"Traditional Grammar" term is applied to summarize the range of methods found in the prelinguistic era of grammatical study.

The whole approach of this method emphasizes on correctness, linguistic purism, literary excellence, the priority of the written mode of language and the use of Latin models. The very beginning of the twentieth century was typically marked by a new approach to grammar as suggested by linguists such as Ferdinand de Saussure and American linguist like Frantz Boas, Bloomfield and Edward Sapir. Their approach is called structuralism whose aim was to arouse a reaction against the approach of the traditional grammarians. Traditional grammarians considered Latin as their model because English is a part of the Indo-European family of languages, and to which Latin and Greek also belong. It did have similar grammatical elements. If you study the form of traditional grammar, the rules of classical languages were followed considering that English did not have grammar of its own. And English followed Latin grammar. Besides the parts of speech, traditional grammatical analysis also makes use of numerous other categories, just like 'number', 'gender', 'person', 'tense' and 'voice'. For example, gender was not natural. It was grammatical in traditional grammar. As you see here "The man loves his bike". Gender, in this example, is used for describing the agreement between 'man' and 'his'. In English, you need to describe this relationship in terms of natural gender based upon a biological distinction between male and female. Such biological distinction is different compared to the common distinction found in languages which employ grammatical gender. Traditional grammar has some limitations as it occurs with some static verbs that do not occur in a progressive form, for instance "I am knowing" or in the imperative mood like "Know!" Traditional grammar sometimes fails to account for certain things like ambiguous sentences just like "While thinking about the queen the Honda hit the fence". Rakesh Patel has taught English literature for five years and now writes on education, literature and spirituality. For free guideline on English literature, feel free to visit http://englishliterature99.wordpress.com

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And English followed Latin grammar. is used for describing the agreement between 'man' and 'his'. in this example.com/p/tradictional-grammar. Besides the parts of speech. and to which Latin and Greek also belong. we can define traditional grammar as The collection of prescriptive rules and concepts about the structure of language that is commonly taught in schools. Their approach is called structuralism whose aim was to arouse a reaction against the approach of the traditional grammarians. the priority of the written mode of language and the use of Latin models. for instance "I am knowing" or in the imperative mood like "Know!" Traditional grammar sometimes fails to account for certain things like ambiguous sentences just like "While thinking about the queen the Honda hit the fence". The chief goal of traditional grammar. traditional grammatical analysis also makes use of numerous other categories. gender was not natural. literary excellence.Rakesh Patel (2009) says that the Traditional Grammar term is applied to summarize the range of methods found in the pre-linguistic era of grammatical study. just like 'number'. and we say that traditional grammar is prescriptive because it focuses on the distinction between what some people do with language and what they ought to do with it. The very beginning of the twentieth century was typically marked by a new approach to grammar as suggested by linguists such as Ferdinand de Saussure and American linguist like Frantz Boas. In English. For example. Bloomfield and Edward Sapir. 'person'. therefore. according to a pre-established standard. you need to describe this relationship in terms of natural gender based upon a biological distinction between male and female. in conclusion.blogspot. If you study the form of traditional grammar. Such biological distinction is different compared to the common distinction found in languages which employ grammatical gender. Traditional grammarians considered Latin as their model because English is a part of the Indo-European family of languages. is perpetuating a historical model of what supposedly constitutes proper language. linguistic purism.html he development of language study in the West: Classical Antiquity . 'tense' and 'voice'. As you see here "The man loves his bike". http://ezinearticles. the rules of classical languages were followed considering that English did not have grammar of its own." http://traditionalandpedagogicalgrammar. Gender. 'gender'. Traditional grammar has some limitations as it occurs with some static verbs that do not occur in a progressive form. It was grammatical in traditional grammar.com/?Traditional-Grammar---Studying-the-Approach-of-TraditionalGrammarians&id=1765312 So. It did have similar grammatical elements. The whole approach of this method emphasizes on correctness.

and you can choose analogy or anomaly). Traditional Grammar is synonymous of Latin and Greek. If language was natural meant that the origin is outside the man himself. mood. We have to distinguish several stages in traditional grammar. Dionysius Thrax belongs to this group. In the 20th Century the structuralism begins and it is different from traditional grammar. Something like an agreement between men. Consolidation : it was stablished itself. aspect«). verb. It takes an order in the tradition. but in the West. We talk about Romans and Greeks because all the languages come from these people. All the terminology. This terminology is what we call TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR . Priscian is the most important figure. Medieval Grammarians Renaissance Grammarians traditional grammar was definitely stablished. They are phylosophical concepts. adjective. Priscian 6th AD. Alexandrians. The Ancient Greeks There are two dichotomies: Nature and convention Analogy and anomaly These dichotomies referred to positions (you can choose nature or convention. Stoics. The ideas are the same ( subject. Everything began with the GREEKS. Traditional grammar has last since Greeks until nowadays.Introduction Classical Antiquity ( Romans and Greeks). These periods affected Greek and Latin. It could change. There are five: The very beginning ( up to Aristotle) 4th Century BC Systematisation of the tradition. concepts« that we use today were created by the Greeks. He will influence the scholars in England. . ( 2nd Century BC) . If language was conventional meant that is a custom. * Nature/ convention The Greeks discuss whether the language was natural or conventional.

This controversy discuss whether the language is regular or not. For Naturalists there are a few ways to prove the connection. Those which defend that language is conventional are the conventionalists. . that is to find the origin of the words. Analogy synonymous with regularity. Regular there are a set of patterns. they try to justify with this. When they discuss onomatopoeia also began the etymology. In some words we have one sound or two that is imitative. the rest of the words that cannot be explains with the other groups. Liquid flush flow water R expresses movement.symbols This refers to words that only are imitative in part. Anomaly synonymous with irregularity. It remains the body's neck) Conventionalists say that these things haven't got a natural connection. This dispute will last for centuries. (CAREW) * Analogy/ Anomaly This analogy/ anomaly dichotomy is a consequence of the nature convention of the controversy. Irregular there are many exceptions to those patterns. Ex: Metaphor : the neck of a bottle ( natural connection.This distinction affects mainly to the relationship between the form of a word and the meaning of that word.. to crash. There are three: y Onomatopoeia: this group of words is the favourite of the naturalists because you can see clearly the connection. These words imitate the sound that you referred to. in English: to hoot( claxon) . b) Sound. models which are repeated in language. and when you listen to that sound it reminds you a word. etc. There is the Principles of etymology . Run There are many words that don't fit in this two groups. The product of this dichotomy will be the development of scientist etymology. Those which defend that language is natural are the naturalists. not in their whole. ANALOGY: The ones that defend analogy defend that language is regular. For example.

One consequence of this controversy ( polémica ) is that this will help to the systematisation of grammar. * Greek Grammar: the beginning of the tradition 5th . First steps to the creation of the terminology of the tradition of grammar. irregular. such as child = children. Ex: row Homonymy: have one form and more than one meaning. Anomalysts say that the presence of irregularity demonstrate there is a natural thing ( the language). they pointed out that there are a lot of examples of irregularities. They contribute in the grammar. as c is to d) boy: boys = cow: cows Boy: boys = cow: x x = cows They also established semantic equations. girl/ girls. Those patterns are known as PARADIGMS ( declensions. place. This is anomalous.4th BC.Ex: The final -s to make the plural(regular): boy/ boys. ox = oxen. They said the relationship between the form and the meaning of the word is anomalous. They admit that there are regularities ( the anomalysts) . (justa o no) They teach how to win in debates. conjugations. not only formal. They were criticised because they taught how to defend a cause. It's such a regular thing. . It's conventional. law«) This is another irregularity. For analogysts language is the product of convention. moral or not. Ex: bar (chocolate.) They used formulas as in mathematics to set up the patters: A:B= C:B( a is to b. For example Athens is a plural noun referring to a singular entity. This is a link between the two parts.) (18th Century In English. THE SOPHISTS They were teachers.. Ex: father: child = dog : X x = puppy For the analogyst the Greek language was full of this patterns. we will see it in the future. cow/ cows This is one of the patterns that shows the regularity of the language. The language is irregular. But their main emphasis is the semantic irregularities. Synonymous: have two or more forms for one meaning. The language is irregular. Child/ children anomaly. The analogyst's work is to establish the patterns in Greek to English.

But Plato did not call it adjective. affirmative. There were correspondences between the actions and the tenses. . The stoics think that good conduct means to live in good harmony with nature. He distinguished sentence types. but he added syndesmoi . * Greek Grammar: 1st systematisation of the tradition. nominal name Rhema can mean verb. The stoics are naturalists and therefore anomalysts. They are linking words. Knowledge consists of ideas that agree with nature. Aristotle realised that there were more than one tense in the verbs: past actions. This is a 3rd class. Aristotle is a conventionalist. Logic includes grammar to the stoics. Onoma can mean subject. interrogative. present actions. Category of time. The meaning of a word is a convention. ARISTOTLE He'll keep the distinction of nouns and verbs. They were the main contribution to the grammar PLATO Plato's main contribution was the distinction between verbs and nouns. Aristotle includes in syndesmoi all the words that are not nouns neither verbs. predicate. According to him the relation between onoma and rhema and their meanings is a product of convention.«. Plato is a conventionalist. They studied language in their study of logic. Onoma noun Rhema verb Onoma and rhema are the constituents of the logos ( sentence). an analogyst.II BC THE STOICS It's the school of philosophy that paid more attention to the language. Language is part of knowledge. and things. For him meaning is conventional. and stoics defended it. Words are symbols created by men. They are the conjunctions. feminine. III. Rhema includes verbs and also adjectives.PROTAGORAS distinguished the three genders in Greek : masculine. Language has many irregularities. negative.

But they also add more parts to the parts of the speech(verb.C. Its beginning was Aristotle's personal book collection. They write grammars with both types of texts (classical and ³modern´) to preserve Greek from corruption and also. They find many different versions of the manuscripts that contained those poems. What they did was to look for the original forms with natural connection. This connection is not evident today. Alexandria and Pergamon were two cities that took the place of Athens in political and cultural aspects. and the grammar explanation of those texts. The original Greek was very different from the one they used in their time. they had to make the commentaries. They wanted to find the original version. This gave the chance to the people to read those texts.In the origin of language there was a natural connection between words and things. the one written by Homer. They decided to do this because they thought that the original/classic Greek was more correct than their own Greek (they thought that this one was corrupted). noun. They couldn't understand the original texts. etc ) and they add the ARTICLE. The concept of case is a part of the inflexion. But the most important: Etymology. to explain the original Greek (classical authors). One more concept is the concept of inflexion which is the declensions and conjugations. They studied the manuscripts that included ³The Iliad´ and ³The Odyssey´(S. The city became the centre of literary and linguistic research. The distinction between the active and passive voice. especially those of Homer. The Alexandrians: They were a group of philosophers that lived and worked in Alexandria. And also the distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs. Alexandria is well known because of its library.). but they were written in different types of Greek. It's the study of ETYMOLOGY The beginning of the science of etymology is their main contribution. These two purposes are important because they are the two main purposes of all the grammaticians of today. In this period. two key works in the world history were produced in Alexandria: -Euclid Elements -Grammar of Dionysius Thrax The study of language: the Alexandrians approached this study through literary texts. Once they had the original version.V B. .

The result of these efforts is: the Greek grammar will be definitely codify or systematize. These parts will be analysed by using the case. It has 6 parts. S. ³Technè Grammatikè´= Art of Grammar. conditionals. His method had two steps: phonology and morphology (no syntax). time. and it deals with syllables and words. There are seven types of conjunctions: copulatives. discover analogies..C. Dionysius contributed with four more parts of speech to the list of four of the stoics: adverbs. The verb is the part without case inflection. the mood. They will give this regularity of Greek in a list in form of declinations and conjugations (paradigm). Nouns have five accidents. which has case inflection. This idea of purity.This approach brings two consequences: y The interest of linguistics will be the written language.II B. They were analogists. are three of this six parts. Deal with the language of the previous era is something that Dionysius thought was important. The accidents of the verbs are: number.«These used to be the names of the sentences.« This has become the standard way of analysing words. finals. study critically the compositions of poets. the number. participle. Dionysius (S. conjugation.). This is the Greek Grammar. causals. They are defined because of their accidents. The noun is the part of speech. tense.C. voice. The study of language will give us the first description of language.ROMAN ADAPTATION OF GREEK GRAMMAR: the tradition consolidated.«of written language is the most important thing in S. it's the study of the name of the Greeks letters and their different phonetic values (this is phonology). discover language etymologies. the voice. person. This four plus the other four is the standard now. Syntax is relevant because the most part of the grammars hadn't deal with it until Chomsky's work. and they will ignore spoken language as a subject of investigation. whereas the spoken language is seen as a corruption of written language.XVIII in England (See in previous lessons. They were obsessed with the regularity. pronoun and preposition). mood. In phonology we don't get any phonetic study. Henry Sweet). It's the first complete and systematic grammar in the West. and he studied his own Greek with the application of the classical Greek. kind and type. Grammar (Dionysius): ³is the technical knowledge of the language employed by poets and writers´.I B. 2. All these are applied to classical Greek. . Morphology is the main body of his work. the one that is considered as the real Greek Grammar until our days. the gender. y This is focused on written language as a more correct version of the language. corruption.

The high roman classes send their children to Greece to study. grammar is a part of philosophy and literary criticism (as in Greece). The Greek grammar is an influence to the Latin grammar. The work itself: it has 18 books. the last 2 deal briefly with syntax. but not one of these only). Maybe regularity is more present. All the accidents were easy to put into Latin. the people thought that these categories were universal. and this is a key moment in the history of Linguistics. Before that. not the language of their own days. Priscian is the key moment in classical grammar.It's almost a repetition of Dionysius work (³Techné grammatiké´). especially in the field of terminology. In these general aspects they were similar. Therefore.«).S.D. literature. Latin had no words yet to describe language matters (noun. Priscian translated the Greek terms into Latin. Varro also anticipated the distinction between langue/parole (Saussure). They wanted to describe the classical language (Cicero and Virgil. His opinion was that both extremes were wrong (there is regularity and irregularity. respectively). nouns.VI A. He wrote a Latin grammar as a consequence of analogy/anomaly controversy. Latin will have a very suitable terminology. -Syndesmos: coni-unctio( syn-desmos) -Antonymia: pro-nomen (anto-nymia) . Donatus was another important person. From then on.). there were other attempts. 500 A.D.Roman culture was influenced by Greek culture (art.). the parts of speech can be transferred to Latin with no problem (verbs. the same as in specific aspects. verb. The problem was that when that was transferred to English grammar. these 18 books are an adaptation of Dionysius' work. In The Middle Ages. and the language that it's spoken by an individual (parole). 16 of these deal with morphology. c. In Rome.«). Examples: onoma>the Greek name for noun / nomen>the Latin word (translation of onoma). The analogy/anomaly controversy was also present among the Romans (Cesar wrote a tratado). He said that there were two types of language: the language in abstract (langue).«).C. He did the most complete description of Latin language of that period (³Institutiones Grammaticae´. but we want to deal with one of this because of the originality and similarity: Varro. II and I B. This approach has the same consequences as the Alexandrians (the correct language is the written one and the idea this language was more correct than their own contemporary language). Priscian and Donatus wanted to describe the language of the best writer. This was possible because Latin and Greek were similar (from the structural point of view). The Latin grammar repeated the organization that Dionysius said in his grammar. On the whole. the specialists will focus exclusively on the first 16 books (morphology). Within the Romans there was a moment of classicism (probably the most important moment in Grammar Priscian . He is the perfect example of taking over Greek grammar into Latin grammar. Varro is a contemporary of Dionysius. S.

The kind of Latin is not classical Latin ( not like Cicero or Virgil). However. the universities. . They are not so dark in linguistic matters. Before the Middle Ages we have the Classical Antiquity. The nominative is called like this because it came in first place. The examples he gave came from Cicero and Virgil (this is the difference from Dionysius' work). vocative-to a second person. This work is a key work in the Middle Ages and it is also the most important work of scholarship in Roman culture. accusative-to enemies. Later. less difficult. V-XI Centuries) It is true that the fall of Rome made a decline in culture. He was very close to Dionysius in this description. Linguistic study in the Early Middle Ages in the British Isles y General introduction to the period and the period's approach to language studies What are the Middle Ages? It's a period in the History of Europe and goes to the Fall of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance. The church adopted Latin. These names are still used today. secondary). the Middle Ages have a lot to offer in linguistics. EUROPE ENGLAND A key element in those ups and downs is the Latin language.« There is a connection between the name and the frequent use (nominative. Latin was the official language of the Christian Church. he changed it to the interjection). The church will be the sponsor of Latin scholarship. Priscian also said that the order of cases is natural (in noun declinations). because they are pagan authors so their language is pagan too. We call Middle Ages because it refers to the fact that is between two golden periods. It is like an interval. The fall of the Roman emperor happened in 476 BC. education. The rise or fall depends on the knowledge or lack of knowledge of Latin. but there were many ups and downs. We will focus on the 1st half of the Middle Ages (The DARK AGES first period in the Middle Ages. The Church taught a more colloquial Latin. After the Middle Ages we have the Renaissance. a period of splendour in general and that is what makes the Middle Ages slightly less relevant culturally than the other 2 periods. He made a little change (the article is excluded. elitition through the monasteries and churches. This image of darkness was destroyed little by little. Priscian also adopted the 8 parts of speech as Dionysius gave us. He described those 8 parts and their accidents (the formal accidents).This is the main merit of Priscian's work. The nouns are natural (he said he had chosen the name of that use because is more frequent than the other uses). dative-to friend. the creation of a whole terminology from Greek to Latin.

and many books mow more available through Latin. In time the 7 kingdoms diminished in 3: Northumbria. Language studies means Latin Studies. This is another similarity to the Alexandrians. The Germanic pushed the natives to the borders of the island( Welshmen: they all were called like this). A blossoming in learning was produced. Then colonised by the Romans (43-410 BC) They were 400 years. so Germanic people had to learn Latin. The Christianism was very important for linguistics matters. We have 3 dialects. norms and with rules about correct and incorrect uses.It was also an instrument for secular transactions. Churches and monasteries were the places in where people learnt. There is a decline of learning because of the Scandinavian invasion. The dialect spoken in Wessex is the standard. For this reason they need Latin Manuals. The study of Latin is the basis of medieval education. Most of those manuals will be based on Priscian and Donatus. for those people. a new literature. DIDACTIC doesn't mean speculative (abstract). English begin to write extensively. These studies of Latin are the only studies of grammar and language in this period. Latin is now. This is a link with the classical antiquity. Didactic and normative grammars will be based on Priscian and Donatus' works. Those Germanic tribes didn't have political unity. A Normative grammar means a grammar with rules. y Linguistic study in the Early Middle Ages in England y The Linguistic situation in the island Great Britain was a Celtic speaking island. . These grammars are normative. a new culture. In the 9th century King Alfred complained about this very bad cultural situation. Those tribes arrived and take over the island in the middle of the 5th century. The Romans left and the British. a foreign language . Not so many people can read or write in Latin. This teach you how to use Latin correctly. Mercia and Wessex. It was a didactic (practical) and normative way of teaching Latin. Latin was studied for itself and it was necessary to learn another matters. Those Germanic kingdoms were isolated. Speculative grammars will come in the 2nd half of the Middle Ages. Grammars books were grammars of Latin. The Romans had left England. Latin was being developed in other places. It was introduced the Roman Alphabet. The places of education disappear( churches an monasteries). the official form of Old English (west Saxon) It's the accepted form of Old English. In the 7th century we have 7 different kingdoms with 7 different dialects of Old English + Celtic Native Speakers. It is an instrument for the education. Latin and conveys a new civilisation. The practical use of language is what they studied. but they become Christians little by little. a new language. the native of the island had fights between themselves. The Christianity brigs together with it a new language. They handle texts and learn it from them. text book to learn Latin. Latin is taught as a written language. This is similar to what happened with the Alexandrians. In 597 Saint Agustine was send by the Pope to convert the Germanic tribes to the Christianity. They invited the Germanic tribes to help them. These Germanic Kingdoms were pagans since a Christian point of view. In the 8th century it is produced the Scandinavian Invasion.

let's make those texts available with a translation into English. We know very little about it. Latin was an international language. The importance is enormous. y Language study in the island: The Insular Grammar This is the study of Latin grammar. no place of origin written on them. Normand«). There were a lot of languages (Old English. It was a moment of revival of knowledge. Aelfric began to work under King Alfred's idea of translation. Religious moment started: THE BENEDICTINE REFORM. This reform was improved in learning and teaching Latin in the island. Paleographs studied the way in they wrote. also Law. Those grammars were written for and to native speakers of Latin. we have not very much. they have no name. Usually this period have been considered a dark period. Children learn spelling and pronunciation of Latin words. In a more advanced level they were taught how to write texts. Then they learn to comment literary texts in Latin. Those very few available texts have been studied by scholars who were not linguistics (historians of education). Also commerce and administration were held in Latin. Science. All the important texts in their own language.King Alfred translated into English Cura Pastoralis and in the preface he complained about this situation: the lack of knowledge of Latin. It was spoken in all around Europe. Nowadays we know very few of this period. that is a cultural and religious reform at the same time. The highest stage was the study of etymology of words /philology/. They were written in Latin. How did they teach Latin at school? They began to study grammar in the school. One more problem is that those manuscripts have characteristics that made them difficult. If people can't read Latin. Philosophical matters. We know all these manuscripts were the product of the policy of the Church. Danish were rolling England and they brought their languages. It will help Alfred in different ways. What instruments did they have to teach? The teachers had the grammars of the Roman Antiquity(4-5th century). We have to wait until the 14th century to say that there is a National Language in England. Most of them are anonymous. With the Norman invasion started the 2nd period of the Middle Ages. That is the organisation of the study of Latin in different levels. LATIN WAS AN INSTRUMENT OF EDUCATION. Scandinavian. It was the language of knowledge. They learn the inflections. they did read those manuscripts. You only learn in Latin. the religious services in Latin« Latin was imposed. declensions and lists of vocabulary. no date. Latin was the language of scholarship. After this period. . It was the language of the Christian religion. Why is Latin taught? Latin was taught because it was taught in every Christian region. specially in foreign countries. Those subjects were taught in Latin. He was a translator. All that influenced cultural education. in the 11th century we have a decline. Latin was basic to live. to promote culture in the island. He promotes a massive work of translation. The sacred texts were written in Latin. not only the religious matters.Priscian and Donatus were the most studied. The few texts that exist are very difficult even for specialists. The problem is that there are not a lot of sources(manuscripts). We do not have bibliography. Another reason.

but not with all of them. We use both of these models to produce their own type of grammar. It treated the 8 parts of speech. The result of this is that the English began to write and compiled their own Latin Grammars. It is based on Priscian and Donatus. schulgrammatik is systematic (complete and with an order). mythological and historical explanations. « those things were not interested in this information( a los ingleses). Virgil). The Latin speaker who use those 2 types of grammar was looking for information on them which was not relevant for the new Latin speakers (English People) . The grammars of Priscian and Donatus were no suitable for them. The insular grammars can be divided in 2 types: The Elementary Grammar The Exegetical Grammar These are the two main grammars. They focus on the nouns. The most important schulgrammatik example we know is Priscian. . They were made for a specific audience with specific means. to England. They needed to learn English in a practical way. y Insular Grammars Many of the grammars the English compiled are similar to the classical models because they assumed the explanations and theories about the parts of speech. They deal with 1.We know that English people don't know how to speak Latin as native people. y Grammatical models They used two types of classical grammars. They also offers something new that makes them interesting. The elementary grammars are specifically English. In this grammars is contained information about literary texts. These are reference works. The Regulae is less systematic. and they were called: Schulgrammatik Regulae The 1st type of grammar. or nouns and verbs. that they use as grammatical examples (Cicero. It tries to be comprehensive. _ They are brief _ They are systematic expositions _ Morphology is the most important thing. They are characterised by giving many lists of inflections. They don't appear in anywhere else. They appear in England in the 7th century (the children of classical grammars).2.3«parts of speech.

Boniface and the Praefatio ad Sigibertum He's remembered as the man who Christianised what we call Germany today. It is usual to find texts explaining the Bible. They try to explain the classical texts(classical grammars) to help teachers and students to understand difficult classical texts. They were also successful in the continent. Then he became a priest and decided to leave England. He is interesting because of his role in the consolidation on medieval grammatical ideas. 675-745). But we know many things about Wynfreth Boniface(we know about him and his works. He's also relevant because he wrote a Latin grammar in English(Old English). Still we know enough to say they were very important not only in England also in the continent. For us he is interesting for other reasons. in the South. He was born in England in 675. _ They were successful for some centuries. it takes place in the Carolingian Renaissance(9th and so on centuries) and from the Carolingian Empire it goes back to England. He went to see the Pope several . The reason is the difficulty of the manuscripts. The exegetical grammars are less important. They are commentaries on the classical grammars. In that grammar he includes a preface in the form of a letter where he tell us his methods to write the grammar. because the level of Latin was higher to produce a less corrupted versions of the Bible. Boniface is one of them. All of these in England. His name is Winfreth but he received the name Boniface from the Pope (8th-c719). These two types of grammars were introduced in the continent by missionaries( from England to the rest of Europe). y English Grammarians at Works We know very little about English Grammarians of this period. C. In the 9th century the elementary grammar died because in the 9th-10th century there was a return to the classical grammars. As a child he went to a school monastery and then he went to another one with a higher level and there he became a teacher. They wanted to do better versions of the Bible. Priscian and Donatus. They're based on the formal aspects. Before he was a missionary he wrote a Latin Grammar. We know he was the missionary who brought Christianity to Germany from England. y An Early medieval grammarian talks about grammar: Winfreth. They went back to Priscian's. As a missionary he first went to Holland and then to Germany. Aelfric is another grammarian ( ð 1010). less corrupted._ Paradigms give all the possible declensions and conjugations _ They see Latin as a pattern. In general we know very few of all the authors. While he worked as a teacher he wrote a Latin grammar with his students who were also studying to be monks. They are a type of text similar to the Bible commentary.

Then Boniface wrote down he wanted to say to the Pope. in this case Winfreth). We have 3 manuscripts containing this grammar. about the situation of that time. knowledge«) How did he treat the classical grammars to do his own? He's respectful. It is an exposition of his methodology of writing the grammar. He follows VERBATIM(al pie de la letra). The Ars Bonifacii is an elementary grammar ( it deals with the 8 parts of speech. Boniface insist more than his contemporaries in the anomalies. that anted to read« Many of those letters that received were written by lady friends of him. he follows the words of the sources. We know his name is Winfreth. for beginners«). his works. With Boniface began the Benedictine Rule. etc.times for religious matters. y The Ars Bonifacii We do not know when he wrote it. In 722 he had close meetings with the Pope. He did not feel very sure of what he was doing. We have those letters and they give us many information about him. What authority did he feel writing a grammar of Latin being an English native speaker? Why did he feel the need to write a grammar since there were many grammatics available in that time? What type of people is he writing for? Which audience has Boniface in mind? (age. It was written before 719(but not much earlier). Boniface and the Pope did not understand each other speaking Latin. The irregularities of that language. y The Preface ISSUES OF AUTHORITY Boniface was a non native Latin speaker writing a grammar of Latin. criticised or not«. The grammar has a preface which is important. In England and outside of England. Pope's Latin was more vulgar. This grammar was very influential. Books that he had read. The name isPraefatio ad Sigibertum . We also know he wrote many letters when he was in Germany. It is typical of this time. It is a letter. Boniface's Latin was more classical than Latin spoken in Rome. Roman and English Latin pronunciation were different. many paradigms. religion. but it is also different from other elementary grammars. There is an anecdote about Latin in Europe. . This Benedictine Rule was consolidated with the Carolingian Empire. It's remarkable. the Latin irregularities. but we can guess that date. He summarises. not Boniface yet. In the grammar there is an acrostic poem (where the first letters of each line form a word. It's different because he uses sources( grammatical sources) that other contemporary grammarians did not use. In the 9th century this grammar will be not used anymore. His name now is Winfreth.

He uses all those sources simultaneously jumping one to the other even within the sentence. originally. he says that grammarians should know how many parts the speech must have. in that time. grammatical authority. In the Middle Ages the more contemporary the worst. is something dangerous. He wanted to select and write those selections to put it in one work. The influences are the classical grammarians (late Roman period 4th -5th Century. Both things come together. so he has lack of Latin confidence.Boniface There was no need of writing a grammar because there were many of them. Boniface choose one of these positions. He mentions people from the classical period that he did not use. The reason for all these must be found in his personal situation. Why did he want to put them together? He wants to do it for the special difficulty to read characteristics of Medieval manuscripts. modesty«) they use it as an stylistic resource. He mentioned a lot of people. no page number.8«. pronouns«. Boniface is speaker of Latin. He is going to give us something new. Grammarians do not agree in the number of parts of speech ( 2«. He really feels not adecuated to do it. Boniface in grammar feels embarrassed because of it.more«depending on the grammarians). That kind of attitude is common in the medieval authors (humility. The idea of authority: in general Boniface shows he needs to use other people's works to stick closely. He wanted to do something new. He will work with 121 or more sources. Donatus and Priscian).( that's what Boniface wanted to do). How does he treat his sources? Sometimes he find that his sources do not agree in certain topics. Why does he do it? The ones he omit are more contemporary. He will give us all the information in the text. He did it because they have wrote authority. Another reason is that novelty. with the classification of conjunctions. He used the other people's works but he did not mention. It happens with the number of parts of speech. but he didn't use all of them. Transfer the authority to other people.Is it a grammar for beginners or not? Winfreth. These works are less important than the older ones. he wanted to gather all the existent grammars together. closer in time (Isidore of Seville). They don't have index. When we read the text he talks about he is not the best person to make a grammar of Latin. This attitude is because he did not want transferring the embarrassment to the sources. The solution is to transfer the authority. Definitions and examples are taken from these sources. no divisions « to help us to find information quickly. . no title.

The authority is not of ancient grammarians. In the preface there are some reasons of this. They were Christians and they attended religious services and those were held in Latin . If one passage is not well written he do it well. In this period it is common to see examples from religious texts.rincondelvago. The authority is the religious text. apocalypse«) http://html. genesis. What kind of readers does he have in mind? His audience is Old English speakers. And this is the audience Boniface is writing for. Basically made of monks and nuns. This compensate the lack of native speakers of Latin. He changes the obscure words in the passages. They did not have direct contact with Latin speakers. However there are some evidences to think his audience is not total beginners.He clarifies difficult passages that find in the grammars. But they have the need to learn Latin. His sources use the term declinatio with two meanings: 1st inflexion of the word (rosa. Some of the changes he did affects the terminology of the sources. The final word of grammarians is the religious text. Most of them don't literate in their own language. Ecclesiastical writers final authority. they were listening Latin in churches. According to him there is a different kind of written Latin in the Bible and the Latin of grammarians. Being written in Latin is not one of those evidences. The goal of grammar: it's very clear in the text and is to improve people's understanding of religious texts. They didn't understand most of it was said.html . but it started to be familiar to them. rosae) 2nd type of declination or declension opposed to another. and explains it. The Bible is the correct. But Boniface did not take passages from religious texts.com/the-development-of-language-study-in-the-west. He took separated words( dogma.

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