"Traditional Grammar" term is applied to summarize the range of methods found in the prelinguistic era of grammatical study.

The whole approach of this method emphasizes on correctness, linguistic purism, literary excellence, the priority of the written mode of language and the use of Latin models. The very beginning of the twentieth century was typically marked by a new approach to grammar as suggested by linguists such as Ferdinand de Saussure and American linguist like Frantz Boas, Bloomfield and Edward Sapir. Their approach is called structuralism whose aim was to arouse a reaction against the approach of the traditional grammarians. Traditional grammarians considered Latin as their model because English is a part of the Indo-European family of languages, and to which Latin and Greek also belong. It did have similar grammatical elements. If you study the form of traditional grammar, the rules of classical languages were followed considering that English did not have grammar of its own. And English followed Latin grammar. Besides the parts of speech, traditional grammatical analysis also makes use of numerous other categories, just like 'number', 'gender', 'person', 'tense' and 'voice'. For example, gender was not natural. It was grammatical in traditional grammar. As you see here "The man loves his bike". Gender, in this example, is used for describing the agreement between 'man' and 'his'. In English, you need to describe this relationship in terms of natural gender based upon a biological distinction between male and female. Such biological distinction is different compared to the common distinction found in languages which employ grammatical gender. Traditional grammar has some limitations as it occurs with some static verbs that do not occur in a progressive form, for instance "I am knowing" or in the imperative mood like "Know!" Traditional grammar sometimes fails to account for certain things like ambiguous sentences just like "While thinking about the queen the Honda hit the fence". Rakesh Patel has taught English literature for five years and now writes on education, literature and spirituality. For free guideline on English literature, feel free to visit http://englishliterature99.wordpress.com

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TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR

we can define traditional grammar as The collection of prescriptive rules and concepts about the structure of language that is commonly taught in schools. 'tense' and 'voice'.Rakesh Patel (2009) says that the Traditional Grammar term is applied to summarize the range of methods found in the pre-linguistic era of grammatical study. gender was not natural.blogspot. If you study the form of traditional grammar. Bloomfield and Edward Sapir. according to a pre-established standard. the rules of classical languages were followed considering that English did not have grammar of its own. you need to describe this relationship in terms of natural gender based upon a biological distinction between male and female. literary excellence. As you see here "The man loves his bike".com/?Traditional-Grammar---Studying-the-Approach-of-TraditionalGrammarians&id=1765312 So. It was grammatical in traditional grammar. is used for describing the agreement between 'man' and 'his'. Gender. traditional grammatical analysis also makes use of numerous other categories. Such biological distinction is different compared to the common distinction found in languages which employ grammatical gender. The chief goal of traditional grammar. 'gender'. therefore.html he development of language study in the West: Classical Antiquity . in conclusion. In English. Traditional grammar has some limitations as it occurs with some static verbs that do not occur in a progressive form. The very beginning of the twentieth century was typically marked by a new approach to grammar as suggested by linguists such as Ferdinand de Saussure and American linguist like Frantz Boas. Their approach is called structuralism whose aim was to arouse a reaction against the approach of the traditional grammarians. and to which Latin and Greek also belong. For example. and we say that traditional grammar is prescriptive because it focuses on the distinction between what some people do with language and what they ought to do with it. the priority of the written mode of language and the use of Latin models. And English followed Latin grammar. 'person'. is perpetuating a historical model of what supposedly constitutes proper language. Traditional grammarians considered Latin as their model because English is a part of the Indo-European family of languages. in this example.com/p/tradictional-grammar. linguistic purism. http://ezinearticles. for instance "I am knowing" or in the imperative mood like "Know!" Traditional grammar sometimes fails to account for certain things like ambiguous sentences just like "While thinking about the queen the Honda hit the fence"." http://traditionalandpedagogicalgrammar. It did have similar grammatical elements. The whole approach of this method emphasizes on correctness. Besides the parts of speech. just like 'number'.

It takes an order in the tradition. Everything began with the GREEKS. Traditional grammar has last since Greeks until nowadays. Dionysius Thrax belongs to this group.Introduction Classical Antiquity ( Romans and Greeks). * Nature/ convention The Greeks discuss whether the language was natural or conventional. He will influence the scholars in England. These periods affected Greek and Latin. but in the West. Medieval Grammarians Renaissance Grammarians traditional grammar was definitely stablished. aspect«). Priscian is the most important figure. In the 20th Century the structuralism begins and it is different from traditional grammar. Priscian 6th AD. The ideas are the same ( subject. adjective. If language was conventional meant that is a custom. concepts« that we use today were created by the Greeks. It could change. This terminology is what we call TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR . Alexandrians. ( 2nd Century BC) . All the terminology. Traditional Grammar is synonymous of Latin and Greek. mood. Something like an agreement between men. and you can choose analogy or anomaly). The Ancient Greeks There are two dichotomies: Nature and convention Analogy and anomaly These dichotomies referred to positions (you can choose nature or convention. There are five: The very beginning ( up to Aristotle) 4th Century BC Systematisation of the tradition. verb. . Consolidation : it was stablished itself. Stoics. If language was natural meant that the origin is outside the man himself. We have to distinguish several stages in traditional grammar. We talk about Romans and Greeks because all the languages come from these people. They are phylosophical concepts.

b) Sound.. that is to find the origin of the words. Those which defend that language is conventional are the conventionalists. to crash. they try to justify with this. This controversy discuss whether the language is regular or not. When they discuss onomatopoeia also began the etymology. Regular there are a set of patterns. . There are three: y Onomatopoeia: this group of words is the favourite of the naturalists because you can see clearly the connection. In some words we have one sound or two that is imitative. Ex: Metaphor : the neck of a bottle ( natural connection. (CAREW) * Analogy/ Anomaly This analogy/ anomaly dichotomy is a consequence of the nature convention of the controversy. There is the Principles of etymology . the rest of the words that cannot be explains with the other groups. The product of this dichotomy will be the development of scientist etymology.This distinction affects mainly to the relationship between the form of a word and the meaning of that word. These words imitate the sound that you referred to. ANALOGY: The ones that defend analogy defend that language is regular. Run There are many words that don't fit in this two groups. Analogy synonymous with regularity. and when you listen to that sound it reminds you a word. models which are repeated in language. in English: to hoot( claxon) . It remains the body's neck) Conventionalists say that these things haven't got a natural connection. Liquid flush flow water R expresses movement.symbols This refers to words that only are imitative in part. not in their whole. Those which defend that language is natural are the naturalists. Anomaly synonymous with irregularity. Irregular there are many exceptions to those patterns. This dispute will last for centuries. For example. For Naturalists there are a few ways to prove the connection. etc.

Ex: bar (chocolate. Child/ children anomaly. Ex: row Homonymy: have one form and more than one meaning. girl/ girls.) They used formulas as in mathematics to set up the patters: A:B= C:B( a is to b. THE SOPHISTS They were teachers. For analogysts language is the product of convention. This is anomalous. For example Athens is a plural noun referring to a singular entity. They said the relationship between the form and the meaning of the word is anomalous. ox = oxen. One consequence of this controversy ( polémica ) is that this will help to the systematisation of grammar.) (18th Century In English. we will see it in the future. Those patterns are known as PARADIGMS ( declensions. Ex: father: child = dog : X x = puppy For the analogyst the Greek language was full of this patterns. . This is a link between the two parts. They contribute in the grammar. Synonymous: have two or more forms for one meaning. They were criticised because they taught how to defend a cause. as c is to d) boy: boys = cow: cows Boy: boys = cow: x x = cows They also established semantic equations. Anomalysts say that the presence of irregularity demonstrate there is a natural thing ( the language). They admit that there are regularities ( the anomalysts) . The language is irregular. conjugations. It's such a regular thing. * Greek Grammar: the beginning of the tradition 5th . law«) This is another irregularity. It's conventional. not only formal. First steps to the creation of the terminology of the tradition of grammar. The analogyst's work is to establish the patterns in Greek to English. The language is irregular.Ex: The final -s to make the plural(regular): boy/ boys. such as child = children.4th BC. they pointed out that there are a lot of examples of irregularities. cow/ cows This is one of the patterns that shows the regularity of the language. moral or not. irregular. place. But their main emphasis is the semantic irregularities.. (justa o no) They teach how to win in debates.

PROTAGORAS distinguished the three genders in Greek : masculine. Aristotle realised that there were more than one tense in the verbs: past actions. The stoics think that good conduct means to live in good harmony with nature. negative. They are linking words. Category of time. Plato is a conventionalist. feminine. Onoma can mean subject. Rhema includes verbs and also adjectives. Knowledge consists of ideas that agree with nature. According to him the relation between onoma and rhema and their meanings is a product of convention. but he added syndesmoi . an analogyst. * Greek Grammar: 1st systematisation of the tradition. Aristotle includes in syndesmoi all the words that are not nouns neither verbs. Language has many irregularities. Logic includes grammar to the stoics. This is a 3rd class. They are the conjunctions. and stoics defended it.II BC THE STOICS It's the school of philosophy that paid more attention to the language. There were correspondences between the actions and the tenses. The meaning of a word is a convention. Language is part of knowledge. ARISTOTLE He'll keep the distinction of nouns and verbs. present actions. interrogative. III. But Plato did not call it adjective.«. and things. nominal name Rhema can mean verb. They studied language in their study of logic. affirmative. Onoma noun Rhema verb Onoma and rhema are the constituents of the logos ( sentence). The stoics are naturalists and therefore anomalysts. . They were the main contribution to the grammar PLATO Plato's main contribution was the distinction between verbs and nouns. For him meaning is conventional. Aristotle is a conventionalist. He distinguished sentence types. Words are symbols created by men. predicate.

The original Greek was very different from the one they used in their time. to explain the original Greek (classical authors). The distinction between the active and passive voice. especially those of Homer. They write grammars with both types of texts (classical and ³modern´) to preserve Greek from corruption and also. This gave the chance to the people to read those texts. They decided to do this because they thought that the original/classic Greek was more correct than their own Greek (they thought that this one was corrupted). But the most important: Etymology. The city became the centre of literary and linguistic research. They find many different versions of the manuscripts that contained those poems. These two purposes are important because they are the two main purposes of all the grammaticians of today. Its beginning was Aristotle's personal book collection.In the origin of language there was a natural connection between words and things. two key works in the world history were produced in Alexandria: -Euclid Elements -Grammar of Dionysius Thrax The study of language: the Alexandrians approached this study through literary texts. . And also the distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs. The concept of case is a part of the inflexion.C. noun. But they also add more parts to the parts of the speech(verb.V B. Once they had the original version. etc ) and they add the ARTICLE. This connection is not evident today.). they had to make the commentaries. The Alexandrians: They were a group of philosophers that lived and worked in Alexandria. In this period. They couldn't understand the original texts. They wanted to find the original version. but they were written in different types of Greek. Alexandria and Pergamon were two cities that took the place of Athens in political and cultural aspects. They studied the manuscripts that included ³The Iliad´ and ³The Odyssey´(S. What they did was to look for the original forms with natural connection. One more concept is the concept of inflexion which is the declensions and conjugations. It's the study of ETYMOLOGY The beginning of the science of etymology is their main contribution. and the grammar explanation of those texts. the one written by Homer. Alexandria is well known because of its library.

are three of this six parts. This idea of purity.C. His method had two steps: phonology and morphology (no syntax). finals. causals. The noun is the part of speech. the one that is considered as the real Greek Grammar until our days. participle. the voice.I B. All these are applied to classical Greek. This is the Greek Grammar. person. Dionysius contributed with four more parts of speech to the list of four of the stoics: adverbs. y This is focused on written language as a more correct version of the language. corruption. They were obsessed with the regularity. tense. S.II B. and he studied his own Greek with the application of the classical Greek. pronoun and preposition). 2. which has case inflection. They will give this regularity of Greek in a list in form of declinations and conjugations (paradigm). and they will ignore spoken language as a subject of investigation. It's the first complete and systematic grammar in the West. the gender. Nouns have five accidents. It has 6 parts. the number. The study of language will give us the first description of language.XVIII in England (See in previous lessons. They are defined because of their accidents.ROMAN ADAPTATION OF GREEK GRAMMAR: the tradition consolidated. The accidents of the verbs are: number. voice. Deal with the language of the previous era is something that Dionysius thought was important. Morphology is the main body of his work. conjugation.«of written language is the most important thing in S. mood. There are seven types of conjunctions: copulatives..« This has become the standard way of analysing words. kind and type. Henry Sweet). and it deals with syllables and words. ³Technè Grammatikè´= Art of Grammar. time. conditionals.C. The verb is the part without case inflection.). study critically the compositions of poets. it's the study of the name of the Greeks letters and their different phonetic values (this is phonology). Dionysius (S. whereas the spoken language is seen as a corruption of written language. The result of these efforts is: the Greek grammar will be definitely codify or systematize. These parts will be analysed by using the case. Syntax is relevant because the most part of the grammars hadn't deal with it until Chomsky's work. In phonology we don't get any phonetic study. discover analogies. They were analogists. the mood.This approach brings two consequences: y The interest of linguistics will be the written language. Grammar (Dionysius): ³is the technical knowledge of the language employed by poets and writers´. .«These used to be the names of the sentences. This four plus the other four is the standard now. discover language etymologies.

All the accidents were easy to put into Latin. He is the perfect example of taking over Greek grammar into Latin grammar. S. The high roman classes send their children to Greece to study. Within the Romans there was a moment of classicism (probably the most important moment in Grammar Priscian . This approach has the same consequences as the Alexandrians (the correct language is the written one and the idea this language was more correct than their own contemporary language). Varro is a contemporary of Dionysius. the specialists will focus exclusively on the first 16 books (morphology). Varro also anticipated the distinction between langue/parole (Saussure). They wanted to describe the classical language (Cicero and Virgil.VI A. c. He did the most complete description of Latin language of that period (³Institutiones Grammaticae´.).D.Roman culture was influenced by Greek culture (art. Maybe regularity is more present. especially in the field of terminology. but we want to deal with one of this because of the originality and similarity: Varro. these 18 books are an adaptation of Dionysius' work. He said that there were two types of language: the language in abstract (langue).). The analogy/anomaly controversy was also present among the Romans (Cesar wrote a tratado). The work itself: it has 18 books. the parts of speech can be transferred to Latin with no problem (verbs. nouns.S.«). the people thought that these categories were universal. Latin had no words yet to describe language matters (noun. respectively). Before that.D. The Latin grammar repeated the organization that Dionysius said in his grammar. He wrote a Latin grammar as a consequence of analogy/anomaly controversy. In Rome. His opinion was that both extremes were wrong (there is regularity and irregularity. 16 of these deal with morphology. II and I B. literature. Priscian and Donatus wanted to describe the language of the best writer. Priscian translated the Greek terms into Latin. Therefore. From then on. Priscian is the key moment in classical grammar. verb.It's almost a repetition of Dionysius work (³Techné grammatiké´). On the whole. In these general aspects they were similar.C. the last 2 deal briefly with syntax. and this is a key moment in the history of Linguistics. The Greek grammar is an influence to the Latin grammar. but not one of these only). The problem was that when that was transferred to English grammar.«). there were other attempts. and the language that it's spoken by an individual (parole). This was possible because Latin and Greek were similar (from the structural point of view).«). not the language of their own days. 500 A. -Syndesmos: coni-unctio( syn-desmos) -Antonymia: pro-nomen (anto-nymia) . the same as in specific aspects. In The Middle Ages. grammar is a part of philosophy and literary criticism (as in Greece). Latin will have a very suitable terminology. Examples: onoma>the Greek name for noun / nomen>the Latin word (translation of onoma). Donatus was another important person.

Priscian also said that the order of cases is natural (in noun declinations). It is like an interval. This image of darkness was destroyed little by little. They are not so dark in linguistic matters. The nominative is called like this because it came in first place. He described those 8 parts and their accidents (the formal accidents). dative-to friend. He made a little change (the article is excluded. he changed it to the interjection). The nouns are natural (he said he had chosen the name of that use because is more frequent than the other uses). The Church taught a more colloquial Latin. However. We call Middle Ages because it refers to the fact that is between two golden periods. After the Middle Ages we have the Renaissance. The rise or fall depends on the knowledge or lack of knowledge of Latin. These names are still used today. but there were many ups and downs. because they are pagan authors so their language is pagan too. The church adopted Latin. Latin was the official language of the Christian Church. The kind of Latin is not classical Latin ( not like Cicero or Virgil). elitition through the monasteries and churches. The fall of the Roman emperor happened in 476 BC. V-XI Centuries) It is true that the fall of Rome made a decline in culture. vocative-to a second person.« There is a connection between the name and the frequent use (nominative. He was very close to Dionysius in this description. a period of splendour in general and that is what makes the Middle Ages slightly less relevant culturally than the other 2 periods. Before the Middle Ages we have the Classical Antiquity. The church will be the sponsor of Latin scholarship. the Middle Ages have a lot to offer in linguistics. the universities. accusative-to enemies. Linguistic study in the Early Middle Ages in the British Isles y General introduction to the period and the period's approach to language studies What are the Middle Ages? It's a period in the History of Europe and goes to the Fall of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance. the creation of a whole terminology from Greek to Latin. secondary). Priscian also adopted the 8 parts of speech as Dionysius gave us. . We will focus on the 1st half of the Middle Ages (The DARK AGES first period in the Middle Ages. Later.This is the main merit of Priscian's work. less difficult. EUROPE ENGLAND A key element in those ups and downs is the Latin language. education. The examples he gave came from Cicero and Virgil (this is the difference from Dionysius' work). This work is a key work in the Middle Ages and it is also the most important work of scholarship in Roman culture.

For this reason they need Latin Manuals. Those Germanic tribes didn't have political unity. Then colonised by the Romans (43-410 BC) They were 400 years. In 597 Saint Agustine was send by the Pope to convert the Germanic tribes to the Christianity. This is a link with the classical antiquity. Those Germanic kingdoms were isolated. text book to learn Latin. Latin was studied for itself and it was necessary to learn another matters. In the 8th century it is produced the Scandinavian Invasion. The dialect spoken in Wessex is the standard. They invited the Germanic tribes to help them. The Romans had left England. Latin is taught as a written language. . A Normative grammar means a grammar with rules. The Christianism was very important for linguistics matters. a new culture. Grammars books were grammars of Latin. Speculative grammars will come in the 2nd half of the Middle Ages. y Linguistic study in the Early Middle Ages in England y The Linguistic situation in the island Great Britain was a Celtic speaking island. In time the 7 kingdoms diminished in 3: Northumbria. a foreign language . Didactic and normative grammars will be based on Priscian and Donatus' works. The places of education disappear( churches an monasteries). the official form of Old English (west Saxon) It's the accepted form of Old English. In the 9th century King Alfred complained about this very bad cultural situation. It was introduced the Roman Alphabet. Latin is now. The Christianity brigs together with it a new language. DIDACTIC doesn't mean speculative (abstract). It is an instrument for the education. These Germanic Kingdoms were pagans since a Christian point of view. There is a decline of learning because of the Scandinavian invasion. These studies of Latin are the only studies of grammar and language in this period. Most of those manuals will be based on Priscian and Donatus. A blossoming in learning was produced. It was a didactic (practical) and normative way of teaching Latin. This teach you how to use Latin correctly. Mercia and Wessex. a new language. This is similar to what happened with the Alexandrians. Churches and monasteries were the places in where people learnt. We have 3 dialects. the native of the island had fights between themselves. In the 7th century we have 7 different kingdoms with 7 different dialects of Old English + Celtic Native Speakers. They handle texts and learn it from them. Latin and conveys a new civilisation. for those people. Those tribes arrived and take over the island in the middle of the 5th century. but they become Christians little by little. The study of Latin is the basis of medieval education. These grammars are normative. so Germanic people had to learn Latin. and many books mow more available through Latin. English begin to write extensively. Language studies means Latin Studies. Not so many people can read or write in Latin. The Romans left and the British. a new literature. Latin was being developed in other places.It was also an instrument for secular transactions. norms and with rules about correct and incorrect uses. The practical use of language is what they studied. This is another similarity to the Alexandrians. The Germanic pushed the natives to the borders of the island( Welshmen: they all were called like this).

One more problem is that those manuscripts have characteristics that made them difficult. We have to wait until the 14th century to say that there is a National Language in England. This reform was improved in learning and teaching Latin in the island. no place of origin written on them. the religious services in Latin« Latin was imposed. Those subjects were taught in Latin. Scandinavian. Danish were rolling England and they brought their languages. in the 11th century we have a decline. That is the organisation of the study of Latin in different levels. It was spoken in all around Europe. We know very little about it. The sacred texts were written in Latin. Normand«).Priscian and Donatus were the most studied. Philosophical matters. not only the religious matters. Paleographs studied the way in they wrote. They were written in Latin. What instruments did they have to teach? The teachers had the grammars of the Roman Antiquity(4-5th century). declensions and lists of vocabulary. they have no name. You only learn in Latin. Science. we have not very much. It was a moment of revival of knowledge. Religious moment started: THE BENEDICTINE REFORM. Nowadays we know very few of this period. The few texts that exist are very difficult even for specialists. Those very few available texts have been studied by scholars who were not linguistics (historians of education). They learn the inflections. Children learn spelling and pronunciation of Latin words. Those grammars were written for and to native speakers of Latin. There were a lot of languages (Old English. Also commerce and administration were held in Latin. no date. The problem is that there are not a lot of sources(manuscripts). How did they teach Latin at school? They began to study grammar in the school. We know all these manuscripts were the product of the policy of the Church. The highest stage was the study of etymology of words /philology/. We do not have bibliography. Latin was an international language. It was the language of the Christian religion. Another reason.King Alfred translated into English Cura Pastoralis and in the preface he complained about this situation: the lack of knowledge of Latin. He was a translator. With the Norman invasion started the 2nd period of the Middle Ages. In a more advanced level they were taught how to write texts. specially in foreign countries. y Language study in the island: The Insular Grammar This is the study of Latin grammar. Latin was basic to live. Most of them are anonymous. All that influenced cultural education. It was the language of knowledge. Then they learn to comment literary texts in Latin. also Law. He promotes a massive work of translation. let's make those texts available with a translation into English. to promote culture in the island. they did read those manuscripts. Latin was the language of scholarship. Why is Latin taught? Latin was taught because it was taught in every Christian region. . Aelfric began to work under King Alfred's idea of translation. The importance is enormous. Usually this period have been considered a dark period. After this period. All the important texts in their own language. It will help Alfred in different ways. LATIN WAS AN INSTRUMENT OF EDUCATION. that is a cultural and religious reform at the same time. If people can't read Latin.

They focus on the nouns. They deal with 1. We use both of these models to produce their own type of grammar. schulgrammatik is systematic (complete and with an order). Virgil).3«parts of speech. but not with all of them. to England. . The elementary grammars are specifically English. The result of this is that the English began to write and compiled their own Latin Grammars. The grammars of Priscian and Donatus were no suitable for them. It tries to be comprehensive. They are characterised by giving many lists of inflections. The most important schulgrammatik example we know is Priscian. mythological and historical explanations.2. The insular grammars can be divided in 2 types: The Elementary Grammar The Exegetical Grammar These are the two main grammars. y Insular Grammars Many of the grammars the English compiled are similar to the classical models because they assumed the explanations and theories about the parts of speech. The Latin speaker who use those 2 types of grammar was looking for information on them which was not relevant for the new Latin speakers (English People) . They appear in England in the 7th century (the children of classical grammars). that they use as grammatical examples (Cicero. They also offers something new that makes them interesting. In this grammars is contained information about literary texts. It is based on Priscian and Donatus. They needed to learn English in a practical way.We know that English people don't know how to speak Latin as native people. or nouns and verbs. They were made for a specific audience with specific means. It treated the 8 parts of speech. « those things were not interested in this information( a los ingleses). y Grammatical models They used two types of classical grammars. They don't appear in anywhere else. _ They are brief _ They are systematic expositions _ Morphology is the most important thing. These are reference works. The Regulae is less systematic. and they were called: Schulgrammatik Regulae The 1st type of grammar.

But we know many things about Wynfreth Boniface(we know about him and his works. less corrupted. it takes place in the Carolingian Renaissance(9th and so on centuries) and from the Carolingian Empire it goes back to England. He was born in England in 675. For us he is interesting for other reasons. In that grammar he includes a preface in the form of a letter where he tell us his methods to write the grammar. because the level of Latin was higher to produce a less corrupted versions of the Bible. He went to see the Pope several . All of these in England. It is usual to find texts explaining the Bible. 675-745). C. As a missionary he first went to Holland and then to Germany. They try to explain the classical texts(classical grammars) to help teachers and students to understand difficult classical texts. They were also successful in the continent. These two types of grammars were introduced in the continent by missionaries( from England to the rest of Europe). in the South. Aelfric is another grammarian ( ð 1010). We know he was the missionary who brought Christianity to Germany from England. He is interesting because of his role in the consolidation on medieval grammatical ideas. The exegetical grammars are less important. They went back to Priscian's. He's also relevant because he wrote a Latin grammar in English(Old English). In general we know very few of all the authors. While he worked as a teacher he wrote a Latin grammar with his students who were also studying to be monks. Before he was a missionary he wrote a Latin Grammar. They wanted to do better versions of the Bible._ Paradigms give all the possible declensions and conjugations _ They see Latin as a pattern. Priscian and Donatus.Boniface and the Praefatio ad Sigibertum He's remembered as the man who Christianised what we call Germany today. Boniface is one of them. y An Early medieval grammarian talks about grammar: Winfreth. _ They were successful for some centuries. Still we know enough to say they were very important not only in England also in the continent. They are a type of text similar to the Bible commentary. y English Grammarians at Works We know very little about English Grammarians of this period. His name is Winfreth but he received the name Boniface from the Pope (8th-c719). The reason is the difficulty of the manuscripts. Then he became a priest and decided to leave England. They're based on the formal aspects. They are commentaries on the classical grammars. In the 9th century the elementary grammar died because in the 9th-10th century there was a return to the classical grammars. As a child he went to a school monastery and then he went to another one with a higher level and there he became a teacher.

many paradigms. criticised or not«. knowledge«) How did he treat the classical grammars to do his own? He's respectful. . but it is also different from other elementary grammars. The name isPraefatio ad Sigibertum . This Benedictine Rule was consolidated with the Carolingian Empire. religion. It was written before 719(but not much earlier). He follows VERBATIM(al pie de la letra). In the grammar there is an acrostic poem (where the first letters of each line form a word. but we can guess that date. We have 3 manuscripts containing this grammar. It is typical of this time.times for religious matters. for beginners«). What authority did he feel writing a grammar of Latin being an English native speaker? Why did he feel the need to write a grammar since there were many grammatics available in that time? What type of people is he writing for? Which audience has Boniface in mind? (age. The grammar has a preface which is important. y The Preface ISSUES OF AUTHORITY Boniface was a non native Latin speaker writing a grammar of Latin. The irregularities of that language. Pope's Latin was more vulgar. It's different because he uses sources( grammatical sources) that other contemporary grammarians did not use. The Ars Bonifacii is an elementary grammar ( it deals with the 8 parts of speech. We know his name is Winfreth. not Boniface yet. We have those letters and they give us many information about him. etc. He did not feel very sure of what he was doing. It is a letter. His name now is Winfreth. In England and outside of England. the Latin irregularities. With Boniface began the Benedictine Rule. There is an anecdote about Latin in Europe. It is an exposition of his methodology of writing the grammar. It's remarkable. Boniface's Latin was more classical than Latin spoken in Rome. his works. Books that he had read. Roman and English Latin pronunciation were different. In 722 he had close meetings with the Pope. y The Ars Bonifacii We do not know when he wrote it. in this case Winfreth). He summarises. We also know he wrote many letters when he was in Germany. This grammar was very influential. Boniface and the Pope did not understand each other speaking Latin. about the situation of that time. Then Boniface wrote down he wanted to say to the Pope. he follows the words of the sources. In the 9th century this grammar will be not used anymore. Boniface insist more than his contemporaries in the anomalies. that anted to read« Many of those letters that received were written by lady friends of him.

originally. He mentions people from the classical period that he did not use. In the Middle Ages the more contemporary the worst. He wanted to do something new.( that's what Boniface wanted to do).Boniface There was no need of writing a grammar because there were many of them. he says that grammarians should know how many parts the speech must have. He uses all those sources simultaneously jumping one to the other even within the sentence. This attitude is because he did not want transferring the embarrassment to the sources.8«. He will work with 121 or more sources. Donatus and Priscian). Boniface in grammar feels embarrassed because of it. Why did he want to put them together? He wants to do it for the special difficulty to read characteristics of Medieval manuscripts. closer in time (Isidore of Seville). They don't have index. pronouns«. modesty«) they use it as an stylistic resource. Grammarians do not agree in the number of parts of speech ( 2«. That kind of attitude is common in the medieval authors (humility. The influences are the classical grammarians (late Roman period 4th -5th Century. so he has lack of Latin confidence. He is going to give us something new. no page number.more«depending on the grammarians). no divisions « to help us to find information quickly. He mentioned a lot of people. He wanted to select and write those selections to put it in one work. He really feels not adecuated to do it. Boniface is speaker of Latin. Definitions and examples are taken from these sources. Both things come together. The solution is to transfer the authority. He did it because they have wrote authority. He will give us all the information in the text. with the classification of conjunctions. These works are less important than the older ones. is something dangerous. in that time. Boniface choose one of these positions. The idea of authority: in general Boniface shows he needs to use other people's works to stick closely. Transfer the authority to other people. Another reason is that novelty. no title.Is it a grammar for beginners or not? Winfreth. grammatical authority. He used the other people's works but he did not mention. When we read the text he talks about he is not the best person to make a grammar of Latin. he wanted to gather all the existent grammars together. Why does he do it? The ones he omit are more contemporary. How does he treat his sources? Sometimes he find that his sources do not agree in certain topics. but he didn't use all of them. It happens with the number of parts of speech. . The reason for all these must be found in his personal situation.

Most of them don't literate in their own language. Being written in Latin is not one of those evidences. His sources use the term declinatio with two meanings: 1st inflexion of the word (rosa. but it started to be familiar to them.He clarifies difficult passages that find in the grammars. In this period it is common to see examples from religious texts. What kind of readers does he have in mind? His audience is Old English speakers. The authority is not of ancient grammarians. apocalypse«) http://html. The authority is the religious text.rincondelvago. This compensate the lack of native speakers of Latin. and explains it. However there are some evidences to think his audience is not total beginners. They were Christians and they attended religious services and those were held in Latin . rosae) 2nd type of declination or declension opposed to another. In the preface there are some reasons of this. He took separated words( dogma. The Bible is the correct. If one passage is not well written he do it well. And this is the audience Boniface is writing for. they were listening Latin in churches. But they have the need to learn Latin. But Boniface did not take passages from religious texts. Basically made of monks and nuns. According to him there is a different kind of written Latin in the Bible and the Latin of grammarians.html . Some of the changes he did affects the terminology of the sources. The final word of grammarians is the religious text. genesis. Ecclesiastical writers final authority. They did not have direct contact with Latin speakers. The goal of grammar: it's very clear in the text and is to improve people's understanding of religious texts. They didn't understand most of it was said. He changes the obscure words in the passages.com/the-development-of-language-study-in-the-west.

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