"Traditional Grammar" term is applied to summarize the range of methods found in the prelinguistic era of grammatical study.

The whole approach of this method emphasizes on correctness, linguistic purism, literary excellence, the priority of the written mode of language and the use of Latin models. The very beginning of the twentieth century was typically marked by a new approach to grammar as suggested by linguists such as Ferdinand de Saussure and American linguist like Frantz Boas, Bloomfield and Edward Sapir. Their approach is called structuralism whose aim was to arouse a reaction against the approach of the traditional grammarians. Traditional grammarians considered Latin as their model because English is a part of the Indo-European family of languages, and to which Latin and Greek also belong. It did have similar grammatical elements. If you study the form of traditional grammar, the rules of classical languages were followed considering that English did not have grammar of its own. And English followed Latin grammar. Besides the parts of speech, traditional grammatical analysis also makes use of numerous other categories, just like 'number', 'gender', 'person', 'tense' and 'voice'. For example, gender was not natural. It was grammatical in traditional grammar. As you see here "The man loves his bike". Gender, in this example, is used for describing the agreement between 'man' and 'his'. In English, you need to describe this relationship in terms of natural gender based upon a biological distinction between male and female. Such biological distinction is different compared to the common distinction found in languages which employ grammatical gender. Traditional grammar has some limitations as it occurs with some static verbs that do not occur in a progressive form, for instance "I am knowing" or in the imperative mood like "Know!" Traditional grammar sometimes fails to account for certain things like ambiguous sentences just like "While thinking about the queen the Honda hit the fence". Rakesh Patel has taught English literature for five years and now writes on education, literature and spirituality. For free guideline on English literature, feel free to visit http://englishliterature99.wordpress.com

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and we say that traditional grammar is prescriptive because it focuses on the distinction between what some people do with language and what they ought to do with it. And English followed Latin grammar. just like 'number'. Besides the parts of speech. you need to describe this relationship in terms of natural gender based upon a biological distinction between male and female. The very beginning of the twentieth century was typically marked by a new approach to grammar as suggested by linguists such as Ferdinand de Saussure and American linguist like Frantz Boas.blogspot. The chief goal of traditional grammar. traditional grammatical analysis also makes use of numerous other categories. 'tense' and 'voice'. is perpetuating a historical model of what supposedly constitutes proper language. according to a pre-established standard. 'person'. It did have similar grammatical elements. Traditional grammarians considered Latin as their model because English is a part of the Indo-European family of languages. If you study the form of traditional grammar. the rules of classical languages were followed considering that English did not have grammar of its own. As you see here "The man loves his bike".com/?Traditional-Grammar---Studying-the-Approach-of-TraditionalGrammarians&id=1765312 So. for instance "I am knowing" or in the imperative mood like "Know!" Traditional grammar sometimes fails to account for certain things like ambiguous sentences just like "While thinking about the queen the Honda hit the fence". Bloomfield and Edward Sapir. therefore. gender was not natural. The whole approach of this method emphasizes on correctness. Traditional grammar has some limitations as it occurs with some static verbs that do not occur in a progressive form.html he development of language study in the West: Classical Antiquity . It was grammatical in traditional grammar. linguistic purism. In English. in this example. and to which Latin and Greek also belong. we can define traditional grammar as The collection of prescriptive rules and concepts about the structure of language that is commonly taught in schools. is used for describing the agreement between 'man' and 'his'. For example.Rakesh Patel (2009) says that the Traditional Grammar term is applied to summarize the range of methods found in the pre-linguistic era of grammatical study. in conclusion. Their approach is called structuralism whose aim was to arouse a reaction against the approach of the traditional grammarians. literary excellence. the priority of the written mode of language and the use of Latin models." http://traditionalandpedagogicalgrammar. http://ezinearticles. Gender. Such biological distinction is different compared to the common distinction found in languages which employ grammatical gender.com/p/tradictional-grammar. 'gender'.

concepts« that we use today were created by the Greeks. . Everything began with the GREEKS. If language was natural meant that the origin is outside the man himself. All the terminology. Priscian 6th AD. If language was conventional meant that is a custom. He will influence the scholars in England. but in the West. Traditional Grammar is synonymous of Latin and Greek. Consolidation : it was stablished itself. Dionysius Thrax belongs to this group. They are phylosophical concepts. Priscian is the most important figure. Alexandrians. Traditional grammar has last since Greeks until nowadays. and you can choose analogy or anomaly). * Nature/ convention The Greeks discuss whether the language was natural or conventional. verb. The ideas are the same ( subject. The Ancient Greeks There are two dichotomies: Nature and convention Analogy and anomaly These dichotomies referred to positions (you can choose nature or convention. mood. We have to distinguish several stages in traditional grammar. We talk about Romans and Greeks because all the languages come from these people. Stoics. Something like an agreement between men. aspect«). ( 2nd Century BC) . These periods affected Greek and Latin. adjective.Introduction Classical Antiquity ( Romans and Greeks). There are five: The very beginning ( up to Aristotle) 4th Century BC Systematisation of the tradition. It could change. It takes an order in the tradition. Medieval Grammarians Renaissance Grammarians traditional grammar was definitely stablished. In the 20th Century the structuralism begins and it is different from traditional grammar. This terminology is what we call TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR .

Those which defend that language is conventional are the conventionalists. In some words we have one sound or two that is imitative. Liquid flush flow water R expresses movement. and when you listen to that sound it reminds you a word. It remains the body's neck) Conventionalists say that these things haven't got a natural connection. This controversy discuss whether the language is regular or not. models which are repeated in language. to crash. Anomaly synonymous with irregularity. in English: to hoot( claxon) . Irregular there are many exceptions to those patterns. The product of this dichotomy will be the development of scientist etymology.This distinction affects mainly to the relationship between the form of a word and the meaning of that word. For example. that is to find the origin of the words. not in their whole. . For Naturalists there are a few ways to prove the connection. ANALOGY: The ones that defend analogy defend that language is regular. When they discuss onomatopoeia also began the etymology.. (CAREW) * Analogy/ Anomaly This analogy/ anomaly dichotomy is a consequence of the nature convention of the controversy. There is the Principles of etymology . Analogy synonymous with regularity. This dispute will last for centuries. etc. Those which defend that language is natural are the naturalists. Ex: Metaphor : the neck of a bottle ( natural connection. the rest of the words that cannot be explains with the other groups. they try to justify with this. These words imitate the sound that you referred to. b) Sound. Run There are many words that don't fit in this two groups. Regular there are a set of patterns.symbols This refers to words that only are imitative in part. There are three: y Onomatopoeia: this group of words is the favourite of the naturalists because you can see clearly the connection.

They admit that there are regularities ( the anomalysts) . we will see it in the future. ox = oxen.) They used formulas as in mathematics to set up the patters: A:B= C:B( a is to b. Synonymous: have two or more forms for one meaning. This is a link between the two parts. such as child = children. The language is irregular. * Greek Grammar: the beginning of the tradition 5th . girl/ girls. as c is to d) boy: boys = cow: cows Boy: boys = cow: x x = cows They also established semantic equations.4th BC. One consequence of this controversy ( polémica ) is that this will help to the systematisation of grammar. . law«) This is another irregularity. The analogyst's work is to establish the patterns in Greek to English. Ex: bar (chocolate. not only formal. they pointed out that there are a lot of examples of irregularities. moral or not. First steps to the creation of the terminology of the tradition of grammar. For analogysts language is the product of convention. THE SOPHISTS They were teachers. Ex: row Homonymy: have one form and more than one meaning.Ex: The final -s to make the plural(regular): boy/ boys. Anomalysts say that the presence of irregularity demonstrate there is a natural thing ( the language). irregular. It's such a regular thing. cow/ cows This is one of the patterns that shows the regularity of the language. They were criticised because they taught how to defend a cause. It's conventional. The language is irregular. For example Athens is a plural noun referring to a singular entity. This is anomalous. Ex: father: child = dog : X x = puppy For the analogyst the Greek language was full of this patterns. They said the relationship between the form and the meaning of the word is anomalous. place. Child/ children anomaly. (justa o no) They teach how to win in debates. conjugations. Those patterns are known as PARADIGMS ( declensions.) (18th Century In English. But their main emphasis is the semantic irregularities. They contribute in the grammar..

They studied language in their study of logic. Category of time. but he added syndesmoi . There were correspondences between the actions and the tenses. The meaning of a word is a convention. Aristotle realised that there were more than one tense in the verbs: past actions.PROTAGORAS distinguished the three genders in Greek : masculine. According to him the relation between onoma and rhema and their meanings is a product of convention. Plato is a conventionalist. Language is part of knowledge.«. III. Aristotle includes in syndesmoi all the words that are not nouns neither verbs. Logic includes grammar to the stoics. This is a 3rd class. an analogyst. But Plato did not call it adjective. They are the conjunctions. and things. Knowledge consists of ideas that agree with nature. Rhema includes verbs and also adjectives.II BC THE STOICS It's the school of philosophy that paid more attention to the language. The stoics are naturalists and therefore anomalysts. Aristotle is a conventionalist. Onoma noun Rhema verb Onoma and rhema are the constituents of the logos ( sentence). Language has many irregularities. predicate. They were the main contribution to the grammar PLATO Plato's main contribution was the distinction between verbs and nouns. negative. ARISTOTLE He'll keep the distinction of nouns and verbs. nominal name Rhema can mean verb. The stoics think that good conduct means to live in good harmony with nature. * Greek Grammar: 1st systematisation of the tradition. feminine. Onoma can mean subject. Words are symbols created by men. For him meaning is conventional. He distinguished sentence types. interrogative. present actions. affirmative. . They are linking words. and stoics defended it.

Alexandria is well known because of its library. They studied the manuscripts that included ³The Iliad´ and ³The Odyssey´(S. But they also add more parts to the parts of the speech(verb. two key works in the world history were produced in Alexandria: -Euclid Elements -Grammar of Dionysius Thrax The study of language: the Alexandrians approached this study through literary texts. Once they had the original version. Alexandria and Pergamon were two cities that took the place of Athens in political and cultural aspects. Its beginning was Aristotle's personal book collection. They couldn't understand the original texts.In the origin of language there was a natural connection between words and things. and the grammar explanation of those texts. The Alexandrians: They were a group of philosophers that lived and worked in Alexandria. In this period. They decided to do this because they thought that the original/classic Greek was more correct than their own Greek (they thought that this one was corrupted). What they did was to look for the original forms with natural connection. It's the study of ETYMOLOGY The beginning of the science of etymology is their main contribution.V B. . One more concept is the concept of inflexion which is the declensions and conjugations. But the most important: Etymology. the one written by Homer. The original Greek was very different from the one they used in their time. they had to make the commentaries. The concept of case is a part of the inflexion. These two purposes are important because they are the two main purposes of all the grammaticians of today. This connection is not evident today. The distinction between the active and passive voice.C. The city became the centre of literary and linguistic research. etc ) and they add the ARTICLE. They wanted to find the original version. to explain the original Greek (classical authors). but they were written in different types of Greek. especially those of Homer.). They find many different versions of the manuscripts that contained those poems. They write grammars with both types of texts (classical and ³modern´) to preserve Greek from corruption and also. noun. And also the distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs. This gave the chance to the people to read those texts.

pronoun and preposition). the mood. person.II B. Grammar (Dionysius): ³is the technical knowledge of the language employed by poets and writers´. The noun is the part of speech.XVIII in England (See in previous lessons. They will give this regularity of Greek in a list in form of declinations and conjugations (paradigm). kind and type. y This is focused on written language as a more correct version of the language. 2. This is the Greek Grammar. the gender. conditionals. study critically the compositions of poets.«These used to be the names of the sentences. The verb is the part without case inflection.C. discover analogies. Nouns have five accidents. conjugation. causals.. The result of these efforts is: the Greek grammar will be definitely codify or systematize. finals. are three of this six parts.« This has become the standard way of analysing words. All these are applied to classical Greek. ³Technè Grammatikè´= Art of Grammar.«of written language is the most important thing in S. discover language etymologies. Dionysius (S. whereas the spoken language is seen as a corruption of written language. Deal with the language of the previous era is something that Dionysius thought was important. the number.C. Henry Sweet). Morphology is the main body of his work. which has case inflection. The study of language will give us the first description of language. and it deals with syllables and words. They were obsessed with the regularity. the one that is considered as the real Greek Grammar until our days. The accidents of the verbs are: number. It's the first complete and systematic grammar in the West.). This idea of purity.I B. His method had two steps: phonology and morphology (no syntax). . tense. it's the study of the name of the Greeks letters and their different phonetic values (this is phonology).ROMAN ADAPTATION OF GREEK GRAMMAR: the tradition consolidated. This four plus the other four is the standard now. and they will ignore spoken language as a subject of investigation. These parts will be analysed by using the case. participle. Dionysius contributed with four more parts of speech to the list of four of the stoics: adverbs. They are defined because of their accidents. There are seven types of conjunctions: copulatives. voice. It has 6 parts. the voice.This approach brings two consequences: y The interest of linguistics will be the written language. corruption. They were analogists. S. Syntax is relevant because the most part of the grammars hadn't deal with it until Chomsky's work. mood. In phonology we don't get any phonetic study. and he studied his own Greek with the application of the classical Greek. time.

This was possible because Latin and Greek were similar (from the structural point of view). Priscian is the key moment in classical grammar. They wanted to describe the classical language (Cicero and Virgil. Latin will have a very suitable terminology. From then on.D.D. the last 2 deal briefly with syntax.C. This approach has the same consequences as the Alexandrians (the correct language is the written one and the idea this language was more correct than their own contemporary language). the people thought that these categories were universal. and this is a key moment in the history of Linguistics. Donatus was another important person. The Latin grammar repeated the organization that Dionysius said in his grammar. the specialists will focus exclusively on the first 16 books (morphology). The work itself: it has 18 books. but we want to deal with one of this because of the originality and similarity: Varro. but not one of these only).Roman culture was influenced by Greek culture (art. the parts of speech can be transferred to Latin with no problem (verbs.S. Varro is a contemporary of Dionysius.). In Rome. The high roman classes send their children to Greece to study. He is the perfect example of taking over Greek grammar into Latin grammar. 16 of these deal with morphology.It's almost a repetition of Dionysius work (³Techné grammatiké´). The analogy/anomaly controversy was also present among the Romans (Cesar wrote a tratado). grammar is a part of philosophy and literary criticism (as in Greece). He wrote a Latin grammar as a consequence of analogy/anomaly controversy. All the accidents were easy to put into Latin.«). The Greek grammar is an influence to the Latin grammar. Within the Romans there was a moment of classicism (probably the most important moment in Grammar Priscian . In The Middle Ages. Latin had no words yet to describe language matters (noun. especially in the field of terminology. Before that. -Syndesmos: coni-unctio( syn-desmos) -Antonymia: pro-nomen (anto-nymia) . the same as in specific aspects. nouns. Varro also anticipated the distinction between langue/parole (Saussure).). literature. verb. not the language of their own days. respectively). Priscian and Donatus wanted to describe the language of the best writer. Examples: onoma>the Greek name for noun / nomen>the Latin word (translation of onoma). 500 A. and the language that it's spoken by an individual (parole). In these general aspects they were similar.«). there were other attempts. c. He said that there were two types of language: the language in abstract (langue). His opinion was that both extremes were wrong (there is regularity and irregularity. Maybe regularity is more present. Therefore. II and I B.«). these 18 books are an adaptation of Dionysius' work. Priscian translated the Greek terms into Latin. He did the most complete description of Latin language of that period (³Institutiones Grammaticae´. S.VI A. On the whole. The problem was that when that was transferred to English grammar.

These names are still used today. Linguistic study in the Early Middle Ages in the British Isles y General introduction to the period and the period's approach to language studies What are the Middle Ages? It's a period in the History of Europe and goes to the Fall of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance. They are not so dark in linguistic matters. He made a little change (the article is excluded. but there were many ups and downs. The fall of the Roman emperor happened in 476 BC. elitition through the monasteries and churches. secondary). less difficult. The Church taught a more colloquial Latin. Latin was the official language of the Christian Church. education. We call Middle Ages because it refers to the fact that is between two golden periods. The kind of Latin is not classical Latin ( not like Cicero or Virgil). accusative-to enemies. This work is a key work in the Middle Ages and it is also the most important work of scholarship in Roman culture. The rise or fall depends on the knowledge or lack of knowledge of Latin. the universities. He was very close to Dionysius in this description. We will focus on the 1st half of the Middle Ages (The DARK AGES first period in the Middle Ages. a period of splendour in general and that is what makes the Middle Ages slightly less relevant culturally than the other 2 periods. Before the Middle Ages we have the Classical Antiquity. Priscian also adopted the 8 parts of speech as Dionysius gave us.This is the main merit of Priscian's work. .« There is a connection between the name and the frequent use (nominative. The nouns are natural (he said he had chosen the name of that use because is more frequent than the other uses). The church adopted Latin. EUROPE ENGLAND A key element in those ups and downs is the Latin language. The examples he gave came from Cicero and Virgil (this is the difference from Dionysius' work). However. He described those 8 parts and their accidents (the formal accidents). The nominative is called like this because it came in first place. dative-to friend. After the Middle Ages we have the Renaissance. Later. the Middle Ages have a lot to offer in linguistics. V-XI Centuries) It is true that the fall of Rome made a decline in culture. This image of darkness was destroyed little by little. he changed it to the interjection). Priscian also said that the order of cases is natural (in noun declinations). It is like an interval. because they are pagan authors so their language is pagan too. The church will be the sponsor of Latin scholarship. vocative-to a second person. the creation of a whole terminology from Greek to Latin.

Churches and monasteries were the places in where people learnt. These Germanic Kingdoms were pagans since a Christian point of view. This is similar to what happened with the Alexandrians. norms and with rules about correct and incorrect uses. It was introduced the Roman Alphabet. The places of education disappear( churches an monasteries). a new culture. so Germanic people had to learn Latin. DIDACTIC doesn't mean speculative (abstract). They handle texts and learn it from them. Latin was being developed in other places. These studies of Latin are the only studies of grammar and language in this period. Language studies means Latin Studies. This is a link with the classical antiquity. Those tribes arrived and take over the island in the middle of the 5th century. The study of Latin is the basis of medieval education. Those Germanic tribes didn't have political unity. In 597 Saint Agustine was send by the Pope to convert the Germanic tribes to the Christianity. It is an instrument for the education. Latin was studied for itself and it was necessary to learn another matters. Grammars books were grammars of Latin. the native of the island had fights between themselves. The Romans had left England. There is a decline of learning because of the Scandinavian invasion. This teach you how to use Latin correctly. The practical use of language is what they studied. We have 3 dialects. and many books mow more available through Latin. They invited the Germanic tribes to help them. Not so many people can read or write in Latin. Didactic and normative grammars will be based on Priscian and Donatus' works. for those people. The Christianity brigs together with it a new language. The Christianism was very important for linguistics matters. The Germanic pushed the natives to the borders of the island( Welshmen: they all were called like this). the official form of Old English (west Saxon) It's the accepted form of Old English. In the 7th century we have 7 different kingdoms with 7 different dialects of Old English + Celtic Native Speakers. but they become Christians little by little. Latin is now. Speculative grammars will come in the 2nd half of the Middle Ages. a new literature. A Normative grammar means a grammar with rules. This is another similarity to the Alexandrians. Mercia and Wessex. The Romans left and the British. text book to learn Latin. . In the 8th century it is produced the Scandinavian Invasion. Latin is taught as a written language. The dialect spoken in Wessex is the standard. It was a didactic (practical) and normative way of teaching Latin. In time the 7 kingdoms diminished in 3: Northumbria. In the 9th century King Alfred complained about this very bad cultural situation. A blossoming in learning was produced. Most of those manuals will be based on Priscian and Donatus. y Linguistic study in the Early Middle Ages in England y The Linguistic situation in the island Great Britain was a Celtic speaking island. English begin to write extensively.It was also an instrument for secular transactions. Then colonised by the Romans (43-410 BC) They were 400 years. a foreign language . a new language. Those Germanic kingdoms were isolated. These grammars are normative. Latin and conveys a new civilisation. For this reason they need Latin Manuals.

that is a cultural and religious reform at the same time. Children learn spelling and pronunciation of Latin words. One more problem is that those manuscripts have characteristics that made them difficult. If people can't read Latin. Normand«). Religious moment started: THE BENEDICTINE REFORM. LATIN WAS AN INSTRUMENT OF EDUCATION. no date. Why is Latin taught? Latin was taught because it was taught in every Christian region. It was spoken in all around Europe. . The importance is enormous. Paleographs studied the way in they wrote. we have not very much. Latin was the language of scholarship. Danish were rolling England and they brought their languages. It was the language of knowledge. The highest stage was the study of etymology of words /philology/. It will help Alfred in different ways. y Language study in the island: The Insular Grammar This is the study of Latin grammar. This reform was improved in learning and teaching Latin in the island. Usually this period have been considered a dark period. Those subjects were taught in Latin. also Law. they did read those manuscripts. no place of origin written on them. He was a translator. You only learn in Latin. They learn the inflections. let's make those texts available with a translation into English. the religious services in Latin« Latin was imposed. We know very little about it. We do not have bibliography. All the important texts in their own language. declensions and lists of vocabulary. Those very few available texts have been studied by scholars who were not linguistics (historians of education).Priscian and Donatus were the most studied. They were written in Latin. After this period. Another reason. It was the language of the Christian religion. Latin was an international language. Science. The problem is that there are not a lot of sources(manuscripts). they have no name. All that influenced cultural education. What instruments did they have to teach? The teachers had the grammars of the Roman Antiquity(4-5th century). There were a lot of languages (Old English. not only the religious matters. He promotes a massive work of translation. Aelfric began to work under King Alfred's idea of translation. With the Norman invasion started the 2nd period of the Middle Ages. Scandinavian. Those grammars were written for and to native speakers of Latin.King Alfred translated into English Cura Pastoralis and in the preface he complained about this situation: the lack of knowledge of Latin. We have to wait until the 14th century to say that there is a National Language in England. The sacred texts were written in Latin. It was a moment of revival of knowledge. Also commerce and administration were held in Latin. Most of them are anonymous. That is the organisation of the study of Latin in different levels. Latin was basic to live. specially in foreign countries. Philosophical matters. How did they teach Latin at school? They began to study grammar in the school. Nowadays we know very few of this period. We know all these manuscripts were the product of the policy of the Church. Then they learn to comment literary texts in Latin. In a more advanced level they were taught how to write texts. in the 11th century we have a decline. The few texts that exist are very difficult even for specialists. to promote culture in the island.

They also offers something new that makes them interesting. The insular grammars can be divided in 2 types: The Elementary Grammar The Exegetical Grammar These are the two main grammars. They deal with 1. The grammars of Priscian and Donatus were no suitable for them. They were made for a specific audience with specific means. . They needed to learn English in a practical way. mythological and historical explanations. They focus on the nouns. They don't appear in anywhere else. y Grammatical models They used two types of classical grammars. The result of this is that the English began to write and compiled their own Latin Grammars. It tries to be comprehensive. It is based on Priscian and Donatus. and they were called: Schulgrammatik Regulae The 1st type of grammar. These are reference works. They are characterised by giving many lists of inflections. Virgil).We know that English people don't know how to speak Latin as native people. We use both of these models to produce their own type of grammar. The Latin speaker who use those 2 types of grammar was looking for information on them which was not relevant for the new Latin speakers (English People) . The elementary grammars are specifically English. They appear in England in the 7th century (the children of classical grammars). In this grammars is contained information about literary texts. or nouns and verbs. _ They are brief _ They are systematic expositions _ Morphology is the most important thing. to England. that they use as grammatical examples (Cicero. schulgrammatik is systematic (complete and with an order).3«parts of speech.2. The most important schulgrammatik example we know is Priscian. but not with all of them. The Regulae is less systematic. « those things were not interested in this information( a los ingleses). y Insular Grammars Many of the grammars the English compiled are similar to the classical models because they assumed the explanations and theories about the parts of speech. It treated the 8 parts of speech.

They wanted to do better versions of the Bible. These two types of grammars were introduced in the continent by missionaries( from England to the rest of Europe). They are a type of text similar to the Bible commentary. In the 9th century the elementary grammar died because in the 9th-10th century there was a return to the classical grammars. C. They went back to Priscian's. They were also successful in the continent. in the South. Aelfric is another grammarian ( ð 1010). As a missionary he first went to Holland and then to Germany. They're based on the formal aspects. Before he was a missionary he wrote a Latin Grammar. He's also relevant because he wrote a Latin grammar in English(Old English). They try to explain the classical texts(classical grammars) to help teachers and students to understand difficult classical texts. Still we know enough to say they were very important not only in England also in the continent._ Paradigms give all the possible declensions and conjugations _ They see Latin as a pattern. Then he became a priest and decided to leave England. In that grammar he includes a preface in the form of a letter where he tell us his methods to write the grammar. Priscian and Donatus. We know he was the missionary who brought Christianity to Germany from England. They are commentaries on the classical grammars. The reason is the difficulty of the manuscripts. less corrupted. For us he is interesting for other reasons. His name is Winfreth but he received the name Boniface from the Pope (8th-c719). 675-745). It is usual to find texts explaining the Bible. In general we know very few of all the authors. He is interesting because of his role in the consolidation on medieval grammatical ideas. All of these in England. Boniface is one of them. _ They were successful for some centuries. As a child he went to a school monastery and then he went to another one with a higher level and there he became a teacher. y An Early medieval grammarian talks about grammar: Winfreth. He was born in England in 675. The exegetical grammars are less important. y English Grammarians at Works We know very little about English Grammarians of this period. But we know many things about Wynfreth Boniface(we know about him and his works. because the level of Latin was higher to produce a less corrupted versions of the Bible. it takes place in the Carolingian Renaissance(9th and so on centuries) and from the Carolingian Empire it goes back to England.Boniface and the Praefatio ad Sigibertum He's remembered as the man who Christianised what we call Germany today. He went to see the Pope several . While he worked as a teacher he wrote a Latin grammar with his students who were also studying to be monks.

He did not feel very sure of what he was doing. The irregularities of that language. It was written before 719(but not much earlier). about the situation of that time. The name isPraefatio ad Sigibertum . He summarises. He follows VERBATIM(al pie de la letra). It is typical of this time. His name now is Winfreth. but it is also different from other elementary grammars. In 722 he had close meetings with the Pope. With Boniface began the Benedictine Rule. The Ars Bonifacii is an elementary grammar ( it deals with the 8 parts of speech. knowledge«) How did he treat the classical grammars to do his own? He's respectful. It is a letter. not Boniface yet. What authority did he feel writing a grammar of Latin being an English native speaker? Why did he feel the need to write a grammar since there were many grammatics available in that time? What type of people is he writing for? Which audience has Boniface in mind? (age. in this case Winfreth). Boniface's Latin was more classical than Latin spoken in Rome. many paradigms. Roman and English Latin pronunciation were different. We have those letters and they give us many information about him. We also know he wrote many letters when he was in Germany. It's different because he uses sources( grammatical sources) that other contemporary grammarians did not use. his works. y The Ars Bonifacii We do not know when he wrote it. Then Boniface wrote down he wanted to say to the Pope. criticised or not«. Pope's Latin was more vulgar. This Benedictine Rule was consolidated with the Carolingian Empire. In the grammar there is an acrostic poem (where the first letters of each line form a word. The grammar has a preface which is important. etc. but we can guess that date. It's remarkable. It is an exposition of his methodology of writing the grammar. This grammar was very influential. Books that he had read. In the 9th century this grammar will be not used anymore. There is an anecdote about Latin in Europe. In England and outside of England. religion. We know his name is Winfreth. that anted to read« Many of those letters that received were written by lady friends of him. Boniface and the Pope did not understand each other speaking Latin. . We have 3 manuscripts containing this grammar.times for religious matters. Boniface insist more than his contemporaries in the anomalies. the Latin irregularities. for beginners«). y The Preface ISSUES OF AUTHORITY Boniface was a non native Latin speaker writing a grammar of Latin. he follows the words of the sources.

These works are less important than the older ones. Another reason is that novelty. with the classification of conjunctions. no title.Boniface There was no need of writing a grammar because there were many of them. he wanted to gather all the existent grammars together. modesty«) they use it as an stylistic resource. originally. Both things come together. grammatical authority. he says that grammarians should know how many parts the speech must have.Is it a grammar for beginners or not? Winfreth. so he has lack of Latin confidence. in that time. The reason for all these must be found in his personal situation. This attitude is because he did not want transferring the embarrassment to the sources.( that's what Boniface wanted to do). Why did he want to put them together? He wants to do it for the special difficulty to read characteristics of Medieval manuscripts. . Donatus and Priscian). That kind of attitude is common in the medieval authors (humility. He mentions people from the classical period that he did not use. How does he treat his sources? Sometimes he find that his sources do not agree in certain topics. pronouns«. He really feels not adecuated to do it. He wanted to do something new. Why does he do it? The ones he omit are more contemporary. He did it because they have wrote authority. Boniface choose one of these positions. The influences are the classical grammarians (late Roman period 4th -5th Century. When we read the text he talks about he is not the best person to make a grammar of Latin. He used the other people's works but he did not mention. Boniface in grammar feels embarrassed because of it. no divisions « to help us to find information quickly.more«depending on the grammarians). The idea of authority: in general Boniface shows he needs to use other people's works to stick closely. Definitions and examples are taken from these sources. Boniface is speaker of Latin. He wanted to select and write those selections to put it in one work. They don't have index. The solution is to transfer the authority. He will give us all the information in the text. In the Middle Ages the more contemporary the worst. closer in time (Isidore of Seville). He uses all those sources simultaneously jumping one to the other even within the sentence.8«. no page number. He is going to give us something new. Transfer the authority to other people. He mentioned a lot of people. It happens with the number of parts of speech. but he didn't use all of them. Grammarians do not agree in the number of parts of speech ( 2«. is something dangerous. He will work with 121 or more sources.

In this period it is common to see examples from religious texts. apocalypse«) http://html. but it started to be familiar to them. Being written in Latin is not one of those evidences. rosae) 2nd type of declination or declension opposed to another. They didn't understand most of it was said. However there are some evidences to think his audience is not total beginners. He took separated words( dogma. The final word of grammarians is the religious text. He changes the obscure words in the passages. Basically made of monks and nuns. If one passage is not well written he do it well. In the preface there are some reasons of this. And this is the audience Boniface is writing for. Some of the changes he did affects the terminology of the sources. and explains it. They did not have direct contact with Latin speakers. The goal of grammar: it's very clear in the text and is to improve people's understanding of religious texts. What kind of readers does he have in mind? His audience is Old English speakers. According to him there is a different kind of written Latin in the Bible and the Latin of grammarians. genesis. they were listening Latin in churches. But they have the need to learn Latin. This compensate the lack of native speakers of Latin. Ecclesiastical writers final authority. They were Christians and they attended religious services and those were held in Latin . The Bible is the correct.rincondelvago.com/the-development-of-language-study-in-the-west. The authority is the religious text. But Boniface did not take passages from religious texts.html .He clarifies difficult passages that find in the grammars. Most of them don't literate in their own language. The authority is not of ancient grammarians. His sources use the term declinatio with two meanings: 1st inflexion of the word (rosa.

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