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4Hypothetico is derived from the term "hypothetical" which

means academic, contestable, contingent, disputable,
imaginary, questionable, refutable, theoretical and

4Deductive means conclusion, to find a answer to a question


4Preliminary information
4Theory formulation
4Data collection
4Data analysis
4Presentation of data
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4first step tend to bring researchers and decision makers

4Decision maker find the problem that need to be corrected
4Researcher then make sure that the problem is a problem are a
symptom of a big
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4nce the researcher and decision maker have identified the

specific information needs, the researcher must redefined the
problem in scientific terms.in doing so 'most decision makers
use a pragmatic framework, whereas researchers feel more
comfortable using a scientific framework.

4The researcher¶s responsibility is to restate the initial variable

associated with the decision problem in the form of one or
more key question formats (how,what,where)
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4Dackground information on the

4Structural factor ,job factor,
management factor

4Perceptions, attitudes and

behavioral responses.

4Literature survey

4Primary or secondary data


4˜n organization dealing in hardware

4The management of organization(a

major hardware/lumber retailer)was
concerned about the overall image of
its retail operation as well as about its
image among known customers.
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4t determined what other

task steps must be taken
4We should understand what
is the main objective of
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Theory formulation is an attempt to integrate

all the formulation in a logical manner so that
the factor responsible for the problem can be
conceptualized and tested.

4Dependent variable
4ndependent variables
4Moderating variable
4ntervening variable
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4˜n educated guess is known as

"hypothesis" which means assumption,
belief, presupposition, proposal, starting
point and theorem.

4Statement of hypothesis
if-then statement
e.g. f employee are more healthy then they
will take sick leave less frequently
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t is the same as we solve everyday problems but there is

only a small twist which is termed as µNull & ˜lternate
Hypothesis´. Given below is a simple example of MD˜
4Suppose we found one MD˜ who is intelligent. n this
specific basis alone, we cannot generalize that all MD˜s are
intelligent. (t is not a case of natural science but social
science). We can be proved wrong just by citing an example
of one unfortunate MD˜ who happened to be a stupid. ˜s
Karl pointed out "no amount of evidence assures us that
contrary evidence will not be found." He proposed that
using deduction method *general to specific), one can
falsify a statement making the alternate true like:

4,,   No MD˜ is intelligent.

4,- ˜ll MD˜s are intelligent.
We can reject Null Hypothesis by citing example of an
MD˜, mer Khan, who had scored an  of 120 . f null-
hypothesis is rejected or proved false, the alternate would
become true and all MD˜s would be considered as
intelligent even though all may not be so. n fact, the
researcher hides his findings in the alternate hypotheses
for acceptance by simply rejecting the Null Hypotheses.

4The research design serves as a master plan of the methods

and procedure that should be used to collect and analyze the
data needed by the decision maker.

4The most appropriate research designs is a function of the

research objectives.

4For research designs researcher should consider this master

plan, the researcher must consider the type of data, the design
technique(survey,observation,experiment,etc) the sampling
methodology and procedure, the schedule, the budget.

˜lthough every research problem is

unique, most research objectives can
be met by using one of the three of
research designs:

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˜n exploratory study is undertaken

when not much is known about the
situation at hand.

. ,/
Focus group interview, experience
surveys and pilot study
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t is uses a set of scientific methods and

procedures to collect raw data and
create data structure that describes the
existing characteristics(e.g. ˜ttitudes,
intentions, preferences, purchases
behaviors evaluations of current
marketing mix strategies)of a defined
target population or market structure.

t is use to collect raw data and create data

structures and the information that will
allow the decision maker or researcher to
model cause and effect relationships
between two variables.e.g

Prediction of earthquake become the

cause of price fall of property
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Sample size affects data quality and generalizability.

Researchers must therefore think carefully about how
many people to include or how many objects to
Sampling plans can be classified into two general types:
probability and nonprobability.

4n a census the researcher attempts to question or observe all the

members of a defined target population.
4The second procedure, which is preferred when the defined
target population is large or unknown, involves the random
selection of subgroup, or sample, from the overall membership
pool of a defined target population.
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˜ctivities within this step focus on determining the dimensions

of the factors being investigated and measuring the variables that
underlie the defined problem.

t involves scaling, reliability, validity.

4Scaling means rating the data

4Reliability means how much data is reliable
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What level of information is needed from a variable (nominal

ordinal, ordinals interval, interval, ratio)?
4 How reliable does the information need to be?
4 How valid does the information need to be?
4 How does one ensure the development of reliable and valid
scale measurements?
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4ne is to ask questions about variables and

market phenomena using trained interviewers
or questionnaires.

4The other is to observe variables and market

phenomena using professional observers or
high-tech devices.
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4Self-administered surveys,
4 personal interviews,
4computer simulations,
4 telephone interviews,
4 and focus groups are just some
of the tools researchers can use to
collect data .

nce the primary data are

collected, the researcher must
perform several procedural
activities before doing any type
of data analysis. ˜ coding
scheme is needed so that the raw
data can be entered into
computer files.

˜nalysis procedures can vary widely in

sophistication and complexity, from simple
frequency distributions (percentages) to
sample statistics measures (e.g., mode,
median, mean, range, standard deviation, and
standard error) to multivariate data analysis
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4Purpose of the proposal project

4Type of study
4Definition of the target population and the
sample size
4Sample designs, technique and data
4Specific research instruments
4Potential managerial benefits of the total
4Cost of project
4Profile of researcher and the company
4ptional dummy table of the projected