"Traditional Grammar" term is applied to summarize the range of methods found in the prelinguistic era of grammatical study.

The whole approach of this method emphasizes on correctness, linguistic purism, literary excellence, the priority of the written mode of language and the use of Latin models. The very beginning of the twentieth century was typically marked by a new approach to grammar as suggested by linguists such as Ferdinand de Saussure and American linguist like Frantz Boas, Bloomfield and Edward Sapir. Their approach is called structuralism whose aim was to arouse a reaction against the approach of the traditional grammarians. Traditional grammarians considered Latin as their model because English is a part of the Indo-European family of languages, and to which Latin and Greek also belong. It did have similar grammatical elements. If you study the form of traditional grammar, the rules of classical languages were followed considering that English did not have grammar of its own. And English followed Latin grammar. Besides the parts of speech, traditional grammatical analysis also makes use of numerous other categories, just like 'number', 'gender', 'person', 'tense' and 'voice'. For example, gender was not natural. It was grammatical in traditional grammar. As you see here "The man loves his bike". Gender, in this example, is used for describing the agreement between 'man' and 'his'. In English, you need to describe this relationship in terms of natural gender based upon a biological distinction between male and female. Such biological distinction is different compared to the common distinction found in languages which employ grammatical gender. Traditional grammar has some limitations as it occurs with some static verbs that do not occur in a progressive form, for instance "I am knowing" or in the imperative mood like "Know!" Traditional grammar sometimes fails to account for certain things like ambiguous sentences just like "While thinking about the queen the Honda hit the fence". Rakesh Patel has taught English literature for five years and now writes on education, literature and spirituality. For free guideline on English literature, feel free to visit http://englishliterature99.wordpress.com

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you need to describe this relationship in terms of natural gender based upon a biological distinction between male and female. is perpetuating a historical model of what supposedly constitutes proper language. Traditional grammarians considered Latin as their model because English is a part of the Indo-European family of languages.Rakesh Patel (2009) says that the Traditional Grammar term is applied to summarize the range of methods found in the pre-linguistic era of grammatical study. Bloomfield and Edward Sapir. Their approach is called structuralism whose aim was to arouse a reaction against the approach of the traditional grammarians. 'person'.html he development of language study in the West: Classical Antiquity . according to a pre-established standard. traditional grammatical analysis also makes use of numerous other categories. in conclusion. It did have similar grammatical elements. gender was not natural. http://ezinearticles. therefore. Gender. The very beginning of the twentieth century was typically marked by a new approach to grammar as suggested by linguists such as Ferdinand de Saussure and American linguist like Frantz Boas. The chief goal of traditional grammar. For example. Such biological distinction is different compared to the common distinction found in languages which employ grammatical gender. 'tense' and 'voice'. Besides the parts of speech. we can define traditional grammar as The collection of prescriptive rules and concepts about the structure of language that is commonly taught in schools. for instance "I am knowing" or in the imperative mood like "Know!" Traditional grammar sometimes fails to account for certain things like ambiguous sentences just like "While thinking about the queen the Honda hit the fence". is used for describing the agreement between 'man' and 'his'. the rules of classical languages were followed considering that English did not have grammar of its own. It was grammatical in traditional grammar.com/?Traditional-Grammar---Studying-the-Approach-of-TraditionalGrammarians&id=1765312 So. Traditional grammar has some limitations as it occurs with some static verbs that do not occur in a progressive form. The whole approach of this method emphasizes on correctness. the priority of the written mode of language and the use of Latin models. If you study the form of traditional grammar. and we say that traditional grammar is prescriptive because it focuses on the distinction between what some people do with language and what they ought to do with it. literary excellence. 'gender'." http://traditionalandpedagogicalgrammar. in this example. And English followed Latin grammar. just like 'number'. As you see here "The man loves his bike". In English. and to which Latin and Greek also belong.com/p/tradictional-grammar. linguistic purism.blogspot.

Stoics. Dionysius Thrax belongs to this group. Medieval Grammarians Renaissance Grammarians traditional grammar was definitely stablished. These periods affected Greek and Latin. adjective. The ideas are the same ( subject. If language was conventional meant that is a custom. . concepts« that we use today were created by the Greeks. Everything began with the GREEKS. They are phylosophical concepts. Traditional Grammar is synonymous of Latin and Greek. There are five: The very beginning ( up to Aristotle) 4th Century BC Systematisation of the tradition. He will influence the scholars in England. aspect«). and you can choose analogy or anomaly). Priscian 6th AD. We have to distinguish several stages in traditional grammar. All the terminology. This terminology is what we call TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR . Priscian is the most important figure. Traditional grammar has last since Greeks until nowadays. but in the West. Something like an agreement between men. In the 20th Century the structuralism begins and it is different from traditional grammar. It could change. Alexandrians.Introduction Classical Antiquity ( Romans and Greeks). The Ancient Greeks There are two dichotomies: Nature and convention Analogy and anomaly These dichotomies referred to positions (you can choose nature or convention. * Nature/ convention The Greeks discuss whether the language was natural or conventional. mood. verb. We talk about Romans and Greeks because all the languages come from these people. If language was natural meant that the origin is outside the man himself. ( 2nd Century BC) . It takes an order in the tradition. Consolidation : it was stablished itself.

Run There are many words that don't fit in this two groups. These words imitate the sound that you referred to. It remains the body's neck) Conventionalists say that these things haven't got a natural connection. ANALOGY: The ones that defend analogy defend that language is regular.symbols This refers to words that only are imitative in part. Analogy synonymous with regularity. Anomaly synonymous with irregularity. etc. . For Naturalists there are a few ways to prove the connection. (CAREW) * Analogy/ Anomaly This analogy/ anomaly dichotomy is a consequence of the nature convention of the controversy. This dispute will last for centuries. Those which defend that language is conventional are the conventionalists. This controversy discuss whether the language is regular or not.This distinction affects mainly to the relationship between the form of a word and the meaning of that word. the rest of the words that cannot be explains with the other groups. The product of this dichotomy will be the development of scientist etymology. b) Sound. and when you listen to that sound it reminds you a word. models which are repeated in language. in English: to hoot( claxon) . Regular there are a set of patterns. There is the Principles of etymology . they try to justify with this. not in their whole.. Liquid flush flow water R expresses movement. to crash. When they discuss onomatopoeia also began the etymology. In some words we have one sound or two that is imitative. There are three: y Onomatopoeia: this group of words is the favourite of the naturalists because you can see clearly the connection. Irregular there are many exceptions to those patterns. For example. Ex: Metaphor : the neck of a bottle ( natural connection. Those which defend that language is natural are the naturalists. that is to find the origin of the words.

Anomalysts say that the presence of irregularity demonstrate there is a natural thing ( the language). Synonymous: have two or more forms for one meaning. It's conventional.. They were criticised because they taught how to defend a cause. Ex: father: child = dog : X x = puppy For the analogyst the Greek language was full of this patterns. (justa o no) They teach how to win in debates. They said the relationship between the form and the meaning of the word is anomalous. Those patterns are known as PARADIGMS ( declensions. THE SOPHISTS They were teachers. They contribute in the grammar. cow/ cows This is one of the patterns that shows the regularity of the language. But their main emphasis is the semantic irregularities. This is a link between the two parts.4th BC. For analogysts language is the product of convention. . The language is irregular. law«) This is another irregularity. irregular. as c is to d) boy: boys = cow: cows Boy: boys = cow: x x = cows They also established semantic equations. This is anomalous. * Greek Grammar: the beginning of the tradition 5th . Ex: bar (chocolate. One consequence of this controversy ( polémica ) is that this will help to the systematisation of grammar. such as child = children.Ex: The final -s to make the plural(regular): boy/ boys. ox = oxen. Ex: row Homonymy: have one form and more than one meaning. conjugations. not only formal. First steps to the creation of the terminology of the tradition of grammar. They admit that there are regularities ( the anomalysts) .) They used formulas as in mathematics to set up the patters: A:B= C:B( a is to b. The analogyst's work is to establish the patterns in Greek to English.) (18th Century In English. For example Athens is a plural noun referring to a singular entity. we will see it in the future. they pointed out that there are a lot of examples of irregularities. The language is irregular. moral or not. girl/ girls. place. It's such a regular thing. Child/ children anomaly.

Words are symbols created by men. predicate. Aristotle realised that there were more than one tense in the verbs: past actions. ARISTOTLE He'll keep the distinction of nouns and verbs. Plato is a conventionalist. Knowledge consists of ideas that agree with nature. III. Onoma can mean subject. They are linking words. and stoics defended it.PROTAGORAS distinguished the three genders in Greek : masculine. Language has many irregularities. and things.«. feminine. There were correspondences between the actions and the tenses. For him meaning is conventional. interrogative. According to him the relation between onoma and rhema and their meanings is a product of convention. affirmative. But Plato did not call it adjective.II BC THE STOICS It's the school of philosophy that paid more attention to the language. Aristotle is a conventionalist. Logic includes grammar to the stoics. They studied language in their study of logic. Language is part of knowledge. They are the conjunctions. Aristotle includes in syndesmoi all the words that are not nouns neither verbs. present actions. The stoics are naturalists and therefore anomalysts. This is a 3rd class. an analogyst. negative. Rhema includes verbs and also adjectives. nominal name Rhema can mean verb. but he added syndesmoi . Category of time. * Greek Grammar: 1st systematisation of the tradition. The stoics think that good conduct means to live in good harmony with nature. Onoma noun Rhema verb Onoma and rhema are the constituents of the logos ( sentence). He distinguished sentence types. The meaning of a word is a convention. . They were the main contribution to the grammar PLATO Plato's main contribution was the distinction between verbs and nouns.

The original Greek was very different from the one they used in their time. they had to make the commentaries.V B. Alexandria is well known because of its library. They decided to do this because they thought that the original/classic Greek was more correct than their own Greek (they thought that this one was corrupted). This gave the chance to the people to read those texts. . The Alexandrians: They were a group of philosophers that lived and worked in Alexandria. What they did was to look for the original forms with natural connection. The distinction between the active and passive voice. They studied the manuscripts that included ³The Iliad´ and ³The Odyssey´(S. and the grammar explanation of those texts. The city became the centre of literary and linguistic research. In this period. Once they had the original version.C. to explain the original Greek (classical authors). They couldn't understand the original texts. especially those of Homer. And also the distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs.In the origin of language there was a natural connection between words and things. the one written by Homer. Its beginning was Aristotle's personal book collection. They find many different versions of the manuscripts that contained those poems. etc ) and they add the ARTICLE. It's the study of ETYMOLOGY The beginning of the science of etymology is their main contribution. noun. two key works in the world history were produced in Alexandria: -Euclid Elements -Grammar of Dionysius Thrax The study of language: the Alexandrians approached this study through literary texts. They wanted to find the original version.). but they were written in different types of Greek. But the most important: Etymology. One more concept is the concept of inflexion which is the declensions and conjugations. The concept of case is a part of the inflexion. This connection is not evident today. These two purposes are important because they are the two main purposes of all the grammaticians of today. They write grammars with both types of texts (classical and ³modern´) to preserve Greek from corruption and also. But they also add more parts to the parts of the speech(verb. Alexandria and Pergamon were two cities that took the place of Athens in political and cultural aspects.

This is the Greek Grammar. . Dionysius contributed with four more parts of speech to the list of four of the stoics: adverbs.«These used to be the names of the sentences. y This is focused on written language as a more correct version of the language. participle.«of written language is the most important thing in S. which has case inflection. the voice.XVIII in England (See in previous lessons.I B. corruption. the number. discover analogies. the gender. time. This four plus the other four is the standard now. discover language etymologies. are three of this six parts. Dionysius (S. The verb is the part without case inflection. and he studied his own Greek with the application of the classical Greek. mood. Deal with the language of the previous era is something that Dionysius thought was important. and they will ignore spoken language as a subject of investigation. study critically the compositions of poets. conditionals. There are seven types of conjunctions: copulatives. These parts will be analysed by using the case. They are defined because of their accidents.« This has become the standard way of analysing words. They will give this regularity of Greek in a list in form of declinations and conjugations (paradigm). person.). it's the study of the name of the Greeks letters and their different phonetic values (this is phonology).. His method had two steps: phonology and morphology (no syntax).ROMAN ADAPTATION OF GREEK GRAMMAR: the tradition consolidated. They were obsessed with the regularity. Morphology is the main body of his work.II B.This approach brings two consequences: y The interest of linguistics will be the written language. Grammar (Dionysius): ³is the technical knowledge of the language employed by poets and writers´. the one that is considered as the real Greek Grammar until our days. conjugation.C. kind and type.C. The accidents of the verbs are: number. whereas the spoken language is seen as a corruption of written language. They were analogists. pronoun and preposition). S. The noun is the part of speech. Syntax is relevant because the most part of the grammars hadn't deal with it until Chomsky's work. finals. 2. ³Technè Grammatikè´= Art of Grammar. the mood. and it deals with syllables and words. In phonology we don't get any phonetic study. tense. voice. It has 6 parts. It's the first complete and systematic grammar in the West. This idea of purity. All these are applied to classical Greek. The result of these efforts is: the Greek grammar will be definitely codify or systematize. Henry Sweet). Nouns have five accidents. causals. The study of language will give us the first description of language.

the people thought that these categories were universal. On the whole. Before that. the same as in specific aspects. 500 A.S.D. Varro also anticipated the distinction between langue/parole (Saussure).Roman culture was influenced by Greek culture (art. They wanted to describe the classical language (Cicero and Virgil. He is the perfect example of taking over Greek grammar into Latin grammar. S.«). The Latin grammar repeated the organization that Dionysius said in his grammar. Varro is a contemporary of Dionysius. His opinion was that both extremes were wrong (there is regularity and irregularity.It's almost a repetition of Dionysius work (³Techné grammatiké´). This was possible because Latin and Greek were similar (from the structural point of view).VI A.D. verb.). but not one of these only). literature. especially in the field of terminology. Examples: onoma>the Greek name for noun / nomen>the Latin word (translation of onoma). Latin will have a very suitable terminology. Priscian is the key moment in classical grammar. the last 2 deal briefly with syntax. All the accidents were easy to put into Latin. and the language that it's spoken by an individual (parole).C. these 18 books are an adaptation of Dionysius' work. The high roman classes send their children to Greece to study. The analogy/anomaly controversy was also present among the Romans (Cesar wrote a tratado). 16 of these deal with morphology.«). and this is a key moment in the history of Linguistics.). He did the most complete description of Latin language of that period (³Institutiones Grammaticae´. He wrote a Latin grammar as a consequence of analogy/anomaly controversy. II and I B. Latin had no words yet to describe language matters (noun. In Rome. In these general aspects they were similar. -Syndesmos: coni-unctio( syn-desmos) -Antonymia: pro-nomen (anto-nymia) . Maybe regularity is more present. nouns. The Greek grammar is an influence to the Latin grammar. Within the Romans there was a moment of classicism (probably the most important moment in Grammar Priscian . Priscian translated the Greek terms into Latin.«). there were other attempts. Therefore. respectively). not the language of their own days. This approach has the same consequences as the Alexandrians (the correct language is the written one and the idea this language was more correct than their own contemporary language). In The Middle Ages. grammar is a part of philosophy and literary criticism (as in Greece). the parts of speech can be transferred to Latin with no problem (verbs. c. The work itself: it has 18 books. The problem was that when that was transferred to English grammar. Priscian and Donatus wanted to describe the language of the best writer. He said that there were two types of language: the language in abstract (langue). but we want to deal with one of this because of the originality and similarity: Varro. From then on. the specialists will focus exclusively on the first 16 books (morphology). Donatus was another important person.

he changed it to the interjection). We call Middle Ages because it refers to the fact that is between two golden periods. He was very close to Dionysius in this description. The Church taught a more colloquial Latin. Latin was the official language of the Christian Church. The nouns are natural (he said he had chosen the name of that use because is more frequent than the other uses). accusative-to enemies. because they are pagan authors so their language is pagan too. less difficult. the universities. secondary). Linguistic study in the Early Middle Ages in the British Isles y General introduction to the period and the period's approach to language studies What are the Middle Ages? It's a period in the History of Europe and goes to the Fall of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance. vocative-to a second person. It is like an interval. The nominative is called like this because it came in first place. Priscian also said that the order of cases is natural (in noun declinations). They are not so dark in linguistic matters. the creation of a whole terminology from Greek to Latin. but there were many ups and downs. education. We will focus on the 1st half of the Middle Ages (The DARK AGES first period in the Middle Ages. The rise or fall depends on the knowledge or lack of knowledge of Latin.This is the main merit of Priscian's work. The fall of the Roman emperor happened in 476 BC. This work is a key work in the Middle Ages and it is also the most important work of scholarship in Roman culture. The examples he gave came from Cicero and Virgil (this is the difference from Dionysius' work). Later. However. EUROPE ENGLAND A key element in those ups and downs is the Latin language.« There is a connection between the name and the frequent use (nominative. dative-to friend. This image of darkness was destroyed little by little. . These names are still used today. Before the Middle Ages we have the Classical Antiquity. elitition through the monasteries and churches. a period of splendour in general and that is what makes the Middle Ages slightly less relevant culturally than the other 2 periods. the Middle Ages have a lot to offer in linguistics. After the Middle Ages we have the Renaissance. He described those 8 parts and their accidents (the formal accidents). Priscian also adopted the 8 parts of speech as Dionysius gave us. He made a little change (the article is excluded. V-XI Centuries) It is true that the fall of Rome made a decline in culture. The church will be the sponsor of Latin scholarship. The church adopted Latin. The kind of Latin is not classical Latin ( not like Cicero or Virgil).

This is another similarity to the Alexandrians. This is similar to what happened with the Alexandrians. Churches and monasteries were the places in where people learnt. Grammars books were grammars of Latin. norms and with rules about correct and incorrect uses. In the 7th century we have 7 different kingdoms with 7 different dialects of Old English + Celtic Native Speakers. We have 3 dialects. Latin is taught as a written language. For this reason they need Latin Manuals. but they become Christians little by little. the official form of Old English (west Saxon) It's the accepted form of Old English. It was a didactic (practical) and normative way of teaching Latin. a new literature. Speculative grammars will come in the 2nd half of the Middle Ages. The study of Latin is the basis of medieval education. In 597 Saint Agustine was send by the Pope to convert the Germanic tribes to the Christianity. This is a link with the classical antiquity. DIDACTIC doesn't mean speculative (abstract). The Germanic pushed the natives to the borders of the island( Welshmen: they all were called like this). Those Germanic tribes didn't have political unity. The dialect spoken in Wessex is the standard. a new culture. In the 8th century it is produced the Scandinavian Invasion. They invited the Germanic tribes to help them. and many books mow more available through Latin. These grammars are normative. It was introduced the Roman Alphabet. Language studies means Latin Studies. Most of those manuals will be based on Priscian and Donatus.It was also an instrument for secular transactions. In time the 7 kingdoms diminished in 3: Northumbria. A Normative grammar means a grammar with rules. y Linguistic study in the Early Middle Ages in England y The Linguistic situation in the island Great Britain was a Celtic speaking island. This teach you how to use Latin correctly. Those tribes arrived and take over the island in the middle of the 5th century. It is an instrument for the education. These Germanic Kingdoms were pagans since a Christian point of view. Not so many people can read or write in Latin. a new language. In the 9th century King Alfred complained about this very bad cultural situation. Didactic and normative grammars will be based on Priscian and Donatus' works. Mercia and Wessex. a foreign language . the native of the island had fights between themselves. English begin to write extensively. Latin was being developed in other places. The Christianism was very important for linguistics matters. These studies of Latin are the only studies of grammar and language in this period. Those Germanic kingdoms were isolated. The Christianity brigs together with it a new language. . The places of education disappear( churches an monasteries). Latin was studied for itself and it was necessary to learn another matters. Latin is now. text book to learn Latin. The practical use of language is what they studied. A blossoming in learning was produced. They handle texts and learn it from them. Then colonised by the Romans (43-410 BC) They were 400 years. for those people. so Germanic people had to learn Latin. The Romans had left England. The Romans left and the British. There is a decline of learning because of the Scandinavian invasion. Latin and conveys a new civilisation.

no place of origin written on them. that is a cultural and religious reform at the same time. Children learn spelling and pronunciation of Latin words. It will help Alfred in different ways. specially in foreign countries. It was the language of the Christian religion. You only learn in Latin. Those grammars were written for and to native speakers of Latin. We do not have bibliography. After this period. the religious services in Latin« Latin was imposed. Aelfric began to work under King Alfred's idea of translation. This reform was improved in learning and teaching Latin in the island. Latin was the language of scholarship. We know all these manuscripts were the product of the policy of the Church. Also commerce and administration were held in Latin. All that influenced cultural education. We know very little about it. Most of them are anonymous. Scandinavian. They learn the inflections. We have to wait until the 14th century to say that there is a National Language in England. There were a lot of languages (Old English. The few texts that exist are very difficult even for specialists. Those very few available texts have been studied by scholars who were not linguistics (historians of education). also Law. Usually this period have been considered a dark period. y Language study in the island: The Insular Grammar This is the study of Latin grammar. How did they teach Latin at school? They began to study grammar in the school. He promotes a massive work of translation. LATIN WAS AN INSTRUMENT OF EDUCATION. The sacred texts were written in Latin. All the important texts in their own language. Religious moment started: THE BENEDICTINE REFORM. let's make those texts available with a translation into English. The problem is that there are not a lot of sources(manuscripts). The highest stage was the study of etymology of words /philology/. It was spoken in all around Europe. Philosophical matters. It was a moment of revival of knowledge. If people can't read Latin. One more problem is that those manuscripts have characteristics that made them difficult. not only the religious matters. Nowadays we know very few of this period. The importance is enormous. Then they learn to comment literary texts in Latin. to promote culture in the island. That is the organisation of the study of Latin in different levels. He was a translator.Priscian and Donatus were the most studied. declensions and lists of vocabulary. They were written in Latin. they did read those manuscripts. In a more advanced level they were taught how to write texts. It was the language of knowledge. Those subjects were taught in Latin. Science. Another reason.King Alfred translated into English Cura Pastoralis and in the preface he complained about this situation: the lack of knowledge of Latin. . Why is Latin taught? Latin was taught because it was taught in every Christian region. What instruments did they have to teach? The teachers had the grammars of the Roman Antiquity(4-5th century). we have not very much. they have no name. Latin was an international language. Paleographs studied the way in they wrote. Normand«). With the Norman invasion started the 2nd period of the Middle Ages. Latin was basic to live. no date. Danish were rolling England and they brought their languages. in the 11th century we have a decline.

2. In this grammars is contained information about literary texts. They are characterised by giving many lists of inflections. or nouns and verbs. They were made for a specific audience with specific means. It is based on Priscian and Donatus.3«parts of speech. that they use as grammatical examples (Cicero. Virgil). They also offers something new that makes them interesting. The result of this is that the English began to write and compiled their own Latin Grammars. . but not with all of them. The grammars of Priscian and Donatus were no suitable for them. to England.We know that English people don't know how to speak Latin as native people. and they were called: Schulgrammatik Regulae The 1st type of grammar. mythological and historical explanations. They don't appear in anywhere else. The most important schulgrammatik example we know is Priscian. schulgrammatik is systematic (complete and with an order). « those things were not interested in this information( a los ingleses). The insular grammars can be divided in 2 types: The Elementary Grammar The Exegetical Grammar These are the two main grammars. They needed to learn English in a practical way. We use both of these models to produce their own type of grammar. It treated the 8 parts of speech. The Latin speaker who use those 2 types of grammar was looking for information on them which was not relevant for the new Latin speakers (English People) . They deal with 1. The Regulae is less systematic. _ They are brief _ They are systematic expositions _ Morphology is the most important thing. y Insular Grammars Many of the grammars the English compiled are similar to the classical models because they assumed the explanations and theories about the parts of speech. The elementary grammars are specifically English. It tries to be comprehensive. y Grammatical models They used two types of classical grammars. They appear in England in the 7th century (the children of classical grammars). These are reference works. They focus on the nouns.

Before he was a missionary he wrote a Latin Grammar. As a missionary he first went to Holland and then to Germany. He's also relevant because he wrote a Latin grammar in English(Old English). In general we know very few of all the authors. All of these in England. because the level of Latin was higher to produce a less corrupted versions of the Bible. Still we know enough to say they were very important not only in England also in the continent. They're based on the formal aspects. We know he was the missionary who brought Christianity to Germany from England. Priscian and Donatus. C. For us he is interesting for other reasons. The reason is the difficulty of the manuscripts. less corrupted. He was born in England in 675._ Paradigms give all the possible declensions and conjugations _ They see Latin as a pattern. He is interesting because of his role in the consolidation on medieval grammatical ideas. While he worked as a teacher he wrote a Latin grammar with his students who were also studying to be monks. Then he became a priest and decided to leave England. y An Early medieval grammarian talks about grammar: Winfreth. As a child he went to a school monastery and then he went to another one with a higher level and there he became a teacher. y English Grammarians at Works We know very little about English Grammarians of this period. The exegetical grammars are less important. It is usual to find texts explaining the Bible. His name is Winfreth but he received the name Boniface from the Pope (8th-c719). He went to see the Pope several .Boniface and the Praefatio ad Sigibertum He's remembered as the man who Christianised what we call Germany today. Boniface is one of them. In the 9th century the elementary grammar died because in the 9th-10th century there was a return to the classical grammars. They are commentaries on the classical grammars. They try to explain the classical texts(classical grammars) to help teachers and students to understand difficult classical texts. Aelfric is another grammarian ( ð 1010). in the South. But we know many things about Wynfreth Boniface(we know about him and his works. 675-745). They are a type of text similar to the Bible commentary. They wanted to do better versions of the Bible. In that grammar he includes a preface in the form of a letter where he tell us his methods to write the grammar. They were also successful in the continent. it takes place in the Carolingian Renaissance(9th and so on centuries) and from the Carolingian Empire it goes back to England. They went back to Priscian's. _ They were successful for some centuries. These two types of grammars were introduced in the continent by missionaries( from England to the rest of Europe).

but we can guess that date. We also know he wrote many letters when he was in Germany. Boniface and the Pope did not understand each other speaking Latin.times for religious matters. criticised or not«. the Latin irregularities. his works. Boniface's Latin was more classical than Latin spoken in Rome. He summarises. Boniface insist more than his contemporaries in the anomalies. This Benedictine Rule was consolidated with the Carolingian Empire. There is an anecdote about Latin in Europe. Then Boniface wrote down he wanted to say to the Pope. . We have those letters and they give us many information about him. he follows the words of the sources. not Boniface yet. about the situation of that time. In 722 he had close meetings with the Pope. What authority did he feel writing a grammar of Latin being an English native speaker? Why did he feel the need to write a grammar since there were many grammatics available in that time? What type of people is he writing for? Which audience has Boniface in mind? (age. The Ars Bonifacii is an elementary grammar ( it deals with the 8 parts of speech. It was written before 719(but not much earlier). The grammar has a preface which is important. y The Preface ISSUES OF AUTHORITY Boniface was a non native Latin speaker writing a grammar of Latin. in this case Winfreth). Roman and English Latin pronunciation were different. Pope's Latin was more vulgar. It's different because he uses sources( grammatical sources) that other contemporary grammarians did not use. The name isPraefatio ad Sigibertum . many paradigms. religion. for beginners«). knowledge«) How did he treat the classical grammars to do his own? He's respectful. It is a letter. In the grammar there is an acrostic poem (where the first letters of each line form a word. It's remarkable. We know his name is Winfreth. This grammar was very influential. Books that he had read. y The Ars Bonifacii We do not know when he wrote it. He follows VERBATIM(al pie de la letra). In the 9th century this grammar will be not used anymore. In England and outside of England. He did not feel very sure of what he was doing. We have 3 manuscripts containing this grammar. The irregularities of that language. His name now is Winfreth. It is an exposition of his methodology of writing the grammar. etc. but it is also different from other elementary grammars. With Boniface began the Benedictine Rule. that anted to read« Many of those letters that received were written by lady friends of him. It is typical of this time.

In the Middle Ages the more contemporary the worst. no page number. Boniface is speaker of Latin. He really feels not adecuated to do it. closer in time (Isidore of Seville). These works are less important than the older ones. Why did he want to put them together? He wants to do it for the special difficulty to read characteristics of Medieval manuscripts. He wanted to select and write those selections to put it in one work. He will give us all the information in the text. with the classification of conjunctions. he says that grammarians should know how many parts the speech must have. no divisions « to help us to find information quickly. pronouns«. Why does he do it? The ones he omit are more contemporary. He did it because they have wrote authority. originally. . but he didn't use all of them. Transfer the authority to other people. so he has lack of Latin confidence. How does he treat his sources? Sometimes he find that his sources do not agree in certain topics. no title.8«. He used the other people's works but he did not mention. The solution is to transfer the authority.( that's what Boniface wanted to do). Boniface in grammar feels embarrassed because of it.more«depending on the grammarians). Donatus and Priscian). He uses all those sources simultaneously jumping one to the other even within the sentence. He wanted to do something new. He is going to give us something new. modesty«) they use it as an stylistic resource. He will work with 121 or more sources. Another reason is that novelty. They don't have index. Boniface choose one of these positions. That kind of attitude is common in the medieval authors (humility. He mentions people from the classical period that he did not use. It happens with the number of parts of speech.Is it a grammar for beginners or not? Winfreth. Both things come together. This attitude is because he did not want transferring the embarrassment to the sources. The reason for all these must be found in his personal situation. The influences are the classical grammarians (late Roman period 4th -5th Century. in that time. He mentioned a lot of people. The idea of authority: in general Boniface shows he needs to use other people's works to stick closely.Boniface There was no need of writing a grammar because there were many of them. he wanted to gather all the existent grammars together. is something dangerous. When we read the text he talks about he is not the best person to make a grammar of Latin. Grammarians do not agree in the number of parts of speech ( 2«. grammatical authority. Definitions and examples are taken from these sources.

And this is the audience Boniface is writing for. Ecclesiastical writers final authority. He changes the obscure words in the passages. Some of the changes he did affects the terminology of the sources. Basically made of monks and nuns. and explains it. Being written in Latin is not one of those evidences. The authority is the religious text. According to him there is a different kind of written Latin in the Bible and the Latin of grammarians. The Bible is the correct. They did not have direct contact with Latin speakers. He took separated words( dogma. Most of them don't literate in their own language. This compensate the lack of native speakers of Latin. If one passage is not well written he do it well. In the preface there are some reasons of this. The goal of grammar: it's very clear in the text and is to improve people's understanding of religious texts. rosae) 2nd type of declination or declension opposed to another.rincondelvago. What kind of readers does he have in mind? His audience is Old English speakers.html . They didn't understand most of it was said. His sources use the term declinatio with two meanings: 1st inflexion of the word (rosa. However there are some evidences to think his audience is not total beginners. But they have the need to learn Latin.com/the-development-of-language-study-in-the-west. They were Christians and they attended religious services and those were held in Latin . but it started to be familiar to them. The authority is not of ancient grammarians. In this period it is common to see examples from religious texts. genesis. they were listening Latin in churches. apocalypse«) http://html. But Boniface did not take passages from religious texts.He clarifies difficult passages that find in the grammars. The final word of grammarians is the religious text.

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