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Risk Assesments - HSE Procedure

Risk Assesments - HSE Procedure

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This is for reference of Health, Safety and Environment Management Students/Professionals

This is for reference of Health, Safety and Environment Management Students/Professionals

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PROCEDURE MANUAL

SEM - 1812
Health and Safety Procedure

Risk Assessments
REV. : 0 DATE : 2004. 05. 03

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Contents
1. 2. 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 6. 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Purpose. Scope. Responsibility. Site Manager. Supervisors and Superintendents. Field Supervision.. The HSE Manager and the HSE Department. Sub-Contractors. Definitions. Work Method Statement. Risk Assessment. Severity. Frequency. Hazard. Likelihood. Probability. Risk. Work Flow. Classify work Activities. Identify Hazards. Determine Risk. Decide if Risk is tolerable. Prepare Risk Control Action Plan. Review adequacy of Action Plan. Instructions. Principle of Prevention-Protection-Information-monitoring-review. Hazard Identification. Risk Assessment. Hazard Control Action Plan. Review Adequacy of Action Plan. Implementation of Control Options.

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7.

Revision Status.

Appendix I. II. III. IV. V. Steps in Hazard Management Programme. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Worksheet. A Simple Risk Level Estimator. A Simple Risk-based Control Plan. Hazard Control Decision Tree.

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1.

PURPOSE.
The purpose of this procedure is to provide guidance on the development and preparation of work method statements and risk assessments, by identifying hazards and reducing risks as low as is reasonably practicable on all SECL Projects. The main aim throughout this procedure and guidance is to follow the principles of Prevention - Protection - Information - Monitoring - Review.

2.

SCOPE.
To be used by all members of the SECL Project Management Team, Supervisors and Subcontractors personnel who have legal, personnel and economic responsibilities for reducing risks of injuries to persons at work, damage to plant and equipment and to reduce risks that could have a negative impact on the environment.

3.
3.1
3.1.1

RESPONSIBILITY.
Site Manager. To ensure that a system for carrying out work method statements and risk assessments is in place and is being applied as part of the hazard control and analysis strategy. To review the effectiveness of the system to ensure that a safe system of work is in place. Supervisors and Superintendents. To ensure that the requirements of this procedure are known and understood by Subcontractors at the kick off meeting stage. To review and comment on all method statements and risk assessments as applied to critical tasks and activities such as heavy lifts, complex rigging studies, unusual tasks and other events as judged necessary. Field Supervision. To assist in developing work method statements and risk assessments. To liaise with other discipline/task supervision to ensure that conflicts of interest are accommodated. To ensure that the requirements identified during the development of the method statement and Risk assessment are adequate in terms of detail and are being effectively communicated to all personnel involved with the task.

3.1.2

3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2

3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3

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3.4
3.4.1

The HSE Manager and the HSE department. To assist Construction Management is ensuring that the requirements outlined in this procedure are understood and are being implemented. To provide technical input into the formulation of the method statements and risk assessments and shall review prior to its distribution. To audit the task against the requirements specified to ensure compliance. To carry out reviews of risk assessments on a regular basis. Subcontractors. To coordinate, develop and implement safe systems of work that includes the requirements of this procedure. To ensure that sufficient resources are available to address the requirements of this procedure in a competent and efficient manner. To train their personnel in the requirements of the HSE details in the risk assessment.

3.4.2 3.4.3 3.4.4 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2
3.5.3

4.
4.1 4.2 4.3

DEFINITIONS.
Work Method Statement. An outline of a task or series of tasks identified in a sequential manner. Risk assessment. A task that assesses risk in terms of both severity and probability. Severity(Consequence). The outcome of an event or situations expressed qualitatively or quantitatively, being a loss, injury, disadvantage or gain. Frequency. A measure of likelihood expressed as the number of occurrences of an event in a given time. Hazard. A source of potential harms or damage or a situation with potential for harm or damage. Likelihood. A qualitative description of probability and frequency.

4.4

4.5

4.6

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4.7

Probability. The likelihood of a specific outcome, measured by the ratio of specific outcome to the total number of possible outcomes. Risk. The measure both of the likelihood and the consequences (severity) of a specified untoward event caused by an identified hazard.

4.8

5.
5.1 5.1.1

WORK FLOW.
Classify Work Activities. Prepare a list of work activities covering premises, plant, people and procedures, and gather information about them. Identify Hazards. Identify all significant hazards relating to each work activity. Consider who might be harmed and how. Determine Risk. Make a subjective estimate of risk associated with each hazard assuming that planned or existing controls are in place. Assessors should also consider the effectiveness of the controls and the consequences of their failure. Decide if Risk is tolerable. Judge whether planned or existing precautions (if any) are sufficient to keep the hazard under control and meet legal requirements. Prepare Risk Control Action Plan. Prepare a plan to deal with any issues found by the assessment to require attention. Organizations should ensure that new and existing controls remain in place and are effective.

5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2

5.4 5.4.1

5.5 5.5.1
5.5.2

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5.6 5.6.1 5.6.2

Review adequacy of Action Plan. Re-assess risks on the basis of the revised controls. Check that risks will be tolerable. Note: The word 'Tolerable' here means that risk has been reduced to the lowest level that is reasonably practicable.

6.
6.1
6.1.1 6.1.2

INSTRUCTIONS.
Principle of Prevention-Protection-Information-monitoring-review. If possible, avoid the risk completely, by using alternative methods or materials. Combat risks at source, rather than by measures which leave the risk in place but attempt to prevent contact with the risk. Wherever possible, adapt work to the individual particularly in the choice of work equipment and methods of work. This will make work less monotonous and improve concentration, and reduce the temptation to improvise equipment and methods. Take advantage of technological progress, which often offers opportunities for safer and more efficient working methods. Incorporate the prevention measures into a coherent plan to reduce progressively those risks which cannot be avoided and which takes into account working conditions, organizational factors, the working environment and social factors. Give priority to those measures which protect the whole workforce or activity and yield the greatest benefit, e.g. give collective protective measures, such as suitable working platforms with edge protection, priority over individual measures such as safety harnesses. Supervision and the workforce need to understand what they need to do, e.g. by training, instruction and communication of plans and risk assessments. Monitor the control measures on a regular basis to determine the effectiveness of the Risk Assessment. Review and Revision of the risk assessment to be carried out if there are developments that suggest it may no longer be valid (or that it can be improved). In most cases, it is prudent to plan to review risk assessments at regular intervals - the time between reviews being dependant on the nature of the risks and the degree of change likely in the work activity. Such reviews should form part of the standard HSE Management Practice.

6.1.3

6.1.4

6.1.5

6.1.6

6.1.7

6.1.8

6.1.9

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6.2 6.2.1

Hazard Identification. Hazard Categories. 1) Chemical Hazards. 1 Chemical can affect the skin by contact or they affect the body either through the digestive system or, via the lungs if air is contaminated with chemicals, vapor, mist or dust. 2 There can be an acute effect, (i.e. the person is affected immediately), or there can be a chronic effect (i.e. the person is affected in the medium to long term). Noise Hazards. 1 Excessive noise can disrupt concentration, interfere with communication and result in loss of hearing. High impact noises are particularly damaging. 2 Noise can also mask out signals, adversely affecting communication. Radiation Hazards. 1 Ionizing radiation is in such equipment as radioactive gauging devices, radiographic sources, or the radioactive trace elements used in analytical chemistry. 2 Non-ionizing radiation covers infra-red radiation (Heat producing processes), lasers, ultraviolet radiation (welding, sunlight), and microwaves (high frequency welders, freeze drying). Electrical Hazards. 1 This covers the risk of injury from all forms of electrical energy. Lighting Hazards. 1 Inadequate lighting levels are a potential safety hazard. 2 A common problem area is the reaction time needed for the eyes to adjust form a brightly lit to a darker environment. 3 Temporary lighting is often inadequate. Vibration Hazards. 1 This includes whole-body vibration - e.g. truck drivers, people standing on vibrating platforms, and operators of mobile equipment - and also segmental vibration effects from such equipment as hand tools, chainsaws and pneumatic hammers. Temperature Hazards. 1 Extremes of cold or heat can cause problems due to individual fatigue or reduced capacity to work. Biological Hazards. 1 These include insects, bacteria, fungi, plants, worms, animals and viruses. Ergonomic Hazards. 1 This covers risk of injury from manual handling procedures, incorrectly designed work stations, audio and visual alarms, and color coding control mechanisms. Physical Hazards. 1 This includes a wide range of risks of injury - as diverse as being caught in or by machinery buried in trenches or hurt by collapsing machinery. 2 This category also includes the hazards from working in confined spaces,

2)

3)

4) 5)

6)

7) 8) 9)

10)

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being hit by flying objects, caught in a jet stream, falling from heights and tripping on obstacles. Miscellaneous Hazards. 1 This includes stress, fatigues, the effect of shiftwork, and even assaults from other people.

6.2.2

Hazard Identification. There are three fundamental methods of hazard identification applicable to various workplace circumstances. Hazard Identification by Area. 1) Fixed workplaces are ideally suited to hazard identification by area which involves grouping hazards into common types and identifying them by surveying in detail the different part of the workplace. 2) An outline of steps in the process is given below. 1 Obtain an up-to-date and accurate plan of the workplace. 2 Draw up a diagram to show the movement of people or plant. 3 Divide the workplace into discrete areas and number them. This division can be based on how work is carried out or on the physical layout of the site. thus, for example, a power plant or it might contain a stores area, a plant area, workshops, offices, control room and switch rooms. 4 Ask staff in each identified area to list what they consider are the hazards in the places they work and why they consider these to be hazards or potential hazards. Use a data collection form for information gathering. 5 It is recommended that a meeting be held to fill in the data sheets rather than just handing them out. It is also important that judgments as to the likelihood that harm would result from the hazard are not made at this time. 6 To further assist the hazard identification process make use of all available information. This can come from the following sources: codes of practice, manufacturer's information material, in-house and external reports, complaint details, environmental and health monitoring reports, etc. Use can also be made of records and reports on accidents and 'near misses', both at the particular workplace and more generally within the industry itself. Hazard Identification by Task Analysis. 1) Work that is not done at a fixed workplace is better analyzed by first identifying the different type of work involved and the tasks that people are called on to perform, and then the hazards they face in doing these tasks can be identified. 2) This method is well suited to those work activities where there is considerable scope for the workers themselves to decide how the task will be carried out. 3) Steps included in the process are listed below: 1 Identify all the tasks that people carryout. A task consists of a number of steps, actions or stages performed in order to complete a specific work assignment. The task identification process can initially be done by asking people what they specifically do. The work should be broken down into small enough components to be analyzed, but not so small as to make the

6.2.3

6.2.4

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2 3 4 6.2.5

analysis impractical. Discuss and then list the steps or stages involved in performing each task. Ask those involved what hazards they consider apply to each identified step, and record these. To further assist the hazard identification process make use of all available information.

Hazard Identification by Process. 1) A more technical approach to hazard identification is to identify the processes involved at a work site and then go through each process step-by-step, identifying the hazards in each element of the process. 2) The time taken to identify individual potential hazards in this way can be longer than the time taken to quantify the risks of these hazards. 3) Steps in this method are listed below: 1 Make an inventory of all substances and/or chemicals used in the process. 2 Outline the process from start to finish (source to sink). Identify the steps where process fluids are transformed by physical or chemical means. 3 Draw up a flow chart detailing every step of the process (including waste streams) and setting out the various stages where chemicals and substances are used in the process. 4 Identify all the hazards at each of the process. 5 To further assist the hazard identification process, make use of all available information. Hazard Identification Worksheet. 1) A detailed list of the hazards identified shall be prepared clearly linking delineated hazards to specific work areas, specific workplace activities or specific processes within the workplace. 2) Information that needs to be recorded to allow the next stage of the process to be undertaken (risk assessment) includes: 1 The exact location, activity or process of the hazard. 2 Determining who could come into contact with the hazard. 3 When and who they are likely to come in contact with the hazard. 4 How often (frequency). 5 The consequence of coming into contact with the hazard, e.g. the worst case with no controls. 3) All the information obtained should be recorded on the Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Worksheet (See Appendix II).

6.2.6

6.3 6.3.1

Risk Assessment. Determine Risk. The risk from the hazard should be determined by estimating the potential severity of harm (Consequence) and the likelihood that harm will occur. Severity of Harm. 1) Information obtained about work activities is a vital input to risk assessment.

6.3.2

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2) 3)

When seeking to establish potential Severity of Harm, the following should also be considered: Part(s) of the body likely to be affected. Nature of the harm, ranging from Minor to Fatality. 1 Minor. ⓐ Injury requiring medical attention and leading to absence from work for up to three days. ⓑ Superficial injuries, minor cuts and bruises, eye irritation from dust. ⓒ Nuisance and irritation (e.g. headaches), ill-health leading to temporary discomfort. 2 Major. ⓐ Major injury per event resulting in more than three days' absence form work. ⓑ Lacerations, burns, concussion, serious sprains, minor fractures. ⓒ Deafness, dermatitis, asthma, work related upper limb disorders, illhealth leading to permanent minor disability. 3 Severe. ⓐ Multiple major injuries, single severe/disabling injury or occupational illness. ⓑ Amputations, major fractures, poisoning. ⓒ Occupational cancer, other severely life shortening diseases, acute fatal diseases. 4 Fatality. ⓐ Single or multiple fatality per event.

6.3.3

Likelihood of Harm. 1) When seeking to establish likelihood of harm, the adequacy of control measures already implemented and complied with, needs to be considered. 2) Here legal requirements and codes of practice are good guides covering controls of specific hazards. 3) The following issues should then typically be considered in addition to the work activity information. 1 Number of personnel exposed. 2 Frequency and duration of exposure to the hazard. 3 Failure of services e.g. electricity and water. 4 Failure of plant and machinery components and safety devices. 5 Exposure to the elements (flooding, high winds, sun, humidity, cold, etc) 6 Protection afforded by personnel protective equipment and usage rate of personal protective equipment. 7 Unsafe acts (unintended errors or violations of procedures) by persons, for example, who: ⓐ may not know what the hazards are. ⓑ may not have the knowledge, physical capacity, or skills to do the work. ⓒ underestimate risks to which they are exposed. ⓓ underestimate the practicality and utility of safe working methods. 4) It is important to take into account the consequences of unplanned events. 5) These subjective risk estimations should normally take into account all the people exposed to a hazard. Thus any given hazard is more serious if it

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6)

affects a greater number of people. But some of the larger risks may be associated with an occasional task carried out just by one person, for example, maintenance of inaccessible part of the plant. Range of Likelihood. 1 Frequent. Would be expected to occur more than once during the contract period. 2 Likely. Would be expected to occur once during the contract period. 3 Unlikely. May possibly occur during the contract period. 4 Remote. So unlikely that occurrence may not be experienced during the contract period.

6.3.4

Decide if Risk is Tolerable. 1) The table 1. (Appendix III) Shows one simple method of estimating risk levels and for deciding whether risks are tolerable. Risks are classified according to their estimated likelihood and the potential severity of harm. Hazard Control Action Plan. Prioritizing Actions. 1) Risk categories form the basis for deciding whether controls or improved controls are required to reduce the risk from an identified hazard to acceptable levels. 2) To establish a prioritization (Time Scale for action) list an approach is shown in Table 2(Appendix IV), which shows that control effort and urgency should be proportional to risk. 3) Based on this approach, an inventory of actions, in priority order, to devise, maintain or improve controls, can be developed and implemented. Hazard Control Options. 1) It is important when developing control options for identified significant hazards that all options are considered including reviewing the existing controls to ensure that the most effective controls are in place. 2) Controls should be selected taking into account the points listed below: 1 If possible, eliminate the hazard altogether, e.g. substitute with a safer chemical than a more hazardous one. 2 If elimination is not possible, try to reduce the risk, e.g. by using a low voltage electrical appliance. 3 Enclose/Isolate process or pieces of equipment. 4 Where possible, adapt work to the individual, e.g. to take account of individual mental and physical capabilities. 5 Take advantage of technical progress to improve controls. 6 Implement measures that protect everyone. 7 A blend of technical and procedural controls is usually necessary. 8 Consider the need to introduce planned maintenance of, for example, machinery safeguards.

6.4
6.4.1

6.4.2

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9

3)

4)

Adopt Personal Protective Equipment only as a last resort, after all other control options have been considered. 10 Review the need for emergency arrangements. 11 Proactive measurement indicators are necessary to monitor compliance with the controls. Consideration also needs to be given to the development of emergency and evacuation plans, and provision of emergency equipment relevant to the organization’s hazard. A decision tree for deciding how a hazard can be controlled is presented in Figure 2.(Appendix V)

6.5 6.5.1

Review Adequacy of Action Plan. The action plan should be reviewed before implementation, typically by asking these questions. 1) Will the revised controls lead to tolerable risk levels? 2) Are any new hazards created by the implementation of the proposed control? 3) Has the most cost-effective solution been chosen? 4) What do people affected think about the need for, and practicality of, the revised preventive measures? 5) Will the revised controls be used in practice, and not ignored in the face of, for example, pressures to get the job done? Implementation of Control Options. Once an appropriate control option has been decided on, it will be implemented and its implementation recorded in the Hazard Identification Worksheet. If the option is a set of safe procedures, these procedures will be added to the Project HSE Plan. The frequency of inspection for each control will be based on the degree of risk the hazard represents.

6.6 6.6.1 6.6.2
6.6.3

7. Revision Status.
Rev. No. Rev. Date Rev. Page Description

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- Newly legislated

0

2004.05.03

- Prepared Team : Quality, Safety Management & Technology Support Team - Prepared by : Mr. Kim Ho Min - Reviewed by : Mr. Kim Seong Chul Mr. Roger N. Wagstaff - Approved by : Mr. Choi Kye Sik

Appendix Ⅰ SEM – 1812 REV. : 0 PAGE 1 of 1

APPENDIX.
[APPENDIX. Ⅰ Steps in a Hazard Management Programme.]

Steps in a Hazard Management Programme
Monitor work activities.

Identify Hazards.

Analyse Risk. (Likelihood and Severity)

Evaluate Risk & Considering Existing Measures.

Risk adequately controlled.

Risk not adequately controlled.

Monitor.

Consider further measures.

Feedback & Review.

Implement further measures.

[APPENDIX. Ⅱ Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Worksheet.]

Appendix Ⅱ SEM – 1812 REV. : 0 PAGE 1 of 1

Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Worksheet.
Project Stage Work Activity.
No . Potential Hazards. Harm. Control Measures.
Severity Likelihood Risk Level

Location

Procedure No.

Date. dd / mm / yy

Position.

Name / Signature.

Person responsible for Implementation.

Assessed by.
Position. Name/Signature. Date.

[APPENDIX. Ⅲ A Simple Risk Level Estimator.]

Appendix Ⅲ SEM – 1812 REV. : 0 PAGE 1 of 1

A Simple Risk Level Estimator

Likelihood.

Frequent.

Likely.

Unlikely.

Remote.

Fatality.

High.

High.

High.

High.

Severity.

Severe.

High.

High.

Medium.

Low.

Major.

High.

High.

Low.

Low.

Minor.

Medium.

Medium.

Low.

Low.

Appendix Ⅳ SEM – 1812 REV. : 0 PAGE 1 of 1

[APPENDIX. Ⅳ A Simple Risk-based Control Plan. ]

A Simple Risk-based Control Plan
Risk Level. Trivial. Action and Timescale. No action required and no documentary records need to be kept. No additional controls are required. Consideration may be given to a more cost-effective solution or improvement that impose no additional cost burden. Monitoring is required to ensure that the controls are maintained to keep the risk level low. Efforts should be made to reduce the risk but the costs of prevention should be carefully measured and limited Risk reduction measures should be implemented within a defined time period. Where the moderate risk is associated with extremely harmful consequences further assessment may be necessary to establish more precisely likelihood of the harm as a basis for determining the need for improved control measures. Work shall not be started until the risk has been reduced. Considerable resources may have to be allocated to reduce the risk. Where the risk involves extremely harmful consequences, preventive action shall be taken. Work shall not be started or continued until the risk has been reduced. If it is not possible to reduce risk even with unlimited resources, work has to remain prohibited.

Low. Tolerable.

Medium.

Moderate.

Substantial. High.

Intolerable.

Appendix Ⅴ SEM – 1812 REV. : 0 PAGE 1 of 1

[APPENDIX. ⅤHazard Control Decision Tree.]

Hazard Control Decision Tree

Can the Hazard be eliminated?

List Options.
Yes.

No

Can the contact with hazard be isolated?

List Options.
Yes.

No

Can the contact with hazards be minimized?

List Options.
Yes.

No

What equipment and Protective clothing are needed to protect employees from harm?

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