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4Hypothetico is derived from the term "hypothetical" which


means academic, contestable, contingent, disputable,
imaginary, questionable, refutable, theoretical and
unconfirmed.

4Deductive means conclusion, to find a answer to a question


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4bservation
4Preliminary information
gathering
4Theory formulation
4Hypothesis
4Data collection
4Data analysis
4Deduction
4Presentation of data
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4first step tend to bring researchers and decision makers


together
4Decision maker find the problem that need to be corrected
4Researcher then make sure that the problem is a problem are a
symptom of a big
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4nce the researcher and decision maker have identified the


specific information needs, the researcher must redefined the
problem in scientific terms.in doing so 'most decision makers
use a pragmatic framework, whereas researchers feel more
comfortable using a scientific framework.

4The researcher¶s responsibility is to restate the initial variable


associated with the decision problem in the form of one or
more key question formats (how,what,where)
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4Dackground information on the


organization
4Structural factor ,job factor,
management factor

4Perceptions, attitudes and


behavioral responses.

4Literature survey

4Primary or secondary data


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4˜n organization dealing in hardware

4The management of organization(a


major hardware/lumber retailer)was
concerned about the overall image of
its retail operation as well as about its
image among known customers.
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4t determined what other


task steps must be taken
4We should understand what
is the main objective of
research
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Theory formulation is an attempt to integrate


all the formulation in a logical manner so that
the factor responsible for the problem can be
conceptualized and tested.

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4Dependent variable
4ndependent variables
4Moderating variable
4ntervening variable
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4˜n educated guess is known as


"hypothesis" which means assumption,
belief, presupposition, proposal, starting
point and theorem.

4Statement of hypothesis
if-then statement
e.g. f employee are more healthy then they
will take sick leave less frequently
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t is the same as we solve everyday problems but there is


only a small twist which is termed as µNull & ˜lternate
Hypothesis´. Given below is a simple example of MD˜
4Suppose we found one MD˜ who is intelligent. n this
specific basis alone, we cannot generalize that all MD˜s are
intelligent. (t is not a case of natural science but social
science). We can be proved wrong just by citing an example
of one unfortunate MD˜ who happened to be a stupid. ˜s
Karl pointed out "no amount of evidence assures us that
contrary evidence will not be found." He proposed that
using deduction method *general to specific), one can
falsify a statement making the alternate true like:

4,,   No MD˜ is intelligent.


4,- ˜ll MD˜s are intelligent.
We can reject Null Hypothesis by citing example of an
MD˜, mer Khan, who had scored an  of 120 . f null-
hypothesis is rejected or proved false, the alternate would
become true and all MD˜s would be considered as
intelligent even though all may not be so. n fact, the
researcher hides his findings in the alternate hypotheses
for acceptance by simply rejecting the Null Hypotheses.
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4The research design serves as a master plan of the methods


and procedure that should be used to collect and analyze the
data needed by the decision maker.

4The most appropriate research designs is a function of the


research objectives.

4For research designs researcher should consider this master


plan, the researcher must consider the type of data, the design
technique(survey,observation,experiment,etc) the sampling
methodology and procedure, the schedule, the budget.
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˜lthough every research problem is


unique, most research objectives can
be met by using one of the three of
research designs:

4exploratory
4descriptive
4causal
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˜n exploratory study is undertaken


when not much is known about the
situation at hand.

. ,/
Focus group interview, experience
surveys and pilot study
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t is uses a set of scientific methods and


procedures to collect raw data and
create data structure that describes the
existing characteristics(e.g. ˜ttitudes,
intentions, preferences, purchases
behaviors evaluations of current
marketing mix strategies)of a defined
target population or market structure.
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t is use to collect raw data and create data


structures and the information that will
allow the decision maker or researcher to
model cause and effect relationships
between two variables.e.g

Prediction of earthquake become the


cause of price fall of property
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Sample size affects data quality and generalizability.


Researchers must therefore think carefully about how
many people to include or how many objects to
investigate.
Sampling plans can be classified into two general types:
probability and nonprobability.
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4n a census the researcher attempts to question or observe all the


members of a defined target population.
4The second procedure, which is preferred when the defined
target population is large or unknown, involves the random
selection of subgroup, or sample, from the overall membership
pool of a defined target population.
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˜ctivities within this step focus on determining the dimensions


of the factors being investigated and measuring the variables that
underlie the defined problem.

t involves scaling, reliability, validity.

4Scaling means rating the data


4Reliability means how much data is reliable
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What level of information is needed from a variable (nominal


ordinal, ordinals interval, interval, ratio)?
4 How reliable does the information need to be?
4 How valid does the information need to be?
4 How does one ensure the development of reliable and valid
scale measurements?
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4ne is to ask questions about variables and


market phenomena using trained interviewers
or questionnaires.

4The other is to observe variables and market


phenomena using professional observers or
high-tech devices.
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4Self-administered surveys,
4 personal interviews,
4computer simulations,
4 telephone interviews,
4 and focus groups are just some
of the tools researchers can use to
collect data .
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nce the primary data are


collected, the researcher must
perform several procedural
activities before doing any type
of data analysis. ˜ coding
scheme is needed so that the raw
data can be entered into
computer files.
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˜nalysis procedures can vary widely in


sophistication and complexity, from simple
frequency distributions (percentages) to
sample statistics measures (e.g., mode,
median, mean, range, standard deviation, and
standard error) to multivariate data analysis
techniques.
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4Purpose of the proposal project


4Type of study
4Definition of the target population and the
sample size
4Sample designs, technique and data
collection
4Specific research instruments
4Potential managerial benefits of the total
project
4Cost of project
4Profile of researcher and the company
4ptional dummy table of the projected
results