"Traditional Grammar" term is applied to summarize the range of methods found in the prelinguistic era of grammatical study.
The whole approach of this method emphasizes on correctness, linguistic purism, literary excellence, the priority of the written mode of language and the use of Latin models. The very beginning of the twentieth century was typically marked by a new approach to grammar as suggested by linguists such as Ferdinand de Saussure and American linguist like Frantz Boas, Bloomfield and Edward Sapir. Their approach is called structuralism whose aim was to arouse a reaction against the approach of the traditional grammarians. Traditional grammarians considered Latin as their model because English is a part of the Indo-European family of languages, and to which Latin and Greek also belong. It did have similar grammatical elements. If you study the form of traditional grammar, the rules of classical languages were followed considering that English did not have grammar of its own. And English followed Latin grammar. Besides the parts of speech, traditional grammatical analysis also makes use of numerous other categories, just like 'number', 'gender', 'person', 'tense' and 'voice'. For example, gender was not natural. It was grammatical in traditional grammar. As you see here "The man loves his bike". Gender, in this example, is used for describing the agreement between 'man' and 'his'. In English, you need to describe this relationship in terms of natural gender based upon a biological distinction between male and female. Such biological distinction is different compared to the common distinction found in languages which employ grammatical gender. Traditional grammar has some limitations as it occurs with some static verbs that do not occur in a progressive form, for instance "I am knowing" or in the imperative mood like "Know!" Traditional grammar sometimes fails to account for certain things like ambiguous sentences just like "While thinking about the queen the Honda hit the fence". Rakesh Patel has taught English literature for five years and now writes on education, literature and spirituality. For free guideline on English literature, feel free to visit http://englishliterature99.wordpress.com
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he development of language study in the West: Classical Antiquity
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So. and we say that traditional grammar is prescriptive because it focuses on the distinction between what some people do with language and what they ought to do with it. The very beginning of the twentieth century was typically marked by a new approach to grammar as suggested by linguists such as Ferdinand de Saussure and American linguist like Frantz Boas. according to a pre-established standard."
http://traditionalandpedagogicalgrammar.blogspot. traditional grammatical analysis also makes use of numerous other categories. the rules of classical languages were followed considering that English did not have grammar of its own. Traditional grammar has some limitations as it occurs with some static verbs that do not occur in a progressive form. is perpetuating a historical model of what supposedly constitutes proper language. in this example. It did have similar grammatical elements. gender was not natural.com/p/tradictional-grammar. just like 'number'. The whole approach of this method emphasizes on correctness. 'tense' and 'voice'. and to which Latin and Greek also belong. Bloomfield and Edward Sapir. is used for describing the agreement between 'man' and 'his'. As you see here "The man loves his bike". Gender. for instance "I am knowing" or in the imperative mood like "Know!" Traditional grammar sometimes fails to account for certain things like ambiguous sentences just like "While thinking about the queen the Honda hit the fence". The chief goal of traditional grammar. Such biological distinction is different compared to the common distinction found in languages which employ grammatical gender. we can define traditional grammar as The collection of prescriptive rules and concepts about the structure of language that is commonly taught in schools. Traditional grammarians considered Latin as their model because English is a part of the Indo-European family of languages. 'person'. literary excellence. 'gender'.Rakesh Patel (2009) says that the Traditional Grammar term is applied to summarize the range of methods found in the pre-linguistic era of grammatical study. In English. the priority of the written mode of language and the use of Latin models.
http://ezinearticles. It was grammatical in traditional grammar. And English followed Latin grammar. Besides the parts of speech. If you study the form of traditional grammar. linguistic purism. Their approach is called structuralism whose aim was to arouse a reaction against the approach of the traditional grammarians. you need to describe this relationship in terms of natural gender based upon a biological distinction between male and female.
Everything began with the GREEKS. It could change. There are five: The very beginning ( up to Aristotle) 4th Century BC Systematisation of the tradition. If language was conventional meant that is a custom. aspect«). This terminology is what we call TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR . Traditional grammar has last since Greeks until nowadays. ( 2nd Century BC) . Medieval Grammarians Renaissance Grammarians traditional grammar was definitely stablished. All the terminology. He will influence the scholars in England. Something like an agreement between men. The ideas are the same ( subject.
. Priscian is the most important figure. adjective. concepts« that we use today were created by the Greeks. Consolidation : it was stablished itself. Dionysius Thrax belongs to this group. They are phylosophical concepts. and you can choose analogy or anomaly). The Ancient Greeks There are two dichotomies: Nature and convention Analogy and anomaly These dichotomies referred to positions (you can choose nature or convention. but in the West. These periods affected Greek and Latin. It takes an order in the tradition. Alexandrians. mood. Traditional Grammar is synonymous of Latin and Greek. We talk about Romans and Greeks because all the languages come from these people. In the 20th Century the structuralism begins and it is different from traditional grammar. * Nature/ convention The Greeks discuss whether the language was natural or conventional. Stoics. verb. We have to distinguish several stages in traditional grammar. Priscian 6th AD. If language was natural meant that the origin is outside the man himself.Introduction Classical Antiquity ( Romans and Greeks).
Liquid flush flow water R expresses movement. and when you listen to that sound it reminds you a word. In some words we have one sound or two that is imitative. It remains the body's neck) Conventionalists say that these things haven't got a natural connection. Those which defend that language is natural are the naturalists. ANALOGY: The ones that defend analogy defend that language is regular.symbols This refers to words that only are imitative in part. Irregular there are many exceptions to those patterns. There are three: y Onomatopoeia: this group of words is the favourite of the naturalists because you can see clearly the connection. not in their whole.This distinction affects mainly to the relationship between the form of a word and the meaning of that word. that is to find the origin of the words. etc. Regular there are a set of patterns. in English: to hoot( claxon) . (CAREW) * Analogy/ Anomaly This analogy/ anomaly dichotomy is a consequence of the nature convention of the controversy. Run There are many words that don't fit in this two groups. to crash. This controversy discuss whether the language is regular or not. The product of this dichotomy will be the development of scientist etymology. Those which defend that language is conventional are the conventionalists. When they discuss onomatopoeia also began the etymology. they try to justify with this. models which are repeated in language. This dispute will last for centuries. For example. Anomaly synonymous with irregularity. Analogy synonymous with regularity.. For Naturalists there are a few ways to prove the connection.
. These words imitate the sound that you referred to. There is the Principles of etymology . Ex: Metaphor : the neck of a bottle ( natural connection. b) Sound. the rest of the words that cannot be explains with the other groups.
place. THE SOPHISTS They were teachers. Child/ children anomaly. They said the relationship between the form and the meaning of the word is anomalous.. This is a link between the two parts. First steps to the creation of the terminology of the tradition of grammar. they pointed out that there are a lot of examples of irregularities. Ex: row Homonymy: have one form and more than one meaning. The language is irregular. It's such a regular thing. irregular. we will see it in the future. Ex: father: child = dog : X x = puppy For the analogyst the Greek language was full of this patterns. This is anomalous. Synonymous: have two or more forms for one meaning. as c is to d) boy: boys = cow: cows Boy: boys = cow: x x = cows They also established semantic equations. They were criticised because they taught how to defend a cause.) They used formulas as in mathematics to set up the patters: A:B= C:B( a is to b. But their main emphasis is the semantic irregularities. It's conventional. For example Athens is a plural noun referring to a singular entity. such as child = children.Ex: The final -s to make the plural(regular): boy/ boys. ox = oxen. For analogysts language is the product of convention.4th BC. (justa o no) They teach how to win in debates. moral or not. not only formal.) (18th Century In English. Those patterns are known as PARADIGMS ( declensions. They admit that there are regularities ( the anomalysts) . One consequence of this controversy ( polémica ) is that this will help to the systematisation of grammar. The analogyst's work is to establish the patterns in Greek to English. Ex: bar (chocolate. They contribute in the grammar. law«) This is another irregularity. girl/ girls. The language is irregular.
. Anomalysts say that the presence of irregularity demonstrate there is a natural thing ( the language). cow/ cows This is one of the patterns that shows the regularity of the language. * Greek Grammar: the beginning of the tradition 5th . conjugations.
The meaning of a word is a convention. They are linking words. ARISTOTLE He'll keep the distinction of nouns and verbs. Aristotle includes in syndesmoi all the words that are not nouns neither verbs. an analogyst. There were correspondences between the actions and the tenses. Language is part of knowledge. predicate. Aristotle is a conventionalist. They studied language in their study of logic. For him meaning is conventional. Onoma can mean subject. present actions. Plato is a conventionalist. interrogative. Onoma noun Rhema verb Onoma and rhema are the constituents of the logos ( sentence). Aristotle realised that there were more than one tense in the verbs: past actions. This is a 3rd class.
. Logic includes grammar to the stoics.II BC THE STOICS It's the school of philosophy that paid more attention to the language. The stoics think that good conduct means to live in good harmony with nature. Words are symbols created by men. According to him the relation between onoma and rhema and their meanings is a product of convention. Language has many irregularities. but he added syndesmoi . affirmative. Category of time. They are the conjunctions. nominal name Rhema can mean verb. They were the main contribution to the grammar PLATO Plato's main contribution was the distinction between verbs and nouns. III. negative. Rhema includes verbs and also adjectives. But Plato did not call it adjective. * Greek Grammar: 1st systematisation of the tradition. and stoics defended it.PROTAGORAS distinguished the three genders in Greek : masculine. He distinguished sentence types. and things. feminine.«. Knowledge consists of ideas that agree with nature. The stoics are naturalists and therefore anomalysts.
The original Greek was very different from the one they used in their time. They decided to do this because they thought that the original/classic Greek was more correct than their own Greek (they thought that this one was corrupted). This gave the chance to the people to read those texts.In the origin of language there was a natural connection between words and things. etc ) and they add the ARTICLE. They find many different versions of the manuscripts that contained those poems. What they did was to look for the original forms with natural connection. especially those of Homer. two key works in the world history were produced in Alexandria: -Euclid Elements -Grammar of Dionysius Thrax The study of language: the Alexandrians approached this study through literary texts. to explain the original Greek (classical authors). they had to make the commentaries. The city became the centre of literary and linguistic research. They wanted to find the original version. And also the distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs. This connection is not evident today. It's the study of ETYMOLOGY The beginning of the science of etymology is their main contribution. The distinction between the active and passive voice. noun. the one written by Homer. These two purposes are important because they are the two main purposes of all the grammaticians of today. They write grammars with both types of texts (classical and ³modern´) to preserve Greek from corruption and also. In this period. They couldn't understand the original texts. Alexandria and Pergamon were two cities that took the place of Athens in political and cultural aspects.V B. One more concept is the concept of inflexion which is the declensions and conjugations. but they were written in different types of Greek. But they also add more parts to the parts of the speech(verb.C. Its beginning was Aristotle's personal book collection. They studied the manuscripts that included ³The Iliad´ and ³The Odyssey´(S. Once they had the original version. and the grammar explanation of those texts. The concept of case is a part of the inflexion. Alexandria is well known because of its library. The Alexandrians: They were a group of philosophers that lived and worked in Alexandria.). But the most important: Etymology.
2. mood.C. Dionysius contributed with four more parts of speech to the list of four of the stoics: adverbs. y This is focused on written language as a more correct version of the language. discover analogies. Deal with the language of the previous era is something that Dionysius thought was important. whereas the spoken language is seen as a corruption of written language.XVIII in England (See in previous lessons. voice. time. the gender. The verb is the part without case inflection. Grammar (Dionysius): ³is the technical knowledge of the language employed by poets and writers´. Dionysius (S. The result of these efforts is: the Greek grammar will be definitely codify or systematize. corruption. and it deals with syllables and words.
. study critically the compositions of poets. ³Technè Grammatikè´= Art of Grammar. the one that is considered as the real Greek Grammar until our days. the mood. are three of this six parts. This is the Greek Grammar. In phonology we don't get any phonetic study. Henry Sweet). causals. pronoun and preposition). They will give this regularity of Greek in a list in form of declinations and conjugations (paradigm).ROMAN ADAPTATION OF GREEK GRAMMAR: the tradition consolidated. Nouns have five accidents. discover language etymologies. They were analogists. They were obsessed with the regularity.).II B. It has 6 parts. There are seven types of conjunctions: copulatives. Morphology is the main body of his work.C. the number.. person. it's the study of the name of the Greeks letters and their different phonetic values (this is phonology). This four plus the other four is the standard now. and he studied his own Greek with the application of the classical Greek. These parts will be analysed by using the case. They are defined because of their accidents. The noun is the part of speech. kind and type. S. This idea of purity. conditionals. Syntax is relevant because the most part of the grammars hadn't deal with it until Chomsky's work.«These used to be the names of the sentences. The study of language will give us the first description of language. conjugation. tense.I B. The accidents of the verbs are: number. It's the first complete and systematic grammar in the West.This approach brings two consequences: y The interest of linguistics will be the written language.« This has become the standard way of analysing words. and they will ignore spoken language as a subject of investigation.«of written language is the most important thing in S. finals. the voice. which has case inflection. participle. All these are applied to classical Greek. His method had two steps: phonology and morphology (no syntax).
). He wrote a Latin grammar as a consequence of analogy/anomaly controversy. Within the Romans there was a moment of classicism (probably the most important moment in Grammar Priscian . This approach has the same consequences as the Alexandrians (the correct language is the written one and the idea this language was more correct than their own contemporary language). His opinion was that both extremes were wrong (there is regularity and irregularity. The work itself: it has 18 books. Before that. They wanted to describe the classical language (Cicero and Virgil.VI A. S. In The Middle Ages. Priscian translated the Greek terms into Latin. In these general aspects they were similar. there were other attempts.S. The high roman classes send their children to Greece to study. literature. The problem was that when that was transferred to English grammar. not the language of their own days. -Syndesmos: coni-unctio( syn-desmos) -Antonymia: pro-nomen (anto-nymia)
. On the whole. the same as in specific aspects. 500 A.«). Varro also anticipated the distinction between langue/parole (Saussure).D. Donatus was another important person. Maybe regularity is more present. Examples: onoma>the Greek name for noun / nomen>the Latin word (translation of onoma).Roman culture was influenced by Greek culture (art. Priscian is the key moment in classical grammar. the parts of speech can be transferred to Latin with no problem (verbs.«). verb. grammar is a part of philosophy and literary criticism (as in Greece). Priscian and Donatus wanted to describe the language of the best writer. 16 of these deal with morphology. This was possible because Latin and Greek were similar (from the structural point of view). The Greek grammar is an influence to the Latin grammar. nouns.C. the specialists will focus exclusively on the first 16 books (morphology). II and I B. Latin had no words yet to describe language matters (noun. He is the perfect example of taking over Greek grammar into Latin grammar. Therefore. but not one of these only). All the accidents were easy to put into Latin. Latin will have a very suitable terminology.). The Latin grammar repeated the organization that Dionysius said in his grammar.«). From then on.It's almost a repetition of Dionysius work (³Techné grammatiké´). the people thought that these categories were universal. these 18 books are an adaptation of Dionysius' work. and this is a key moment in the history of Linguistics. and the language that it's spoken by an individual (parole). the last 2 deal briefly with syntax. respectively). c. The analogy/anomaly controversy was also present among the Romans (Cesar wrote a tratado). especially in the field of terminology.D. He did the most complete description of Latin language of that period (³Institutiones Grammaticae´. He said that there were two types of language: the language in abstract (langue). In Rome. Varro is a contemporary of Dionysius. but we want to deal with one of this because of the originality and similarity: Varro.
but there were many ups and downs. Latin was the official language of the Christian Church. elitition through the monasteries and churches. the Middle Ages have a lot to offer in linguistics. The Church taught a more colloquial Latin. Later. dative-to friend. secondary). The kind of Latin is not classical Latin ( not like Cicero or Virgil). The nouns are natural (he said he had chosen the name of that use because is more frequent than the other uses). V-XI Centuries) It is true that the fall of Rome made a decline in culture.
. because they are pagan authors so their language is pagan too. He made a little change (the article is excluded.« There is a connection between the name and the frequent use (nominative. a period of splendour in general and that is what makes the Middle Ages slightly less relevant culturally than the other 2 periods. This image of darkness was destroyed little by little. These names are still used today. vocative-to a second person. the creation of a whole terminology from Greek to Latin. the universities. However. The church will be the sponsor of Latin scholarship. Linguistic study in the Early Middle Ages in the British Isles y General introduction to the period and the period's approach to language studies What are the Middle Ages? It's a period in the History of Europe and goes to the Fall of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance. accusative-to enemies. We call Middle Ages because it refers to the fact that is between two golden periods. Before the Middle Ages we have the Classical Antiquity. education. He was very close to Dionysius in this description. The nominative is called like this because it came in first place. This work is a key work in the Middle Ages and it is also the most important work of scholarship in Roman culture. Priscian also adopted the 8 parts of speech as Dionysius gave us. After the Middle Ages we have the Renaissance. We will focus on the 1st half of the Middle Ages (The DARK AGES first period in the Middle Ages. He described those 8 parts and their accidents (the formal accidents).This is the main merit of Priscian's work. They are not so dark in linguistic matters. The church adopted Latin. Priscian also said that the order of cases is natural (in noun declinations). It is like an interval. The rise or fall depends on the knowledge or lack of knowledge of Latin. EUROPE ENGLAND A key element in those ups and downs is the Latin language. The examples he gave came from Cicero and Virgil (this is the difference from Dionysius' work). less difficult. he changed it to the interjection). The fall of the Roman emperor happened in 476 BC.
It is an instrument for the education.
. We have 3 dialects. and many books mow more available through Latin. These Germanic Kingdoms were pagans since a Christian point of view. Those Germanic tribes didn't have political unity. Didactic and normative grammars will be based on Priscian and Donatus' works. English begin to write extensively. This teach you how to use Latin correctly. Language studies means Latin Studies. Not so many people can read or write in Latin. It was introduced the Roman Alphabet. Latin was being developed in other places. In the 8th century it is produced the Scandinavian Invasion. The study of Latin is the basis of medieval education. In the 7th century we have 7 different kingdoms with 7 different dialects of Old English + Celtic Native Speakers. A blossoming in learning was produced. norms and with rules about correct and incorrect uses. The Christianity brigs together with it a new language. They handle texts and learn it from them. Churches and monasteries were the places in where people learnt. for those people. so Germanic people had to learn Latin. a new language. y Linguistic study in the Early Middle Ages in England y The Linguistic situation in the island
Great Britain was a Celtic speaking island. The Christianism was very important for linguistics matters. Then colonised by the Romans (43-410 BC) They were 400 years. text book to learn Latin. The practical use of language is what they studied.It was also an instrument for secular transactions. but they become Christians little by little. For this reason they need Latin Manuals. Most of those manuals will be based on Priscian and Donatus. Latin was studied for itself and it was necessary to learn another matters. Latin is taught as a written language. This is another similarity to the Alexandrians. The Romans left and the British. DIDACTIC doesn't mean speculative (abstract). a new culture. a foreign language . In 597 Saint Agustine was send by the Pope to convert the Germanic tribes to the Christianity. In time the 7 kingdoms diminished in 3: Northumbria. The Germanic pushed the natives to the borders of the island( Welshmen: they all were called like this). There is a decline of learning because of the Scandinavian invasion. Mercia and Wessex. This is a link with the classical antiquity. Those tribes arrived and take over the island in the middle of the 5th century. the official form of Old English (west Saxon) It's the accepted form of Old English. They invited the Germanic tribes to help them. a new literature. The places of education disappear( churches an monasteries). In the 9th century King Alfred complained about this very bad cultural situation. These grammars are normative. These studies of Latin are the only studies of grammar and language in this period. Speculative grammars will come in the 2nd half of the Middle Ages. A Normative grammar means a grammar with rules. This is similar to what happened with the Alexandrians. The Romans had left England. Those Germanic kingdoms were isolated. Latin is now. The dialect spoken in Wessex is the standard. the native of the island had fights between themselves. Grammars books were grammars of Latin. It was a didactic (practical) and normative way of teaching Latin. Latin and conveys a new civilisation.
They were written in Latin. That is the organisation of the study of Latin in different levels. One more problem is that those manuscripts have characteristics that made them difficult. Philosophical matters. The problem is that there are not a lot of sources(manuscripts). no place of origin written on them. They learn the inflections. Normand«). The few texts that exist are very difficult even for specialists. Danish were rolling England and they brought their languages. they have no name. Latin was the language of scholarship. We have to wait until the 14th century to say that there is a National Language in England. What instruments did they have to teach? The teachers had the grammars of the Roman Antiquity(4-5th century). It was the language of knowledge. LATIN WAS AN INSTRUMENT OF EDUCATION. we have not very much. It will help Alfred in different ways. This reform was improved in learning and teaching Latin in the island. let's make those texts available with a translation into English. It was a moment of revival of knowledge. to promote culture in the island. Those very few available texts have been studied by scholars who were not linguistics (historians of education).King Alfred translated into English Cura Pastoralis and in the preface he complained about this situation: the lack of knowledge of Latin. With the Norman invasion started the 2nd period of the Middle Ages. After this period. In a more advanced level they were taught how to write texts. the religious services in Latin« Latin was imposed. It was spoken in all around Europe. You only learn in Latin. not only the religious matters. Those subjects were taught in Latin. There were a lot of languages (Old English. Latin was basic to live. The sacred texts were written in Latin.Priscian and Donatus were the most studied. Also commerce and administration were held in Latin. Nowadays we know very few of this period. Most of them are anonymous. Why is Latin taught? Latin was taught because it was taught in every Christian region. Religious moment started: THE BENEDICTINE REFORM. declensions and lists of vocabulary. Usually this period have been considered a dark period. Paleographs studied the way in they wrote. specially in foreign countries. that is a cultural and religious reform at the same time. The highest stage was the study of etymology of words /philology/. We know all these manuscripts were the product of the policy of the Church. in the 11th century we have a decline. Then they learn to comment literary texts in Latin. they did read those manuscripts. also Law. no date. He was a translator. All that influenced cultural education. He promotes a massive work of translation. Science. y Language study in the island: The Insular Grammar
This is the study of Latin grammar. Aelfric began to work under King Alfred's idea of translation. Latin was an international language. The importance is enormous.
. We do not have bibliography. How did they teach Latin at school? They began to study grammar in the school. All the important texts in their own language. We know very little about it. Children learn spelling and pronunciation of Latin words. Another reason. Scandinavian. If people can't read Latin. Those grammars were written for and to native speakers of Latin. It was the language of the Christian religion.
and they were called: Schulgrammatik Regulae The 1st type of grammar. They were made for a specific audience with specific means. The result of this is that the English began to write and compiled their own Latin Grammars. It treated the 8 parts of speech. y Insular Grammars
Many of the grammars the English compiled are similar to the classical models because they assumed the explanations and theories about the parts of speech. They don't appear in anywhere else. The Regulae is less systematic.We know that English people don't know how to speak Latin as native people. _ They are brief _ They are systematic expositions _ Morphology is the most important thing. In this grammars is contained information about literary texts. These are reference works. The grammars of Priscian and Donatus were no suitable for them. Virgil). y Grammatical models
They used two types of classical grammars.2. « those things were not interested in this information( a los ingleses). The Latin speaker who use those 2 types of grammar was looking for information on them which was not relevant for the new Latin speakers (English People) . We use both of these models to produce their own type of grammar. schulgrammatik is systematic (complete and with an order). to England. but not with all of them. The insular grammars can be divided in 2 types: The Elementary Grammar The Exegetical Grammar These are the two main grammars. The most important schulgrammatik example we know is Priscian. They deal with 1.3«parts of speech. They appear in England in the 7th century (the children of classical grammars). or nouns and verbs. The elementary grammars are specifically English. They needed to learn English in a practical way. It tries to be comprehensive. It is based on Priscian and Donatus. that they use as grammatical examples (Cicero. They are characterised by giving many lists of inflections. mythological and historical explanations. They also offers something new that makes them interesting. They focus on the nouns.
C. Then he became a priest and decided to leave England. Still we know enough to say they were very important not only in England also in the continent. 675-745). It is usual to find texts explaining the Bible. They're based on the formal aspects. As a child he went to a school monastery and then he went to another one with a higher level and there he became a teacher._ Paradigms give all the possible declensions and conjugations _ They see Latin as a pattern. His name is Winfreth but he received the name Boniface from the Pope (8th-c719). They wanted to do better versions of the Bible. in the South. because the level of Latin was higher to produce a less corrupted versions of the Bible.Boniface and the Praefatio ad Sigibertum
He's remembered as the man who Christianised what we call Germany today. But we know many things about Wynfreth Boniface(we know about him and his works. Before he was a missionary he wrote a Latin Grammar. All of these in England. y An Early medieval grammarian talks about grammar: Winfreth. They were also successful in the continent. In the 9th century the elementary grammar died because in the 9th-10th century there was a return to the classical grammars. _ They were successful for some centuries. These two types of grammars were introduced in the continent by missionaries( from England to the rest of Europe). They are commentaries on the classical grammars. Boniface is one of them. The exegetical grammars are less important. While he worked as a teacher he wrote a Latin grammar with his students who were also studying to be monks. He's also relevant because he wrote a Latin grammar in English(Old English). The reason is the difficulty of the manuscripts. As a missionary he first went to Holland and then to Germany. He was born in England in 675. In that grammar he includes a preface in the form of a letter where he tell us his methods to write the grammar. it takes place in the Carolingian Renaissance(9th and so on centuries) and from the Carolingian Empire it goes back to England. We know he was the missionary who brought Christianity to Germany from England. They are a type of text similar to the Bible commentary. less corrupted. They try to explain the classical texts(classical grammars) to help teachers and students to understand difficult classical texts. He is interesting because of his role in the consolidation on medieval grammatical ideas. He went to see the Pope several
. They went back to Priscian's. For us he is interesting for other reasons. In general we know very few of all the authors. Aelfric is another grammarian ( ð 1010). Priscian and Donatus. y English Grammarians at Works We know very little about English Grammarians of this period.
It was written before 719(but not much earlier).times for religious matters. With Boniface began the Benedictine Rule. the Latin irregularities. many paradigms. his works. but we can guess that date. In the grammar there is an acrostic poem (where the first letters of each line form a word. The grammar has a preface which is important. There is an anecdote about Latin in Europe. What authority did he feel writing a grammar of Latin being an English native speaker? Why did he feel the need to write a grammar since there were many grammatics available in that time? What type of people is he writing for? Which audience has Boniface in mind? (age. Boniface's Latin was more classical than Latin spoken in Rome. In the 9th century this grammar will be not used anymore. It is an exposition of his methodology of writing the grammar. knowledge«) How did he treat the classical grammars to do his own? He's respectful.
. y The Ars Bonifacii
We do not know when he wrote it. He did not feel very sure of what he was doing. The irregularities of that language. He follows VERBATIM(al pie de la letra). that anted to read« Many of those letters that received were written by lady friends of him. In England and outside of England. but it is also different from other elementary grammars. not Boniface yet. etc. It's remarkable. Then Boniface wrote down he wanted to say to the Pope. We know his name is Winfreth. in this case Winfreth). The Ars Bonifacii is an elementary grammar ( it deals with the 8 parts of speech. It is typical of this time. Pope's Latin was more vulgar. Boniface and the Pope did not understand each other speaking Latin. It's different because he uses sources( grammatical sources) that other contemporary grammarians did not use. he follows the words of the sources. Books that he had read. This Benedictine Rule was consolidated with the Carolingian Empire. We have those letters and they give us many information about him. criticised or not«. about the situation of that time. y The Preface
ISSUES OF AUTHORITY Boniface was a non native Latin speaker writing a grammar of Latin. for beginners«). It is a letter. This grammar was very influential. In 722 he had close meetings with the Pope. Boniface insist more than his contemporaries in the anomalies. He summarises. Roman and English Latin pronunciation were different. We also know he wrote many letters when he was in Germany. His name now is Winfreth. We have 3 manuscripts containing this grammar. religion. The name isPraefatio ad Sigibertum .
He is going to give us something new. originally. Donatus and Priscian). he says that grammarians should know how many parts the speech must have. He mentioned a lot of people. In the Middle Ages the more contemporary the worst. no title. He mentions people from the classical period that he did not use.more«depending on the grammarians). The idea of authority: in general Boniface shows he needs to use other people's works to stick closely. closer in time (Isidore of Seville). That kind of attitude is common in the medieval authors (humility.Boniface There was no need of writing a grammar because there were many of them. is something dangerous. Boniface in grammar feels embarrassed because of it. He will work with 121 or more sources. He wanted to do something new. Transfer the authority to other people.8«. The solution is to transfer the authority. How does he treat his sources? Sometimes he find that his sources do not agree in certain topics. This attitude is because he did not want transferring the embarrassment to the sources. Boniface choose one of these positions. He used the other people's works but he did not mention. with the classification of conjunctions. He will give us all the information in the text. Why did he want to put them together? He wants to do it for the special difficulty to read characteristics of Medieval manuscripts. Grammarians do not agree in the number of parts of speech ( 2«. pronouns«. Both things come together. Definitions and examples are taken from these sources. He wanted to select and write those selections to put it in one work. They don't have index. Why does he do it? The ones he omit are more contemporary. so he has lack of Latin confidence. It happens with the number of parts of speech. The influences are the classical grammarians (late Roman period 4th -5th Century. He did it because they have wrote authority. When we read the text he talks about he is not the best person to make a grammar of Latin. modesty«) they use it as an stylistic resource.( that's what Boniface wanted to do). He really feels not adecuated to do it.
. no page number. he wanted to gather all the existent grammars together. in that time.Is it a grammar for beginners or not? Winfreth. These works are less important than the older ones. Another reason is that novelty. no divisions « to help us to find information quickly. Boniface is speaker of Latin. He uses all those sources simultaneously jumping one to the other even within the sentence. The reason for all these must be found in his personal situation. but he didn't use all of them. grammatical authority.
In the preface there are some reasons of this.com/the-development-of-language-study-in-the-west. They didn't understand most of it was said. The goal of grammar: it's very clear in the text and is to improve people's understanding of religious texts. What kind of readers does he have in mind? His audience is Old English speakers. they were listening Latin in churches.html
. Being written in Latin is not one of those evidences. and explains it. They did not have direct contact with Latin speakers. He took separated words( dogma. But Boniface did not take passages from religious texts. They were Christians and they attended religious services and those were held in Latin . In this period it is common to see examples from religious texts. Some of the changes he did affects the terminology of the sources. According to him there is a different kind of written Latin in the Bible and the Latin of grammarians. genesis. The Bible is the correct. If one passage is not well written he do it well. The authority is not of ancient grammarians.rincondelvago. And this is the audience Boniface is writing for. apocalypse«)
http://html. The authority is the religious text. His sources use the term declinatio with two meanings: 1st inflexion of the word (rosa.He clarifies difficult passages that find in the grammars. Most of them don't literate in their own language. Ecclesiastical writers final authority. but it started to be familiar to them. Basically made of monks and nuns. The final word of grammarians is the religious text. This compensate the lack of native speakers of Latin. However there are some evidences to think his audience is not total beginners. But they have the need to learn Latin. rosae) 2nd type of declination or declension opposed to another. He changes the obscure words in the passages.