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Radiometric Distortions in RS

Images and Their Correction


EREG RS Core Module
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
(With
(With data
data from
from C.
C. Pohl
Pohl and
and E.
E. Schetselaar)
Schetselaar)

Dr.
Dr.
1
Tsehaie
Tsehaie Woldai
Woldai EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Content

z Introduction
z Radiometric Distortions
z Optical Case

z Radar Case

z Atmospheric Effects
z Correction Methods

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Dr.
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Tsehaie
Tsehaie Woldai
Woldai EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Image Distortions

z Distortions (errors) in RS images


z radiometric Topic of this lecture!
z geometric
z Radiometry influenced by
z season
z atmosphere
z sensor
z Geometry influenced by
z satellite configuration
z sensor viewing geometry
z observed terrain

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Dr.
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Tsehaie
Tsehaie Woldai
Woldai EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Image Distortions

z Distortions (errors) in RS images (optical


systems)

z Radiometric
‰ System errors minimized by cosmetic
corrections

‰ Atmospheric distortions minimized by atmospheric


corrections

z Geometric minimized by geometric


corrections

Dr.
Dr.
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Tsehaie
Tsehaie Woldai
Woldai EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Radiometric Distortion

z What is a radiometric distortion?


z It’s an error that influences the radiance or radiometric value
of a scene element (pixel).
z Why?
z Signal travelling through atmosphere; atmosphere affects the
signal
z Sun illumination influences radiometric values
z Seasonal changes affect radiometric values
z Sensor failures or system noise affects values
z Terrain influences radiance
º Multi-temporal or multi-sensor analysis requires
corrected images
Dr.
Dr.
5
Tsehaie
Tsehaie Woldai
Woldai EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Radiometric Distortion
~ Optical Case ~

z Sensor noise or failures

z Seasonal variations

z Effect often neglectable due to larger


influence of atmospheric effects

Dr.
Dr.
6
Tsehaie
Tsehaie Woldai
Woldai EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Sensor noise and failures (1)
(Eg., a whiskbroom Landsat-TM Scanning Pattern)
16 detectors scan the scene alternating from left to right and
back by use of an oscillating mirror

At any time 100 detectors are operating simultaneously (6x16 VNIR plus
1x4 TIR).
Dr.
Dr.
7
Tsehaie
Tsehaie Woldai
Woldai EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Sensor noise and failures (2)

Types of sensor noise and failures

1. Line Striping

2. Periodic line drop outs

3. Random or spike noise

Dr.
Dr.
8
Tsehaie
Tsehaie Woldai
Woldai EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
1. Line Striping

Cause:
non-identical response of one or more detectors
resulting from drift in response after calibration of
the detectors

Correction method (one of them):

1. Compute the histogram of one detector as standard

2. Match the histograms of the other detectors to the


histogram of the standard detector

Dr.
Dr.
9
Tsehaie
Tsehaie Woldai
Woldai EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Line Striping

Striping De-striped

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
10 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Line Striping
Landsat TM Example

Striping De-striped

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
11 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Line Striping
SPOT XS Example

Striping De-striped

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
12 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Line Striping The amplitude of every sixth line is multiplied
by a factor of 0.5 to produce the correct digital
value from which the restored image is plotted.

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
13 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
2. (Periodic) line drop outs

Cause:
z erroneous radiance values for pixels, lines or
areas
z defective scanner, transmission, receiving or
media system
Correction method:
z Correction by repetition of neighbouring values
or averaging or,
z The amplitude of every sixth line is
multiplied by a factor of 0.5 to produce the
correct digital value from which the restored
image is plotted.

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
14 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Line drop outs
Original

Line drop-out

Corrected

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
15 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Line Drop-outs (Landsat ETM data)

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
16 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Line Drop-outs

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
17 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Line drop outs
Dropped Signal - Example

(CCRS Remote Sensing Tutorial)

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
18 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
3. Random noise or spikes

Cause: Transmission errors or


temporary disturbances

Correction method:

1. Detect spike by comparing DN with DN of its


surrounding pixels (neighbours)

2. Replace DN with DN value interpolated from


the surrounding pixels

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
19 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Random noise or spikes

Example of Spikes in Landsat MSS

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
20 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Random noise or spikes
Example of correcting for ‘spikes’

5
6
Image with spike

De-spiked image

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Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
21 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Microwave Backscatter

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Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
22 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Radiometric Effects –
SAR Case
z Speckle
z ‘Salt and pepper effect’
z Effect of surface roughness and system factors in
image production
z Accounts for interference contribution of individual
scatterers
z It is a random and multiplicative effect

z Correction methods
z Multi-look processing
z Averaging
z Filtering

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Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
23 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Correction Methods –

z Multi-look processing
z Movement of sensor - receive backscattered signal
from one target several times
z Create several images (=looks)
z Average images to produce ‘multi-look’ image

z Spatial averaging
z Use full resolution single look image
z Apply low-pass filter

z Speckle filter
z Smooth homogenous areas, preserve edges

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
24 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
SAR Speckle

ERS-1 SAR original ERS-1 SAR filtered


(Pohl, 1996)
Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
25 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
SAR Speckle

Original Image Filtered image

Speckle reduction
(G. Huurneman, ITC)

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
26 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Atmospheric Effects
Radiation Principles
Sun

Sun

I nc
I nc
i de
nt e
ide
ner
R.S. Instrument
R.S. Instrument

gy
nt
ene

Atmospheric absorption
Atmosperic absortion
y rg

Scattered
radiation

Scattered radiation Atmospheric

Atmospheric
emission
Cloud Cloud
Direct
radiation
Direct radiation emission
Thermal
emission

Thermal emission
Scattered radiation
Scattered
radiation
Reflected
radiation

(T. Woldai, ITC)

Earth
EARTH Reflection
Reflectionprocesses
processes Emission processes
Emission processes

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
27 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
28 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Interactions with Atmosphere

z Measurement of Radiance by Optical


Sensors
z Sun is source of radiation
z EMR is reflected by the Earth (amount
depends on reflectivity or albedo of Earth surface)
z Radiation has to pass atmosphere 2x
à Interaction with Atmosphere:
° Scattering
± Absorption

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
29 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Interaction with Atmosphere - 2

z Regions relatively free from effects


= Atmospheric Windows
z Depending on wavelength
z Adds haze to the image
= image looses contrast*
z Scattering & Absorption
= Attenuation or Extinction
* Contrast = Ratio between brightest and darkest areas
Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
30 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Atmospheric Effects

Absorption Scattering

(CCRS Remote Sensing Tutorial)

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
31 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Absorption

z Gases absorb radiation


z Water vapour

z Carbon dioxide

z Ozone

Í Remote Sensing in absorption bands is impossible.

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
32 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Scattering

z Selective
z Affects specific wavelengths

z Examples
– Rayleigh Scattering
– Mie Scattering
z Non-Selective
z Wavelength independent

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Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
33 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Atmospheric Effects
Selective Scattering

θ1
Blue light

Particle smaller thanλ blue

Red light
θ2 (T. Woldai, ITC)

Rayleigh principle (the shorter the wavelength, the greater the scattering)
Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
34 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Atmospheric Effects
Rayleigh Scattering causes blue skies during daytime and red skies at sunset

Sun

B
G
R
Atmosphere
Blue sky

Earth Day time

Rayleigh Scattering
Sunset

Blue Sun
(T. Woldai, ITC)
Earth Red

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Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
35 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Mie-scattering

z Mie scattering occurs when the wavelength of the


incoming radiation is similar in size to the
atmospheric particles (e.g., aerosols: a mixture of
gases, water vapor and dust).

z Mie scattering is restricted to the lower atmosphere


where larger particles are more abundant.

z It influences the entire spectral region from the


near ultra-violet up to and including the NIR.

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
36 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Selective Scattering in Water

W
hit
el
igh
B t
Blue light G
R

HO
2
(T. Woldai, ITC)

= colloidal particles less than 1 micron


Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
37 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Atmospheric Effects

Non-selective scattering is
Non-Selective Scattering independent of wavelength, with
all wavelengths scattered about
equally. The most prominent
example includes the effect of
clouds (consisting of water
droplets). Since all wavelengths
are scattered equally, a cloud
appears white.

(CCRS Remote Sensing Tutorial)


Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
38 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Deleterious Factors of Cloud
Cover
Su
n
sensor ra
n
d ian
utio ce
ri b
c ont
i an ce
rad
ud Zone of
Clo no penetration

e
n
zo
Cloud
Cloud

ow
ad
Sh

(T. Woldai, ITC)

Earth Shadow
Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
39 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Atmospheric effects

z Skylight
z Sun radiance is scattered in the direction of the
Earth surface by small particles and molecules in
the atmosphere
z Can cause increase in radiance received at the
sensor
z Multiplicative effect
z Correction
z Multiplication with factor of stable feature in time

z Equalization of images for multiple dates

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
40 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Atmospheric effects

z Haze
z Sun radiance is scattered in the direction of the
sensor by small particles and molecules in the
atmosphere
z Can cause increase in radiance received at the
sensor
z Correction (approximation)
z Select object that absorbs all radiance (e.g. water
body); ideal DN = 0
z Due to haze DN ≠ 0; subtract radiance value from
all pixels

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
41 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Haze – Example (Indonesia)

Haze Effect Corrected Image

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
42 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Haze Correction
Dark object subtraction method

Assumption: infrared bands are not affected by Haze

• Identify black bodies: clear water and shadow zones with


zero reflectance in the infrared bands

• Identify DN values at shorter wavelength bands of the


same pixel positions. These DN are entirely due to haze

• Subtract the minimum of the DN values related to black


bodies of a particular band from all the pixel values of that
band

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
43 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Effects of Sun Illumination

z Position of sun
zSun elevation (sun-
angle)
z Sun - earth distance

z Correction elevation
z Division of each pixel
value by the sine of
solar elevation angle
for particular time and
location per spectral
band
z Correction distance
z Sun irradiance
decreases with
square of distance

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
44 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Effects of Sun Illumination

¾ Corrections are needed to compensate


for sun illumination variations resulting
from different scene acquisition dates

Applications

z Change detection studies

z Mosaics

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
45 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Correction for seasonal
variations in Sun illumination

z Sun angle correction DN


DN ' =
SIN (α )

z Earth-Sun distance correction


2
  2π (d − 93.5)  
DN ' = DN 1 + 0.00167 sin   
  365 

Where d is the day number in a year

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
46 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Skylight Correction

Dateref

Fref
θi =
Fa
Datea
D' i = θi × Di
BandVIS

Fref
Fa

BandNIR
Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
47 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Summary Radiometric
Correction
z We need to correct for atmospheric effects, variations
in sun illumination and system defects

z Atmospheric correction is the most complex


correction

z In many cases only haze correction is applied (dark


object subtraction)

z If we want to relate RS data with field spectrometric


measurements we need to apply full atmospheric
corrections, taking into account wavelength
dependent factors, such as diffuse sky irradiance,
transmission coefficients, path radiance and sensor
calibration coefficients

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
48 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
References

z Bakx, W. (1995): “An introduction to digital image


processing”, ITC Lecture Note RSD 65.
z Schreier, G. (1993): “SAR Geocoding: Data and
Systems”, Karlsruhe: Wichmann, ISBN 3-87907-247-
7, 435 pages.
z Wageningen UR, 1999,
http://www.gis.wau.nl/cgirs/projects/rsbasics/overview.htm
z CCRS Remote Sensing Tutorial:
http://www.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/ccrs/eduref/tutorial/tutore.html

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
49 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction
Further Reading

z Richards, J.A., Remote sensing digital image analysis: an introduction,


2nd revised and enlarged edition, Berlin etc. - Springer Verlag, 1993,
ISBN 3-540-54840-8.
z Lillesand, T.M. and Kiefer, R.W., Remote Sensing and Image
Interpretation, 3rd Ed., 1993, J. Wiley & Sons, 720 pp.
z Jensen, J.R. & Schill, S.R. (1999): The Remote Sensing Core
Curiculum, Vol. 3, Digital Image Processing,
http://www.cla.sc.edu/geog/rslab/rsccnew/rscc-frames.html
z Mather, P.M., Computer Processing of Remotely-Sensed Images: an
Introduction, Wiley: New York 1999, ISBN 0-471-98550-3

Dr.
Dr. Tsehaie Woldai
50 Tsehaie Woldai
EREG
EREG Module
Module 2,3,4
2,3,4 Radiometric
Radiometric Correction
Correction