..

~a?.o \C:Zt •

- .

" ,; ......... . . ....

LI\--. <a +1.)

... ..

""

, .... 0..;

· L • ..

j \ .:1.2 v.J

.., ...

I ..........

,

.... 0 .... .....

•• 1

~ . .dt~

.. .

" 0 .........

• •

I • "'0 a t~ to. '

t..' ... -

. -

'-"'b ... t

_-

Subjunctive and Jussive (i)

o ..... ....



~ ~ j tA6m.'

", ~. ....

IJ.)jU.J

,.

. ..... ~ ..

;,~_,........t

~ "". ,.

'J:;..,...4I7

4.J .!J.) -' 1"* ;

~ ~ ". ,

I__, JJMAo!

...... ",.. ,

... ..

4J~~J *# '

.... , ........

t_, :; J *'\;!

r. .... 0 ",.

~J'.~

o .... ....

,,0 ,.,. "

;. ,.. ,

4.J .) .) J t£"-!

Verbal Noun iswidad

Imperative

I I,. f ~~~

Participle muswadd

Perfect

.... J 0 , .....

l _.. J

._. 5.:2 naQ v

....

.".

, .,.. 0

~ ... 1

-.

" ~ $ ..... a

l; .. :a +J J

-.

, 0 .... ..... 0

... •• 1

'--+rt ,art a tJ

- .

....

~~,",:a:1

.. .

....

o .... .... 0

~.a*Q"",

...

, o $ ,. 0

..., f

\.. +_., <2 t')

- .

Jussive (ii)

D- .... • ....

•• •

I w2,.ta + • .J

...." - .

iswaddafiswadid rJ~1 ·~~~I\':;~I (.,;:, '

....., ........

,.-

~,_t_1 ...

~ .... 0 ......

1• ...

'J" i.2 + -.J

... .

$ .... ,.

L • -

.~ .v.J

...

D ..... 0 ...

... -

I v2P4 ,.,.--)

...,. ...

"'"

~ .... 0 ....

" ..

. <2 r'-_._iJ

U ...

" 0 , • ..,

.. -

1 ..... ..:L. Q r+-u:Jt..J

'-' ...

..., • ..,. 0 ,

.. ..

~ • -....:2 • a ._..._,

..., ....

'" 0 ....

t, .. ", _.

. _ ..

.... ~ ... 0 .....

I..,.. ,;,." , , !

• va

.... -

, "0,,

L~r""'"

o ",,6;

. ..

~ wt1,a +aAJ

'-' _ .....

.. ...

0, .... :a ....

-. -

I ...a,a trJ.J

.....,. .. -

, 0 ...........

• •

J· ... ~'si.J ....., ......

Verbal Noun ibyidad

,

-- .

. ~ Lor+.J 1

~ ...

,. ",..

$ ..... 0 .....

l· ..

~4+ ... •

•• =

...

$ .... 0 ....

L~ w.J

..... -

$ .... 0 ....

· ..

v•a tut.)

- .

., .... 0- .....

· ..

• ....:2 t-.J U ...

H

.;

/I .... 0 ...



;=4",- t- J

- ........ .......

$ .... 0 .....

· -

~+caA..J

..., .

Imperative ibyadda/ibyadid

Participle rnubyadd

..... , . .... .

.. I

~" . .at_1

...

.. ,

PASSIVE does not exist in Porm IX.

, ,.. ..... $ .... 0

L Q faa' I 1.4. Q tZit "~ t4 r_.} ,

......., -. '-" ...

"

$ ....

L~ t .. a I

... ,

~ ,.

~ .... 0 .

m;t.Q _d

U M •

,-~

II ~~ to blacken .,/J), to draft ",Jj 93

PASSIVE does not exist in Form IX~

~ "..". " , $,..,

I (cJ:z~) ~~!..;:.4 to lay (eggs ... ) 91; II ~.x to whiten j), to make

.J .... • .... .; ......

(mJf.) ~_J*'I~ (f.) ~ b_J*'l ,(m).)_J*'I1 black

~r.)~1 blackening

,

tJ f.)_,_JI

( ., .),~

r.)~ )$'1

iJJ-W'" draft (of a document)

. ."

J.J~ drafting

,.

I.,$J(:;-;_ depressed, dejected

...

Sudan

blackness

blacker

a fair copy Jb 94; V

to be whitened 1 ()()

. ... '-"" .... _I

... ..

i

I

j

I

J

.•

"or

, ...... ~ .,.'"i

(m/f.) .Jan!"'! ~ (f.) ~ L;;,,x , (rn.) ua.!!1 white

,.

whitenins



vfa~ (collective) eggs

.... 0. ....

-



.... ~A .. t

_ .. \W

- .

~ ."',

A.a,:::, ... ~ small egg

... _. -

...... "", .. ""

. ~ta tJ 00; f~J

~ ~. us ...

.. -

.... .... --1.

G,~ )$'1

·c

~ .. , whiteness, a blank

fair copy albumen



vad+~

....

an egg

oval

whiter

COllY typist blameless reputation

HOLLOW

, .... 6, _, r'.

c:'~ C';: tilt istaraha yastarlhu

." .",.

to rest intr.

f-IOL1_OW

, 0 ..... 0 "'.; .." III ..... D

Y~='vt! y~1 istajwaba yastajwibu

.",. .;

to Interrogate 0

112 X

111 X

ACTIVE

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Imperfect

, .... '" , ...........

C:'~ r:-rl

~~_;::~1 ~~;: .. 7 ' ".,

~" ~~

~ ... ....... ... ...

~ ~~~

Perfect

, 0 .... 0 ~

y~1

............ ......

- f

~~ L -t,tJ

_;p--*



J 0....."



lr"..,J _""_7 t d 1 '

• • ,

.., ,...... ,

. .....

uJ-'J-'!L1t- Of '

~

,,0 • ..... ,

.. ..

\J-I~"''''

,.

, ,........ .,;

~ ..........

.:: 4J!- _;at . M I

.". " ." .....

...:...> ;A ,.,1

..o , ...... " •

~J":~;.AlI

,

_ , 0..... ~ ..

~~I

G...... .... .. .,D""

4J~Y~

... .., "

..... ~ ..... , 0;',

~ LJo':'-"; 'N i ~~ hd.j

, ~ ~,

.; . ...... , ). ..........

4JL~ .. ! y~

, " ,

G..... .. J. D, ...

~~y~

,;

• J. • .; .....

.. - , ~;WH

,.

- ... "' .....

.. ~ .. ,

.._,-- J""'* II

'" .,1 Do .,.,.

l .. ,;~ ,; .... 1

,

" " ...... ".

l • 'j' > .;' """ I

,

6. [,::.,1

,.

.,. ..... '"

",. . .; , .

~4J!-.r ..,1

, ,.

CC:::M1

,.

o .... r .....

~.-.> J* 'M I

. _ ..

v> J' 6tt j

,

...

J ......... 0

J."., ..J"'!'_'_: i .. ,

".

J r ......

I_,.,.. J" M J

""

"". . ,..,. ,

. _-

,y..Y:~. 6tt!

I"

..... .,; 0 ...........

4J> .fA iMI

Jussive

Jussive

Verbal Noun istijwab Participle

o ..... 0 '"1..,

\-J~

• ...,;r-.---

o 0..... _,



a..".J _p~; .'" '

• • ,

, ..... 0 ."

I '""Lt""_j ", i

~ .3

. ..... ~

C..,.; .. ,I

,.

,

JI' 0 • ~. ~ . .. ..

• ... ~ L_.L .... ...,-. . ~_,

,..... ., . .; .;.,

\:JtV _,:;-; C.r 4# i

, ~

,. .... D ~ .... 1 .;

6u _,; . ..J tf'-J~

..,. .. ",. ~

~ ..,.. _, .~ .....

6v~

,.

.,. .......

~~

""

..... ..... ,,-

. .. ..

~ ;* +11.)

~

I' :... ~~

,

__ • .... 0 ~

. . ..

~.r""

,

I' .....

~~

....

, . ...... "

t"'J'!'_j .~!

""

;' 0 • ...... ,.

....

,. • .... 0 ,

~..Jo'!"-i w!

....

". 0 ... 0 "'"

,

"'. ....0 ,

. ..... ,

.. ..

~J"-,"HJ \..:2

,.

Perfect

....

_, .... D ... 0-

L.ft_.._,1

"'" ...

_, .... 0 ",I»

\...oJ --"",_7 ... 1

.. .

Subjunctive

istajwib

mustarih Imperative

, ......

~_,:...,I

mustajwib Imperative

1;~:1I1 G~~ .. I

Verbal Noun istiraha



istarih



Participle

l..J~

. ~.--

~

,. ;

.... 0 0 ......

&' J"!'_.A · 11 I

,. ,

~__;:.,I

; ~

Gu_j~1

1"-J...;+ -'< ~ .... \......l

,.

, ....

, , ". ......

v> _? .. I

....

o 0 ~ 0

~~I

",. ,.

,. ~ ......

L?~;"MI

4"" G .... 0 , ,oJ" J

PASSIVE Imperfect yustajwabu y~ Perfect ustujwiba y~1

PAS 0 ' r"· , ~;:111

SIVE Imperfect yustaraQuc.. .y,.AAt! Perfect usturiha '-~

.;

Participle mustajwab

t...J~ttA

• •

r .... · , Participle rnustarah C:.,FiM'"

I (y:p.-) ~n y~ to wander _. 88; III y~~ to answer ~ I b 95

1-

IV y~' to answer ~ '~!\b 97; VI ~~~ to harmonise 101

..... "'" 0 '" .... ,.

vn "':"'~, to be dispelled 103; X ~~'t"" to grant _. III

I (CG~) O~ ",eG to depart 88; II C~~ to revive Jt 93, ~~ to rest ./b ,0 94; IV C G I to comfort .• 97; VI C~ J) to fluctuate between ~

, .....

101; VIII ClJ_)1 to rest intr., to be content with '-"'1 105

~ft j r y ~ answer

,.

,-

y~t interrogation, parliamentary question

, ,

~~! response, compliance

.

"'+4-+ "'.:: .4IA respons! ve

. _ .

,

~~!\~~ repose (mJf) c:lZ, j\c.G-!~ r!:-! wind

(m/ft) CG~ , .[. c..J~ soul, spirit (also liquid) :r..J~ spiritual, spirituous

.. ,,-

, . ,

C~.J! contentment C!-r restful

r;· , J "" A ,

C~ud lavatory ~I ClJ,rt at ease in

one's mind

,. ,

~~, granting (of a request)

Jt~1

. "

r::_J~ fanning

~

,..J ...... ,

~..J' w# \ClJ..,.. relaxing

~

in compliance with

"" , ~ , .,

'--' w- harmony

• 'J •

. . .. ,

; ",

Y J ~-:.. harmonious

I

I

J ..... D ..... ..." ..........

.\_!.t.: HA! .) ll::..ul· istafada yastafidu

to benefii from ~, to be informed about y\ ....

113 x

HOlLOW

Imperfect

Perfect

r. ...... ""

".

. _ ...

c.) J:L'd ttul

,. J ....,.,.



~.JJ.! 0.; .tt !

~

""'. ,.... ~

..

W• J. 4 "': t t+ ~

.~ =

-

Jussive

o .... ., ...

.. .

J.t; *." t

,

, .... " ....

IJ wl!_i': t";

,;

~. ..... ~ •

• .I. ... _ ..

'-''' 16+ .tt '

..

,.

., ....."

f'J'w; _..u ,



.. -

;

.",. .... 0 ...



;; J- __ 4~-: • t, !

,

( ,

J....j__; i

-

\7 erbal Noun istifada

, ,. .

i .) li4St AM ,

J ." 0 '""

J-+~~t .. 1

J __ ~iZ

A .

li)Lt ,

DEFECTIVE VERBS

~ ..... .,

. ..

J~

..



~_+9

..

Defective verbs are the third sub-class of the weak class. They have a weak letter, J or \S ' as final radical, and two sound radicals. A few



.,.. ..... ..".

~Ji.i>HI

....

,

_,..". , .

Ij_:,w '

, 0 "" .... 0

~Jj __ • ttl J

defective roots have alternative final radicals .J or V ; most of these

..

follow the comm.oner 4..$ conjugation ~

,..

.". "'" ........ 0

Ct )-;.; __ •• tI J

The defective verbs follow the standard (i.e~ sound) patterns shown in paras. 23, 25 and 29 to 33 of the introductory chapter (tenses, imperative, participles, verbal noun) up to and including the middle radical without its vowel. The provisions which follow all refer to that part of the defective verb following the middle radical.

, .......... 0

~ J-_J;'; t tI 1

., "

~ ,..,;.

.u ~ iN'

rJ ~ __ %t -

,

o ., ....... 0

~ ~ UAE;_.tJ J

A .... .... 0 ,.

J.b_f __ ; t N I

Tenses. For the tenses:

,

• Whenever a (first or second) principal part has ... before the last

radical, the whole tense derived from that part (perfect from the first

Subjunctive

o ..... 0 ""

J-l. • .,' ,

., .....,.

• • J..t_f ~ t 1C J

-

..

.... .....,..



1 - - .zA-4.. + it.'

..

,..

principal part, imperfect from the second) will have --- in this

position throughout; otherwise it will not.

~

• The final ... of the sound 3rd person singular perfect endings (m. and

f.) is dropped everywhere except in the perfect active of verbs like

,

no. 1 t 5, and in the passive of all verbs. The ... of the sound 3rd

person singular imperfect endings (m. and f.) is dropped

everyw here .

• The active voice of Form I has four patterns (nos. 114 to 11 7 in the

tables), whereas the increased forms have, irrespective of the root

; ,

4..$ ••• (perfect) and ,_s ••• (imperfect) in Forms II-IV and VII-X, and ...so ..

., ~

in all tenses of Forms V and VI~ In the passive, the perfect has 4..$ •••

~ .,

and the imperfect has ,._s... , everyw here.

• The subjunctive is fanned as follows. from the imperfect (indicative):

, ~

- for those persons ending in .J- •• or l..S , add .. 0 ,

,; .....

... for those persons ending in (,,$.~. , make no change,

- for other persons, follow the pattern given for sound verbs .

• The jussive is formed as follows, from the subjunctive:

~ , ;, , ,;

- change the endings 4..$ .... to .~. , J ... to .~. and 4..$ ••• to .... ,

.,

, ,..,0 '"

1.J~t,.j

",.

.".. ..... ...



• i'" - ,_, .. 4 •• to j

,

, ...,.;

I .J_+~-i.wMJ

.J.. _

r. ......,.,

. ..

J_,_.f-.* t u i

...

...... ~ •

(,,$)! 4 -: ••• ::

...

", ",.

'" .....,.



J-_..._4-:.ut

....._. -- ....

.. ..

, ......... :l. No ... ,-'-:.11'

_..--

...

Participle mustafid

Imperative istafid

.J ." • r. ... . ......
b4.;u" J.fj_.WM J J; ~ ... , J
--4
..
".. , " ",.. ,. ",.
..,.. . ..... r. ... ",..
~J;':' wi J t ;;:...-.N' lJ¥tHI
-_.
..
; _, , ..
". ~ "'" ; ~ ........... ,

PASSIVEo Imperfect yustafadu .)W_ldl!

...... ,. •

~.A.t..&: t It i

No

" II"

. ...... " .,

J_.t.; ... •

",.

r.w~:..::

- -

-

,

. ...... ~

. ..

J:A.7 ' tt j

..

~

I

",

r. .......",

. ..

J. __ ,.&; 1 t t J

..... , •

J-..a.:; ....

...

~ ,. 1

Perfect ustufida J.J __ tt; til

,..,. ,

Participle mustafad .)L;_. 6,0

"'"

IV ".)U f to benefit ., to inform of ,-". 98, = X ".)ili~1113



;.;(,l ~ iJ;U benefit, profit, interest

,. ,

~".)lj I usefulness, infunnation, attestation

"

....

"" ,.

b _:, LI~; t H ,

, ,.,.,

.) Il.. contents, purport

useless

,



J- .. t 'xA

-

useful

...... ,

J.!_f.; rtf.... beneficiary

,. . ".

• •

J_..A..o ~

- ~

use

."., ."

, ... ,..... ... ,

~I(-!) ? ~l'r)--::A1 it is reported ('the news tells') that

,;

...., ", 0' ",

i~W I v4t;.. : .. ,_;:, _) low-interest loan

net interest

,

,., 0 • ;

b~WI ~t uP"; nominal-interest loan

-

, ....

- leave the rest unchanged.

• Since...s (' alif maqsurai can appear only as last letter of a word, it changes to I whenever a pronoun object suffix is added.

,

• As with final '.J'" in verbs of other classes, the silent' of the

defective endings I-,~ .. and ~: .. is dropped before a pronoun suffix.

- 1 61 ..

~

1 i

OEFECTJVE

DEFECTIVE

- All the 3rd person object pronoun suffixes except ~ .. change their

~ . ,

vowel ... to .... after the verb-ending ... , I.S ••• or 6.$ ••• :

, . _, ,..",.

.P.J! ~.J raja yarju to .. expect _. , to hope for ... ,

to request 4J I \ .... , Lr*

114 I

- ,

...

, .,..;

· --_Jj ..rt. He throws it.

"" "

For the defective 'verbs it is impractical to look for a perfect or imperfect

stem, as the final radical often incorporates the personal ending as well.

Imperfect

Perfect
tr ~ ~
~.J
. ,. , "'" l:j· ~ ..
...
r~J ~J
4 ,. '" ,; l: ~- ~ ..
..
~Y":_) J"':J
r .... r_'~
~J ~J
~ . ; ; ~~

U~.J .J
Subjunctive
,. , • #'
..
..?':.r
I ;. ~ r'· ~
'Y..r 'Y":..r
~ "0", r'·:.
~~
'Y":f
I ,... r , ...
'Y":.r:. 'Y":J!
~ , . ~ r'·:'
4J$I':J!
~f ACTIVE

,.,

, . .;

.,,- ,.~

~~

~ JI.,;

iJ$I:-.}

Imperative. Imperatives are formed regularly from the jussive. The lastbut-one indent given above (endings '.J~" and ~: .. ) applies here also.

Participles. For the active participle, add endings after the middle radical of the sound measure as follows (you will note that the m.s. has two forms , indefinite and definite; the tables show both):

IlLS. nom. and gen& indef. . .. , def. I.S •••

,,.,.

,.~

Jussive

,." •

~r

I ' 8 ~ '$I:r

r.s.

m. dual

~ -

ace. indef. L ... ,

-

oJ' ,.

(regularly declined) ~ ...

, .;

(regularly declined) nom. ~~ ... ,

...

~

def. -.> ...

, 0 .".

., ,.,

~~

I ' - , ~J!

o ,

0",

acc./gen. ~ ...

".

,_,

f. dual (regularly declined) nom. ~lit ... ,

, 0 ,.

"

acc.zgen. ~ ...

~.;

Participle rajin/ar-raji

r r , '·1

v: )I~J '.P.J

-: '81 l.J..Y':J

01. pl. (sound)

f. pl. (sound)

nom. 4,).,.". ,

uL ...

Verbal Noun raja'

-

For the passive participle:

til'

• Form I: after the middle radical of the sound pattern, add J... for

#I

verbs with final-radical _J and (.$ ••• for verbs with final-radical \.S ~

- M-

• Forms II to X: add endings after the middle radical as follows (the

m.s. has two forms, indefinite and definite, both indeclinable):

- ~

O1.S. all cases indef. I.S ••• , def. ,_s ...

f.s, (regularly declined) iL.

m. dual (regularly declined) nom . .j C. , acc./gen. ~: ..

, ...

i

1

t ~ ,

,

~.,

- PASSIVE Imperfect yurja J:J!

. ~

Perfect rujiya ~J

".

Participle marjuw JfI:'~

"""...... ..#1'

vtx. ~';:tIIIl\,-,",,;- to anticipate .. 121/126

gen. \~\y -~ ~ hope of, expectation of v:t)I~G hopeful

.... • ...,. _,~ -IIJ."

i~.,.,.. \i~J hope, expectation ,.P..,.,.. expected, requested, hoped for

,. ""-1 ,. .. - ......

... ~I $'!".r'\~' ,. ~)I Ilwe hope that... ,. ~J' (inan. pl.) full extent

.)~, -Ifo ~~ 1 ~ throughout the country

fill' ;,

.. Jt -Ifo ~)I Please (+ definite

, , ~ ,

.. J' rJs.", ~)I Please do not verbal noun)

\r .~ . ~~ to ask a favour of

, ,

.,,, . ,,.

f. dual (regularly declined) nom . .:"lJ ... , acc./gen. ,;,r.; ...

m. pl. (sound)

f. pl. (sound)

~ ,

/ , ~

nom. 4J.J .•• , acc./gen. ,:,.t. ...

~r... '

Verbal Noun. Form I verbal noun is irregular, as with all verb classes. For the increased forms, add the following endings after the middle radical:

FOIDl II: ~... Form In: ,. C. \iL. Forms IV, VII. VIII, X: ,. L.

Forms V. VI:-- as for m. s. active participle (t,S ... \ •.• etc., see above)

,- 162 -

j

DEFECTIVE

OEFEC77 VE:'

115 I

..

nasiya yansa to forget ~ 1\ .... , b

,. .,"'" _,

• •

,tttJ ~ ~

WI • - f....' ~~

-,



116 I ~-;. ~~ rama yarml to throw y \ ... , to fire y \... ~.J

••

ACTIVE

, .,.., .. .

ttw.J

U

Imperfect

~ ......

• J ~

Perfect

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

....

,. ",

... .

L_ __......_ t uJ

. __ ~ w

-

. .;

, .........

"". ."

L· •

...... tt '

,,; . .; .....

#',. .....

· l .-

U • 6ft ..... •

- ..

; ..... .+", .

u---

...

.,; ,.

.. . \..;- __ 1 ... J

-

-

..... t .oJ

---

-

.; .....

"" ~ .;

l..;".. 6ft ~

-

o ....

.,. J.,~

l.~!-" .,

, 0 ........

. .-

4)j*" ,._I

, .......... ...

4.J-.: 1M r_J

.... .... ..; .. - ~t+ __ •

,.

# , ,.J'

l";rl • .J

.... ... .

'-~ .. .,.,;

..



tIM t +

0--

"..

41' ,.

L.., 1t j

-

,;_,-- t A~

_.-

-

, J. , ...

l •• u!J'.J

.... ,.,

..... ., 0,

..

.; , ...

~

- ....

. .... " - .

\.". + +",...J

..

." . .", ..... •

I .... t" + __ •

.....,-.... -

..".

,., ~ .....

· l .-

'-' ~t"a.J

4""

".... ..,.

& __ .• " i

. ,.;

-

Jussive

Subjunctive

, .-1.

. ,

~

Jussive

Subjunctive

. , •

.. ..

. ,

, .,,; •

~.;i

.. .".

1;'-';

." .....

. -

~

" .....

L _ ..

t t ... t __ •

'" .....

"" .........

l + • it ; ..

.. ..

~ ......

i", .....

r_JwA" !..t

~ 0 .... •

... • t ... j

urn __

..

;' ..... 0 .... ....

V::rt'WdJ

.... "" 0 ....

l ...

at .... ,._t

..

. ,. ......

...

-"tt"'}

c...s

-

; ., .", . ..

..J-! t ... "j

C .. ~::

to,,""

. "" ......

.. . .".

..

. ...

.....,._.

U--

••

"." 0 .... • ~t t ,,# __ ,

.. 101

,.; ....

L .-

t ... t,J

...

",. 0 .... .-

~

<11"" .....

L .-

l' .4'utJ

-

, 0 .... .t "t ,

U _ .. e

... ,.

Verbal Noun

ParticipJe

nasin/an-nasi Imperative

,.

· l ·

U ..... _.o_tt '

1$.2

..

(,:.;1

". ; .,., .

V:: 141 ,I

~ .... 0

l. '1t ; I

Verbal Noun ramy

Participle ramin/ar-rami Imperative

• •

irnu

,,." .

l· ~ Cit.; I

• ..

,...

:;";1

. ..

,.

Imperfect yunsa

~ oj



- ..."j

(f -

PASSIVE

, ,

~ .

Perfect nusiya ~

, ,

Perfect rumiya t..S".,

-_.

PASSIVE

Imperfect yurma uA J!.

- ,.

Participle mansiy

~ ......



(.S~

.... ,.

Participle marmiy 4S"'.r

- ",.

.; ."'"'

IV ~ I to make ... forget b 120

, .,.",.

VI ~ B to pretend to forget cs ,b, to neglect .a ·122

VI ;_'y to extend far 122, = VIII ,;,;~, to hurl oneself at/on ~ \c)

~

124

." .... . _, ",

~\~~ .... i oblivion ~ forgetful, oblivious

~ ~ - ,

~..... ~ 0... ~ ..... a".

u~..wo .(£ c.fAA;A something forgotten l.S"*R~.,r.1:- not forgotten

.... - ,. ,. .... ".,

.. J .."

'" ~ J ~~-"!""u i J forgot to ...

1.. A'

.. r~ J z.dilJ ;.J i J I shall never forget your kindness.

. _,

~ _) throwing, firing

..

iC,~ ~ ~I),,,G marksman

~J)'\rc:..~ ;_')1\;'-;' range, aim

throw, shot

extensive

. ..,.. .... "" .....

. loa .~ ~ ~ L.. Whatever (else) you forget, do not forget this.

,

~

117 I

DEFECTIVE

~::;I sa! a yas' a to rush, to strive for ~!\J, to slander t, to lead ... to u1! ,y

Ut::J-~("~ J J VI::

118

II

.-.,. , ~"'"

~..;!. ~J rabba yurabbi to educate 6,

• -t .I.' UaL]

••

to rear ./b ,b

Imperfect

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

ACTIVE

~.ttJ

M ..

..... ~ ...

~·"'tj

. .",., ..

L _.o._" 61'

452 ___

Perfect

,.. ,. •

'><4111- u~·

.".. -1 • t" 1

f...F

.." . .; ,

l!~ .... +.,

, .,... ...

G::

.. U

,. ._,

...

'-"'z::JJ

-

-

4" ,_ -t • ttl

. -----

~ I •• ;

t..~..)

_, . .".. " . ...

,-,>- .. 6+ I

.............

· l ..

,'_i_ttl

L _

-

o , • ..,. ",

'" 0;. , -

.* -- ~ iL'

~Z_

-

-

It ~ t ••• '

r+

.... ~ . .; .....

l.;. •• wi

a

~ . ~ ~ ..

"'- ...... +. 1M ...-.z._~

..

..

~ ,.,,,,.

l.eo 'i'..!,", J

,... ..... 0 , •

D'! • drJJ.J

. - _.

~II

..

'-sz_,.l_ t • t td

e-=-

..

~ . ~. ~ •

..,..,. •• M!

"'"

.......... ,

:,L·tY'

""'... ..

,

..... .,.,.. ,

• L ..

'-' ~td'·

Lr!--·,M

..

'- _",_u

Wi----

." 0 ., • .,tt'

I.S

Subjunctive

~.. -1.

~I

Jussive

• tttJ

c.r ..

til ~ ~

YJ'

,

'" ""

y~

,

Subjuncti ve

Jussive

-

..". .",. ..... , ........ Wit-J

t.:I... -

". ,.

l~.tf'7

...ar .........

..

.,. .... .. • -"'-,u •

~-~~'

..

~. '" ...

. .....

(J

...-- ...... ~ l.atMi

-

( ,

rJA !

,........ ., l _.._ •. M • ;"0

- ..

r ..... .,;

,..,.. .t~

..

--·M'

ur

-

, _,.""

~._,.J

l't,. , 'YJ!

.". .... 0 ~ -

~ • eM J

"" "" 0 ~ l. ... -6ttt

---

-

...

• ±:taJ

t..F

....

", . .,. ~ - •• • _. "6 • ___o

-

.... '"

L_ .,t

...

. ..... .,..

~·ttll

.. -

... ,.

Verbal Noun sa' y/si~ aya Participle sat in/as-sa' i

Imperative

• t

IS a

L IJ-'J

Imperative rabbi

C_:'"

-U

"f

t

. < , ...

,.

-,

..

Verbal Noun tarbiya Participle murabbin/al-murabbi

~)I\y;

",

",. "' .....

~.#.I

;>

,; ";.11'

l~·wt'

JVW

well-bred, jam money lender stockbreeding

well-bred

..

PASSIVEO

Imperfect yus' a .... iJ c.,r -

., , ~ -,

PASSIVE Imperfect yurabba".r..r.. Perfect rubbiya .,rJ

,

'/I;

Participle murabban/al-rnurabba JJJ\~;

Perfect s u t" i ya ..... u

,.., ,

Participle

t-

mas ly • .. -"',,:*

umr

- ~

. ~

~ course, endeavour

..

~WI\t~ c:: ~t\;.:,:.

~ , , ,

i~r ~Uf\t~

~ G.w slander

I (.l{_,) ;;. ~ to increase intr., to exceed ~ \~ 114

.... -i

III ~G to be a moneylender 119; IV,J.J' to increase ss 120

V ;:.J to be educated, to be raised 121

endeavour

messenger} deliverer, slanderer

.... """

"education, upbringing

educator, breeder

l.S.Y~ pedagogical

..

"

_, -~,

-

A_: tr governess

~

excess

,

~ , ;; . ,

~~iJ' ~...; poultry farming

,

I

DEFECTIVE

DEFECTIVE

o , ...

~ ~ I 'a t ~a yu f ti to give ... to ... dl

;', .".",.

,_.s ~ ~ ,,;) l; nada yunadi to call 0 ,

..

to call out to ~, to proclaim .. . 0

ACTIVE

~ ~;J:~

...... _ .. t_·_!

~

119 III

120 IV

Imperfect "

~1

- ..,.

~

.. "

"". _ .. t_· _ !

~

..

,.

~

.. ,

~

.... ~

.... 1.- -i

1 ~ e " f

w=

-

ACTIVE

"",

~~L:.;

- ,

.... , ,J

;;j~L:;

Imperfect

"" ....

~.)l.;1

.. ,

~,

t.> ~l:J

Perfect
..... .",. .... .J 0.... ~
L:.., ~ L; M L;
L __." J .)
------
.- -
. ,.."". ..,. , J.; ..- ., ..... ....
- .) \.j L..:....) L; .. l.i
'-4J~
~ ... .,
_ J.... .". c.;'" ... ..... ,..
· - .)L; .)L; .. L;
~.)
~ .. ..
,
~"'.)~ L'.)G v ... .)~
..
~ 0.... ~ G".) lj . .- ~
~~L; .. .
'-'~ .. ".

: i_-'

'-'JAA!

~

.. -

..

",

.... ..",

~.)l:;

,.

.".,

t.>.)~

...

.r

"

~~l:;

,. ,

,,; I'

iJ~.b..;

Jussive

.4. ~
~I
.,.,
'" ."
~ ~
, ~
~
. ..
..
- ~ ",
~ I~
-
_, ~
~
"' ...
.",. ". ...

Jussive

Subjunctive

"'

~.)lJ I

...

",.

_,,; ~,

&..S .)~

.,

~

..... _"" t~·_!

~

JI'

" ~"

IJ.) L:.;

-- ,.,

~~l:;

-

-

.,

, ""

L.) l.;;

..

....

L ~G.::

...

..

,

.." .,

Lb'U

.. ..

...

I~

~

- -

-

- -

Verbal Noun

Participle mu' tin/al-rnu' ti

~I\~':

"' ., .,.

..

Imperative nadi G.)lj

--

,

L.)lj

Participle munadin/al-rnunadi

~"'.)G1I\J.)~

..

.,

-

Perfect

.. .

. ..

Subjunctive

~

~I

, .,

lz'l, -.;

..

... ,.

~

". ,.

~

..

",.

",. D'

l __ • .b • ,

... -

...

Imperative

,; 0 ....

l~.b c I

JL

..

,... ~ .-1.

L.h~1

, ~ .

a t i

..

..

., ~ ~~~

yu'ta ~ Perfect "u'{iya ~l

....

1~·_f 1._-_'_

Participle mutan/almuta ~'\~

PASSI"VE Imperfect

., .", ~ ,

PASSIVE Imperfect yunada ~.)~ Perfect nudiya ,.;~~

...

..",

Participle rnunadan/al-rnunada &.S".)81\,.;-.)G:.

to beg ... for charity 0 121/126

VIX

I (J:J) .J~ r1 to call s , to con~~ne .A • b 114; I(4S1JJ\J.J)=~~ ~.,L;

..

., ...... ,., ,.

to be wet 115; IIIIV .,;..li , \1.S..,lj to wet..AI 118/120

- ~ ~ 11 ~ ~~,

~ ~ j.u to make an offer _,. \..t.U. i .. J,.'J> tenderer

......

d!ws:JI .cfo, 1 to give the floor to, to permit ... to speak

, " ,. . .,. ~,-"

V l..SJ.;,j to be wetted 121; VIIX vJ,;.;:.. ... t\\S~l:J to convene intr 122/126

donation

i

I

begging

~ fJ.j\if"G shout, proclamation ~~1 r l..S~8,\,,(; club

,. ". ., ~

i~Jj council, club ~ (ii t ~~I\JJ3 wetness, dew

1.S~Li1I\.)~ caller, announcer ~4.,L;".5J3 damp (noun)

M~ _ _,

~" ,.., ; ....... ~f 'II ,..., .,

Ct4J";-~,..A [. .;..u.aI\uJ.~ assembly room ~"l:J' Jb clubhouse

,

... ~.)L:5\ ... ~,,~ This is ... calling.

, ,

, ,

.... 1 • ,

uL.A:I·... data

--

..

.. L·~ .... 1 .. '

~L.: .... ~LA.. data processing

~~.)lj sports club

... , "'" ~

donor

gift, tender beggar databank

i

,

t

DEFECTNE

u1~ ~ talaqqa yatalaqqa to receive .A ,0

Utztrtzt:«! JVt:



122 VI ~c;,~-:.t ~~ tar afa yata' flfa to recover in health

121 V

Perfect

Imperfect

.; .., ........

u-iWI

W,., " I'_ :.~ ~ I'_ :::

• ~ - _ju..:;;

u- ~

ACTIVE

ACTIVE

Imperfect

~1~~ ~1

~f:~ ~

Perfect

. ~ "

.. • L..:t

\..a# 1- .. -

._..

...

..

;'~:;J~

......

-

:":~~~1J

.. 11""

. .... ..

ol:·L: ,

, ., -1 .....

.. .....

"'*.1 'J

-

~~ ~G.i7

WE

-

:;;ili- ,

.. ...



..



Subjunctive

.... ;I .... '1

~WI

~c..:.;

Jussive

Jussive

Subjunctive

JGt:"~ (,jc..:.;

~1~~ ~1

~

:_;E- ~,

.. ..

-

...

...

(,;l~j

.". 0", .... ~ ....

~l...:J

(,j~

..". .~ .,., ....

~~

(,;~

..

..

-

...

l~jG.;~

... -

:_;E' "

.. ....

-

-

~~ ~c..:.;

-

.. -

-

-

,.,. ., _' L.-o!l::: ~1~7

. fA. t ,

... L .. LZ __

Verbal Noun talaqqinJat-talaqqI ~1\;lJ Imperative talaqqa

- " -

Participle mutalaqqin/al-mutalaqqi ()_._u ~ :;x;

-:. : t\~

41'" ~

Verbal Noun tat afin/at-ta' atl ~c:..;JI\JW

... "" ~

(,;~

Imperative ta~ afa

~ ~ ...

JW

:;~

... ~

Participle muta' afin/al-rnuta' aft

~GdJ\JG.::'

- ~ ~

• ~1~

~

-

..". ..".",

P ASSIVEo Imperfect yuta' afa ~~

.., , "

Perfect tu' ufiya ~~

.~ ~

PASSIVE Imperf.ect yutalaqqa f-)l.;.'_, .. ";f!

Perfect tuluqqiya ~

.. ",

Participle mutalaqqan/al-rnutalaqqa JJ:J l\t_,l[;'':'

( • ., ' • .-0.,.,

I _,..i<:.) ..,,;~.-:. l.h. to forgive .. ,~, to excuse .,. from ~ ,J 114

-; ~ ,

II ~ to eliminate .A 118; lIT ~l..<:. to restore to health s , to protect ...

.... 0 -1.

from ~ ,b, to exempt ... from ~ \~ ,_. ,b 119; IV ~ I to dismiss b

.,.. ".. ..... 0 ..... 0

120; = III u-i~ 119; X ~""..I to ask pardon of b 126

I/rn ~~\ (,.~) t_)l~ ~iJ to encounter Jj, .115/119; N ~j to throw ~, to recite Ja 120; VI ~~ to come together 122; VITI ;Wf to meet y 124

~~\.li~ \,. ~ encounter ,.lil! throw, delivery, recital

'7.,~irJ I\:;IJ receipt, reception ~""::k:J t\J)6 encounter

, '*

r: ,. ~! reunion with ul11t\~ thrown, discarded

'"" -:." r -;-: 11 -:: 1 .. -

v =::-';: _. [. ~;':A.d\~ meeting-place ,.UUI c..J! goodbye

W~\i~G.:.\ ~lJai,.~i to deliver a speech, to ~e a statement

L. ~ ..... 11 -;,.. ..

t..r-. .." J"';"'" ~ f to hold responsible C~J ~ f to surrender

,

." •

y C pardon

( 0 • .,

'.,Y:;' I beg your pardon, don' t mention it

"' ..,

~j~ good health

healthy

exempt from

.

exemption

eliminated

bravo! (reply: !c4i~ ill I )

apology

4.SJA e spontaneous

j

DEFECTIVE

uazr czs» I I" L...

..... 0..... ." _,.

wr"" (;-_! <.r"";;'

•• ;II'

123 VII

...... 0 _, "" .....

4S.r1. t!w. ,-,..,;.:' I

-

is.htara yashtar! to buy ./6

Imperative is.b.tari

· ..

t..:rif2'

••

to be concluded

124

vm

. .\CTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

... 0 .... . .. ..

LIe'" ... '

ACTIVE

Imperfect

, ....... ...,..

.. • ... f

'- _.... •. .dr a _i

. ~ ..

...... 1.

vy,:..1

............. .. & •

VJ' .u t

.-

,.

.",.. ". , . .. ... - i'~_f1t' twI-I. ¥-'

-

-

""

" J ....

. . -

u....r4CI.J

",..

~ 0..; .....

.. • -. J

~"".q'" ...

" 0 .....

· L · -

,-,!*--" lAJ

" ,

.... 0 .....

· l .....

tJ _!s'" AAd

..... 0 ....

. -

.. ad I

~""'NV.

No

."

-

". ", ... ., ."". .

l · ... ,

• 7sk1? ".AJ

..

f'"

0..... .;.

.. . ... ,

4a.+ ...... " Lt

.,. ..,.

. ( . -;. .... " wQI_':'_J

'-' .. -

,.

r ~ .....

....

~ ." Ct." ,

.... .... ....

~'" 4 4J 4.S ALL_

... ~

,

.,. '#1". ~

• _.a.

IJJ.JA t ttl

, o ......... 0

f .J .• '; .!.I

.; 0 .........

. ""

/ ..... 42 ,_.; t

t.If"'"' - ""

"

~ . .,; ......

. -.,

0-: erA? 4 •

:;-L

-

II"

,. ".; "..,.

l .... t

Ai . .,:21 &.,

, o " ..... "' . -., Il _.... <2 IJ j

... 9iLS

J uss ive

Subjunctive

.... 0 .... . .. .

va';·

LZ

Jussive

., .............

. .. .

(,J1"A.:..t

- .",.

, " . ...,.

J • .......

'j'<2· .. t

.". -1.

- A , r'-+'

.... 0 ,. - .& •

;t .... W

..,

....... 0 ,

J _.a ..

1J; •• t tt t

"

" 0 .....

J ...

'J"*~ 4 ...

.... J" ....

l · -.-

.. ta'" '--J

-

...... ...... . ... ..

, .

va-.J

..,

"

,.. .... 0 ...

l · - .. » .... ".~

....

"

".. ......

1 • ..

.. t ... d'.v

-

". ., .....

. . .....

'-"'-&2 'L-U

-

.,.,0 .... . ... ...

.A.~t U' ... _

... ,.

_, ....

· .

~a4 t j U' $-

-

....

_,

, ~ .........

. - .

~a4.t

........... . -



va .. ,!

,;

,.

, ". ~

, - &

'_JJ* ttt!

.... . .; _ A

J" tu!

,; ~ ......

. . ..

~

... .

"

,.

, ..........

l · -.-

.. 1 sa ......

'"

...........

. ..

114 I

V..bLQ!$d

,

" .

l· ... ,

':' • .:1 , __ ,

Imperative inqadi

~

L ..

. ..

..... a·._,

-

.; ,., ......

. . .

...... 4" ,

,-,'-_sa

- ..

,

." ,. .....

· .... -

.. £2.+" U AU.

+to

....

Participle munqadin/al-munqadi

, ""'.

l,A" i,; J

....

., ,., .

~J

..

", ",.

Verbal Noun ishtira'

.... 0 ..... ........

.,;*r trU I

,

~~~I

Vb. Noun inqida '

., ".

l · -.,

wltrz'ta" a •

--

-

' .... 0

,--,.;; .~, J

PASSIVE none

Participle mushtarin/al-mushtari

~j::!J J\;'·t!:

., "

~ ",-

~ ,..,.0

l .... ,

...... <l4J

..

..". ...

.................. J\.)ai,;.

N , '*

Perfect

f'" ,

.... .....

~__,:: .~, I

,. . .... ;' .

- _ A I

~ J'" "

Subjunctive

L' ..... ,. - .:.-

~

.... ... 0 ....

... !I. .... ...... f.u 1 ...., _s_

...

,.

G ::41 ~

~ ....

... 0

\,$;w!.1

..

........... ,

PASSIVE Imperfect yu£htara ~;: .: .. !

", , .. ,

Perfect u£hturiya ~__,; .!,I

( Wa.t~ ,., • ", ~.,;

. .. . - ...

I. ) __.._"" • _'. ~ <2 ' 4,1'4-- c.s

_,-

to judge in favour of ... against ... ~ ... J , to condemn ~ ,~, to accomplish ..A, to settle a 116; III ~li to sue II, to

~ ~# •

prosecute II 119; V u,·ai..i 121 = vn ~;;i.il 123; VI~li1 to claim from

,.

.A '~·""\b 122· vmx "' .... : .. '\ ......... ~, 1· fr

i.r ' u·<Ao-.." (J'Qa to c ann r om.it .,. 124/126

....

_,;

.' :.. 4\ f - ,. ..

Participle mushtaran/al-mushtara ,.;~ I\,.;_;; .:.~

, ....

4S~ to buy .la, to vend _. 116

I

,; , .". , ,.

"',. ",.. ":. A f * ",.. ,

,,:.A,_,; :'·A c: 4.S •• ,..w!.d\,.;,.,; .!+,A purchase l;.~ G.l t f".)~ to ask for trouble

purchase

purchase hire purchase

.". .

~ l.,,",;:J expiry

case (legal), cause, issue trial, court hearing

_, ".

., r

1, t ... i.;JL, ~ ~..!t

.. ....,---

""; ~,;

fJ" '=a it t\U"'4 i

jUdgment, sentence

Wai

~ .. conclusion, accomplishment, court decision, jurisdiction, judiciary

~L4i judicial iLai [~W',\"""li judge.

~L(:d '\v"l):~ litigant ?J' ~li Justice of the Peace

....

buyer

buyer, vendor

purchasing power

i

DEFECTIVE

DEFECTIVE

t.



126 x

, ,. , -

t...rJ.J.. ~,)I idda' a yadda'J to allege "I),

- .. .. to accuse ... of Y ,~

125 VIII

istathna yastathni to except .A I b, to exclude from ~ Ja 'J).A b Perfect

ACTIVE

Perfect

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Imperfect

• ,. 0 -1.

• A _ I

w- "_~rH

IJ·

... .,

· ..... , .'&'... - .., , '" t ~-

N .".

,. . ...... .....

.. ~.. ..

~otol

..

J .......... D

.. • A... I

~ .. -t'J

..

" ,; 0 .... 0 "'.

- .",- I ...... t ........ 'oJ $if

,1-

~,)I

~... ,..

. ,

~Jj

.... ....

.,; , .,

~Jj

,. .",-

"::d_1~e~1

-

-

...

..... • ., ...... "".0

.... A.. I

..,-.._..,....td

, -:~

..,

, , .,. ..

• ~- J

~ +c_

;>

r ... 0.,...

.. t& - J

'Y tat , tJ

".

, .,., . .;.

Vo~"dl

.".

,; ",. ..... , .

l-· & - I

--,- __ -'- e- __ • 4,;1

,' ....... ,,0

L .. • ~ - I

.... _' ......• 1/

., ....... ,.

· l . .a._ -

, .. _. .... ttl __ =&2

..

,.

~·"I

.....

, ,. ~ , ,

~.)

,

~".,J

w~1

.". ,.. .......

~.t~<;'.) ,

~ ........ II

l •. u..t..) ,

..

...

"".

,. ........ , . , _ • .a._

L ..... .....- ...... tN

..

,. o ..... 0 4""

- • .I... 1

""""""__JLf_,_-t- __ t t +'

..

,

. ", ,

~ rt_,_£. .!) ,

.... . ...... "

• • A.. ...

J 14 W _. .# • .., "-- ---

...

,. ., ,. ~ ,

l .. ~...c.) 1

"" "

.... 0 .....

~__.;II

,. • ....0,..

L "~ZD7 .tll

~

...

-

;>

. __ . _,;

.A_

t t _.._ ... '

IJ"-- -

- "

....... ~

,,~- - ... twt.t .. I CJCJ.~

... ",.

"

~ h ..... ",.

. .4.

u__""" .. ett!

..

,; ,

., ....... .....

· l .A... ...

_.._ ...... t 1el

LL"_ ~

..

'" 0;0 "'"

• • .A. ....

I ..... -t ·tnt - tt j

'-' '- ----- -

- -

Jussive

Jussive

Subjunctive

• .J...... ...

• _.._ _..._ OM J

~--

0 ..... .;

A... •

~ ... ott I

--

· .". . .;

, ...... ,,; l .",_ M

°tttettt au

..

,. • .,.... 0 ;'

L ·A.. ..

tJWt "" .rW·

- --..

A_ - ~tt .. i

.;

o ..... 0 ,.

.~- ... ... # ~ eM ' ~_u

.... ",.

",. . .... . ,., .~ ....

~!

- ,

.... 0 ..... ;

.~- .. ..,~+tt·

IJE

.... ,

•• fI"

... ,

,.

", . ..-. ,."

l · A.... -

t _& _IE • -*- M.'

JJV_ _~

..

".. 1t,.0 ~

• • A_ -

~j

-

~

... , 0 ~

1 .tI._

Y _._ L •• ..,

~--

-

...

.... . ""'. .;

• • ..t,.. -

t til ~t t _..."'". ' '-' -- .

..

.."

J ..... _" .,

-....s.Jj

..

.".

~~

.. ..

"II I ,

~JJ

.. ,.

L~~

..

;

..... ,;. ~

L .~-

r"- _.L t 0 ~ traJ

.... s

..

,.

.; ...... .....

L · ti.

t tAut _.oc_"_6' .. -~

.. ..

o ..... ~

..

-

.&-

~ .. f+' J

-

..

....

,.

" 0..... ."

L . .1_ ..

,..,....tt'

...... .,...

"'" ...... 0 ~

. . .\ ..

L.J'\...t__., ¢ tt J

.. -

Imperative israthm

..

...

...

Verbal Noun istithna '

Verbal Noun iddi' a'

Imperative idda' i

, ~ , -

ty.)J ~,)l

."

~ 4

~.)f

-

,., .

1~7"/1

,.

".. ......

• .".. t

~+¢-H

-

I .... 0 .

.a. _ I ~ . .,

,. ,.

D .". D

• .\ - J

-*- _oil _.._. ti

~---

- , ,..

Participle rnustathnin/al-mustathni

-

Participle mudda' in/al-rnudda' i

~:JI\tl.

..... 1 .... 0.-

.A.. • .1.-

t..T ...... H* '\ 0'"'- tM P

.. ,. ~

-

.. ~ ·..10.'1

.......... , A

PASSIVE Imperfect yustathna r..,; !;: tN! Perfect ustuthniya ~ ... 7 .......

..... ~. t _. ". ,

/ I h - . ..a._ 1\ .~- gO

Participle mustathnan a -rnustajjjna ~.tt if--t *41

_l1li-

"' • .. ~ , 1

PASSIVE Imperfect yudda' a ,_rJ.t Perfect uddu' iya ~.,

,.

, -.f - -,

Participle mudda' an/al-rnudda' a ~..ut\,_rJ..,o

• I II

I (~)' ~·it :;J" to fold ... 116; II ~ to double ... , to repeat ... 118

- - , ,. .... 0

V J!oi to be double, to be folded 121; VII ~ l to fold intr. 123

d

IIX '_;'j-;:M J\ ( ~ ~~) ;J; . ~ .. .) to s~on t, to invite t, .~. ~~~; to 0, to

,

call for ~! 114/126; III ,_;. f., to challenge 0 119

....

exceptional ~ folding

...

(0 &)81 .trn) ~81 two

...... D

I-:"~ • t excepti on exclusi on . ";l.:_~~;J J

~ ~~~tN , ~

- , ",. ,.,.

~ .....

..... ~. 1 ... ...... ,

,:r ~u..,t I\~,_" excluded from

~[,.!JI\JI) [ ~ .. ;lJ a second

-,'" ,.

, ,

~W bilateral <..r

..

'. f - ,

~ G:,".,f allegation, prosecution ~..u'\t..Lo plaintiff, prosecutor

, #

i:J ,,~} ...... f· ... ·.-

A!Lt;. ~ I\~ ~J... defendant ~~I\tJ.;"=.."." petitioner

.;.,,, ~.,,;

I.SJl&..) ~ l.S~~

.... * "

L..;\j secondly

~l!JI\~l} second

.~ .... -

~) l} secondary

...

sununons, invitation

allegation, claim, lawsuit

~ "

~~,) propaganda

,

.; . _,

L~_j doubling

.... ~

prayer, invocation i_,lc.,) publicity

..

-,

.;'

~ G..~' bending, flexibility

J!l1\JL. double

~ G,;:_'L with the exception of



" -' , . .,

~J.A guest

J .~r.,.~ there is no cause for

,.

~rJJ'\tf., host

tII'. .

... ~J.47 ..... 1 sununons

exceptionally

..... 0 •

~ L;z tel' ~J~ without exception

, , .. -t4.L ...............

'I' .w._..- ...._

Doubly weak verbs are the fourth sub-class of the weak class. They have two weak letters as radicals. In theory this permits many variations, but in practice the patterns are limited. Most importantly, there are no common doubly weak verbs with initial-radical 4.S or with final-radical j .

..

In addition to verbs with J and ..s ' we also count as doubly weak those

..

verbs which have..; as final radical and s as one of the other radicals. or

..

..

vice-versa.

In verbs which have middle-radical J or ,.,; and final 4.S ' the weak middle

.. -

radical stabilises (i.e. keeps its consonantal form, W or )~) and the conjugation is that of a defective verb.

In doubly weak verbs, each radical (sound, weak, ,. ) follows the rules of its own class, except that final ~ sometimes behaves like a weak radical (see below),

Where the final radical is t.S .the personal endings of the tenses and the

-

imperative, and the endings of the participles and verbal nouns, follow the appropriate defective-verb pattern, for which see pp. 161 and 162. As with the defective verbs, it is impractical to look for a perfect or imperfect stem, since the final radical often incorporates the personal ending as well.

Where the fmal radical is ~ :

• the active participle of Form I follows the defective pattern, ending c.}_ .•• \" .• · (etc.) in the masculine singular,

• everywhere else (tenses, imperative, verbal noun, passive participles

of Forms I to X, and active participles of Forms II to X), the ending is that of a final- ~ verb (i.e. standard); see paras. 23, 25 and 29 to 33 of the introductory chapter.

Rare forms, In some of these verbs F01ln I is used only in certain forms, others being replaced by other verbs with similar meaning. A noteworthy casualty is the imperative, where we often find the root reduced to two or even one radical: examples are 127,129,130,131 and 132. These imperatives are marked ". and in some cases the common modem alternative imperative is shown in the table.

~.

- 177 -

j

'ata ya'ti to come, to bring y

127 I

128 I

A.., ,,; ....

u-! 4 u-!' · aba ya' ba to de cline ..lA, to deny ...

..

Verbal Noun "ityan Participle 'atin/al-'ati Imperative (itilti)*

· wr , .-i'Jt\uT t)\I~1 4;\~1 ~\~t)

fJ - ... v

". .... , ~ ,,"'" ''''' .; ., .,

* modern imperative: :JW (etc.) (~\~, ~\4-~1 ~\~I

, ", ;' "" .. ,. - "" ,.

Active

Imperfect

Perfect

-

~ ,.,. ......

l.;~1

..

-

,. ,.

i .... 1- ~I



Jussive

Subjunctive

..

... ,

wG

.. ..

.... ,

GG

...

Imperfect

-

Jussive

~i



c'G

_.

c'G

_.

_ ....

- ".



Perfect

~

G,

_.

~

U;I



...

Subjunctive

c'G

...

c'G

_.

c'C

_. -

c'G

_ .

.. • .... 1.

~_J'

...

",.. ....... "

";d--,.) I

....

o .... 1-

":.--' ,

••

Verbal Noun 'iba/'iba'a Participle 'abin/al-'abi Imperative Iba

..-0 ,

Passive? Imperfect yu'ta ~J1.

..- -l

Perfect 'utiya ~ I

.. ~

c,

- ... ,...

CI

_.-

.",..

A'

PASSIVE Imperfect yu'ba c..r~

Participle rna' bty

III ~~ dl to favour b , to supply with Y ,~, 140

.. ,.,.

. , .".,_

IV u!~ ~I to bring to ... H~ 141

., .4

Perfect 'ubiya ~ 1

.. ,.

_, "-

f..F-L..

- ,.

next ~r;.tl\ut;:.

... " "

opportune

everything goes well for him

i; GJ\- GI· rejection, disdain

,... . ...

~ ,; 1-

rI ,

scornful

~

reluctant

i

129 I

~ /~ -

~ ui J waqa yaqi to guard ..A • b t..r ~

~~ ~

",.,; ,

~~..J . waliya yali to be near/next to ... ,b ,

- ., .. ., to administer ~ \..AI

Perfect

130 I

..

ACTIVE

Imperfect Perfect

ACTIVE

~

- ,

: f:

~

Imperfect

~~
-~
,. ,,'~ ,.
~r
l •. :: ... ) .J
.... .J
"". .,
~J .... ,,,; ",
. .. L •. ~.J
_J
" ,
I~ LJ'
..J
,. ",.
~~ G_J~
.. J .. .J
,. .".
Su bjuncti ve
~
- (II"
I)J lJJ
..
,..
;:,Jj L.0
. ..
... M
"". "".
,~ ~
.... -
.".
~ C4Llj
.. ... ..
,. ,. , ."

.. -

'_~.J

'. -' ,-::

VW

-

0'0 __ .,-

..

~.J

.., ~

. .....

c.)\.AJ

.. "..

~ , ....

-

(JjL!

r >

""' • .._.. I:;

VW

..

"" #"

. .. ..

U\Li

. ........

- -

'-*=:1 _J

-

w'

.. J

.. ~, .. -

~.J

.. ,.

Jussive

Jussive

J1

Subjunctive

-

,,; _.

WJ

..

,

~

...

JJ

""

~

"".

jJ

~ .. -

...

..

..

-

- ..

.. -

.. -

., ~ . ..

'-I\.A.J

.. - ,.

..

Verbal Noun wilaya Participle walin/al-wali Imperative (li)*

Verbal Noun waqy/wiqaya Participle waqin/al-waqi Imperative (qi)*

~ lj J \;.~ ~.r(,J I\J ~ I) Y J )

,. ..... - ~ '1J .,.. ~

* imperative no longer used (~ Q ~

.. ;

* imperative no longer used

,

PASSIVE Imperfect yula J.J-!

Participle

., ,

Perfect wuliya~.J

- .".

~ • III'

mawliy ~..,..

... ,.

PASSIVE Imperfect

, .",.
, , .",. ,
yuqa ,_; J-!. Perfect • H
wuqiya tS'_,
.. ".
fI' . ..,.
Participle - ..
mawqiy ~_,..
•• ...

III Jf., to sponsor b, to keep doing JA 139; N JJ I to entrust to ... ,b

144; V J) to assume office, to take charge of ../JJ 145

VI J[,3 to advance intr. 146; X J;:'AI; to appropriate ~ 151

VNrnu1;I\J~ to be wary of "'145/149

~

protection

~ li J precaution, prevention

~'JJ rule, provincetjJ; appointment to office ~ ~J takeover

, "..

~ Q~1-~~ guardi~, trustee ~[,:JI\J[,J succession

.. ~ ~ as follows v-';,:JJ\:.r) assumption of office

i'-J~ .[. j[,JI\Jf, governor J,'"f,!I\J[;. supporter

(~_;. ~t)o~I~~~)' the United States (of America)

preventive

,;

ui.J protective, protector

protective, protector to fear God

God-fearing

preventive medicine

civil defence

OOUBLYWE4K

~ , .. ~

~ t.f"'!-! So • ja a yaji' u to come, to bring y ,

- ..,.

to present ci

.; ~ .......

r..>...r-. \.S f_; ra' a yara to see ,.Jl , to consider ... as .JA .Ja

132 I

131 I

( Form I anomalous: middle s dropped in imperfect tenses and imperative)

DCJUBL y lJ1IC"~

-

Imperfect

Perfect

Imperfect

Perfect

..............

~J

- _)

J .~ ...

L*':! J~

.II> ...........

.~ 1.1

~ ,

.,... ....

. -

W-;:V

.".

JI .. ;,., ,

.... \ • • 4IiIIIf

~ tJ.J_fu!4a~

. . ._

feJtrl.J



. -

t :.;:l'

- J

~L_j

,

~LJ

t ""' ....

~~ 1.1

.; 1-

\oS I~

. "" .....

~I.1

J •

- "-

\.art? >

It



# ~ •

l _f.

,,'qt>

..

,

• J.

F-"

~

~ .I.

. - .. ~

u-t .....

,

J ~ ,,,

IJ~ ~\IJj~

~ "" J.

l _" .t-..>

..

• - ..

\ca.a' 0>

..

..



, .

.,



Subjunctive

Jussive

Subj uncti ve

Jussive

~

J ..,. ~ .....

I.. -\,.. -

j' t_"LJ • ~

_. ~.-

L:_:) 4)

G G.)

CJ LJ L:;' Gj

, ..... ,

. , ...

-

'"

J , J ~

I~!~\J~

-

_;J

Verbal Noun

' ...

\oS 1.1

Participle ra'j n/ar-raI

~~

~)

Imperative (rai"

.JI' ".

..

~~

-

_".

~ ; ~ ~

1~~\IJj.~~

-

~

. "" . -

~

- .

... " -

.. .....,

(J .. •

-

"" ,

,. JI'

.. ..

~

;

~ , J ~

I~\'J~

- ..

,

,; "

l';.t ~

. . -

; ,

". , . "'-

I ... .,.y

W .-

JI ~

l" -

t • ""-J



.. .

Verbal Noun maji' Participle ja'inJal-ja'I

Imperative

(ji')..c

~~ ~~I\.~

.. , -, .,.

* modern imperative: Jc..J (etc.)

~CJI\~ G

.. , tJ

• i .. ~A

"" modem imperative: ftl (root _)i; L 1)

. ;

-

.I J

,.. \ I ..

,_,.? ~~ J.JJ-!":'



~)

.. ..

p .vss IVE Imperfect yura...s.;!

.; ,I-

Perfect ruiya ~_)

,J ; ,J. ~

Passi v e? Imperfect yuja 'u • ~ Perfect ji' a Co if.

- ....

<II 00."

Participle rnar'Iy Jr

"

rv ..;~ I to show to.. I $ 1 4 2

Participle rnaji' c.~

- .,.

.. ~ \~<-'!" coming. arrival

, .;

I".,." ." ~

... ~ I 1; !"", .. "J I ~ ~ 6:- It says/said in the newspaper that. · ·

~q., t.r7 . ..,~1 (~) next week y~"~~ ..:; coming and going

,;-

" r· ,,; h

... ~ -4~ C?~ 'Jj~ They presented a new proposal in whic -' .

;,." ,...;

-, "'1..~ ...

Co GI r ~ I~ opinion I.S 1)1\\5 Ir

. :.;::.. visible ~I)l\c. G

.... ~ , -, ~

., ~ .,

iWI ~')' public opinion

, ~

r...s.J 4 ...

..

VIew

l'

ffilITor

viewfinder

observer

a.. '

c.f-I~ ~

- ~ ~ - J:""'I.

... I..S.J I



In my opuuon

. .. I wonder

., ~"

~ 41,; L.. What do you think?

. '" ~ .....

... -J 1 ~ G ~ 0 G I I think it my duty to ...

I wonder ...

coming, next

DOUBLY WEAK

J , ." ". """ II.

,. l...!w ,. L!, sha' a yasha' u to wish ~ I \..A

-

133 I

Imperfect

J .; ""

~~

~-,h:;';\~JjC!t7 ~'l"~17

.;

o ... "",,"

,. b:-'

, ...

_4. £

~.arl

.;

J, ,;

'_'JL L!, \ l_,j L!

'"

-J' (!.7 ~l::';

-

..".

( , ~ J..,..,-

• ~.4- L t ~-

w,-. 'ttt' ~ ~

Jussive

,(!..7 ~C!. 7 ,: l:~ - .. ~

.I ...... .I... ~

J -~\J .L..!._t 'jJ - JJ _

- ..

;' ~... ...

. ~ u -

Verbal Noun ma.sl1I~ a

Participle .IDa' inJas..h-s.ha 'I

~L!JI\,.l!, I)c! \ IJjl!

- ... ~

-

•............................ ----1 ..•.•••• ,------=---- ••.•• __ w .. ---m-.------- ... --M~·=--,.-_.-.-l'--._F'S~ .

•• & is E· S3 .77 m _ 71 [F £. F n lIEf rr •

. , .

ocoee Y WEAK

~ ."

~ l., sa' a yasu' u to hurt b, to wrong -

Participle sat in/as-sat! Imperative

". ~ " ..

~ W 1\,. c:.., I_,. _,..., \ J""; _,....,

- ; #-

134 I

Perfect

ACTIVE

Imperfect

~ .

- " " .... +nrt rl

~ .. ;



" J'tt'

~ ....

l _~.a. ••• t rl

....

~ ,.

l _ .. .I.

• r'm ....

..... J ; .,. -

~

. ..

~

Subjunctive

Jusstve

• .I ~ .. .

_"'M t

.I ..." -,,J,,

l_y _yu i\ I""; J"_i

~ " ."

I.&.-

~ la .. '

...... .. .; ." -

~

, ~ ~ ~ ~ ;

l_y ..",. .. ! \ I_'; J""-!

..... ,. , . ..

~

-

Verbal Noun

- ,

su

Imperative sba ~

,

Perfect

.J • J

., ., - ..

.....,__,.,..,

..... I

- ..

~_,_.

I - ~

... "

0J~

"... ~;

l_y l_. \ lJj L..

~ .... ~

W;...

'L.., 0: L..,

. ,

..,

... ..

'-':' ..J' .... '

.. J."

~ . , . ..

r.J.J*'I

Subjunctive ~

..". ~ I ~~

.... J .;

-

Co Jzttt t

-

" _,. ... '

(' J.". r... _,.tMj

. _,. ." ,. -

_,.. ... J

, .J -" ,,~

ly J** i \ L,; Jo"oi' j

. ..

~J-tr '

... ,.

, .J ,

(' ~ , ~ yaM!

" -

~Jo"MI

"'" ",

. " ~ ..

_"tuJ_

, J., "'-.11'

Jf ..J'I II l \ I~ _"'M !

..

su

. .. •

~

..

- ....

~ , ,

PASSIVE Imperfect yusau I- ~

Perfect si' a I- cr"

PASSI\·'~E

.J ... .I

l

• It.

" l. H t

-

Perfect illl' a ,,~

-

....

Participle rnasu' .:. J ....

Participle mas_hl'

I.

, OM A

tJ

-

#'

- ,

IV : e..l to harm ~ ,u-1! I to treat badly is ,0 • to misjudge 0 143 VIII : l::: .. I to be offended at ~ 1 5 0

thing, something

~ ~

-.. ..

~,w.A

-

anvthin 0"

,.I ;:'J

. _,

nothinzncss

.._

• -1. ..

IL ~ J (. ,..J-I

;: L.I

injury T evil offence

(~if God wills') L'we hope so

(~whate\'er God wills') bravo", God knows ~ ..

nothinz

f._..

.. ,.

.J

offensive

- ,

~I

bad

a little (of) ~ some (of)

• ..... .&. a 1

"~rJ""'"":I it does not fI1J. etc r

-

-

bad luck

.... ,

~ .

" l~: , d I

_._

-

",. ""

...... ,}

,;,r __ l7.1101·

hl-f IL;~ hl-t ,~

,;

il:. LJ , IL;'_

mismanagement

disgrace indignation offended at/by

unluckv

.1

unfortunately

ill- treatmen t

DOlJBL Y WE4f(

[)()(jBL Y WE4f(



t._Sy

..

...

-

135 I

o , ~ J' ..

I,,$~ I...S~ nawa yanwi to intend 01 \_.

136 I

"'. ._,; ~ /

r",S...,.-! t.J.."...- sawiya yaswa to equal ...

Perfect

Imperfect

"

~. J

u~

Perfect

~~CTIVE

Imperfect

~-\CTrvE

.......... "...



~..Ydrt '

~ .....

, .,

~ . _,

0L_,.:;

,. ,;

· G ~ .. '-' lJ--!

, ...... ,.

. ,

.....

. -

vJJ*tdd

~ ......

~ ~.,iII ...

L...:.,_,;

C_)

. .... ~



~ .....

.... . ..... ....

V_"ttt !.

,

" J .....

-

, ,

Jusstve

~. -1.

_,....,I

Subjunctive

.Iuss iv e

Subjunctive

"'". ..-



..J'*" 1

. ~ 9 ..

.~

. ,

y

.... . ....

.,.

, J ....

r .-

.J_,.-J

........

L__,;;

... -

~

.;

I ... ~

.. -

'J~

~ .I ....

L__,;;

,

; .....

L_,.:;

..,.

,; . ~

L · r!..J-'-!

,. '"

-

_""1

-

,.., ....... .... -

.:r~

.". '"

... . ....

. ..... .;

.-

, .

~_,...

.". ...... ....

..

-

\.Sj' at '

...

-

, .....

.....

i .... ,

JJ-." !

. ..... ,

IJ_""~

.,

J*'*!

.... ...... ,

-

-

~y tt'

~ .....

. ~

.... ,

,,; 0.... " .....

. L._,;; i.5 _,:.;

.-

r

"...



_,.;I

Verbal Noun sawan/as-sawa Participle sawin/as-sawt Imperative iswa

u;,.JI\i.S~ ~JWI\_,c.. G~I C_;'I ;"1

... ,,1$ '" ,., "..

;_;dJ C:':.I ~;"I

..

...

~

Verbal Noun ruva

./

Partici pie na win/an - na wi

. .

Imperative mwi

P~-\SSIVE Imperfect

Perfect

,.. J

-

.......

p._-\ SS !VE Imperfect

-

vunwa

J \,,6<1. .,.", ~

fI' .,.

Participle rnaswiy ~_yw.A

-

'" t,

Participle manwiy ._s_i.A

-

.". ...... ,. ~

ill l.S~ ~ to be hostile to ~ 139: VIII i.,)_,.;.i I 148 = I..;~ 135

II ~~ to level a 138; ill u~c.. to equal .. 139. = r~;"" 136

~ ~ ~o

VI I.,)~~ to be balanced 1~6; VIII loS"": .... 1 to be(come) level/straight 148

",.

,

.". ~ ~

nuclear research iu_,j li u.,

,. ~

, ~ ~ ."..", .....

nuclear weapon ~~I l"..r..L ... ~I t.j

, ....

good will ~.:JI ~ ~

nuclear energy nuclear disarmament

.... -,

, ~. .. , $ ,

~ ~ equal, equality ~~I\i.5_""'" equality ~ levelling. settlement

~, ,

iGL: equality ~JL.JI\.JC_: equivalent ~ [,;..: ... 1 straightness

-"" *'

. J(,.;:_'j tropical L>.JL:W:jl\JL..;

u _ ~

~~dl\-,t:M;: bal~nced

- ... ~. f ~; • .J ......,

~_,..::;..-JoI\_"7.MA even .1 ... 1..5_,- either ... or

_ .". ~ 1

..,. ~ .... ..... .J

i~ I 13"': wA standard of living

,;

-.... ..

4..t---J Intention

..

0C_; r if) core, nucleus l.>J t.:l1\J G:.. hostile

~ ..... ..,

i.SJ"'; nuclear

...

" .,

equivalence l.:- 1 especially

,

." -:. f - "'. )

I.,)J .. ~.-.d\;_,.;..._.A level (noun)

". ." ~

~, ~ ~ with the intention tolof

r > ~t -:

5 J_"; '. 'il ~ equator

equal pay

~J; c_'j._.

.t' ,.

.; ..J

~I Wo· ......

ill\Vill

.J

~c.- \,~ except for him/her

the tropics

--_ .. ---. ~,~--. ------------------------------ --.----

OOUBLYWEAK

[)()IJBL Y WEAK

f/I",,' ~~

VJ 2"! J..SJ-' " sawwa yusawwi to level Jj

-#

~ ~\:~;.lJaYYaAJayiya yahya to live ~ \~

"

138 II

137 I

-

--

(after,,; .d must be written I ; it cannot be written with ~ )

. .

Imperfect

ACTIVE

Perfect

Imperfect

Perfect

'-.SJz0"!

..... ,

L,u

- -

I .J •• ~

-

,. ....... -

• A

".. ...

l..; __ >

....

• *--...>

I .-

,

-

~"'=t>

...,

........

- ~

.;

.......... ,

· l -

, , _t_ta~

....., --

_ J,

;>

..".J ,

W. t->

_(_

- -

- -

-

~

-

0-.1 t.~

- -

filii

'- .. ALL l >'

..... ,. --

.,..

......... ,.

U·l~L~

au

- - -

- -

-'" "'''

~..". #, ."." I"

l! !-> \ l:> t..r-> \ ... r-

~ - ., -

... .". ~,,"" ;#ii>:t,..,. • ,."

4J.-> l:..~ \ l:_,. ~_,.,. \~ .. >

~... _.. .. -... IIiIIII

."., ....

.....

"

.; "_,,

• I -

'-' '-!..J- t .... J

..,. ....... ,

-

"';J t ~.'

-,

u-.,~.,J

a

.. - -

Jussive

'Subjunctive

Jussive

Subjunctive



,_s_,.. .. t

.. ,

,;, ..

I_JJoiO-J

-

..)-, .. ,.1

a

...

,#.... ,

-

""'S,,1

'"

.. '" "

-

4_$_,.. .. '

-,

.......... ~

l .. ,.,_;



j .........

'_]a! ~

r .... 0 ~ l __ ~

.....

- -

- ..

, ...... ~

,; ..... ~

L.,y

. ..... .;

, ....... .",

4.Y~

,

I... .J

b., .... M!

. -

~._~

.. -

-

, .,..,_,

tJ-

-

.. -

--

... -

,

" ~

I_JJ ill!

..............

l_..__ t" 1

~_.---- ....

_.. -

-_ -

.; . "'. .,

, . , ..

~

-

-

_JzSCdJ

... ""'"

Verbal Noun hava

+ ~

, . .,

Verbal Noun taswiya L_,_;

+

Imperative sawwt

'J~ G~:~

...

CJ~

~

Participle not used

Imperative ihya

j ,..

..J-! ... 1

~ -I

~,

-

,.

I .....

~I

Participle musawwin/al-rnusawwi

." f 1\ ~, "

f..$~ J-t~A

-" "

-

-

- ..

.,." ~ <Ii'

PASS IVE Imperfect yusawwa f..$J*tO! Perfect suwwiya ~J--'

.. .,

.- '" 1· ~ ~ .I

Participle rnusawwan/al-rnusawwa I..S~ I\\'sj.tt"o

~ ~ ..... 1-

II l:> to keep alive ~ , to greet t 138; N l:>1 to (re)animate ) , to perform

~ ,. ;. ,.

intr. 120; X ~, (for l~ ... I) tobe ashamed of u-", to be

~ ,.

..

• I ....

- ,

4.SJ $ 7

- ".

-

~j I.'

.. .,

- '"

.. J'

See 136

embarrassed by ,:r 126

. ;

is" live, alive

-

l.Sy-.> vital, lively

...

~ GI animation. revival

- It

- _ A

.. !--~ greeting

...

.... .. '" ""

'" ~ .... J\r. ~ shame. embarrassment

-

J..+-L.. snake

-

, ,

~~:J-I ~ zoology ulJ~ ~:~~ zoo

,

.ft, ,11- ....

4J.J I,.!.I~ God be with Cpreserve ') you

,

" .

Verbal Noun musawa Participle musawin/al-rnusawi

i G c..:. I.SJ LJ I\.J c:.:. I.J~ L.w

-, ~

139 ill

...

~

, " ~ "

~J.JL....;

"" .... ~

0J_JL-;

~

, ~ .", .J

;;JJ~

.; "',

0J_'~

..

.. --

.. "i.(.

. '-

DOUBL Y lI1IE4K

OOUBL Y lI1IE4K

, _, ." ~

\oS_' ~ \.SJ L- sawa yusawi to equal .A

140 ill

.J ~

~~ <...i' 'au yuatl to favour ~,

- .. to supply ... with Y ,~

-

-

Imperfect

.II .(

~JL,I

... "

~ "

r..S.JW

Perfect.

Perfect

ACTIVE

,

<.It;;

C::~L.w ~~L~~L.w (,~~

:;~~

". .;,

~L...JL-;

~ ....

~ ~ J

~L_,W

.,; ,.

" " ..

~L_,~

,. ,

..- "J

:;L_,w

c:.;:_:,(. t:~~ ~L., G~L-

... .J 01 .... .-

l .. :- t;1

• ~. ::1 ~

, ". :-,

~

L,;T

.JI • J-

.... -I

\.""'0 ... ...;

-

-

-

GI

_, .,,-

~I

. ;.-.

- - J

it.-_'"

--

-

,.

Jussive

Subjunctive

... .; ..t

l..S.JL.,J

- II"

.Iussrve

Subjunctive

..t.

~ - f& J !.fJ

..

".

, .".,J

luI.:-;

,;

",. ",.J

L_,L;

.".

., , ~

L,-,~

.,

... ~.J

l.,_,L;

.". ....1

JjJ_JL-;

,

~ , ~

f.J.J~

'" "

&,_,~

-

,

..

,.

, ..,.J

~J~

.. ,

~ ~.J

i.SJL;

Imperative sawi

Participle mu 4 atin/al-rnu' atI Imperative

~[;11\0r; 1)1 ~T

- "" '-* -

~~T ~I

...

,- -

VerbaJ Noun mu ata

-

.:.J

.,I .; ,

I

PASSIVE Imperfect yusawa uJL-.! Perfect suwiya '-$J~

Participle musawan/al-rnusawa ~~L.l'\..s~~

...

-

,

PASSIVE

'"

, ,

,- - -:f'.. Perfect 'utiva ,~,I

Imperfect y u ata u-' Ij.! - _ ~~ _

Participle rnu ' atan/almu ' ata ~C;1I\J-r;

See 136

See 127

......... - ..

. ~

. ...:.:.

DOUBL Y II\IEAK

~

- - - ....... , .

.. .

-t •... :, -,

DOUBLY WEAK

-

-

...

141 IV

0' ~~

~ J.!. ~ I 'ata yu' tI to bring to .A Ii'

-,. ,

142 IV

J ,*,1.

,._sf. J..>_; I · ani yuri to show to .A ,~

Imperfect

Perfect

(anomalous in Form IV: middle ~ is dropped throughout)

, ... . - '"

~y-

• .J

" . .".-.

L;J

..

• J. ",,--"

- .. J

~

J. .,-

.. -1

L rt t t

--

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

• JI

-

.J ,.... ""

...:. t i J

. .......,

- ..

c,_sJ~

.... ,

- .-

rJ_JJ

-

."..

~ ..J.

. -,.-

lJ'::ly

-

; ... s :-",

'-- * t j

-lIP &¢J

-

, J ..... "'"

,~t :!.J I t

, ....... ""

~_JI

~~1

_, ..... -1.

c,)J...)1

-

- . :-,

,=. t j

..

.. -

vJ_r

"".1.,'-

l .. ;..;J

....

. ..



uJJ!.

GT

-

GT

:1 t.f

~~q

- ..

rJ_JJ..

-

Jussive

Subjunctive

• .J

- ~-

ft.,.Jy

'" ., - ...

c..r_rJ

- "

.... .J.

I..,;_;;

Jussive

S ubjuncti ve

. ,

- _.

~y

~

..... ,

J_,;_;;

.I



• J

~

• J.

..6

-

Cj

, • J.

. - ..

~y-

~ ...

-

.;

,JJ

JJ!.

;

1"; ... .J

w~ ~J-!

- #.-

t.fY

-

,

'" 0 ~

.....

J..fY-

... .".

.". .. ~

.. .. -

.._r.Y

..... ,;

..

-

J

-

VC erbal Noun 'Ita t

Participle rnutin/al-muti Imperative

J - •

au

-

~f

-

...

-" ..,.

Gi

-

"

Gi

Verbal Noun

~. -,

ITa a

Participle murin/al-rnuri

Imperative

~ .

an

-

-

-

u-il

.. ,

P~-\SSIVE

A ) , ~

Imperfect y u' ta t..J j.J_ Perfect' utiya ~ J I

~

,.

~,.1 ". ~

Partici pie mu · tanJalmu ! ta ~ jJ. f\c..i ;...

PASSIVE Imperfect yura i.SJ!

, ""

Perfect 'uriya \S.J1

.....,

See 127

..

....

Participle rnuran/almura -'-.S) 1\4.$-;'

,.... .. ,

-.'~'

See 131

DOUBLYWEAK

J. ,J,., 1-

f' ,-"odd! f' ~ I ' ada 'a yudi' u to illuminate .A,

- .,

to cast light upon ~

143 N

ACTIVE

Imperfect

,

"'. .J

" . ...

.;_,..4J

,

.;. ,J

" .

~=6!

.,

Jussive

-

...

, ~ , ..

J " .. -\ I " .. -

'Y_'_'.' a , ~J-!_Q'.4 I

'"

I ~ .!\ 1.1-, • ~ rye: 4' 'J...J-':-sa f

.". ,.

~. ~

,.. . -

0-*cQJ

,

J ~ ~ "

I..,.: !.~! \ IJJ.:-.a!

....

J.

,. .-

c...r-!JSb " 1

~

'" .."

.. " & •

~

,. .. .. -

~ ... :62J

,

,J .J ~ ,

t~! ! .~! \ 'J.he;"!

,

.".. .J

~ .

0-* ads!

,.

.;

~ .J.

L' .-

... O·

. ..

4 .-

~

~. ~ .. .

0-' .:2.!

~

..

Perfect

, "'.... "'"'

WL41

... .A .........

wL.;,1

"'"

'~f

Subjunctive

..

,

.". ..

l" .-

t •• OJ

-

~ , ~

l: + t~ ,

·-t' .....

. _

..,.... '-<--

.~ .

. •. ~,.,

144 IV

,. __

"" ..

.. ,;or.

ACTIVE

'-( -::

.J ,..... "'"

uL41

.... ,.... ""'"

uLDJ

'.... 1-

uL4J

':"i'"

OOUBLYWEAK

u1; J.J 1 "awla yun to entrust to ~ ,~

-

J'

1111 perfect

Jussive

",.

.... J

w_y

Verbal Noun 'Ila' a Participle mulin/al-muli

I}Jl

Perfect

-

Subjunctive

Imperative

.... 1-

~Jl

......... -i.

L:J.J I

, awli

Verbal Noun 'ida' a Participle mUQI~ Imperative "adi

J .J ~ " '"", -1. .....

.,. ~a,4 !..,.~~ 1\ '-,j..,:.;' I L:""!-~ I ~ I

, .;

.... 0. "1. ...

~I

,

_J ... .1

PASSI'VE Imperfect yud au ,~

~ ~

Perfect ' udi: a {. ~ I

,; .J

Participle rnuda' {. LaA

- ~

P~~SSIvYE Imperfect vtlla J J

~ y_

Perfect

Participle mil lan/al-rnula

I ...... J;". ~ .....

I (.,. _,..;:,) .,. -,*4! {. w:, to shine 134, = IV : ~ r 143

II r ~ 1· ~J ~ ..,

..,,;:, to 19ht.A, to illuminate 50: V _,..a; to shine 53

~ ... .....1

X {. La: ..... 1 to be lit, to seek enlightenment in u 152



See 130

r I-""'l. • '"

I'- ..,.::" J (E_ I'- ~ light

i: G,! lighting

...

J. ,

~ ~ light- (in compounds)

t. ,.

o ..,.

.,. _,...;:, ~ in the light of, in view of

#" ~ • • • ..,.

daylight _riI1\~ ... t~tJl {. y':'" sun-, moonlight

$ .." ,..,

light-year ~L:...:, it. LA! artificial lighting

.,.... #"

J

t.~ bright

-

...

.,. ~ brightness

'I • " .. _.II

-.. -

. ..

A t J~ "~.;J

4av ~

-

DOUBLY WEAK

146 VI J~ J[,j tawala yatawala to advance intr. u-1-,

OOUBLYWEAK

145 v J?- J; tawalla yatawalla to assumelhold office. u-1 _J

" - - :-.

".<>

to take charge of .IA

-

ACTI\'~

J;;; 0);;

Irn perfect

J;1 J;:;

~~ J?_

J;;

Perfect

Imperfect

Jr;i Jr;i ~r,:;

J (' ". _,

I .J--!

Jr;:;

1'1 r ... ,

.. w _-

U - r

J ussi ve

Subjunctive

Jussive

V"- erbal Noun

J~1 Jc,;.;

J(;j (,Jr;i

J~ ::':}r;;;

-

LJ(:~ Jr:'- (1(:'-

.. J--! ~ .Y :J--!

or:: Jr~ ". -1(:"

- r .r:: ~"~

tawalin/at-tawali d~I\J[,5

... ~ ~

[,Jr;

:;Jc.;

",0 erbal Noun tawallinlat-ta walli

Participle muta wallin/al-rnutawalll

Participle rnutawalin/al-mutawali

-

Perfect

Subjunctive

Jr;1

J~ J[;-j

...

J( :~

~

J~

or:: - J--J

or :~ - r

wr:~ - r!

wr:: - ~

Imperative tawala

Passive" Imperfect yutawala J~

Perfect tuwuliya JJ:;

PASSIVE Imperfect yutawalla J;~ Perfect tuwulliya ~::,;

... ..-

Participle mutawallan/al-rnutawalla )';11\)';;:

-

See 13 o

See 130

147 vn

[)O(JBL Y lAIEAK

'-.SJ~ I..S~)I inzawa yanzawi to be isolated

DOUBLY~

..

-

148 VITI

~ • .., JI''';.

t..>~ t_S_,..,..1 ihtawa yahtawi to contain _.

-

..

..........

G:~)I

~ . , ..... ..,..

~_,jl

,

~ " • .,- ;~I

~JjJ

Imperfect

~ .......

I..S..".:" I

Perfect

Imperfect

..... • 1-

\.SJj I

Perfect

~~CTIVE

ACTIVE



l..$"": :-u

~

~

.; J...... '"

..

A.; ....

l;.,_,.:>1

.; " "., .....

~_,.:.>~I

. ,., .....

~_,.:>I

. ...

e..SJj.- ,

..

~

; .J.,.~

-

t"' ~·""~1 ~_'jJ

...

l:;~)1

,

tZ,)1

.,. _,

- -

t".S,." .. -...

..

."

..- .....,

- ., -.._

,yj"'~

,

..- ~..... ."

...... ..,.

~

( " "".

J_,;. ... I

, ..,. .........

y__,.::.-I

.....

,. .#' " .........

~_,..;>I

,

C_;;'I

~t:;~

, ,

" ..... . ."

~L_":..,,,!

.; ~.,

; ,

, ..... ,

• f _ ..

u\J~

, .,

..... ,;

, . ., .....

- · J

\-J ....>

_,

- -

\.S~

.. ,

L' .... ~ u.:;;

Subjunctive

.", .........

\S_'_';; I

Jussive

Subjunctive

Jussive

.........

."..

I ~ ..........

_JJ~

". " •

J-'a ... J

..-

I~

, .........

..". . ~ ... . .

J_r-J

....

I .I",A;

JJ:;;

...... .;

,; , t .,



t~_"; ~ ~

'J. -~.ucu

.. ,

.J. ..-. ",.

I~

...........

.... .....

JI'

~ ..... .,

L_,..~~

pII'

" .... . '"

L~

~

, ..... , r - _ -

\J-J--~

- -

~j ,.._

.. ,

~ ... II ~

.... .;. _. .. -

~_J_"at •

-

.... • ..,t

..... .,

,

, ......"

.. ,

-

Imperative ihtawi

" ..... _, ... . '" .

IJY=-~ I L~ I _,..~> I

Imperative

~ " 0

UJ;I

.;

~ .....

~_,;I

• A

inzawi

VerbaJ Noun ihtiwa'

Participle munzawin/al-rnunzawi

i.SJpl \J~

, ... "

L_,.;l

.; , ~ .....

L_,_,;.; I

,t

_,_,;.;I

, , ~ .s

i..S_,;;1

Participle rnuhtawin/al-rnuhtawi

o#t

. ~ .....:.:.. f ..:1-"- I

-

-

-

P .. -\SS IvTE none

, ...... J ,. J:I J

PASSIVE Imperfect yuhtawa ,.;~ Perfect uhruwiya ~_,.:>I

-

"

..... ""'_.1 _ ..... .1

Participle muhtawan/al-rnuhtawa ...;~ 1\,;........,,....

( . .... ..; ....

I\.-) i.$J:r. ,_s_,j to to hide .... to wrinkle ss 135

-

• ." ;.... _,~. I,,,.

I (-) !..S~ I.SJ> to collect ..A 135, = VITI ~_'10;:-~! 148; V 1.5~ to coil

-

.".

,~..... II ...

II!V "';J":;\...sJj to go into seclusion 138/145

...sJpl\J~ secluded

-, ~

{:JL,.. ~Gj 1: ~_JO acute angle

'-- .;

A ';U ~ (,j C ~_, 0 right angle

, ~

intr. 145

'" ~) I seclusion

~ Gj ( ~_J 0 comer. angle

",.

..... .J _'r~ '" (

~_);.. ~ _,j c:: i,_J j obtuse angle

, ,

~ ;A! ~ .; La, ".;~j to frown

"

.I'~ ...... J

~L~ contents

L" r ; -~ ~

_ 'J> (II..J_'> roll. (irian. pl. l intestines

,.

.~

149 VITI

"~

ACTIVE

tI ..-

- .

... ~ J

~_ F

- ,

~ , -.,

~

....

UU-=.;

~

#

"..,- , .. ~ ...

~

,. 4,

. -

~

- -

- .

-

~

,

.. ~""

,~

DOUBL Y WE4J(

~ , ,. - f

~ ~ ittaqa yattaqi to be wary of ..A

- ,.

Imperfect

.". ~

'" - ..• L -. _-

V!-tL+ __ t

.; ,

Jussive

. .. - 1

VerbaJ Noun rttiqa

Perfect

'"'"

ZH

...

- ,

-

..

., . .,.

- .. , ~J

fi

- "'"

'" I ..,.

~

- ,

~.,

~

- .".

- ,.

. .

ittaqi

I

JJI

",. ....

-

uL"1

P~;\SSI\lE Imperfect

~ ..... .."..

l - -~ ~

.1* . 'J r

-

-

qrPI

See 129

- ,

,. ~.#'4

l._Lj I

'"'"

.",.

"'~f L:A;

- .",

Subjunctive

,.,. I ..;

l - -

... 47,

u .z...

~

~ ,~

l - -

_-sf -:_.

..

,

~~JI'

L,;~

-_

~

I ....

,-

~ ~,;

l - -

.. I!~_'

Lie LL _.

..

Participle rnuttaq in/al-muttaqi

Imperative

., #

UJJ

-

...

-

yuttaqa ~

7

F

*

•........ ~ I ~ n ,., .. , •• ,.

••• I I = .S

en ".n ". E • •

.....

OC>UBL Y WE4J(

~ ..... ", , ....,... I _,

• l :' . ...., ¢, l.;..., . ista' a yasta u

ezwa

150 VITI

-

to be of tended at/by w--'

ACTIVE

Imperfect

Perfect

, .A...... J W~

.".

, .A. ....

w l.=...1

....

'~I

.; ',.,... "

.. l- ... • , .... *1' j ...,-

.:. jt t'

~ , ....... ,

· t-

..._ , e! t

..

-

, ..... . ."

~ l~ttti

.J

.; ,

G: l ~: rI I :.:,: C~t! I

Subjunctive

....

: G~rli

Jussive

:r .....

., 41 Perfect uttuqiya ~I

- ,

-;~1 _ ...

Participle muttaqanJal-muttaqa ~I\~

., ,...... " · l- ... '-'~ .. ¢ u J

, , ...... ~

* L- -

v" o:tO ,

,.; """. ~

r' l ~ • ., j ~ _; l,Z~ t .. j Je. __ u-

N

~.,; '.;.,

,~ l;.tt·

.. ..

.J ......, ,....."

I~ l: $~ \ IJjL-: "'!

-

(' ..... ,

~ l:etrtl

. . ,. - ,

Verbal Noun isn a

- ,

musta

. ..

Imperati ve ista

, 12.,1

Participle

, .

t. l~.: t # )

........ ~ l:ttsA

.,.

, G:-I

,.,.. "

·L -

c_sJ~stt'

- .",

.". ..... ".

" l.; t it I

-

.... ..... '"'"

~ l ~ .,. i

--

- ,

Passi v e? Imperfect yusta u

.. ..... • .J ~ l:zt,,*, J

-

Perfect usn · a : u-=:.1

- ,

" - ,

Participle musta

See 134

...

'F

n

b

z

:'11

••

_-

.....

-_

4Il' ~

-

152 X

i

I I

DOLIBL YV\IEAK

151

..

-

.~.

....... ,



t...r _,.; * t' !

-~

...... ,..

~..,.::.~I

x



.

istawfa yastawfi to exhaust

to fulfil JA

. ..,_

~ . ,

ACTIVE

_. " - ..;.

Imperfect

Perfect

ACTIVE

r

. ,

j

~

...... ~

~r"l

J ...... "'.

(;.~ _,; I" I

-

" ., . .;

· w - ...

w _ __". c ... t

, II"

~ ...... ,

· w - -

'-' _ 'J-' t... '

.., ...,- ...... .;.

~~'_';ot.,1

, ...... J1'

..:.~ ;y*&1

, ., ...... ~.

u-i _...: t"f

~

. ~ .

.:,J _,.; 1

.".. ,

~ __,:: • 'I j

- '"

, ."'. _,

U:ij'W'

,

....... ~



,j _,.: 'tt!

- ,

• ...... J' •

~'y .... ,

-

"

, , ...... ,.

l.;~_";t .. 1

".. '" ... ;. "I

l.~~J-;.J

.. .. . - -

U.JY-a,4. 7 IV _j

.,

.; ~ .".. ~

. .. ... --\ VJ-tZ! • .d • ..-.J

,

,. .,..,.,

Co • _ ..

V-'~b+J££JIWI' I

.."

~ ...... J

~.r .u1

,

, ,. "'. " •

~_'::¢Hc!

, .;

~ .,. ~

· W ..

u _ ~. ett~

,. ,

W,- .,. .,

.. ..-

v . 'j* QuJ

, "

l:~·:- ,

_ 'j* ttl

,

r:!·:· I ~J-' oil'

,

, ~ .~ . .;. ,

~Y'"

,

.,. ,



Jussive

~

.; ~ "". '"

• & • - \ ~*" t1rM!

."

.,. ..,. ~

.....

V'.aeOM!

.,

Subjunctive

"§_. ; ~.~

I·~·

. ..,;:. . .,

.1f. ~

. ..... ,.-

• •

U __,.; • to J

II'

". "'. .;

I"";_,.; al4 j

• ;. 1-

~ _,.; III I

, ...... ... ..

,._,J __,;; t wJ

..

"" ...... -

tr._. •

J/I

... .i. ",

t';YP4Lt

W'" ..... '"

- -

_ r.?t * .. I

,

W~ ...... '"

.. -

. _ '_" •• iII J

,

, .,. ~

W_";WJ

. -

,

W" ...... ~

- -

.. _,. .. it j

~

. ..... .,

~ :i. .. -

~jA ca.'

..,- ...... ~

W

- ..

~ '._JMi t 1f ,

.... ...... ,

~"y •• i

.. ,

. ""'. ....

~ _,.; IlA,i

- "

, ...... "



~Y OfIi.J:.

-

.".

~ . ""'. .,

~_":l~j

- ,;

. "., • .. .-

~Q b eM'

lS

,

.. ~ "". ~

I_,,,k.;" •• j

,

, ..... "

I-,,:! .~; l#oi\

'"

.". .... . .;

" . - ..

~ • .:2."rWt '

"'"

J. "."

1 ... .-

J..J-~ a t -...e.!,

,

,} ~.....

I_,.: ! ,~,:, .,.! \

..,.

..".. .......".

.. . ...

0-'.0 + ... !

,

~ ...... I'

• •

U!-' _,.: blAH j

,

... .,-. .".

Lt-i -",;Oct.!

W~ .,..,. .., - -

... ...,.+ $ l' J

.,..

W~ II:. ".,

'_J-t ~

- -

~

".. .II. ~

!_,.i...,.:--!

., ......., • •

tJ\Jjd ......

- "'"

~ .;. ~ • •

IJt.,J J-+ n ft.'

- -

,

W .... ·• .... • , - -

'_?t L .. ..._J

_.

Verbal Noun

istlfa'

Imperative

istawfi

..

Participle mustawfinlal-mustawfi

, ,

W' ':. ,

_ :J-t ttJ

, , . ,.

u-i _,.; ... 1

.. ,. .,.

.... . .....

.... ,

~.J-'7 t tj

<II' .,

P~-\SSIv"E Imperfect

Perfect

" 'iJ 1

usttifiya ~~

yustawfa

... .,..

',. :. f '*. ,. J

Participle mustawfanJal-mustawfa c.,) _,;:-.J.1\c.,)..,.: ulLA

Verbal Noun

I (~ll~) ~ ~~ to fulfil y. to compensate full y for y 129

.... ,

~ ....

II ~ J to complete Jj , to treat exhaustively J, 138

III ~G to provide for in full y I b 139; N ~~ 1 to fulfil y \ .. , to exceed

I, ",.

uL:- 144; V ~_,; to receive in'full ... 145

Participle

._-

_, .PI •••• 11 _ •••• _

_FP ••

±

istada t a yastadi' u to be lit, to seek" enlightenment in y Imperfect

" ...... " . '... . - -

U ~.l 1i.1I tzaItNzJ

". ,

~ .... ~

• l" • - ..

&J _;·62 ..... '

~ ,.

,,; ...... ~

· l- .-

• ' ••• ~ ita,ill • W _ -

.,- ..... "'"

• L"· ..

·tt~:d~att'

...e

-

Jusslve

..

, .... • JI'

t:. -

+ .... -~;. M'

..... _.

; .....,

Lc. • -

• s ~Ji2.,.. • M S ow

- -

..... ~

fXJUBL Y V\EAK

Perfect

, " "...

... l ... I

...... <'ostl

.., , .......... '

- l · - I

.....,. a....,

" , ." ,; ,.II.

• l.a:... .. 1

_.-.; ~ ~ . . .; -- , .

lJ-" \.147. d I +-; .. tl a; ttl J

-

Subjunctive

"' ......

• _ t

.. ~4 +, at ,

tJ

- ",

.... .; . . - -

~ •• " t,.,.j

I...r-

-,. ,

.... .......

.. -

.. OS.$$I

r...S •

- ,.

. .....

.. .,.. ,

-4., rl

c.s

.". .". ", .;

,~. ,.

I -is. .. - 1 .. • - J

\.t-_.._., a + $ rl I..... 4·..atJI

... '--" -

, ,. - ~..... "

. - ...

.a.. aM j

-

istidaa

.

mustadi

.

-

"

, J"..... ......

-l · - I

LJ.I-~ ,-_'"

~ - .

.....

, ., ,..,..

l.Jj l.;, U III

. -

,. ~4* ~tt .j

~. -

- ,

, ~" .....

I~L4'j1 .. 1\

, """. ~ . - ..

" ~ a t dtu* ,

<J

- _.

, ... ',..,. .....

· L* - I

tJ:d t ttl

,

· ,. . "'"

.. . - I

.Q. $ tt

u-

.... ....".

. - ...

" 4.$..,,;'1 6. q 11 t

- ,

~ ..... ~

I .. · - - 'J...1"'! • a t a to 1

....

, , .• ,

I..,.: !'~ ~-r \

· ......, '" . - -

..a. •. tt I

tJ

~

..... J' .. . - -

.Lt,4.'u.

lS -

- "" .".

· _. . '" ~ .-

--'11. .. $ at j

~ -

,.

"". ...... ~

... - -

&+_42 ... h top'

,

.. ,."

t • ~tM <a :. t ct J

~.. -

,

~ '.... . .,;

I II- • - \

~$ • -..:2* tV t

- ..

· ..... " " . - -

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4J

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,., .

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,

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... to •

u-' nO taM:..

....

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l" · - - a 1M' at. fill'

-

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,.

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l~*_~: 2M J

..4-4_

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, .... "'" l· · - - t .... ,. Qt, .. ,

z_ __

-

Imperative

",. ,

~ J ;.

I_,!~~:; 1 \ I Jj.! .~ ; .. , I

",.

, .",. ,. ,.

~::";.*,l

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..... ,

. -

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t..S

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l· ...

, wn4* rt dO J

Passi veo IDlperfect

yustaQa~ u

-

Perfect

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Participle mustaa3.· 10 L.a.,:, . "I"

~ ......

l~ · - I

t , • sC2 .. *d

-

, ,. .J

ustuqfa ~U'.~; ... l

- ,.;

See 143

decease

faithful

faithful, abundant

, tI"

~_,;

.. ,

J :U~

to die

deceased

in fulfilment of, in compensation for