"Traditional Grammar" term is applied to summarize the range of methods found in the prelinguistic era of grammatical study.

The whole approach of this method emphasizes on correctness, linguistic purism, literary excellence, the priority of the written mode of language and the use of Latin models. The very beginning of the twentieth century was typically marked by a new approach to grammar as suggested by linguists such as Ferdinand de Saussure and American linguist like Frantz Boas, Bloomfield and Edward Sapir. Their approach is called structuralism whose aim was to arouse a reaction against the approach of the traditional grammarians. Traditional grammarians considered Latin as their model because English is a part of the Indo-European family of languages, and to which Latin and Greek also belong. It did have similar grammatical elements. If you study the form of traditional grammar, the rules of classical languages were followed considering that English did not have grammar of its own. And English followed Latin grammar. Besides the parts of speech, traditional grammatical analysis also makes use of numerous other categories, just like 'number', 'gender', 'person', 'tense' and 'voice'. For example, gender was not natural. It was grammatical in traditional grammar. As you see here "The man loves his bike". Gender, in this example, is used for describing the agreement between 'man' and 'his'. In English, you need to describe this relationship in terms of natural gender based upon a biological distinction between male and female. Such biological distinction is different compared to the common distinction found in languages which employ grammatical gender. Traditional grammar has some limitations as it occurs with some static verbs that do not occur in a progressive form, for instance "I am knowing" or in the imperative mood like "Know!" Traditional grammar sometimes fails to account for certain things like ambiguous sentences just like "While thinking about the queen the Honda hit the fence". Rakesh Patel has taught English literature for five years and now writes on education, literature and spirituality. For free guideline on English literature, feel free to visit http://englishliterature99.wordpress.com

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Traditional grammar has some limitations as it occurs with some static verbs that do not occur in a progressive form. therefore. the priority of the written mode of language and the use of Latin models. you need to describe this relationship in terms of natural gender based upon a biological distinction between male and female. traditional grammatical analysis also makes use of numerous other categories.html he development of language study in the West: Classical Antiquity . in this example.com/p/tradictional-grammar. If you study the form of traditional grammar." http://traditionalandpedagogicalgrammar. is perpetuating a historical model of what supposedly constitutes proper language. 'person'. for instance "I am knowing" or in the imperative mood like "Know!" Traditional grammar sometimes fails to account for certain things like ambiguous sentences just like "While thinking about the queen the Honda hit the fence". and to which Latin and Greek also belong. The very beginning of the twentieth century was typically marked by a new approach to grammar as suggested by linguists such as Ferdinand de Saussure and American linguist like Frantz Boas. according to a pre-established standard. Gender. the rules of classical languages were followed considering that English did not have grammar of its own. and we say that traditional grammar is prescriptive because it focuses on the distinction between what some people do with language and what they ought to do with it. The chief goal of traditional grammar. in conclusion.blogspot. we can define traditional grammar as The collection of prescriptive rules and concepts about the structure of language that is commonly taught in schools. It was grammatical in traditional grammar. Such biological distinction is different compared to the common distinction found in languages which employ grammatical gender. literary excellence. is used for describing the agreement between 'man' and 'his'. just like 'number'. Besides the parts of speech. The whole approach of this method emphasizes on correctness. It did have similar grammatical elements. 'tense' and 'voice'. linguistic purism. Bloomfield and Edward Sapir. gender was not natural. Their approach is called structuralism whose aim was to arouse a reaction against the approach of the traditional grammarians. Traditional grammarians considered Latin as their model because English is a part of the Indo-European family of languages. In English. For example. As you see here "The man loves his bike".com/?Traditional-Grammar---Studying-the-Approach-of-TraditionalGrammarians&id=1765312 So. And English followed Latin grammar.Rakesh Patel (2009) says that the Traditional Grammar term is applied to summarize the range of methods found in the pre-linguistic era of grammatical study. http://ezinearticles. 'gender'.

Dionysius Thrax belongs to this group. There are five: The very beginning ( up to Aristotle) 4th Century BC Systematisation of the tradition. adjective. Priscian is the most important figure. He will influence the scholars in England. and you can choose analogy or anomaly). The Ancient Greeks There are two dichotomies: Nature and convention Analogy and anomaly These dichotomies referred to positions (you can choose nature or convention. Priscian 6th AD. . In the 20th Century the structuralism begins and it is different from traditional grammar. The ideas are the same ( subject. * Nature/ convention The Greeks discuss whether the language was natural or conventional. Medieval Grammarians Renaissance Grammarians traditional grammar was definitely stablished. We have to distinguish several stages in traditional grammar. Stoics. This terminology is what we call TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR . It takes an order in the tradition. These periods affected Greek and Latin. Something like an agreement between men. Traditional grammar has last since Greeks until nowadays. Traditional Grammar is synonymous of Latin and Greek. Consolidation : it was stablished itself. All the terminology. verb. They are phylosophical concepts.Introduction Classical Antiquity ( Romans and Greeks). If language was conventional meant that is a custom. We talk about Romans and Greeks because all the languages come from these people. concepts« that we use today were created by the Greeks. ( 2nd Century BC) . If language was natural meant that the origin is outside the man himself. It could change. mood. Alexandrians. but in the West. aspect«). Everything began with the GREEKS.

. in English: to hoot( claxon) . etc. These words imitate the sound that you referred to. ANALOGY: The ones that defend analogy defend that language is regular. There are three: y Onomatopoeia: this group of words is the favourite of the naturalists because you can see clearly the connection. Those which defend that language is conventional are the conventionalists. to crash.symbols This refers to words that only are imitative in part. It remains the body's neck) Conventionalists say that these things haven't got a natural connection. For example. not in their whole. they try to justify with this. Those which defend that language is natural are the naturalists. Anomaly synonymous with irregularity. the rest of the words that cannot be explains with the other groups. The product of this dichotomy will be the development of scientist etymology. For Naturalists there are a few ways to prove the connection. Irregular there are many exceptions to those patterns. In some words we have one sound or two that is imitative. b) Sound..This distinction affects mainly to the relationship between the form of a word and the meaning of that word. This controversy discuss whether the language is regular or not. models which are repeated in language. Analogy synonymous with regularity. Ex: Metaphor : the neck of a bottle ( natural connection. that is to find the origin of the words. Regular there are a set of patterns. and when you listen to that sound it reminds you a word. There is the Principles of etymology . When they discuss onomatopoeia also began the etymology. (CAREW) * Analogy/ Anomaly This analogy/ anomaly dichotomy is a consequence of the nature convention of the controversy. Liquid flush flow water R expresses movement. This dispute will last for centuries. Run There are many words that don't fit in this two groups.

we will see it in the future. Ex: father: child = dog : X x = puppy For the analogyst the Greek language was full of this patterns.4th BC. They said the relationship between the form and the meaning of the word is anomalous. such as child = children. Ex: bar (chocolate. moral or not. * Greek Grammar: the beginning of the tradition 5th . place. They admit that there are regularities ( the anomalysts) . conjugations. They contribute in the grammar. One consequence of this controversy ( polémica ) is that this will help to the systematisation of grammar. This is anomalous. THE SOPHISTS They were teachers. . But their main emphasis is the semantic irregularities. It's such a regular thing..) (18th Century In English. girl/ girls. law«) This is another irregularity. This is a link between the two parts. Anomalysts say that the presence of irregularity demonstrate there is a natural thing ( the language). The language is irregular. Those patterns are known as PARADIGMS ( declensions. The analogyst's work is to establish the patterns in Greek to English. Child/ children anomaly. For example Athens is a plural noun referring to a singular entity. Synonymous: have two or more forms for one meaning. First steps to the creation of the terminology of the tradition of grammar. They were criticised because they taught how to defend a cause. It's conventional. they pointed out that there are a lot of examples of irregularities. as c is to d) boy: boys = cow: cows Boy: boys = cow: x x = cows They also established semantic equations. (justa o no) They teach how to win in debates.Ex: The final -s to make the plural(regular): boy/ boys. not only formal. cow/ cows This is one of the patterns that shows the regularity of the language.) They used formulas as in mathematics to set up the patters: A:B= C:B( a is to b. For analogysts language is the product of convention. The language is irregular. irregular. ox = oxen. Ex: row Homonymy: have one form and more than one meaning.

and things. There were correspondences between the actions and the tenses. Onoma can mean subject. Language is part of knowledge. III. Logic includes grammar to the stoics. and stoics defended it. He distinguished sentence types. affirmative. They are linking words. feminine.«. Plato is a conventionalist.II BC THE STOICS It's the school of philosophy that paid more attention to the language. The stoics are naturalists and therefore anomalysts. present actions. predicate. an analogyst. * Greek Grammar: 1st systematisation of the tradition. This is a 3rd class. nominal name Rhema can mean verb. Aristotle realised that there were more than one tense in the verbs: past actions. The meaning of a word is a convention. Category of time. Language has many irregularities. According to him the relation between onoma and rhema and their meanings is a product of convention. negative. Knowledge consists of ideas that agree with nature. . They were the main contribution to the grammar PLATO Plato's main contribution was the distinction between verbs and nouns. Rhema includes verbs and also adjectives. ARISTOTLE He'll keep the distinction of nouns and verbs. The stoics think that good conduct means to live in good harmony with nature. But Plato did not call it adjective. Onoma noun Rhema verb Onoma and rhema are the constituents of the logos ( sentence). but he added syndesmoi . Words are symbols created by men. They are the conjunctions. They studied language in their study of logic. Aristotle includes in syndesmoi all the words that are not nouns neither verbs. For him meaning is conventional. Aristotle is a conventionalist. interrogative.PROTAGORAS distinguished the three genders in Greek : masculine.

the one written by Homer. But they also add more parts to the parts of the speech(verb. they had to make the commentaries. but they were written in different types of Greek. Once they had the original version. noun. They couldn't understand the original texts. They studied the manuscripts that included ³The Iliad´ and ³The Odyssey´(S. They write grammars with both types of texts (classical and ³modern´) to preserve Greek from corruption and also. to explain the original Greek (classical authors).C. The Alexandrians: They were a group of philosophers that lived and worked in Alexandria. etc ) and they add the ARTICLE. In this period. Alexandria is well known because of its library. Alexandria and Pergamon were two cities that took the place of Athens in political and cultural aspects. and the grammar explanation of those texts.V B. What they did was to look for the original forms with natural connection.). . They decided to do this because they thought that the original/classic Greek was more correct than their own Greek (they thought that this one was corrupted). The original Greek was very different from the one they used in their time. And also the distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs. They wanted to find the original version. Its beginning was Aristotle's personal book collection. But the most important: Etymology. The city became the centre of literary and linguistic research. two key works in the world history were produced in Alexandria: -Euclid Elements -Grammar of Dionysius Thrax The study of language: the Alexandrians approached this study through literary texts.In the origin of language there was a natural connection between words and things. The distinction between the active and passive voice. This gave the chance to the people to read those texts. This connection is not evident today. They find many different versions of the manuscripts that contained those poems. It's the study of ETYMOLOGY The beginning of the science of etymology is their main contribution. The concept of case is a part of the inflexion. One more concept is the concept of inflexion which is the declensions and conjugations. especially those of Homer. These two purposes are important because they are the two main purposes of all the grammaticians of today.

In phonology we don't get any phonetic study.C.II B. finals. pronoun and preposition). They were obsessed with the regularity.ROMAN ADAPTATION OF GREEK GRAMMAR: the tradition consolidated. discover language etymologies. and they will ignore spoken language as a subject of investigation. tense.XVIII in England (See in previous lessons. conditionals. This idea of purity. . The noun is the part of speech. the one that is considered as the real Greek Grammar until our days.C. and he studied his own Greek with the application of the classical Greek. They are defined because of their accidents. The result of these efforts is: the Greek grammar will be definitely codify or systematize.«of written language is the most important thing in S. It's the first complete and systematic grammar in the West. It has 6 parts. person. study critically the compositions of poets. Dionysius (S. conjugation. Syntax is relevant because the most part of the grammars hadn't deal with it until Chomsky's work. mood. corruption. ³Technè Grammatikè´= Art of Grammar. the gender. Dionysius contributed with four more parts of speech to the list of four of the stoics: adverbs. All these are applied to classical Greek. The verb is the part without case inflection. His method had two steps: phonology and morphology (no syntax).« This has become the standard way of analysing words.. participle. The accidents of the verbs are: number. are three of this six parts. Nouns have five accidents.This approach brings two consequences: y The interest of linguistics will be the written language.). it's the study of the name of the Greeks letters and their different phonetic values (this is phonology). This is the Greek Grammar.«These used to be the names of the sentences. S. time. and it deals with syllables and words. the mood. kind and type. The study of language will give us the first description of language. They will give this regularity of Greek in a list in form of declinations and conjugations (paradigm). This four plus the other four is the standard now. Grammar (Dionysius): ³is the technical knowledge of the language employed by poets and writers´. There are seven types of conjunctions: copulatives. voice. discover analogies. These parts will be analysed by using the case. the number. They were analogists. Morphology is the main body of his work. Deal with the language of the previous era is something that Dionysius thought was important. Henry Sweet). y This is focused on written language as a more correct version of the language. the voice. whereas the spoken language is seen as a corruption of written language. causals.I B. 2. which has case inflection.

).S.D. Priscian translated the Greek terms into Latin. Priscian is the key moment in classical grammar. Examples: onoma>the Greek name for noun / nomen>the Latin word (translation of onoma).It's almost a repetition of Dionysius work (³Techné grammatiké´). the specialists will focus exclusively on the first 16 books (morphology).D. Within the Romans there was a moment of classicism (probably the most important moment in Grammar Priscian . They wanted to describe the classical language (Cicero and Virgil. there were other attempts. Varro also anticipated the distinction between langue/parole (Saussure). His opinion was that both extremes were wrong (there is regularity and irregularity. the last 2 deal briefly with syntax. In these general aspects they were similar.«). This was possible because Latin and Greek were similar (from the structural point of view). Priscian and Donatus wanted to describe the language of the best writer.VI A. This approach has the same consequences as the Alexandrians (the correct language is the written one and the idea this language was more correct than their own contemporary language). All the accidents were easy to put into Latin. -Syndesmos: coni-unctio( syn-desmos) -Antonymia: pro-nomen (anto-nymia) . The problem was that when that was transferred to English grammar. In Rome. grammar is a part of philosophy and literary criticism (as in Greece). On the whole. Maybe regularity is more present. He wrote a Latin grammar as a consequence of analogy/anomaly controversy.«). but not one of these only). The high roman classes send their children to Greece to study. In The Middle Ages.Roman culture was influenced by Greek culture (art.). The Greek grammar is an influence to the Latin grammar. S. the parts of speech can be transferred to Latin with no problem (verbs. Latin had no words yet to describe language matters (noun. The analogy/anomaly controversy was also present among the Romans (Cesar wrote a tratado). and the language that it's spoken by an individual (parole). He said that there were two types of language: the language in abstract (langue). From then on. the people thought that these categories were universal. especially in the field of terminology. Varro is a contemporary of Dionysius.C. c. The work itself: it has 18 books. these 18 books are an adaptation of Dionysius' work. respectively). verb. 500 A. Donatus was another important person. nouns.«). the same as in specific aspects. II and I B. He did the most complete description of Latin language of that period (³Institutiones Grammaticae´. literature. He is the perfect example of taking over Greek grammar into Latin grammar. not the language of their own days. Before that. but we want to deal with one of this because of the originality and similarity: Varro. Therefore. The Latin grammar repeated the organization that Dionysius said in his grammar. 16 of these deal with morphology. and this is a key moment in the history of Linguistics. Latin will have a very suitable terminology.

The nominative is called like this because it came in first place. Priscian also said that the order of cases is natural (in noun declinations). The kind of Latin is not classical Latin ( not like Cicero or Virgil). We will focus on the 1st half of the Middle Ages (The DARK AGES first period in the Middle Ages. The Church taught a more colloquial Latin. He described those 8 parts and their accidents (the formal accidents). This image of darkness was destroyed little by little. The church adopted Latin. Priscian also adopted the 8 parts of speech as Dionysius gave us. The rise or fall depends on the knowledge or lack of knowledge of Latin. This work is a key work in the Middle Ages and it is also the most important work of scholarship in Roman culture. These names are still used today. he changed it to the interjection). dative-to friend. The examples he gave came from Cicero and Virgil (this is the difference from Dionysius' work). the creation of a whole terminology from Greek to Latin. a period of splendour in general and that is what makes the Middle Ages slightly less relevant culturally than the other 2 periods. education.« There is a connection between the name and the frequent use (nominative. the universities. elitition through the monasteries and churches. The nouns are natural (he said he had chosen the name of that use because is more frequent than the other uses). Before the Middle Ages we have the Classical Antiquity. less difficult. It is like an interval. After the Middle Ages we have the Renaissance. but there were many ups and downs. EUROPE ENGLAND A key element in those ups and downs is the Latin language. He was very close to Dionysius in this description. accusative-to enemies. because they are pagan authors so their language is pagan too. the Middle Ages have a lot to offer in linguistics. The fall of the Roman emperor happened in 476 BC. . We call Middle Ages because it refers to the fact that is between two golden periods. secondary). He made a little change (the article is excluded. Latin was the official language of the Christian Church. Later.This is the main merit of Priscian's work. However. Linguistic study in the Early Middle Ages in the British Isles y General introduction to the period and the period's approach to language studies What are the Middle Ages? It's a period in the History of Europe and goes to the Fall of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance. V-XI Centuries) It is true that the fall of Rome made a decline in culture. vocative-to a second person. The church will be the sponsor of Latin scholarship. They are not so dark in linguistic matters.

The Germanic pushed the natives to the borders of the island( Welshmen: they all were called like this). Those Germanic kingdoms were isolated. In 597 Saint Agustine was send by the Pope to convert the Germanic tribes to the Christianity. The Romans had left England. The study of Latin is the basis of medieval education.It was also an instrument for secular transactions. for those people. The places of education disappear( churches an monasteries). The dialect spoken in Wessex is the standard. Latin and conveys a new civilisation. In the 9th century King Alfred complained about this very bad cultural situation. The Romans left and the British. It was introduced the Roman Alphabet. They invited the Germanic tribes to help them. The practical use of language is what they studied. Latin is taught as a written language. but they become Christians little by little. These grammars are normative. DIDACTIC doesn't mean speculative (abstract). the native of the island had fights between themselves. a new culture. Grammars books were grammars of Latin. Churches and monasteries were the places in where people learnt. They handle texts and learn it from them. Language studies means Latin Studies. Speculative grammars will come in the 2nd half of the Middle Ages. English begin to write extensively. so Germanic people had to learn Latin. We have 3 dialects. In the 7th century we have 7 different kingdoms with 7 different dialects of Old English + Celtic Native Speakers. The Christianity brigs together with it a new language. These studies of Latin are the only studies of grammar and language in this period. a foreign language . This is another similarity to the Alexandrians. Those Germanic tribes didn't have political unity. a new literature. Latin is now. . It was a didactic (practical) and normative way of teaching Latin. Those tribes arrived and take over the island in the middle of the 5th century. Mercia and Wessex. In time the 7 kingdoms diminished in 3: Northumbria. There is a decline of learning because of the Scandinavian invasion. Didactic and normative grammars will be based on Priscian and Donatus' works. The Christianism was very important for linguistics matters. y Linguistic study in the Early Middle Ages in England y The Linguistic situation in the island Great Britain was a Celtic speaking island. A Normative grammar means a grammar with rules. These Germanic Kingdoms were pagans since a Christian point of view. and many books mow more available through Latin. For this reason they need Latin Manuals. Latin was being developed in other places. This is similar to what happened with the Alexandrians. A blossoming in learning was produced. This teach you how to use Latin correctly. This is a link with the classical antiquity. Latin was studied for itself and it was necessary to learn another matters. Then colonised by the Romans (43-410 BC) They were 400 years. the official form of Old English (west Saxon) It's the accepted form of Old English. norms and with rules about correct and incorrect uses. a new language. text book to learn Latin. Not so many people can read or write in Latin. In the 8th century it is produced the Scandinavian Invasion. It is an instrument for the education. Most of those manuals will be based on Priscian and Donatus.

How did they teach Latin at school? They began to study grammar in the school. They were written in Latin. Scandinavian. One more problem is that those manuscripts have characteristics that made them difficult. Religious moment started: THE BENEDICTINE REFORM. It was spoken in all around Europe. He was a translator. Philosophical matters. Nowadays we know very few of this period. It was a moment of revival of knowledge. They learn the inflections. The sacred texts were written in Latin. Aelfric began to work under King Alfred's idea of translation. Those subjects were taught in Latin.King Alfred translated into English Cura Pastoralis and in the preface he complained about this situation: the lack of knowledge of Latin. Latin was the language of scholarship. Science. Latin was an international language. After this period. in the 11th century we have a decline. The few texts that exist are very difficult even for specialists. He promotes a massive work of translation. the religious services in Latin« Latin was imposed. What instruments did they have to teach? The teachers had the grammars of the Roman Antiquity(4-5th century). We do not have bibliography. Those grammars were written for and to native speakers of Latin. There were a lot of languages (Old English. Most of them are anonymous. Then they learn to comment literary texts in Latin. In a more advanced level they were taught how to write texts. . If people can't read Latin. declensions and lists of vocabulary. Paleographs studied the way in they wrote. Also commerce and administration were held in Latin. We know very little about it. specially in foreign countries. It will help Alfred in different ways. That is the organisation of the study of Latin in different levels. that is a cultural and religious reform at the same time. All the important texts in their own language. they have no name. we have not very much. to promote culture in the island. With the Norman invasion started the 2nd period of the Middle Ages. Danish were rolling England and they brought their languages. no date. Normand«). All that influenced cultural education. It was the language of the Christian religion. no place of origin written on them. not only the religious matters. also Law. Latin was basic to live. The importance is enormous. The highest stage was the study of etymology of words /philology/. We have to wait until the 14th century to say that there is a National Language in England. This reform was improved in learning and teaching Latin in the island. Children learn spelling and pronunciation of Latin words. We know all these manuscripts were the product of the policy of the Church. It was the language of knowledge.Priscian and Donatus were the most studied. Usually this period have been considered a dark period. The problem is that there are not a lot of sources(manuscripts). let's make those texts available with a translation into English. LATIN WAS AN INSTRUMENT OF EDUCATION. You only learn in Latin. Why is Latin taught? Latin was taught because it was taught in every Christian region. y Language study in the island: The Insular Grammar This is the study of Latin grammar. Another reason. Those very few available texts have been studied by scholars who were not linguistics (historians of education). they did read those manuscripts.

In this grammars is contained information about literary texts. The result of this is that the English began to write and compiled their own Latin Grammars. They are characterised by giving many lists of inflections. The Latin speaker who use those 2 types of grammar was looking for information on them which was not relevant for the new Latin speakers (English People) . The grammars of Priscian and Donatus were no suitable for them. that they use as grammatical examples (Cicero. or nouns and verbs. y Insular Grammars Many of the grammars the English compiled are similar to the classical models because they assumed the explanations and theories about the parts of speech. Virgil). It treated the 8 parts of speech. to England. « those things were not interested in this information( a los ingleses). They focus on the nouns. The insular grammars can be divided in 2 types: The Elementary Grammar The Exegetical Grammar These are the two main grammars. They were made for a specific audience with specific means. It tries to be comprehensive. y Grammatical models They used two types of classical grammars. They also offers something new that makes them interesting. The Regulae is less systematic. It is based on Priscian and Donatus. _ They are brief _ They are systematic expositions _ Morphology is the most important thing. We use both of these models to produce their own type of grammar. They appear in England in the 7th century (the children of classical grammars). . They deal with 1.We know that English people don't know how to speak Latin as native people. schulgrammatik is systematic (complete and with an order).2. mythological and historical explanations. but not with all of them. and they were called: Schulgrammatik Regulae The 1st type of grammar. The most important schulgrammatik example we know is Priscian. They needed to learn English in a practical way. These are reference works. The elementary grammars are specifically English. They don't appear in anywhere else.3«parts of speech.

Then he became a priest and decided to leave England._ Paradigms give all the possible declensions and conjugations _ They see Latin as a pattern. But we know many things about Wynfreth Boniface(we know about him and his works. In the 9th century the elementary grammar died because in the 9th-10th century there was a return to the classical grammars. We know he was the missionary who brought Christianity to Germany from England. It is usual to find texts explaining the Bible. He went to see the Pope several . Boniface is one of them. y An Early medieval grammarian talks about grammar: Winfreth. Aelfric is another grammarian ( ð 1010). They are a type of text similar to the Bible commentary. because the level of Latin was higher to produce a less corrupted versions of the Bible. They were also successful in the continent. They went back to Priscian's. in the South. They are commentaries on the classical grammars. Priscian and Donatus. They're based on the formal aspects. He's also relevant because he wrote a Latin grammar in English(Old English). They wanted to do better versions of the Bible.Boniface and the Praefatio ad Sigibertum He's remembered as the man who Christianised what we call Germany today. _ They were successful for some centuries. While he worked as a teacher he wrote a Latin grammar with his students who were also studying to be monks. These two types of grammars were introduced in the continent by missionaries( from England to the rest of Europe). In general we know very few of all the authors. All of these in England. C. 675-745). The exegetical grammars are less important. Still we know enough to say they were very important not only in England also in the continent. For us he is interesting for other reasons. As a child he went to a school monastery and then he went to another one with a higher level and there he became a teacher. They try to explain the classical texts(classical grammars) to help teachers and students to understand difficult classical texts. As a missionary he first went to Holland and then to Germany. He was born in England in 675. He is interesting because of his role in the consolidation on medieval grammatical ideas. it takes place in the Carolingian Renaissance(9th and so on centuries) and from the Carolingian Empire it goes back to England. Before he was a missionary he wrote a Latin Grammar. y English Grammarians at Works We know very little about English Grammarians of this period. less corrupted. His name is Winfreth but he received the name Boniface from the Pope (8th-c719). In that grammar he includes a preface in the form of a letter where he tell us his methods to write the grammar. The reason is the difficulty of the manuscripts.

y The Preface ISSUES OF AUTHORITY Boniface was a non native Latin speaker writing a grammar of Latin. The grammar has a preface which is important. Boniface's Latin was more classical than Latin spoken in Rome. We also know he wrote many letters when he was in Germany. We know his name is Winfreth. criticised or not«. many paradigms. It is a letter. What authority did he feel writing a grammar of Latin being an English native speaker? Why did he feel the need to write a grammar since there were many grammatics available in that time? What type of people is he writing for? Which audience has Boniface in mind? (age. In 722 he had close meetings with the Pope. not Boniface yet. Books that he had read.times for religious matters. y The Ars Bonifacii We do not know when he wrote it. he follows the words of the sources. Roman and English Latin pronunciation were different. His name now is Winfreth. It's different because he uses sources( grammatical sources) that other contemporary grammarians did not use. The name isPraefatio ad Sigibertum . With Boniface began the Benedictine Rule. The Ars Bonifacii is an elementary grammar ( it deals with the 8 parts of speech. in this case Winfreth). In the grammar there is an acrostic poem (where the first letters of each line form a word. There is an anecdote about Latin in Europe. It is an exposition of his methodology of writing the grammar. Boniface and the Pope did not understand each other speaking Latin. . but it is also different from other elementary grammars. This grammar was very influential. This Benedictine Rule was consolidated with the Carolingian Empire. knowledge«) How did he treat the classical grammars to do his own? He's respectful. He follows VERBATIM(al pie de la letra). that anted to read« Many of those letters that received were written by lady friends of him. He summarises. He did not feel very sure of what he was doing. religion. It is typical of this time. Then Boniface wrote down he wanted to say to the Pope. Pope's Latin was more vulgar. The irregularities of that language. but we can guess that date. etc. In the 9th century this grammar will be not used anymore. It was written before 719(but not much earlier). for beginners«). We have 3 manuscripts containing this grammar. his works. the Latin irregularities. We have those letters and they give us many information about him. It's remarkable. Boniface insist more than his contemporaries in the anomalies. In England and outside of England. about the situation of that time.

no title. modesty«) they use it as an stylistic resource. He used the other people's works but he did not mention. Both things come together. closer in time (Isidore of Seville). That kind of attitude is common in the medieval authors (humility. He mentions people from the classical period that he did not use. no divisions « to help us to find information quickly. He will work with 121 or more sources. The influences are the classical grammarians (late Roman period 4th -5th Century. It happens with the number of parts of speech.Boniface There was no need of writing a grammar because there were many of them. Boniface choose one of these positions. The solution is to transfer the authority. He wanted to select and write those selections to put it in one work. He uses all those sources simultaneously jumping one to the other even within the sentence. no page number. The reason for all these must be found in his personal situation. He mentioned a lot of people. When we read the text he talks about he is not the best person to make a grammar of Latin. is something dangerous. pronouns«. he wanted to gather all the existent grammars together. He will give us all the information in the text. They don't have index. These works are less important than the older ones. Transfer the authority to other people. He wanted to do something new. Another reason is that novelty. Grammarians do not agree in the number of parts of speech ( 2«. Definitions and examples are taken from these sources. How does he treat his sources? Sometimes he find that his sources do not agree in certain topics. grammatical authority. he says that grammarians should know how many parts the speech must have. in that time. so he has lack of Latin confidence.8«. but he didn't use all of them. Boniface is speaker of Latin. This attitude is because he did not want transferring the embarrassment to the sources. Donatus and Priscian).Is it a grammar for beginners or not? Winfreth.more«depending on the grammarians). He did it because they have wrote authority. He really feels not adecuated to do it. In the Middle Ages the more contemporary the worst. . He is going to give us something new. with the classification of conjunctions. Boniface in grammar feels embarrassed because of it. Why does he do it? The ones he omit are more contemporary. originally. Why did he want to put them together? He wants to do it for the special difficulty to read characteristics of Medieval manuscripts. The idea of authority: in general Boniface shows he needs to use other people's works to stick closely.( that's what Boniface wanted to do).

But they have the need to learn Latin.com/the-development-of-language-study-in-the-west. Ecclesiastical writers final authority. And this is the audience Boniface is writing for. Basically made of monks and nuns. In the preface there are some reasons of this. They didn't understand most of it was said. What kind of readers does he have in mind? His audience is Old English speakers. He took separated words( dogma. rosae) 2nd type of declination or declension opposed to another. apocalypse«) http://html. Being written in Latin is not one of those evidences. But Boniface did not take passages from religious texts.html . The goal of grammar: it's very clear in the text and is to improve people's understanding of religious texts. He changes the obscure words in the passages. The final word of grammarians is the religious text. genesis. His sources use the term declinatio with two meanings: 1st inflexion of the word (rosa. They did not have direct contact with Latin speakers. Most of them don't literate in their own language. They were Christians and they attended religious services and those were held in Latin . According to him there is a different kind of written Latin in the Bible and the Latin of grammarians. and explains it. In this period it is common to see examples from religious texts. If one passage is not well written he do it well.He clarifies difficult passages that find in the grammars. However there are some evidences to think his audience is not total beginners.rincondelvago. The authority is not of ancient grammarians. Some of the changes he did affects the terminology of the sources. they were listening Latin in churches. The authority is the religious text. This compensate the lack of native speakers of Latin. but it started to be familiar to them. The Bible is the correct.

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