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ONLINE TRANSPORT BOOKING SYSTEM

BADARIAH BINTI MOHAMAD

This report is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Bachelor of
Computer Science (Software Development)

FACULTY OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY


UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA
2007
ABSTRACT

Online Transport Booking System is basically a database information system is


used multi-user environment concept through the client or server networks. The main
objective of this system is for tidy up which have in system management and slippery
record the process to make more systematic about the transport booking system. The
system is focused on management about booking of transport at Politeknik Kota Kuala
Terengganu (PKKT). Before that, PKKT only use a traditional system such as use a
form to make their booking. So, a traditional system have a many problems occur to the
user and management where the user must fill in the booking form first and then must
see Head of Department to get a approval. If the Head of Department approve the
booking, the user must go to Development Department to get an approval from Director
or Official Executive. So, this problem can be solved with Online Transport Booking
System where the user just sitting in front of computer to make a booking via Internet.
Here, the user must enter the right "username" and "password". After that, Main Menu
will appear at the screen where the user can choose either to check transport schedule,
booking or check booking status. So, the user can make the booking with easier and time
can be saved. Besides that, the system can creates a report and show the statistic about
transport booking that helps user such as Development Department to manage the
booking of transport more efficiency. The methodology being applied in this system is
the Object Oriented Analysis and Design (OOAD) methodology. With the development
at this system it is hope that the transport management can manage the transport booking
very easy and quickly.
ABSTRAK

Online Transport Booking System adalah merupakan satu sistem maklumat


pangkalan data yang menggunakan konsep persekitaran berbilang pengguna melalui
rangkaian pelanggan atau pelayan. Tujuan utama pembangunan sistem ini adalah untuk
memperkemaskan sistem pengurusan yang sedia ada dan melicinkan lagi proses
merekodkan data mengenai tempahan kenderaan dengan lebih sistematik. Sistem ini
difokuskan kepada tempahan kenderaan jabatan di Politeknik Kota Kuala Terengganu
(PKKT). Sebelum ini, PKKT hanya menggunakan kaedah tradisional iaitu dengan
menggunakan borang untuk membuat tempahan kenderaan. Oleh itu, kaedah tradisional
ini mendatangkan masalah kepada pengguna dan pihak pengumsan di mana pengguna
perlu mangisi borang tempahan terlebih dahulu kemudian perlu berjumpa dengan Ketua
Jabatan untuk mendapatkan kelulusan. Sekiranya Ketua Jabatan telah meluluskan
tempahan tersebut, pengguna perlu menghantar borang tempahan tersebut ke Pejabat
Pembangunan untuk mendapatkan kelulusan daripada Pengarah atau Ketua Eksekutif.
Oleh itu, masalah ini tidak akan timbul lagi dengan adanya Online Transport Booking
System di mana pengguna hanya duduk di hadapan komputer untuk membuat tempahan
melalui Internet. Di sini, pengguna hanya perlu memasukkan nama pengguna dan kata
laluan yang betul. Seterusnya menu pilihan akan terpapar pada skrin di mana pengguna
boleh membuat pilihan samada hendak semak jadual kenderaan, membuat tempahan dan
semak status tempahan. Dengan adanya sistem ini, pengguna dapat membuat tempahan
dengan mudah dan menjimatkan masa. Selain daripada itu, sistem ini juga menyediakan
laporan dan paparan statistik mengenai tempahan kenderaan yang akan membantu
pengguna iaitu Bahagian Pembangunan dalam mengumskan tempahan kenderaan
dengan lebih efisyen. Metodologi, Analisa dan Rekabentuk berdasarkan Objek diguna
pakai bagi membangunkan Online Transport Booking System. Dengan terciptanya
sistem ini, diharapkan pihak pengurusan kenderaan dapat mengumskan tempahan
dengan lebih mudah dan cepat.
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Project Background

Nowadays, information system has integrated their locality as a catalyst to


successful management at organization. In this development, a computerize system is
implemented to record all information about Transport Booking System systematically.
As what that informs, human being is one important asset and dominant to determine
successful in organization. They will be developing all the plan that has ruled by
administrator either the plan are strategic, technical or operation.

Online Transport Booking System will be developed at Politeknik Kota Kuala


Terengganu (PKKT) to make sure the user can make their booking process of the
transport online with facilities provided by this system. As what that informs, at PKKT
there are many type of transports such as car, van, four wheel and bus. This transport can
be use for outside activities. The user who wants to use the transport must make an
application to book the transport. The users are staffs of PKKT. Therefore, this system
has very important security aspect controlled by administrator.

In the booking function, user can check whether there are available transport or
not and can check their booking status. Another function is for administration part of the
system. The function is to approve the transport booking, transport and driver record
management and producing reports and show the statistic of the transport booking by
month.

Hopefully, Online Transport Booking System can be realized and the user can
uses this system easily and systematically. After that, PKKT not lag in a current
technology in effort to become a High Education Institution which is developed from
infrastructure and also academic.

1.2 Problem Statement

Before Online Transport Booking System is develop, Politeknik Kota Kuala


Terengganu (PKKT) is not using any system to record all information about the
transport booking, but only use a manual system based on paper to make a booking and
record all information about the transport and driver by using a manual filing system.
Therefore, Online Transport Booking System is developed to replace a manual system to
a computerize system.

The manual filing system has many problems for the users and administrators at
PKKT. These problems occurred because the application for a transport booking uses a
form and is stored in a file. So, the form in a file will increase from time to time and the
management also hard to find the form. As what the writer know, file is not having a
security and a probability the file will lost is very high. So, a manual filing system is not
safe to store all the data or information about the transport booking.

Besides, application to make a transport booking also takes a long time because
the user who wants to make a transport booking must go to administration office and fill
the manual form. After that, the user must take a signature from the director to get the
approved from her or him. Comparing with Online Transport'Booking System, the user
can just only seat in front of computer with the internet and can make a transport
booking online.

The manual filing system is also not systematic because information is difficult
to retrieve. For example, if the users want to check whether there is available transport
for them to book. So, Online Transport Booking System will develop to become a
management about transport booking more systematic.

1.3 Objective

Objectives to be achieved from suggestion project are:-

i. To make the transport booking become easier. It is because the application to


make a transport booking can make by online. The user also does not have to go
to management department to make the transport booking.

ii. Increase information management where the admin easily to get the information
about the transport booking.

iii. Increase data integrity in database with safety. This is because only administrator
can see and use the information in database.

iv. To provide the system that can show the availability of the transport usage.

v. Eliminate the lost document or file (destroyed or misplaced) where a


management to make a transport booking not necessary to use a form and it also
store in database in computer.
vi. To have a user-friendly system which is the "Human Computer Interaction"
principles is applied to make it a perfect system. Besides, the user would not feel
regret because of all the information about transport booking is provided in one
window sight. The online Transport Booking System is very easy to use without
any problems and developed with simple interface.

1.4 Scope

It is focused to user who want use this system, what platform that want to use
and what functionality from the system.

i. User

Online Transport Booking System only is focused to staffs such as staff


(applicant), Head of Department, Clerk, Director and Executive Officer at
Politeknik Kota Kuala Terengganu (PKKT).

ii. Platform

Online Transport Booking System used Internet Explorer 5 (IE).

iii. Functionality

The main functionality of the Online Transport Booking System is a booking


process. This means users can checks the transport status that is available or
not before booking the transport on the date that they want. After that, users
can enter the booking information about transport such as type of transport,
transport booking's date, location, number of passenger and who is booking.
Besides that, the user also can check the latest status of their application
either approves or not approve and can cancel their booking.
The system will check whether the requested transport and driver is available
or not. If not available it will pop up message to the user and the application
is rejected.

After booking data is inserted, Head of Department can approve before it is


send to Development Department.

Besides that, admin can see statistic about transport booking by month in
graph-

* Admin also can view the report about the usage of the transport for given
date or duration.

1.5 Project Significance

Online Transport Booking System is believed to bring lots of benefit to its users
and admin at PKKT. The benefit is the users can make a transport booking more easily.
It is because users just enter the information to make an application about transport
booking by online. The users also don't have to go management department to make a
transport booking. Beside that, users also don't have to use a paper to fill in the form but
just enter the information about transport booking in computer by online the web site.
This way also can safe the user's time.

While for admin can help management of the information. The admin do not
have to check the availability of the transport because it is check automatically by the
system. The admin can get the information about the transport booking such as who
want to book the transport, what type of transport, what location and how long time
duration of booking. After that, admin can make a report and show the statistic about
transport that is booked by month via the system. So, data integrity in database will be
increased with safety because only admin can use and see the information in database.

1.6 Expected Output

From this system, the expected output is the system that can offer Online
Transport Booking System. Before make a transport booking, the user also can check the
transport schedule either transport available or not on the date. Besides that, this system
provides online form for the user, automatic checking for transport booking and also
generate report for the management side.

1.7 Conclusion

As a conclusion, Online Transport Booking System will be develop and is


believed to make a transport booking process very easy. To develop this system, file are
still used as a reference to yield a system that give satisfied to the user. Consistent with
expand of technology and arrangement infrastructure at P m , hence this system are
developed to tidy up management system available and improve a booking system about
transport information. After that, PKKT not lag in a current technology in effort to
become a High Education Institution which is developed from infrastructure and also
academic. The next chapter will discuss about the project literature review and project
methodology regarding the proposed system.
CHAPTER I1

LITERATURE RIVIEW AND PROJECT METHODOLOGY

2.1 Introduction

This chapter describes about literature review and methodology to develop the
Online Transport Booking System. A literature review is a body of text that aims to
review the critical points of current knowledge on a particular topic. This means, the
chapter will explore on area covered by Online Transport Booking System, which at best
will provide definitions and framework for a piece of research on Online Transport
Booking System.

Methodology is defined as a body of methods, rules and postulates employed by


a discipline or a particular procedure or set of procedures. The use of methodology helps
to produce a better quality product to ensure that user requirements are met completely.
Besides that, a good methodology chosen will be a systematic guidance on how to
develop software successfully, where the guidance manifest with proven approaches,
best practices, guideline, techniques and sequences.
2.2 Facts and Finding

2.2.1 Domain

Transport booking is a process where the user has to make an application to use
the transport that is available at the company. It is because to ensure each of transport
journeys recorded all information about the user who is using the transport, what type of
transport that they will be used, how long time they used the transport and where the
place they will go.

Normally, transport booking can make if the user want to use the transport that is
available at the company follow the type of transport, location, date and time. The user
must book before use the transport do three day before date of departure. It is to ensure
the transport that they want to use is available or not on the date and duration. The
administrator also can see the information about transport booking.

2.2.2 Existing System

In this part, the topic being discussed is about comparing an existing system that
is being used with the system that will develop, which is the Online Transport Booking
System. The system that is similar with Online Transport Booking System that writer
proposed are STAD Transportation Unit at Multimedia University (MMU) and Rule of
Management, Uses and University Transportation Managing at Universiti Malaysia
Sabah (UMS)

i. STAD Transportation Unit at Multimedia University (MMU)

STAD Transportation Unit provides comprete integrated solutions


designed to help the STAD Transportation Unit to improve their management to
become more systematic and efficient. At the STAD Transportation Unit, the
booking can make by online and have the transport rules and regulations such as
booking University's vehicles, exclusion of charge and additional clauses.

STAD Transportation can be used by student. Toll fare and parking fare
are to be borne by the clubs, societies or the students involved. The policy to
make a booking should be done at least seven days before the departure date.
Then, the transportation booking form can be accessed at STAD's homepage and
the student must recheck the status of the application three days after submitting
the application. The success of each transport booking is based on the first come
first serve basis. The ASP software and SQL server is used to develop the
system.

For trips organized by faculties, the toll fare, parking fees and transport
charges are to be borne by the faculties concerned. Transfer pricing will be
arranged for this matter. The exclusion of charge includes student or group of
students who will be excluded from the charge (transport charges, toll fare and
parking fare) are MMU's representatives, State's representatives, National level
team sent by MMU and Group of students who get exclusive written permission
from the Director of STAD based on very strong grounds.

For this system, the user must enter the username and password to login
to the system. If the login is succeeding, the main menu is appearing. After that,
the user can choose either want to make a booking or to check the booking
status. If the user chooses to make a booking, the user must enter the booking
information. The user also can check the booking status to make sure the
booking application are approved or not approve by the administrator. After the
booking is approval by administrator, the user can go to the STAD to make a
payment. All bookings will be charged a cash deposit.
ii. Rule of Management, Uses and University Transportation Managing at
Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS)

University transportation that mean is a transport that is registered on the


name of Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS). The transport use that is managed via
local area that is limited for a formal function only. Beside that, for a not formal
function the approval to use is conquered to the conditions which are permanent
that are determined. The University also has categories the formal function and
not formal function that can deliberate for using the transport. The formal
function is such as activity for academic, student and management like
department family day and staff visit.

This system is developing by using the Visual Basic.Net software. The


functionality for this system is the user must enter the right username and
password. After that, the user must choose either want to make a booking or to
check the booking status. It is easily for the user because the booking for using
the transport can make by online. It is also have a policy to make a booking such
as the booking only can make by the staff. All the application can make seven
day before the date that want to use the transport. Then, the transportation
booking form can be accessed at homepage and the user must recheck the status
of the application three days after submitting the form.

The successful application of each transport booking is based on the first


come first serve basis. Then, the transports that are used must be charged. All the
charged is for buying the transport manages and driver cost.
Table 2.1: Comparison about Online Transport Booking System and STAD
Transportation Unit
Online Transport STAD University
Booking System Transportation Transportation
Unit Managing
1. Online booking system Yes Yes Yes
2. Duration of booking Yes Yes Yes
3. Produce report Yes No No
4. Recheck booking status Yes Yes Yes
5. Payment No Yes Yes
6. User system Staff Student Staff
7. Show booking static Yes No No

2.2.2.1 Summary

From the existing system that are referred to develop Online Transport Booking
System, the writer can make a summary where each system that are developed have an
own rules that must be followed by the user. Same with the Online Transport Booking
System also have a rule to make the system more efficient and easy to use. For all of
this, the writer sees all the aspect that is used in the existing system. But not all the
aspect in the existing system is followed because the user also must looks at the
requirement where the system is needed.

For develop the Online Transport Booking System, the writer follows the way to
make a booking in the existing system but enhance a few modules to this system. For
Online Transport Booking System, the writer improve the existing system and add a few
module such as the user can check the transport schedule to make sure the transport is
available or not at the date or time that the user want. After that, the administrator also
can see the report. And the last module is the user can see the statistic about the transport
usage or not usage by month or year and by department. This entire module is
developing to make sure the Online Transport Booking System is more systematic and
efficient. Next, the user also is easily to use this system.

2.2.3 Technique

In this part, the techniques here refer to the way of booking the transport needed
in developing the Online Transport Booking System. One of the techniques used is by
observing the process make to find the current system that similar with Online Transport
Booking System. There are some similar systems that use the same technique, MIS to be
compared with the Online Transport Booking System.

Management Information Systems (MIS) is the application of information


technology to support business activities. To develop information systems that fill users'
needs, MIS professionals must understand organizational structures, business objectives,
and business operations (including processes and the flow of data between processes),
how to communicate effectively with users, and how to design systems that support their
activities. MIS professionals must also stay up-to-date with evolving information
technologies and have a solid foundation of technical skills to select appropriate
technologies and to implement computer-based information systems.

The some of the requirements for MIS are:

i. Create business applications in an event-driven programming language (such as


Visual Basic) including the development of user interfaces, use of controls,
writingldebugging code, and the creation of interactive menus.

..
11. Apply data modeling techniques (such as normalization and ER diagramming) to
create a database model.
iii. Implement a database model in a relational database management system (such
as SQL or Access) including the creation of tables, establishing referential
integrity constraints, loading data, creating views, and producing forms and
reports using database data.

iv. Select and apply appropriate systems analysis and design techniques to create a
system design for a business process including systems development planning,
requirements determination and analysis, and datalprocess modeling.

v. Use modern application development products as prototyping tools in the


systems development process.

This project will follow MIS requirements as it is developed a system that


support business activities.

2.3 Project Methodology

In this system Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (OOAD) approach is chosen


to develop the Online Transport Booking System, although there are many types of
methodologies available as it provides more advantages compared with other
methodologies.

In developing the Online Transport Booking, object oriented approach for


software development process used is the V-model. The V-model is a graphical
representation of the system development lifecycle. It summarizes the main steps to be
taken in conjunction with the corresponding deliverables within computerized system
validation framework.
The left tail of the V-model represents the specification stream where the system
specifications are defined. The right tail of the V represents the testing stream where the
systems is being tested (against the specifications defined on the left-tail). The bottom of
the V where the tails meets represents the development stream.

Requirement Analysis Acceptance Tests

Analysis & Preliminary Integration & System


Design Tests

Detailed Design b
Unit Tests

Coding & Debugging

Figure 2.1: The V-shape Model


2.3.1 OOAD Phase

2.3.1.1 Planning

The planning stage establishes a bird's eye view of the intended system, and uses
this to establish the basic project structure, evaluate feasibility and risks associated with
the system and describe appropriate management and technical approaches.

Discussion is done within team members to decide the feasibility of the Online
Transport Booking System. Apart from that, continuous research on internet sources is
done to study on the current transport booking system. After deciding on building the
Online Transport Booking System, supervisor approval of the system is seek

In order to get a more detailed and clear understanding of how the current
transport booking system works, the writer conduct a field study. The writer also went to
Politeknik Kota Kuala Terengganu (PKKT) to interview the officer at management
department and ask for their permission to show the writer a form that is uses transport
booking system.

2.3.1.2 Requirement Analysis

Requirement analysis is a term that collectively describes the early phases of


systems development. Information requirement analysis is those development phases in
a project that primarily focus on the business problem, independent of any technology
that can or will be used to implement a solution to that problem.

During this stage, research is done to determine the system requirements. The
current transport booking system is studied in order to analyze the advantage and
disadvantage of the current system. Therefore, a new feature and functions are added to
the current transport booking system to improve the transport booking system
performance.

2.3.1.3 Analysis & Preliminary Design

Basically two analyses are carried out. First is analysis on the current system and
second is analysis on the system that will be developed. The analysis on the system to be
developed is important to ensure that developers understand what to be done in the next
stage. Functional requirements are identified and are presented using Unified Modeling
Language (UML).These includes the use cases and sequence diagrams.

For the preliminary design, the interface of the Online Transport Booking
System is designed. In interface design, we were needed to ensure that the system is a
user-friendly and interactive system. The interface design must be consistent and
interesting within the system requirements such as colour combining and fonts. This is
because interface design is important to web base environment in attract users. We also
have to fulfill the user requirement especially the procedures in handling the system
operation. Apart from that, system architecture, class diagram, sequence diagram and
use cases are discussed within supervisor.

23.1.4 Detailed Design

Design elements describe the desired system features in detail and generally
include functional hierarchy diagrams, screen layout diagrams, business rules, business
process diagrams and class diagram. These design elements are intended to describe the
software in sufficient detail that programmers may develop the system with minimal
additional input.
2.3.1.5 Coding & Debugging

After requirements and detailed design is specified, the coding for the system is
developed. After every 500 lines of codes are coded, debugging process is carried out to
detect error and fix it immediately. The purpose of debugging is to reduce error and to
ensure the system will be executed successfully.

2.3.1.6 Unit Tests

Programmers perform unit tests to assess the functionality of small modules of


code. Unit tests will be done to ensure Online Transport Booking System works on the
intended platform and with the expected results when specific action is taken.

2.3.1.7 Integration & System Tests

The Online Transport Booking System is tested to ensure that interfaces


available works when specific action is taken and the simulation between modules
works when user take an action.

2.3.1.8 Acceptance Tests

After the system has completed, it will be presented to supervisor, assessor and
public to ensure the Online Transport Booking System meets user requirements and is
feasible.
2.4 Project Requirement

Below are defined the specific project requirement in terms of software and
hardware to develop the Online Transport Booking System.

2.4.1 Software Requirement

Software requirements mention the software applications and programming


languages that are needed for the development of the project.

i. Operating System (Microsoft Window XP)

Used for software development purposes.

ii. Macromedia Dreamweaver MX

Macromedia's Dreamweaver MX is the leading Web production tool for both


Windows and Macintosh. Macromedia Dreamweaver MX is a professional
HTML editor for designing, coding, and developing websites, web pages and
web applications. Whether enjoy the control of hand-coding HTML or prefer to
work in a visual editing environment, Dreamweaver MX provides with helpful
tools to enhance web creation experience.

iii. MySQL Relational Database Management System


MySQL used to store the proposed system data. Apache is the best because
works fine in any operating system. It is extremely quick and amazingly stable.
Web server has seemed to be a fairly straightforward job, where it sits running on
top of operating system. The Apache Web server is the most popular Web server.
Apache is the best because works fine in any operating system. It is extremely
quick and amazingly stable.
iv. PHP 4.0 Application

PHP 4.0 works as well on as wide a variety of systems. It is a cross-platform and


accesses everything application program language beside of being constantly
improved.

v. Adobe Photoshop 7.0

Adobe Photoshop is hands down, the most popular program for creating and
modifying images for the web. Photoshop is only one tool in a good designer's
arsenal.

vi. Server (Internet Information Service - 11s)

The server is used to increase web site and application availability.

2.4.2 Hardware Requirement

i. Computer
The personal computer that is used to develop this system is Intel Pentium 4 with
CPU 1.80 GHz and 352 MI3 of RAM.

2.4.3 Other Requirement

i. Network - Internet Explorer (IE)


2.5 Project Schedule and Milestones

In project management, a schedule consists of a project's terminal elements with


intended start and finish dates. A Gantt chart was created to provide a graphical
representation of the project schedule on Online Transport Booking System to define the
start and completion of the project.

Table 2.2: Project Schedule


Activity Start Date End Date Result
1) PSMI
Submit the complete title Week 2 Week 2 . Complete Proposal
suggestion to supervisor to 18/05/2007 18/05/2007 form.
approve.
Completing Chapter Introduction Week 2 Week 3 .Report of Introduction,
(Chapter I), Literature Review and 14/05/2007 25/05/2007 Literature Review &
Project Methodology (Chapter 11) Project Methodology
and assessment improvement Progress report
project progress by supervisor. planning project.
Analysis requirement and complete Week 4 Week 5 Analysis report
analysis report (Chapter 111). 28/05/2007 08/06/2007 ~ n a l y s i report
s
progress
Preliminary Design and complete Week 6 Week 6 Preliminary Design
the Preliminary Design report 11/06/2007 15/06/2007 report
(Chapter JV)and project Preliminary Design
assessment approval progress. Progress report
Complete and submit PSM I report Week 7 Week 7 THREE copies of PSM
18/06/2007 22/06/2007 I report (for supervisor,
Assessor and
Translator)
PSM I Presentation and assessment Week 8 Week 8 Presentation
25/06/2007 26/06/2007 Assessment
Final report PSM I
2) PSM I1
Completing and submit the Detail Week 1 Week 4 . Complete and submit
Design report (Chapter IV) 09/07/2007 03/08/2007 Detail Design report
Project assessment Week 11 Week 11 Determine student
17/09/2007 21/09/2007 status
Completing Chapter Week 5 Week 12 . Complete and submit
Implementation (Chapter V) and 10/09/2007 28/09/2007 Implementation and
Testing (Chapter VI) Testing report
Complete and submit report (draft) Week 13 Week 13 . PSM I1 Report (draft)
02/10/2007 05/10/2007
Project assessment Week 14 Week 14 . Determine student
8/10/2007 17/10/2007 status
PSM I1 Presentation and Week 16 Week 16 . Presentation
assessment 20/10/2007 26/10/2007 Assessment
Final report PSM I1

2.6 Conclusion

As a conclusion, the literature review is an exploration of an area, which the best


definition and a framework for piece of research. A good methodology chosen with
correct project planning will ensure a systematic approach into completing the system.
The both of it are very important to study the current of existing work. The next chapter
will discuss about the analysis regarding the proposed system.
ANALYSIS

3.1 Introduction

Analysis is a phase where it answers the question of who use the system, what
the system will do and where and when it will be used. During this phase, the current
system of transport booking is investigated, identify the improvement opportunities and
develop a concept for the new system of the transport booking. Analysis begins with a
strategy to analyze the current system and its problems and the ways to design a new
system.

Analysis about the current system for transport booking was conducted through
collecting information through brainstorming, interview, and observation, discussion
with supervisor and friends and researching current websites. The information is
gathered very important in the analysis to determine the requirements for Online
Transport Booking System.
3.2 Problem Analysis

The Problem Analysis will discuss about the current system scenario. After
doing some research, writer has found out that there are some problems using the
manual system. Even though there are only few problems, but it may affect the users and
also people who responsible to manage the booking system.

First problem that was identified is data lost. It is because to make a transport
booking a paper form is used and it is stored in a file. Possibilities of data losses while in
the process of approval are high. It is also hard to avoid unexpected thing such as fire
disaster. If the data are kept on paper, to make backup for the data is impossible.

There are also problems to the users when the process to make a booking takes
long time. It is because users must go to Administration Office and fill the booking
form. After that, the user must see the Head of Department and get permission. After
that, users also must see the Clerk at Administration Office to check the booking date.
Clerk will check the transport and driver schedule. Then users must see Director or
Executive Officer to get permission. If the Director or Executive Officer signs the form,
the booking application is approval.

Data integrity is also one of the problem occur when using the manual system. It
is occumng when the clerk may insert the wrong information about the booking
application. For example the user wants to book the bus at Saturday but the clerk key in
the form at Sunday. So the situation is the clerk key in the wrong booking data. The
clerk also hard to find the transport is available or not on that date. It is because the
manual system not has a transport schedule. So probability to the data a redundant will
be occurred in the manual system.
Start

4
Staff takes a booking form at Administration Office

4
Input: Bookinglrequest information

.c
Head of department permission

No

Send booking form to Administration Office

Yes

Development Unit Permission

4
Clerk check the transport schedule

No
4

Clerk check the driver

No
4

Get permission from Director or Executive Officer

No
4

Output: Application approval

Figure 3.1: Flow Chart for the Current System Process