"Traditional Grammar" term is applied to summarize the range of methods found in the prelinguistic era of grammatical study.

The whole approach of this method emphasizes on correctness, linguistic purism, literary excellence, the priority of the written mode of language and the use of Latin models. The very beginning of the twentieth century was typically marked by a new approach to grammar as suggested by linguists such as Ferdinand de Saussure and American linguist like Frantz Boas, Bloomfield and Edward Sapir. Their approach is called structuralism whose aim was to arouse a reaction against the approach of the traditional grammarians. Traditional grammarians considered Latin as their model because English is a part of the Indo-European family of languages, and to which Latin and Greek also belong. It did have similar grammatical elements. If you study the form of traditional grammar, the rules of classical languages were followed considering that English did not have grammar of its own. And English followed Latin grammar. Besides the parts of speech, traditional grammatical analysis also makes use of numerous other categories, just like 'number', 'gender', 'person', 'tense' and 'voice'. For example, gender was not natural. It was grammatical in traditional grammar. As you see here "The man loves his bike". Gender, in this example, is used for describing the agreement between 'man' and 'his'. In English, you need to describe this relationship in terms of natural gender based upon a biological distinction between male and female. Such biological distinction is different compared to the common distinction found in languages which employ grammatical gender. Traditional grammar has some limitations as it occurs with some static verbs that do not occur in a progressive form, for instance "I am knowing" or in the imperative mood like "Know!" Traditional grammar sometimes fails to account for certain things like ambiguous sentences just like "While thinking about the queen the Honda hit the fence". Rakesh Patel has taught English literature for five years and now writes on education, literature and spirituality. For free guideline on English literature, feel free to visit http://englishliterature99.wordpress.com

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It was grammatical in traditional grammar.Rakesh Patel (2009) says that the Traditional Grammar term is applied to summarize the range of methods found in the pre-linguistic era of grammatical study. Traditional grammarians considered Latin as their model because English is a part of the Indo-European family of languages. If you study the form of traditional grammar. gender was not natural. It did have similar grammatical elements. The whole approach of this method emphasizes on correctness. 'person'. and we say that traditional grammar is prescriptive because it focuses on the distinction between what some people do with language and what they ought to do with it. As you see here "The man loves his bike". 'tense' and 'voice'. the priority of the written mode of language and the use of Latin models. The very beginning of the twentieth century was typically marked by a new approach to grammar as suggested by linguists such as Ferdinand de Saussure and American linguist like Frantz Boas. Such biological distinction is different compared to the common distinction found in languages which employ grammatical gender. is perpetuating a historical model of what supposedly constitutes proper language. Besides the parts of speech. The chief goal of traditional grammar. Their approach is called structuralism whose aim was to arouse a reaction against the approach of the traditional grammarians. and to which Latin and Greek also belong." http://traditionalandpedagogicalgrammar. in this example. 'gender'. just like 'number'. traditional grammatical analysis also makes use of numerous other categories. for instance "I am knowing" or in the imperative mood like "Know!" Traditional grammar sometimes fails to account for certain things like ambiguous sentences just like "While thinking about the queen the Honda hit the fence". http://ezinearticles. And English followed Latin grammar. For example. we can define traditional grammar as The collection of prescriptive rules and concepts about the structure of language that is commonly taught in schools.com/?Traditional-Grammar---Studying-the-Approach-of-TraditionalGrammarians&id=1765312 So. Gender. in conclusion. literary excellence. Traditional grammar has some limitations as it occurs with some static verbs that do not occur in a progressive form. is used for describing the agreement between 'man' and 'his'. Bloomfield and Edward Sapir. the rules of classical languages were followed considering that English did not have grammar of its own.blogspot.html he development of language study in the West: Classical Antiquity . you need to describe this relationship in terms of natural gender based upon a biological distinction between male and female. In English. linguistic purism.com/p/tradictional-grammar. therefore. according to a pre-established standard.

This terminology is what we call TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR . If language was conventional meant that is a custom. Priscian is the most important figure. Alexandrians. . He will influence the scholars in England. These periods affected Greek and Latin. adjective. Priscian 6th AD. Traditional Grammar is synonymous of Latin and Greek. There are five: The very beginning ( up to Aristotle) 4th Century BC Systematisation of the tradition. ( 2nd Century BC) . Consolidation : it was stablished itself. * Nature/ convention The Greeks discuss whether the language was natural or conventional. concepts« that we use today were created by the Greeks. Medieval Grammarians Renaissance Grammarians traditional grammar was definitely stablished. Traditional grammar has last since Greeks until nowadays. Stoics. It could change. Everything began with the GREEKS. aspect«). verb. The Ancient Greeks There are two dichotomies: Nature and convention Analogy and anomaly These dichotomies referred to positions (you can choose nature or convention. The ideas are the same ( subject. We have to distinguish several stages in traditional grammar. Something like an agreement between men. If language was natural meant that the origin is outside the man himself. and you can choose analogy or anomaly). They are phylosophical concepts. mood. Dionysius Thrax belongs to this group. In the 20th Century the structuralism begins and it is different from traditional grammar. It takes an order in the tradition. We talk about Romans and Greeks because all the languages come from these people. but in the West.Introduction Classical Antiquity ( Romans and Greeks). All the terminology.

that is to find the origin of the words. . Those which defend that language is conventional are the conventionalists. When they discuss onomatopoeia also began the etymology. (CAREW) * Analogy/ Anomaly This analogy/ anomaly dichotomy is a consequence of the nature convention of the controversy. Run There are many words that don't fit in this two groups. to crash. Ex: Metaphor : the neck of a bottle ( natural connection. For Naturalists there are a few ways to prove the connection. There are three: y Onomatopoeia: this group of words is the favourite of the naturalists because you can see clearly the connection. Anomaly synonymous with irregularity. Analogy synonymous with regularity. These words imitate the sound that you referred to. not in their whole. the rest of the words that cannot be explains with the other groups. Liquid flush flow water R expresses movement. etc. There is the Principles of etymology . Irregular there are many exceptions to those patterns. This dispute will last for centuries. In some words we have one sound or two that is imitative..This distinction affects mainly to the relationship between the form of a word and the meaning of that word. For example. The product of this dichotomy will be the development of scientist etymology. models which are repeated in language. in English: to hoot( claxon) .symbols This refers to words that only are imitative in part. This controversy discuss whether the language is regular or not. ANALOGY: The ones that defend analogy defend that language is regular. Regular there are a set of patterns. they try to justify with this. It remains the body's neck) Conventionalists say that these things haven't got a natural connection. and when you listen to that sound it reminds you a word. Those which defend that language is natural are the naturalists. b) Sound.

. First steps to the creation of the terminology of the tradition of grammar. * Greek Grammar: the beginning of the tradition 5th . such as child = children.) (18th Century In English. They were criticised because they taught how to defend a cause. The analogyst's work is to establish the patterns in Greek to English. It's conventional. Synonymous: have two or more forms for one meaning. One consequence of this controversy ( polémica ) is that this will help to the systematisation of grammar.4th BC. It's such a regular thing. Ex: bar (chocolate. Ex: father: child = dog : X x = puppy For the analogyst the Greek language was full of this patterns. THE SOPHISTS They were teachers. conjugations. girl/ girls. ox = oxen. Those patterns are known as PARADIGMS ( declensions. For example Athens is a plural noun referring to a singular entity. They said the relationship between the form and the meaning of the word is anomalous. moral or not. For analogysts language is the product of convention. . The language is irregular. Anomalysts say that the presence of irregularity demonstrate there is a natural thing ( the language). This is anomalous.Ex: The final -s to make the plural(regular): boy/ boys. The language is irregular. They contribute in the grammar. But their main emphasis is the semantic irregularities. (justa o no) They teach how to win in debates. place. irregular. as c is to d) boy: boys = cow: cows Boy: boys = cow: x x = cows They also established semantic equations. Child/ children anomaly. not only formal. we will see it in the future. Ex: row Homonymy: have one form and more than one meaning. This is a link between the two parts.) They used formulas as in mathematics to set up the patters: A:B= C:B( a is to b. cow/ cows This is one of the patterns that shows the regularity of the language. they pointed out that there are a lot of examples of irregularities. They admit that there are regularities ( the anomalysts) . law«) This is another irregularity.

but he added syndesmoi . Aristotle is a conventionalist. The meaning of a word is a convention. Knowledge consists of ideas that agree with nature. They are the conjunctions. Rhema includes verbs and also adjectives. For him meaning is conventional. He distinguished sentence types. But Plato did not call it adjective. predicate. Onoma noun Rhema verb Onoma and rhema are the constituents of the logos ( sentence). present actions. . Aristotle includes in syndesmoi all the words that are not nouns neither verbs. and things. There were correspondences between the actions and the tenses. III. According to him the relation between onoma and rhema and their meanings is a product of convention. negative. Category of time.II BC THE STOICS It's the school of philosophy that paid more attention to the language. The stoics think that good conduct means to live in good harmony with nature. Plato is a conventionalist. This is a 3rd class. * Greek Grammar: 1st systematisation of the tradition. They were the main contribution to the grammar PLATO Plato's main contribution was the distinction between verbs and nouns. Onoma can mean subject.«. interrogative. Language is part of knowledge. feminine. Aristotle realised that there were more than one tense in the verbs: past actions. The stoics are naturalists and therefore anomalysts. and stoics defended it.PROTAGORAS distinguished the three genders in Greek : masculine. an analogyst. Logic includes grammar to the stoics. Language has many irregularities. affirmative. Words are symbols created by men. nominal name Rhema can mean verb. They studied language in their study of logic. ARISTOTLE He'll keep the distinction of nouns and verbs. They are linking words.

But the most important: Etymology. They wanted to find the original version. . They decided to do this because they thought that the original/classic Greek was more correct than their own Greek (they thought that this one was corrupted). Its beginning was Aristotle's personal book collection. etc ) and they add the ARTICLE. The concept of case is a part of the inflexion. But they also add more parts to the parts of the speech(verb. to explain the original Greek (classical authors). It's the study of ETYMOLOGY The beginning of the science of etymology is their main contribution. but they were written in different types of Greek. What they did was to look for the original forms with natural connection. They studied the manuscripts that included ³The Iliad´ and ³The Odyssey´(S.C. especially those of Homer. they had to make the commentaries. Alexandria and Pergamon were two cities that took the place of Athens in political and cultural aspects. These two purposes are important because they are the two main purposes of all the grammaticians of today.). They find many different versions of the manuscripts that contained those poems. Once they had the original version. And also the distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs. The city became the centre of literary and linguistic research. In this period. The distinction between the active and passive voice. This connection is not evident today. They write grammars with both types of texts (classical and ³modern´) to preserve Greek from corruption and also. They couldn't understand the original texts. the one written by Homer. and the grammar explanation of those texts. One more concept is the concept of inflexion which is the declensions and conjugations. two key works in the world history were produced in Alexandria: -Euclid Elements -Grammar of Dionysius Thrax The study of language: the Alexandrians approached this study through literary texts. Alexandria is well known because of its library. The Alexandrians: They were a group of philosophers that lived and worked in Alexandria.In the origin of language there was a natural connection between words and things. This gave the chance to the people to read those texts. noun.V B. The original Greek was very different from the one they used in their time.

person. They were analogists.« This has become the standard way of analysing words. This idea of purity. causals. the one that is considered as the real Greek Grammar until our days. This is the Greek Grammar. They are defined because of their accidents. Syntax is relevant because the most part of the grammars hadn't deal with it until Chomsky's work. Dionysius (S. There are seven types of conjunctions: copulatives. The result of these efforts is: the Greek grammar will be definitely codify or systematize. . These parts will be analysed by using the case. discover analogies. discover language etymologies. All these are applied to classical Greek. the mood.II B. corruption. the number. and it deals with syllables and words. It's the first complete and systematic grammar in the West. S. Henry Sweet). y This is focused on written language as a more correct version of the language. conditionals. Morphology is the main body of his work. The noun is the part of speech.XVIII in England (See in previous lessons. participle. study critically the compositions of poets.C. whereas the spoken language is seen as a corruption of written language. and he studied his own Greek with the application of the classical Greek. conjugation. The study of language will give us the first description of language. kind and type. Dionysius contributed with four more parts of speech to the list of four of the stoics: adverbs. The accidents of the verbs are: number.«of written language is the most important thing in S. voice. ³Technè Grammatikè´= Art of Grammar. it's the study of the name of the Greeks letters and their different phonetic values (this is phonology).).. The verb is the part without case inflection.C.This approach brings two consequences: y The interest of linguistics will be the written language. His method had two steps: phonology and morphology (no syntax). In phonology we don't get any phonetic study.ROMAN ADAPTATION OF GREEK GRAMMAR: the tradition consolidated.«These used to be the names of the sentences. It has 6 parts. This four plus the other four is the standard now. Nouns have five accidents. They will give this regularity of Greek in a list in form of declinations and conjugations (paradigm). the gender. finals. tense. and they will ignore spoken language as a subject of investigation. mood. time.I B. which has case inflection. They were obsessed with the regularity. Grammar (Dionysius): ³is the technical knowledge of the language employed by poets and writers´. 2. the voice. Deal with the language of the previous era is something that Dionysius thought was important. are three of this six parts. pronoun and preposition).

especially in the field of terminology. verb. the parts of speech can be transferred to Latin with no problem (verbs. but not one of these only).VI A.Roman culture was influenced by Greek culture (art. grammar is a part of philosophy and literary criticism (as in Greece). In The Middle Ages. The analogy/anomaly controversy was also present among the Romans (Cesar wrote a tratado). not the language of their own days. the last 2 deal briefly with syntax. Donatus was another important person. The work itself: it has 18 books. and the language that it's spoken by an individual (parole). -Syndesmos: coni-unctio( syn-desmos) -Antonymia: pro-nomen (anto-nymia) . Maybe regularity is more present. In Rome. the people thought that these categories were universal.D. c. This approach has the same consequences as the Alexandrians (the correct language is the written one and the idea this language was more correct than their own contemporary language). 500 A. They wanted to describe the classical language (Cicero and Virgil. S. He said that there were two types of language: the language in abstract (langue). Therefore.It's almost a repetition of Dionysius work (³Techné grammatiké´). literature. On the whole. Latin had no words yet to describe language matters (noun. Varro is a contemporary of Dionysius. The problem was that when that was transferred to English grammar. Priscian and Donatus wanted to describe the language of the best writer.«).S. but we want to deal with one of this because of the originality and similarity: Varro. nouns. From then on. The high roman classes send their children to Greece to study. All the accidents were easy to put into Latin. Before that. the specialists will focus exclusively on the first 16 books (morphology). He wrote a Latin grammar as a consequence of analogy/anomaly controversy. these 18 books are an adaptation of Dionysius' work. The Greek grammar is an influence to the Latin grammar. Examples: onoma>the Greek name for noun / nomen>the Latin word (translation of onoma). Priscian translated the Greek terms into Latin. 16 of these deal with morphology. He did the most complete description of Latin language of that period (³Institutiones Grammaticae´. the same as in specific aspects. there were other attempts. In these general aspects they were similar.«). His opinion was that both extremes were wrong (there is regularity and irregularity. This was possible because Latin and Greek were similar (from the structural point of view). II and I B. The Latin grammar repeated the organization that Dionysius said in his grammar.«).C. Within the Romans there was a moment of classicism (probably the most important moment in Grammar Priscian . and this is a key moment in the history of Linguistics. Varro also anticipated the distinction between langue/parole (Saussure). He is the perfect example of taking over Greek grammar into Latin grammar.). Latin will have a very suitable terminology. Priscian is the key moment in classical grammar. respectively).D.).

education. The church adopted Latin. After the Middle Ages we have the Renaissance. The nominative is called like this because it came in first place. We will focus on the 1st half of the Middle Ages (The DARK AGES first period in the Middle Ages. The examples he gave came from Cicero and Virgil (this is the difference from Dionysius' work). secondary). He was very close to Dionysius in this description. elitition through the monasteries and churches. The Church taught a more colloquial Latin. a period of splendour in general and that is what makes the Middle Ages slightly less relevant culturally than the other 2 periods. He made a little change (the article is excluded. . This work is a key work in the Middle Ages and it is also the most important work of scholarship in Roman culture. Priscian also adopted the 8 parts of speech as Dionysius gave us. The nouns are natural (he said he had chosen the name of that use because is more frequent than the other uses). he changed it to the interjection). We call Middle Ages because it refers to the fact that is between two golden periods. less difficult. Later. Latin was the official language of the Christian Church. The fall of the Roman emperor happened in 476 BC. It is like an interval. They are not so dark in linguistic matters. V-XI Centuries) It is true that the fall of Rome made a decline in culture. the creation of a whole terminology from Greek to Latin. These names are still used today. but there were many ups and downs. The rise or fall depends on the knowledge or lack of knowledge of Latin.This is the main merit of Priscian's work. He described those 8 parts and their accidents (the formal accidents). Linguistic study in the Early Middle Ages in the British Isles y General introduction to the period and the period's approach to language studies What are the Middle Ages? It's a period in the History of Europe and goes to the Fall of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance. This image of darkness was destroyed little by little.« There is a connection between the name and the frequent use (nominative. The kind of Latin is not classical Latin ( not like Cicero or Virgil). Before the Middle Ages we have the Classical Antiquity. However. dative-to friend. vocative-to a second person. EUROPE ENGLAND A key element in those ups and downs is the Latin language. accusative-to enemies. because they are pagan authors so their language is pagan too. the Middle Ages have a lot to offer in linguistics. Priscian also said that the order of cases is natural (in noun declinations). the universities. The church will be the sponsor of Latin scholarship.

It was introduced the Roman Alphabet. the official form of Old English (west Saxon) It's the accepted form of Old English. Language studies means Latin Studies. a new culture. These studies of Latin are the only studies of grammar and language in this period. The study of Latin is the basis of medieval education. Those Germanic tribes didn't have political unity. We have 3 dialects. The Christianism was very important for linguistics matters. and many books mow more available through Latin. The Romans left and the British. The Romans had left England. DIDACTIC doesn't mean speculative (abstract). In time the 7 kingdoms diminished in 3: Northumbria. There is a decline of learning because of the Scandinavian invasion. These grammars are normative. The dialect spoken in Wessex is the standard. a foreign language . a new literature. They invited the Germanic tribes to help them. Those tribes arrived and take over the island in the middle of the 5th century. Latin and conveys a new civilisation. Mercia and Wessex. Latin was studied for itself and it was necessary to learn another matters. but they become Christians little by little. They handle texts and learn it from them. Then colonised by the Romans (43-410 BC) They were 400 years. It is an instrument for the education. This teach you how to use Latin correctly. In 597 Saint Agustine was send by the Pope to convert the Germanic tribes to the Christianity. Latin is taught as a written language. This is another similarity to the Alexandrians. y Linguistic study in the Early Middle Ages in England y The Linguistic situation in the island Great Britain was a Celtic speaking island. English begin to write extensively. Churches and monasteries were the places in where people learnt. Speculative grammars will come in the 2nd half of the Middle Ages. Latin was being developed in other places. The Christianity brigs together with it a new language. so Germanic people had to learn Latin. This is similar to what happened with the Alexandrians. The places of education disappear( churches an monasteries). Didactic and normative grammars will be based on Priscian and Donatus' works. A blossoming in learning was produced. A Normative grammar means a grammar with rules. In the 7th century we have 7 different kingdoms with 7 different dialects of Old English + Celtic Native Speakers. norms and with rules about correct and incorrect uses.It was also an instrument for secular transactions. Those Germanic kingdoms were isolated. a new language. Grammars books were grammars of Latin. It was a didactic (practical) and normative way of teaching Latin. Not so many people can read or write in Latin. These Germanic Kingdoms were pagans since a Christian point of view. For this reason they need Latin Manuals. In the 8th century it is produced the Scandinavian Invasion. Most of those manuals will be based on Priscian and Donatus. Latin is now. In the 9th century King Alfred complained about this very bad cultural situation. . The practical use of language is what they studied. the native of the island had fights between themselves. This is a link with the classical antiquity. for those people. The Germanic pushed the natives to the borders of the island( Welshmen: they all were called like this). text book to learn Latin.

Danish were rolling England and they brought their languages. It was the language of the Christian religion. You only learn in Latin. they did read those manuscripts. Those very few available texts have been studied by scholars who were not linguistics (historians of education). How did they teach Latin at school? They began to study grammar in the school.King Alfred translated into English Cura Pastoralis and in the preface he complained about this situation: the lack of knowledge of Latin. Also commerce and administration were held in Latin. The importance is enormous. The problem is that there are not a lot of sources(manuscripts). LATIN WAS AN INSTRUMENT OF EDUCATION. that is a cultural and religious reform at the same time. to promote culture in the island. We do not have bibliography. also Law. They learn the inflections. It was spoken in all around Europe. in the 11th century we have a decline. There were a lot of languages (Old English. Children learn spelling and pronunciation of Latin words. Those grammars were written for and to native speakers of Latin. declensions and lists of vocabulary. If people can't read Latin. Paleographs studied the way in they wrote. We know very little about it. no date. They were written in Latin. The sacred texts were written in Latin. It was a moment of revival of knowledge. We have to wait until the 14th century to say that there is a National Language in England. It will help Alfred in different ways. Most of them are anonymous. With the Norman invasion started the 2nd period of the Middle Ages. All the important texts in their own language. Nowadays we know very few of this period. Religious moment started: THE BENEDICTINE REFORM. y Language study in the island: The Insular Grammar This is the study of Latin grammar. Science. let's make those texts available with a translation into English. Another reason. the religious services in Latin« Latin was imposed. not only the religious matters. After this period. The highest stage was the study of etymology of words /philology/. Normand«). What instruments did they have to teach? The teachers had the grammars of the Roman Antiquity(4-5th century). Then they learn to comment literary texts in Latin. we have not very much. That is the organisation of the study of Latin in different levels. It was the language of knowledge. This reform was improved in learning and teaching Latin in the island. The few texts that exist are very difficult even for specialists. Usually this period have been considered a dark period. specially in foreign countries. Aelfric began to work under King Alfred's idea of translation. no place of origin written on them. Philosophical matters. He was a translator. Those subjects were taught in Latin. One more problem is that those manuscripts have characteristics that made them difficult. Why is Latin taught? Latin was taught because it was taught in every Christian region.Priscian and Donatus were the most studied. We know all these manuscripts were the product of the policy of the Church. All that influenced cultural education. Latin was basic to live. they have no name. Scandinavian. . In a more advanced level they were taught how to write texts. Latin was the language of scholarship. He promotes a massive work of translation. Latin was an international language.

The result of this is that the English began to write and compiled their own Latin Grammars. We use both of these models to produce their own type of grammar. They were made for a specific audience with specific means. « those things were not interested in this information( a los ingleses). They are characterised by giving many lists of inflections. They don't appear in anywhere else. y Grammatical models They used two types of classical grammars. These are reference works. The most important schulgrammatik example we know is Priscian. The Latin speaker who use those 2 types of grammar was looking for information on them which was not relevant for the new Latin speakers (English People) . y Insular Grammars Many of the grammars the English compiled are similar to the classical models because they assumed the explanations and theories about the parts of speech. .2. The elementary grammars are specifically English. They focus on the nouns. schulgrammatik is systematic (complete and with an order). that they use as grammatical examples (Cicero. but not with all of them. In this grammars is contained information about literary texts. Virgil). mythological and historical explanations. They also offers something new that makes them interesting.3«parts of speech. The grammars of Priscian and Donatus were no suitable for them. It tries to be comprehensive. _ They are brief _ They are systematic expositions _ Morphology is the most important thing. They appear in England in the 7th century (the children of classical grammars). It treated the 8 parts of speech. They deal with 1. It is based on Priscian and Donatus. to England. The Regulae is less systematic.We know that English people don't know how to speak Latin as native people. The insular grammars can be divided in 2 types: The Elementary Grammar The Exegetical Grammar These are the two main grammars. or nouns and verbs. and they were called: Schulgrammatik Regulae The 1st type of grammar. They needed to learn English in a practical way.

He went to see the Pope several . He was born in England in 675. less corrupted. it takes place in the Carolingian Renaissance(9th and so on centuries) and from the Carolingian Empire it goes back to England. in the South. because the level of Latin was higher to produce a less corrupted versions of the Bible. They are a type of text similar to the Bible commentary. It is usual to find texts explaining the Bible.Boniface and the Praefatio ad Sigibertum He's remembered as the man who Christianised what we call Germany today. Aelfric is another grammarian ( ð 1010). _ They were successful for some centuries. Priscian and Donatus. But we know many things about Wynfreth Boniface(we know about him and his works. While he worked as a teacher he wrote a Latin grammar with his students who were also studying to be monks. They went back to Priscian's. As a child he went to a school monastery and then he went to another one with a higher level and there he became a teacher. C. In that grammar he includes a preface in the form of a letter where he tell us his methods to write the grammar. All of these in England. They wanted to do better versions of the Bible. His name is Winfreth but he received the name Boniface from the Pope (8th-c719). They're based on the formal aspects. y English Grammarians at Works We know very little about English Grammarians of this period. He's also relevant because he wrote a Latin grammar in English(Old English). For us he is interesting for other reasons. y An Early medieval grammarian talks about grammar: Winfreth. We know he was the missionary who brought Christianity to Germany from England. Boniface is one of them. Still we know enough to say they were very important not only in England also in the continent. They are commentaries on the classical grammars. They were also successful in the continent. In the 9th century the elementary grammar died because in the 9th-10th century there was a return to the classical grammars. The exegetical grammars are less important. As a missionary he first went to Holland and then to Germany. 675-745)._ Paradigms give all the possible declensions and conjugations _ They see Latin as a pattern. He is interesting because of his role in the consolidation on medieval grammatical ideas. These two types of grammars were introduced in the continent by missionaries( from England to the rest of Europe). They try to explain the classical texts(classical grammars) to help teachers and students to understand difficult classical texts. In general we know very few of all the authors. Before he was a missionary he wrote a Latin Grammar. The reason is the difficulty of the manuscripts. Then he became a priest and decided to leave England.

The name isPraefatio ad Sigibertum . criticised or not«. but it is also different from other elementary grammars. Boniface's Latin was more classical than Latin spoken in Rome. he follows the words of the sources. This grammar was very influential. The Ars Bonifacii is an elementary grammar ( it deals with the 8 parts of speech. It's different because he uses sources( grammatical sources) that other contemporary grammarians did not use. his works. This Benedictine Rule was consolidated with the Carolingian Empire. We also know he wrote many letters when he was in Germany. It's remarkable. In England and outside of England. In 722 he had close meetings with the Pope. in this case Winfreth). He summarises. There is an anecdote about Latin in Europe. Books that he had read. but we can guess that date. y The Ars Bonifacii We do not know when he wrote it. It is typical of this time. about the situation of that time. Boniface and the Pope did not understand each other speaking Latin. Boniface insist more than his contemporaries in the anomalies. .times for religious matters. In the grammar there is an acrostic poem (where the first letters of each line form a word. for beginners«). We know his name is Winfreth. etc. knowledge«) How did he treat the classical grammars to do his own? He's respectful. many paradigms. The irregularities of that language. We have 3 manuscripts containing this grammar. that anted to read« Many of those letters that received were written by lady friends of him. the Latin irregularities. In the 9th century this grammar will be not used anymore. not Boniface yet. Then Boniface wrote down he wanted to say to the Pope. His name now is Winfreth. He did not feel very sure of what he was doing. Pope's Latin was more vulgar. He follows VERBATIM(al pie de la letra). We have those letters and they give us many information about him. It is an exposition of his methodology of writing the grammar. It is a letter. y The Preface ISSUES OF AUTHORITY Boniface was a non native Latin speaker writing a grammar of Latin. The grammar has a preface which is important. religion. What authority did he feel writing a grammar of Latin being an English native speaker? Why did he feel the need to write a grammar since there were many grammatics available in that time? What type of people is he writing for? Which audience has Boniface in mind? (age. It was written before 719(but not much earlier). Roman and English Latin pronunciation were different. With Boniface began the Benedictine Rule.

he wanted to gather all the existent grammars together. He will work with 121 or more sources. Boniface is speaker of Latin. He did it because they have wrote authority. Both things come together. is something dangerous. The influences are the classical grammarians (late Roman period 4th -5th Century. Grammarians do not agree in the number of parts of speech ( 2«. He is going to give us something new. so he has lack of Latin confidence. Transfer the authority to other people. . no page number. That kind of attitude is common in the medieval authors (humility. He mentioned a lot of people. closer in time (Isidore of Seville). The solution is to transfer the authority. He mentions people from the classical period that he did not use.8«. pronouns«. Boniface choose one of these positions.Boniface There was no need of writing a grammar because there were many of them. in that time.( that's what Boniface wanted to do). In the Middle Ages the more contemporary the worst. The reason for all these must be found in his personal situation. with the classification of conjunctions. originally. but he didn't use all of them. It happens with the number of parts of speech. no divisions « to help us to find information quickly. He used the other people's works but he did not mention. He uses all those sources simultaneously jumping one to the other even within the sentence. Why does he do it? The ones he omit are more contemporary. Why did he want to put them together? He wants to do it for the special difficulty to read characteristics of Medieval manuscripts. The idea of authority: in general Boniface shows he needs to use other people's works to stick closely.Is it a grammar for beginners or not? Winfreth. He wanted to select and write those selections to put it in one work. They don't have index. He wanted to do something new. he says that grammarians should know how many parts the speech must have. These works are less important than the older ones. Boniface in grammar feels embarrassed because of it. Another reason is that novelty.more«depending on the grammarians). grammatical authority. Definitions and examples are taken from these sources. no title. This attitude is because he did not want transferring the embarrassment to the sources. He really feels not adecuated to do it. How does he treat his sources? Sometimes he find that his sources do not agree in certain topics. Donatus and Priscian). He will give us all the information in the text. When we read the text he talks about he is not the best person to make a grammar of Latin. modesty«) they use it as an stylistic resource.

and explains it. His sources use the term declinatio with two meanings: 1st inflexion of the word (rosa. According to him there is a different kind of written Latin in the Bible and the Latin of grammarians. He took separated words( dogma. The authority is not of ancient grammarians.html . Some of the changes he did affects the terminology of the sources. But they have the need to learn Latin. In this period it is common to see examples from religious texts. apocalypse«) http://html. He changes the obscure words in the passages. The final word of grammarians is the religious text. However there are some evidences to think his audience is not total beginners. but it started to be familiar to them.rincondelvago. Being written in Latin is not one of those evidences. This compensate the lack of native speakers of Latin. Ecclesiastical writers final authority. genesis. They didn't understand most of it was said. The goal of grammar: it's very clear in the text and is to improve people's understanding of religious texts.com/the-development-of-language-study-in-the-west. What kind of readers does he have in mind? His audience is Old English speakers. In the preface there are some reasons of this. Most of them don't literate in their own language. They were Christians and they attended religious services and those were held in Latin .He clarifies difficult passages that find in the grammars. rosae) 2nd type of declination or declension opposed to another. The Bible is the correct. If one passage is not well written he do it well. they were listening Latin in churches. Basically made of monks and nuns. The authority is the religious text. They did not have direct contact with Latin speakers. And this is the audience Boniface is writing for. But Boniface did not take passages from religious texts.

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