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Chapter 4 Alienation and Anomie' Both Mavs and Durkheim were profound eres ofindustal society in inetvothceatry Europe, What is siking is the markedly diferent bse of ther evleisms ofthe ils of thir scits, whic can best be RStkht out bya cart consideration ofthe diferent assumptions and plications that belong to the two concepts of lenation and anomie, tnich they rexpetivey employed. These concepts were elaborated by Uhetwo inkers in ther eas wetings and remain malic as basic “id incael elements in ther developed social theories. Thus a study of ihe aitering perpecives wich they manifest sould be fut. 1 ‘hal argues frst, that they are both socio psychological concept, GMhodslng hypotheses about specie relationships between social ‘Sonu and advil peychological states; second that they ier frciely inthe srt of bypotheses they embody; and hr tht this ‘ierence derives in pact from fundamental dvergeace in the views of human nature they presuppose. Fourth, I shall examine the natare of that divergence, and in pariclar the extent to which the dispute an Cmpical one. T shall conslde by asking 10 what extent such roaches tothe analysis of city remain relevant and important today. Fes however, Ines to make the negative pat that contemporary see ofthe notions of alienation and anomie, while csiming to detive from Mars and Durkiim, are oot for our purposes uel starting: Alienation and Anole % point. ‘Alienation’ in particular has achieved considerable and Iidespread contemporary currency, but it has bscome debaved in onsequence Is erent resonance foe eo-Marxs thinkers in both the West and the Eat, or existentialist philosophers and theologians, for pryhisrists and industrial sociologist, for dnacing artists and incletuals and stadent res, has meant that it has een widely txtended and altered inthe interests of a number of contemporary ‘preoccupations; sa rem the core of Maras concept hasbeen lost? "nomi has been les widely used, but it too has achieved a new le within American social since. Ta particular, Robert Merton's paper ‘Soria Structure and Anorie™ published 1938 has edo an extensive Teratte of concepval refinement and empiial research, chilly oncetned with ‘eviane” in allt forms? But here to, much ofthe ‘rnal meaning of the concept has bees Tost; inparticla, most writers have followed Merton in discarding Dutkhsim’s theory of human nature. Furthermore modern versions of these concepts vary widely inthe ange ofthe erpiceal ference i the work of sociologists they are ‘often taken as synonymous or else ones taken tobe a subtype of the ‘the, Thus Netler, Seeman and Seot in recent aempts to develop typolotee of alienation count anomie at variant, whe Sroe counts tlenation as a variant of anomie® Worse, there has been endless dispute inthe case of both concepts about whether they are to be taken ts sovilgical or payehoogieal or as socio-psychologeal an, i the last in what see, Thus Merton defines ‘the sociological concept of frome” as ‘a breakdown in the cultural structure, occurring paricularly when there lean acute dajunction between the eukral oem and goals and the scialy structured capacities of members of| the eroup to act in accord with them? and Robin Wiliams observes that ‘Anomie as a social condition hast be defined independently of the payebolpie! states thought 10 accompany normlessaes and formative conic’ wl, for example, Riestnan, Maclver, Lasswell td Sole take i to refer to a sate af mind! Sima, ‘lenton’ is Sometines taker to rele to an objective social onion, which st be iene independently of people's figs and belief, as nthe work ff Lakacs and those who flow him: men lve within ‘ed? and “Talshist socal ors andthe ta it precio o make them conscious oftheir history, whic i ‘in part the product, evidently unconscious inl now, ofthe atvty of men themlves, and in part the saccesion ofthe processes in which th forme ofthis activity, the relations of man 6 Pots and Soceey wit inset it ature and with other men) are transformed? onthe (ther and, very many writers take ainaton tobe a tae of mind for ‘ramp, estentalst writers, theoloplans, psychiatrists, American Sociologist). One writer even takes allenation to be synonymous with feostration of any Kid, arguing that ies in every direction of human taperience where basic motional desires fasted." ‘Concepts can embody hypotheses and, in the case of these two ‘concep, en the Foeus is soeolgial there is frequently assumed to bea prychologal correlate, and vice versa. Thus, for example, Meton ‘assis the psychological sats resting from sociological anomie, ‘whe others ake assumptions about the aca causes of psychological “nome; siilri, Marat eosiologits make assumptions about the pychologcal eects of lente soil forms, while for example, Exe Fromm sees the psychological state of alcation as a funtion of market soit. "A basic unclrity thus existe sbout the range of reference of ach of those concepts and, even wbete the concepts are clearly sed toembody hypotheses about featonshpe between social conditions and mental fines the very diversity of auch hypotheses makes an analytical Somparion ofthe concepts i her madern forms unmanageable in Short space. Where asnton” can mean anything fom “bureaveratic fas which tif inative and deprive individuals fal eommuneation tong thenselves and of al information about he instationsin which they are situated" fo "a mode of experience in which the person perience himelf xan alien’! and where ‘anomie’ can extend from the malintegration ofthe cultural and soa structre tothe sate of Inia of one who hasbeen plled up by bis moral oot then he ie fas come ster to abandon the concepts or return to ther origins for sidance, ‘Marx disinguishes four aspects of alienated labour: (1) the reation- ship of the worker to the produc of labour as an alien objest which ‘inate i’ Thus, dhe more the worker expends himself in work the ‘nore powerful becomes the world of objet whic he creates in face of himself the poorer be Bosomes in is nae fe, andthe est he belongs to imsel (2) the lationship of labour to the acto production’ with theres that ‘the work sextrnatothe worker, haiti no part his atures and that consequently, he does nt fll mse nhs work but tenes himsl has afeting of misery rather than welbeing, does not develop fealy his menial aed. physical energies but is physically Alienation and Anonte n ‘exhausted and mentally debased, The worker, therefore, els inset home ony during his Iieure ime, whereas at work he Fels homes. His work isnot voluntary but imposed, forced labour. Iis not the satisfaction ofa ned, bat only means fr sasying oer needs (3) “The alienation of mah from hms a a ‘species ing rom i own sive funtion, hislife activity’ whichis, contious sci" Man ‘thus allonated from his own body, external nature hismena ie and ‘is uma if’) The llenaion of man Tom other men When man confronts himself he also confronts oer men ..in the relationship of| ‘nated labour every man regards other men according 10 the standards and rlaionships in which he finds himself placed as a trorker® Social relations ‘are not relations between individual and Individual, but between worker and captalst, been farmes and landrd te Further, men's ves are vided up ino dierent spheres of activity, where confictng standards apply: The nature of abeation implies that each sphere applies dierent and contradictory nor that ‘morality does not apply the same norm a8 polieal economy, te, bocause each of them is 4 parcularalention of man; each is concentrated upon a specific area of allonated activity and is itself ‘inated rom the ther” “Alention’ thos refers 10 the relationship of the indivi to ements of his sci! and natural enironment and to his tate mind, ‘or relationship with himself. Marx contends that the division of labour... mpoverises the worker and makes him into a machine, [hat] the division oflabour ofersusthe fest example ‘of ow aa’s own deed becomes an sien power opposed hin, Which enslaves him instead ofbeing controled by him. For as sn as Tabour is dsributed, each man haba particular exclsive sphere of stivity, which forced upon him and fm which he eanno escape. In sondions where men must work forthe increase of wealth abour is “harmful and deleerious';the division f labour, which developsin such condtions, causes the worker to become “even more comply ‘dependent. poe & particular extremly one sided mecharical kind of labour All the aspects ofalenation are seen t deve fom the ‘worker’ role in production: hs view of his work, is product, the institutions of his society, other men and timselt. In general, the capitalist economie apitem perfects the worker and degrades the ma ‘Thus Marrs socio payeological hypothesis conceaing alienation is that it inereses in proportion tothe growing division of labour under 8 Polis and Socety capitals, where men are forced to confine themselves to performing fpciased Functions within a system they nether understand nor conto Duksin utes ‘enon’ in The Dison of Labour to characterise the pathological state ofthe economy, “is sphere of collective lie [whichis in large par, eed rom the moderating action of regulation’ wher tent or aeive the sat of wars necessarily chronic’ and ‘each inivdoa nds hmslfin a stat of war with every other In Sule it {sed to characterise the pathologies! mental state ofthe individual whois inset regulated by socey end sus rom the malady ‘of infinite aspiration” "unregulated emotions are adjusted iter (0 ‘one sother nar tthe conditions they are supposed 10 meet: they ‘ust therefore confit with one another most paul. Is accom panied by ‘weariness, “dalsionment,‘durbance, agitation and Gscontet.ange’ and "iratd disgust with Hie. Tn extreme cases this ‘ondtion ead persoe to coms vice, or homicide. Ii aggrave {ed by sudden cries, both economic dirasters and "he abrupt rowth of| power and wealth’ with increased prosperity, for instance, anon is Ieightened by passions beng less dciptined, precisely when they need rote dicing. Anome isthe peculiar disease of modern industrial ‘man, ‘sancti both by orthodox economics and by extreme ‘ovat, Industry, nstend of bengal egarded 4 means to an end transcending el has become the supreme end of individuals and ‘socetin lite’. Anomie it acepted as normal indeed "a mark of moral ‘istinton’, and ti everlastingly repeated that tis man's nature tobe eternally dissatisfied, constantly to advance, without rel or cet, toward an indefnie goal. Religion, governmental power over the ‘economy and cceupational groups have las ther moral fore. This ‘Appettes have become feed of any liming authority” andro top (0 bottom of the ladder, greed is aroused without knowing where to find time foothold Nothing can eam it since its goal is far beyond allt tanattsin’ The lives oshost ofiaivduas ae passed in he industrial Sand commercial aphere’ wher the greater pat oftheir existence is passed divoreed fom any moral influence. the manufacturer, the ‘Merchant, the workman, the employe, in earyng on his ossupaton is wate of no inlunce st about hm to check his eg “Anomi’ ike “aenton, thus also refers fst othe lationship of| the indvidval to clement of his social envzonment and second to his stateof mind. Durkheim nally dhoughtthat the division oflabour tse has natural tendency o provide thenecessary regulative fre, that Alienation and Anomie » produes solidarity because “it creates among men an entire system of Fights and duties which link them together in a durable way, for "Tunctons, when toy are sulci in contact wth one another tend to stabilize ad regulate themselves, Anomie' prevalent because othe rapid groweh ofthe market and big industry, fo since ‘hese changes fave been accomplished with extreme rapidity, the interest in contict have not yet had time to be equilbrated’ ls there isthe haraul enistence ofthe sil very great inequality i the external conditions of the aruggle. Later he came to beewe tat twas primarily due othe lack of occupational groups which would regulate economic lie by ‘stablishing “occupstional ethics and law inthe dierent esonomic ‘ecupatons: anomie “springs from the lack of collective frees at etn pois in society that i, of groups established Tor the regulation of social Ke Both explanations are consent wilh Duki's sci psychological hypothesis concerning anon, which is that iis @ Fanetion ofthe rapid grow ofthe econo i industrial ecety which tus oovurred without corresponding growth in the forces which could regulate, ‘Anson and anomic hav in common the formal characterise that they etch have a multiple reference to: (1) socal phenomena (tates of soley, its inetitions rales snd norms) 2) inlidual tates of mind (Geb, desires, ates, and so on) (3) a hypothesised empirical reatonsip between (1) and @); and (4) a presupposed picture ofthe “natural celatioahip between (1) and (2). Thus, whereas Marx ses Capiaiam at a compulsive socal sytem, which narrows men's thoughts, places obsttcls in the way of thir desires and denies the realtation ofa world of productive impulses and faculties’, Durkheim Seesit asa sate of tora anarchy inthe economic phere, where meas ‘ought and desires are insficienty controlled and where the indi ‘dal is nt ‘n harmony with it condition’. We wl later notice how (Gy is related to (4) nthe wo cases. Let us bere conentate on @)and In pancular on the ifeence betwoun the ypotbeses in question. ‘Compare what the two thinkers have to say about the division of| labour For Marx itis tv fue’ the major contributing factor io lication, inal foems, and not just forthe worker bet for all men. All ten are alienated under the division of labour (or, a be say, apt fd abour are two sides of one and the same elation’ anda human servitue isinvalved in the esto of the worker to production anal the types of servitude are only modications or consequences ofthis