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Knowledge Engineering

TRANSFORMER TRAINER
EXPERIMENT MANUAL

MODEL : LFT-TET
Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT- TET

CONTENTS

CONTENTS ............................................................................................................. i

1. OVERVIEW .......................................................................................................... 1

2. ABOUT THE TRAINER .................................................................................. 2


2.1. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ..................................................................... 2
2.2. SETTING UP THE TRAINER ........................................................................ 3
2.3. SAFETY ON EXPERIMENT .......................................................................... 3

3. BASIC THEORY ..................................................................... 4


3.1. WHY TRANSFORMERS ARE IMPORTANT
TO MODERN LIFE? ....................................................................................... 4
3.2. TYPES AND CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSFORMERS ............................. 5
3.3. THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER ....................................................................... 6
3.4. THEORY OF OPERATION OF REAL SINGLE-PHASE
TRANSFORMERS ........................................................................................ 16
3.5. THE PER-UNIT SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENTS..................................... 27
3.6. TRANSFORMER VOLTAGE REGULATION AND EFFICIENCY .......... 34
3.7. TRANSFORMER TAPS AND VOLTAGE REGULATION ....................... 35
3.8 THE AUTOTRANSFORMER....................................................................... 35
3.9 THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS ............................................................ 43
3.10. SUMMARY ................................................................................................... 52

4. EXPERIMENT .................................................................................................. 53
4.1. POLARITY OF TRANSFORMER…………………………………….. ..... 54
4.2. SERIES CIRCUIT IN A MULTIPLE WINDING TRANSFORMER……. 57
4.3. OPEN CIRCUIT TESTING…………………………………………… ....... 61
4.4. SHORT CIRCUIT TESTING ........................................................................ 66
4.5. TURN RATIO OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WINDING................. 69
4.6. IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION ........................................................... 73
4.7. VOLTAGE REGULATION .......................................................................... 76
4.8. FULL WAVE RECTIFIER ............................................................................ 78
4.9. WYE – DELTA CONNECTION ................................................................... 82

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4.10. WYE – WYE CONNECTION ....................................................................... 90


4.11. THREE PHASE RECTIFIER ........................................................................ 96

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1
OVERVIEW

Transformer trainer is designed for student to learn and practice about the typical application
of the transformer. There are many kind of transformer applications that can be observed in
this trainer. This trainer is also completed with all equipment that needed in the experiment,
so makes the learning process easier.
The trainer is divided into two parts, the base station and transformer module. The base
station is fixed in the special case for safety user and easy operation. In the top cover of the
base station, there are two voltmeters and two ammeters that are used to measure the voltage
and current. Either voltmeters or ammeters can be switch on and off in order to give
protection to them when the power source is turned on. In the main base station, there are
many components that support in the experiment, such as RCCB, MCB, and Digital
Wattmeter. RCCB is provided in this trainer to detects current leakage and protect the user
from electric shock.
The voltage and current characteristics of the transformers in the different load can be
observed by change the loads of the transformer. Student can make any connections
according the manual instruction using jumper cables by plug-in it into the jumper cable
sockets that available on the base station.
The student can make connections from transformer module to the base station using jumper
cables and absolutely have to follow the experiment manual instruction. The experiment
manual is accompanied this trainer in order to give the basic theory of the transformer and
how to use the trainer to the student.

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2
ABOUT THE TRAINER

2.1. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION


A. SINGLE PHASE UNIT
a. Transformer : Input : 0 – 220 – 240 Vac
(LFT-TET-P1A) Output : 0 – 12 Vac (12 A)
0 – 24 Vac (6 A)
0 – 42 Vac (3 A)
b. Transformer : Input : 0 – 220 – 240 Vac
(LFT-TET-P1B) Output : 0 – 120 Vac (5 A)
0 – 120 Vac (5 A)
c. Base Station
Digital Wattmeter : 1000 Watt max.
RCCB : 40 Ampere, 30mA current leakage protection
MCB : 6 Ampere
AC Voltmeter : 0 – 500 V
0 – 250 V
AC Ammeter : 0–1A
0 – 10 A
Bridge diode : 10 A, 250 Vac max

B. THREE PHASE UNIT


a. Transformer : Input : Three phase 0 – 380 – 415 Vac
(LFT-TET-P3) Output : Three phase 0 – 41.5 – 415 Vac
b. Base Station
Digital Wattmeter : 1000 Watt max.
RCCB : 40 Ampere, 30mA current leakage protection
MCB : 6 Ampere
AC Voltmeter : 0 – 500 V
0 – 500 V
AC Ammeter : 0–1A
0–5A
3 Phase Rectifier : 10 A, 450 Vac max

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C. OPTIONAL ITEMS (in separated unit)


1. Single Phase Load Unit (LFT-TET-01)
2. Single Phase Variable Power Supply (LFT-TET-02)
3. Three Phase Load Unit (LFT-TET-06)
4. Variable Three Phase Power Supply (LFT-TET-07)

2.2. SETTING UP THE TRAINER


a. Prepare the equipment required on your experiment.
b. Switch off all of the switches (RCCB, MCB, and meter switches).
c. Make connections between the base station to transformer unit and other equipment
following the experiment. Use different cable colors for different connections.
d. Plug the power cord to three phase power source.
e. The trainer is ready to be used.

2.4. SAFETY ON EXPERIMENT


a. Ensure the power cable and jumper cables are in best condition. No crack or ripped.
b. Ensure the RCCB and MCB are OFF when making or changing the connection leads.
c. Ensure the power is OFF when removing the connection leads.
d. Ask your instructor to recheck your wiring before applying power to the circuit.
e. Always use the different cable color for different connections.

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3
BASIC THEORY

A transformer is a device that changes ac electric power at one voltage level to ac electric
power at another voltage level through the action of a magnetic field. It consists of two or
more coils of wire wrapped around a common ferromagnetic core. These coils are (usually)
not directly connected. The only connection between the coils is the common magnetic flux
present within the core.

One of the transformer windings is connected to a source of ac electric power, and the second
(and perhaps third) transformer winding supplies electric power to loads. The transformer
winding connected to the power source is called the primary winding or input winding, and
the winding connected to the loads is called the secondary winding or output winding. If there
is a third winding on the transformer, it is called the tertiary winding.

Figure 3.1
The first practical modem transformer, built by William Stanley in 1885.
Note that the core is made up of individual sheets of metal (laminations).

3.1. WHY TRANSFORMERS ARE IMPORTANT TO MODERN LIFE?

The first power distribution system in the United States was a 120-V dc system invented by
Thomas A. Edison to supply power for incandescent light bulbs. Edison’s s first central power
station went into operation in New York City in September 1882. Unfortunately, his power
system generated and transmitted power at such low voltages that very large currents were
necessary to supply significant amounts of power. These high currents caused huge voltage
drops and power losses in the transmission lines, severely restricting the service area of a
generating station. In the 1880s, central power stations were located every few city blocks to
overcome this problem. The fact that power could not be transmitted far with low-voltage dc
power systems meant that generating stations had to be small and localized and so were
relatively inefficient.

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The invention of the transformer and the concurrent development of ac power sources
eliminated forever these restrictions on the range and power level of power systems. A
transformer ideally changes one ac voltage level to another voltage level without affecting the
actual power supplied. If a transformer steps up the voltage level of a circuit, it must decrease
the current to keep the power into the device equal to the power out of it. Therefore, ac
electric power can be generated at one central location, its voltage stepped up for transmission
over long distances at very low losses, and its voltage stepped down again for final use. Since
the transmission losses in the lines of a power system are proportional to the square of the
current in the lines, raising the transmission voltage and reducing the resulting transmission
currents by a factor of 10 with transformers reduces power transmission losses by a factor of
100. Without the transformer, it would simply not be possible to use electric power in many
of the ways it is used today.

In a modem power system, electric power is generated at voltages of 12 to 25 kV.


Transformers step up the voltage to between 110 kV and nearly 1000 kV for transmission
over long distances at very low losses. Transformers then step down the voltage to the 12- to
34.5-kv range for local distribution and finally permit the power to be used safely in homes
offices and factories at voltages as low as 120 V.

3.2. TYPES AND CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSFORMERS

The principal purpose of a transformer is to convert ac power at one voltage level to ac power
of the same frequency at another voltage level. Transformers are also used for a variety of
other purposes (e.g., voltage sampling, current sampling and impedance transformation), but
this chapter is primarily devoted to the power transformer.

Power transformers are constructed on one of two types of cores. One type of construction
consists of a simple rectangular laminated piece of steel with the transformer windings
wrapped around two sides of the rectangle. This type of construction is known as core form
and is illustrated in Figure 3.2. The other type consists of a three-legged laminated core with
the windings wrapped around the center leg. This type of construction is known as shell form
and is illustrated in Figure 3.3. In either case, the core is constructed of thin laminations
electrically isolated from each other in order to minimize eddy currents.

The primary and secondary windings in a physical transformer are wrapped one on top of the
other with the low-voltage winding innermost. Such an arrangement serves two purposes:

1. It simplifies the problem of insulating the high-voltage winding from the core.
2. It results in much less leakage flux than would be the case if the two windings were
separated by a distance on the core.

Power transformers are given a variety of different names, depending on their use in power
systems. A transformer connected to the output of a generator and used to step its voltage up
to transmission levels (110+ kV) is sometimes called a unit transformer The transformer at
the other end of the transmission line, which steps the voltage down from transmission levels
to distribution levels (from 2.3 to 34.5 kV), is called a substation transformer. Finally, the
transformer that takes the distribution voltage and steps it down to the final voltage at which
the power is actually used (110, 208, 220 V, etc.) is called a distribution transformer All these
devices are essentially the same, the only difference among them is their intended use.

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In addition to the various power transformers, two special-purpose transformers are used with
electric machinery and power systems. The first of these special transformers is a device
specially designed to sample a high voltage and produce a low secondary voltage directly
proportional to it. Such a transformer is called a potential transformer. A power transformer
also produces a secondary voltage directly proportional to its primary voltage; the difference
between a potential transformer and a power transformer is that the potential transformer is
designed to handle only a very small current. The second type of special transformer is a
device designed to provide a secondary current much smaller than but directly proportional to
its primary current. This device is called a current transformer. Both special-purpose
transformers are discussed in a later section of this chapter.

3.3. THE IDEAL TRANSFORMER

An ideal transformer is a loss less device with an input winding and an output winding. The
relationships between the input voltage and the output voltage, and between the input current
and the output current, are given by two simple equations. Figure 3.4 shows an ideal
transformer.

The transformer shown in Figure 3.4 has NP turns of wire on its primary side and NS turns of
wire on its secondary side. The relationship between the voltage vP(t) applied to the primary
side of the transformer and the voltage vS(t) produced on the secondary side is

VP (t ) N
= P =a
VS (t ) NS

Figure 3.2.
Core-form transformer construction.

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Figure. 3.3
(a) Shell-form transformer construction. (b) A typical shell-form transformer

Figure 3.4
(a) Sketch of an ideal transformer. (b) Schematic symbols of a transformer.

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where a is defined to be the turns ratio of the transformer:

Np
a =
NS

The relationship between the current iP(t) flowing into the primary side of the transformer and
the current iS(t) flowing out of the secondary side of the transformer is

NPiP(t) = NSiS(t)

iP (t ) 1
or =
iS (t ) a

In terms of phasor quantities, these equations are

VP
=a
VS
and

IP 1
=
IS a

Notice that the phase angle of VP is the same as the angle of VS and the phase angle of IP is
the same as the phase angle of IS. The turns ratio of the ideal transformer affects the
magnitudes of the voltages and currents, but not their angles.
The equations above describe the relationships between the magnitudes and angles of the
voltages and currents on the primary and secondary sides of the transformer, but they leave
one question unanswered: Given that the primary circuit’s voltage is positive at a specific end
of the coil, what would the polarity of the secondary circuit’s voltage be? In real transformers,
it would be possible to tell the secondary’s polarity only if the transformer were opened and
its windings examined. To avoid this necessity, transformers utilize the dot convention. The
dots appearing at one end of each winding in Figure 3.4 tell the polarity of the voltage and
current on the secondary side of the transformer. The relationship is as follows:

1. If the primary voltage is positive at the dotted end of the winding with respect to the
undotted end, then the secondary voltage will be positive at the dotted end also. Voltage
polarities are the same with respect to the dots on each side of the core.
2. If the primary current of the transformer flows into the dotted end of the primary winding,
the secondary current will flow out of the dotted end of the secondary winding.

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Power in an Ideal Transformer

The power supplied to the transformer by the primary circuit is given by the equation

Pin = VPIP cos θP

where θP is the angle between the primary voltage and the primary current. The power
supplied by the transformer secondary circuit to its loads is given by the equation.

Pout = VSIS cos θS

where θS is the angle between the secondary voltage and the secondary current. Since voltage
and current angles are unaffected by an ideal transformer, θP-θS = θ. The primary and
secondary windings of an ideal transformer have the same power factor.

How does the power going into the primary circuit of the ideal transformer compare to the
power coming out of the other side? It is possible to find out through a simple application of
the voltage and current equations. The power out of a transformer is

Pout = VSIS cos θS

Applying the turns-ratio equations gives VS = VS /a and IS = a IP , so

VP
Pout = (aIP) cos θ
a

Pout = VPIP cos θ = Pin

Thus, the output power of an ideal transformer is equal to its input power.

The same relationship applies to reactive power Q and apparent power S:

Qin = VPIP sin θ = VSIS sin θ = Qout

and Sin = VPIP = VSIS = Sout

Impedance Transformation through a Transformer

The impedance of a device or an element is defined as the ratio of the phasor voltage across it
to the phasor current flowing through it:

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VL
ZL =
IL

One of the interesting properties of a transformer is that, since it changes voltage and current
levels, it changes the ratio between voltage and current and hence the apparent impedance of
an element. To understand this idea, refer to Figure 3.21. If the secondary current is called IS
and the secondary voltage VS, then the impedance of the load is given by

VS
ZL =
IS

The apparent impedance of the primary circuit of the transformer is

VP
Z′L =
IP

Since the primary voltage can be expressed as

VP = aVS

and the primary current can be expressed as

VS
IP =
a

the apparent impedance of the primary is

VP aVS V
Z′L = = = a2 S
IP IS / a IS

Z′L = a2ZL

With a transformer, it is possible to match the magnitude of load impedance to source


impedance simply by picking the proper turns ratio.

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Figure 3.5
(a) Definition of impedance. (b) Impedance scaling through a transformer

Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal Transformers

If a circuit contains an ideal transformer, then the easiest way to analyze the circuit for its
voltages and currents is to replace the portion of the circuit on one side of the transformer by
an equivalent circuit with the same terminal characteristics. After the equivalent circuit has
been substituted for one side, then the new circuit (without a transformer present) can be
solved for its voltages and currents. In the portion of the circuit that was not replaced, the
solutions obtained will be the correct values of voltage and current for the original circuit.
Then the turns ratio of the transformer can be used to determine the voltages and currents on
the other side of the transformer. The process of replacing one side of a transformer by its
equivalent at the other side’s voltage level is known as referring the first side of the
transformer to the second side.
How is the equivalent circuit formed? Its shape is exactly the same as the shape of the original
circuit. The polarities of voltage sources in the equivalent circuit will be reversed from their
direction in the original circuit if the dots on one side of the transformer windings are reversed
compared to the dots on the other side of the transformer windings.

The solution for circuits containing ideal transformers is illustrated in the following example.

Example 3.1
A single-phase power system consists of a 480-V 60-Hz generator supplying a load Zload = 4 +
j3 Ω through a transmission line of impedance Zline = 0.18 + j0.24 Ω. Answer the following
questions about this system.
(a) If the power system is exactly as described above (Figure 3.6a), what will the voltage at
the load be? What will the transmission line losses be?

(b) Suppose a 1:10 step-up transformer is placed at the generator end of the transmission line
and a 10:1 step-down transformer is placed at the load end of the line (Figure 3.6b). What
will the load voltage be now? What will the transmission line losses be now?

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Solution
(a) Figure 3.6a shows the power system without transformers. Here IG = Iline = Iload. The line
current in this system is given by

Figure. 3.6
The power system of Example 3-1 (a) without and (b) with transformers
at the ends of the transmission line.

V
Iline =
Z line + Z load
480∠0º V
=
(0.18Ω + j 0.24Ω) + (4Ω + j 3Ω)

480∠0º
=
4.18 + j 3.24
480∠0º
=
5.29∠37.8º
= 90.8 ∠ – 37.8° A

Therefore the load voltage is


Vload = Iline Zload
= (90.8 ∠ – 37.8° A)(4 Ω + j3 Ω)
= (90.8 ∠ – 37.8° A)(5 ∠ 36.9° Ω)
= 454 ∠ – 0.9° V

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and the line losses are


Ploss = (Iline)2 Rline
= (90.8 A)2 (0.18 Ω)
= 1484 W

(b) Figure 3.7b shows the power system with the transformers. To analyze this system, it is
necessary to convert it to a common voltage level. This is done in two steps:

1. Eliminate transformer T2 by referring the load over to the transmission line’s voltage
level.
2. Eliminate transformer T1 by referring the transmission line’s elements and the
equivalent load at the transmission line’s voltage over to the source side.

The value of the load’s impedance when reflected to the transmission system’s voltage is

Z′load = a2 Zload

2
⎛ 10 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟ (4 Ω + j3 Ω)
⎝1⎠
= 400 Ω + j300 Ω

The total impedance at the transmission line level is now

Zeq = Zline + Z′load

= 400.18 + j300.24 Ω
= 500.3 ∠ 36.88° Ω

This equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 3.8a. The total impedance at the transmission line
level (Zline + Z′load) is now reflected across T1 to the source’s voltage level:

Z′eq = a2Zeq

= a2(Zline + Z′load)
2
⎛1⎞
= ⎜⎝ 10 ⎟⎠ (0.18 Ω + j0.24 Ω + 400 Ω + j300 Ω

= (0.0018 Ω + j0.0024 Ω + 4 Ω + j3 Ω)
= 5.003 ∠ 36.88° Ω

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Figure 3.7
(a) System with the load referred to the transmission system voltage level. (b) System with the load and
transmission line referred to the generator’s voltage level.

Notice that Z″load = 4 + j3 Ω and Z′line = 0.0018 + j0.0024. The resulting equivalent circuit is
shown in Figure 3.7b. The generator’s current is

480∠0º V
IG =
5.003∠36.88º Ω
= 95.94 ∠ −36.88° A

Knowing the current IG, we can now work back and find Iline and Iload. Working back through
T1, we get

NP1IG = NSlIline

Iline = NP1 IG
1
= (95.94 ∠ −36.88° A)
10
= 9.594 ∠ −36.88° A

Working back through T2 gives

NP2Iline = NS2Iload

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Iload = NP2 Iline


NS2

1
= (9.594 ∠ −36.88° A)
10
= 95.94 ∠ −36.88° A

It is now possible to answer the questions originally asked. The load voltage is given by

Vload = Iload Zload

= (95.94 ∠ −36.88° A)(5 ∠ 36.87° Ω

= 479.7 ∠ 0.01° V

and the line losses are given by

Ploss = (Iline)2 Rline

= (9.594 A)2 (0.18 Ω) = 16.7 W

Notice that raising the transmission voltage of the power system reduced transmission losses
by a factor of nearly 90. Also, the voltage at the load dropped much less in the system with
transformers compared to the system without transformers. This simple example dramatically
illustrates the advantages of using higher-voltage transmission lines as well as the extreme
importance of transformers in modem power systems.

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3.4. THEORY OF OPERATION OF REAL SINGLE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS

The ideal transformers described in section 3.3 can of course never actually be made. What
can be produced are real transformers, two or more coils of wire physically wrapped around a
ferromagnetic core. The characteristics of a real transformer approximate the characteristics
of an ideal transformer, but only to a degree. This section deals with the behavior of real
transformers.

To understand the operation of a real transformer, refer to Figure 3.8. It shows a transformer
consisting of two coils of wire wrapped around a transformer core. The primary of the
transformer is connected to an ac power source, and the secondary winding is open-circuited.
The hysteresis curve of the transformer is shown in Figure 3.9.
The basis of transformer operation can be derived from Faraday’s law:


eind =
dt

where λ is the flux linkage in the coil across which the voltage is being induced. The flux
linkage λ is the sum of the flux passing through each turn in the coil added over all the turns
of the coil:
N
λ= ∑φ
i =1
i

Figure 3.8
Sketch of real transformer with no load attached to its secondary.

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Figure 3.9
The hysteresis curve of the transformer.

The total flux linkage through a coil is not just Nφ, where N is the number of turns in the coil,
because the flux passing through each turn of a coil is slightly different from the flux in the
other turns, depending on the position of the turn within the coil. However, it is possible to
define an average flux per turn in a coil. If the total flux linkage in all the turns of the coils is
λ and if there are N turns, then the average flux per turn is given by

λ
φ =
N

and Faraday’s law can be written as


eind = N
dt

The Voltage Ratio across a Transformer


If the voltage of the source in Figure 3.8 is vp(t), then that voltage is placed directly across the
coils of the primary winding of the transformer. How will the transformer react to this applied
voltage? Faraday’s law explains what will happen. When equation above is solved for the
average flux present in the primary winding of the transformer, the result is

1
NP ∫
φ = VP (t )dt

This equation states that the average flux in the winding is proportional to the integral of the
voltage applied to the winding, and the constant of proportionality is the reciprocal of the
number of turns in the primary winding 1/NP.

This flux is present in the primary coil of the transformer. What effect does it have on the
secondary coil of the transformer? The effect depends on how much of the flux reaches the
secondary coil. Not all the flux produced in the primary coil also passes through the

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secondary coil—some of the flux lines leave the iron core and pass through the air instead
(see Figure 3.10). The portion of the flux that goes through one of the transformer coils but
not the other one is called leakage flux. The flux in the primary coil of the transformer can
thus be divided into two components: a mutual flux, which remains in the core and links both
windings, and a small leakage flux, which passes through the primary winding but returns
through the air, bypassing the secondary winding:

Figure 3.10
Mutual and leakage fluxes in a transformer core.

φ P = φM + φLP

where φP = total average primary flux


φM = flux component linking both primary and secondary coils
φLP = primary leakage flux

There is a similar division of flux in the secondary winding between mutual flux and leakage
flux which passes through the secondary winding but returns through the air, by passing the
primary winding:

φS = φM + φLS

where φS = total average secondary flux


φM = flux component linking both primary and secondary coils
φLS = secondary leakage flux

With the division of the average primary flux into mutual and leakage components, Faraday’s
law for the primary circuit can be reexpressed as

dφ P
vP(t) = NP
dt

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dφ M d φ LP
= NP + NP
dt dt

The first term of this expression can be called eP(t), and the second term can be called eLP(t).
If this is done, then equation can be rewritten as

vP(t) = eP(t) + eLP(t)

The voltage on the secondary coil of the transformer can also be expressed in terms of
Faraday’s law as
dφ S
vS(t) = NS
dt
dφM d φ LS
= NS + NS
dt dt

= eS(t) + eLS(t)

The primary voltage due to the mutual flux is given by

dφ M
eP(t) = NP
dt

and the secondary voltage due to the mutual flux is given by

dφ M
eS(t) = NS
dt

Notice from these two relationships that

eP (t ) dφ M eS (t )
= =
NP dt NS

Therefore,

eP (t ) N
= P
eS (t ) NS

This equation means that the ratio of the primary voltage caused by the mutual flux to the
secondary voltage caused by the mutual flux is equal to the turns ratio of the transformer.
Since in a well-designed transformer φM >> φLP and φM >> φLS, the ratio of the total voltage
on the primary of a transformer to the total voltage on the secondary of a transformer is
approximately

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vP (t ) N P
= =a
vS (t ) N S

The smaller the leakage fluxes of the transformer are, the closer the total transformer voltage
ratio approximates that of the ideal transformer discussed in section 3.3.

The Magnetization Current in a Real Transformer

When an ac power source is connected to a transformer as shown in Figure 3.8, a current


flows in its primary circuit, even when the secondary circuit is open-circuited. This current is
the current required to produce flux in a real ferromagnetic core. It consists of two
components:

1. The magnetization current iM, which is the current required to produce the flux in the
transformer core.
2. The core-loss current ih+e, which is the current required to make up for hysteresis and
eddy current losses.

Figure 3.11 shows the magnetization curve of a typical transformer core. If the flux in the
transformer core is known, then the magnitude of the magnetization current can be found
directly from Figure 3.11.

Ignoring for the moment the effects of leakage flux, we see that the average flux in the core is
given by

1
NP ∫
φ = vP (t )dt

If the primary voltage is given by the expression vP(t) = vM cos ωt V, then the resulting flux
must be

1
NP ∫
φ = VM Cos.ωt.dt

VM
= Sin.ωt.Wb
ωN P

If the values of current required to produce a given flux (Figure 3.11a) are compared to the
flux in the core at different times, it is possible to construct a sketch of the magnetization
current in the winding on the core. Such a sketch is shown in Figure 3.11b. Notice the
following points about the magnetization current:

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Figure 3.11
(a) The magnetization curve of the transformer core.
(b) The magnetization current caused by the flux in the transformer core.

1. The magnetization current in the transformer is not sinusoidal. The higher-frequency


components in the magnetization current are due to magnetic saturation in the transformer
core.
2. Once the peak flux reaches the saturation point in the core, a small increase in peak flux
requires a very large increase in the peak magnetization current.
3. The fundamental component of the magnetization current lags the voltage applied to the
core by 90°.
4. The higher-frequency components in the magnetization current can be quite large
compared to the fundamental component. In general, the further a transformer core is
driven into saturation, the larger the harmonic components will become.

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The other component of the no-load current in the transformer is the current required to
supply power to make up the hysteresis and eddy current losses in the core. This is the core-
loss current. Assume that the flux in the core is sinusoidal. Since the eddy currents in the core
are proportional to dφ/dt, the eddy currents are largest when the flux in the core is passing
through 0 Wb. Therefore, the core-loss current is greatest as the flux passes through zero. The
total current required to make up for core losses is shown in Figure 3.12.

Notice the following points about the core-loss current:

1. The core-loss current is nonlinear because of the nonlinear effects of hysteresis.


2. The fundamental component of the core-loss current is in phase with the voltage applied
to the core.

The total no-load current in the core is called the excitation current of the transformer. It is
just the sum of the magnetization current and the core-loss current in the core:

iex = im + ih+e

The total excitation current in a typical transformer core is shown in Figure 3.13

Figure 3.12
The core-loss current in a transformer.

Figure 3.13
The total excitation current in a transformer.

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Determining the Values of Components in the Transformer Model


It is possible to experimentally determine the values of the inductances and resistances in the
transformer model. An adequate approximation of these values can be obtained with only two
tests, the open-circuit test and the short-circuit test.

In the open-circuit test, a transformer’s secondary winding is open-circuited, and its primary
winding is connected to a full-rated line voltage.
The open-circuit test connections are shown in Figure 3.14. Full line voltage is applied to the
primary of the transformer, and the input voltage, input current, and input power to the
transformer are measured. From this information, it is possible to determine the power factor
of the input current and therefore both the magnitude and the angle of the excitation
impedance.

The easiest way to calculate the values of RC and XM is to look first at the admittance of the
excitation branch. The conductance of the core-loss resistor is given by

1
Gc =
RC
and the susceptance of the magnetizing inductor is given by
1
BM =
XM
Since these two elements are in parallel, their admittances add, and the total excitation
admittance is

YE = Gc - jBM
1 1
= – j
RC XM

Figure 3.14
Connection for transformer open-circuit test.

The magnitude of the excitation admittance (referred to the primary circuit) can be found
from the open-circuit test voltage and current:

I OC
YE =
VOC

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The angle of the admittance can be found from a knowledge of the circuit power factor. The
open-circuit power factor (PF) is given by

PF = cos θ
P
= OC
VOC I OC
and the power-factor angle θ is given by

POC
θ = cos –1
VOC

The power factor is always lagging for a real transformer, so the angle of the current always
lags the angle of the voltage by θ degrees. Therefore, the admittance YE is

I OC
YE = ∠ -θ
VOC

I OC
= ∠ -θ cos –1 PF
VOC

By comparing equations above, it is possible to determine the values of RC and XM directly


from the open-circuit test data.

In the short-circuit test, the secondary terminals of the transformer are short-circuited, and the
primary terminals are connected to a fairly low-voltage source, as shown in Figure 3.15. The
input voltage is adjusted until the current in the short-circuited windings is equal to its rated
value. (Be sure to keep the primary voltage at a safe level. It would not be a good idea to burn
out the transformer’s windings while trying to test it.) The input voltage, current, and power
are again measured.

Since the input voltage is so low during the short-circuit test, negligible current flows through
the excitation branch. If the excitation current is ignored, then all the voltage drop in the
transformer can be attributed to the series elements in the circuit. The magnitude of the series
impedances referred to the primary side of the transformer is

VSC
Z SE =
I SC

The power factor of the current is given by

PF = cos θ
P
= SC
VSC I SC

and is lagging. The current angle is thus negative, and the overall impedance angle θ is
positive:

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PSC
θ = cos-1
VSC I SC
Therefore,

VSC ∠0°
ZSE =
I SC ∠ − θ °
V
= SC ∠0°
I SC

The series impedance ZSE is equal to

ZSE = Req + jXeq

=(Rp + a2Rs) + j(Xp + a2Xs)

IIIIIII

Figure 3.15
Connection for transformer short-circuit test.

It is possible to determine the total series impedance referred to the primary side by using this
technique, but there is no easy way to split the series impedance into primary and secondary
components. Fortunately, such separation is not necessary to solve normal problems.

Also these same tests may be performed on the secondary side of the transformer if it is more
convenient to do so because of voltage levels or other reasons. If the tests are performed on
the secondary side, the results will naturally yield the equivalent circuit impedances referred
to the secondary side of the transformer instead of to the primary side.

Example 3.2
The equivalent circuit impedances of a 20-kVA, 8000V 240-V, 60-Hz transformers are to be
determined. The open-circuit test and the Short-circuit test were performed on the primary
side of the transformer, and the following data were taken:

Open-circuit Test Short-circuit Test


(on primary) (on primary)
VOC = 8000V VSC = 489 V
IOC = 0.214 A ISC = 2.5 A
POC = 400 W PSC = 240 W

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Find the impedances of the approximate equivalent circuit referred to the primary side, and
sketch that circuit.

Solution.
The power factor during the open-circuit test is:

POC
PF = cos θ =
VOC I OC
400W
= cos θ =
(8000V )(0.214 A)

= 0.234 lagging

The excitation admittance is given by

I OC
YE = ∠ – Cos-1 PF
VOC
0.214 A
= ∠ – Cos-1 0.234
8000V
= 0.0000268 ∠ – 76.5º Ω
= 0.0000063 – j 0.0000261
1 1
= –j
RC XM
Therefore,

RC = 1 .
0.0000063
= 159kΩ

1
XM =
0.0000261
0.000026 1
= 38.4kΩ

The power factor during the short-circuit test is:


PSC
PF = Cos θ = =
VSC I SC
240W
Cos θ = = 0.196 lagging
(489V )(2.5 A)

The series impedance is given by

VSC
ZSE = ∠ - Cos-1 PF
I SC

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489V
= ∠ 78.7º
2.5 A
= 195.6 ∠ 78.7º
= 38.4 + j l92 Ω

Therefore, the equivalent resistance and reactance are

Req =38.4 Ω X eq =192 Ω

The resulting simplified equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 3.16.

3.5. THE PER-UNIT SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENTS

As the relatively simple Example 3.2 showed, solving circuits containing transformers can be
quite a tedious operation because of the need to refer all the different voltage levels on
different sides of the transformers in the system to a common level. Only after this step has
been taken can the system be solved for its voltages and currents.

Figure 3.16
The equivalent circuit of example 3.2

There is another approach to solving circuits containing transformers which eliminates the
need for explicit voltage-level conversions at every transformer in the system. Instead, the
required conversions are handled automatically by the method itself, without ever requiring
the user to worry about impedance transformations. Because such impedance transformations
can be avoided, circuits containing many transformers can be solved easily with less chance
of error. This method of calculation is known as the per-unit (pu) system of measurements.

In the per-unit system, the voltages, currents, powers, impedances, and other electrical
quantities are not measured in their usual SI units (volts, amperes, watts, ohms, etc.). Instead,
each electrical quantity is measured as a decimal fraction of some base level. Any quantity
can be expressed on a per-unit basis by the equation

Quantity per unit = Actual value .


base value of quantity

where “actual value” is a value in volts, amperes, ohms, etc.

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It is customary to select two base quantities to define a given per-unit system. The ones
usually selected are voltage and power (or apparent power). Once these base quantities have
been selected, all the other base values are related to them by the usual electrical laws. In a
single-phase system, these relationships are:

Pbase’ Qbase’ or Sbase = Vbase Ibase

Vbase
Zbase =
I base
I
Y base = base
Vbase
(Vbase ) 2
and Zbase =
Sbase

Once the base values of S (or P) and V have been selected, all other base values can be
computed easily.

In a power system, a base apparent power and voltage are selected at a specific point in the
system. A transformer has no effect on the base apparent power of the system, since the
apparent power into a transformer equals the apparent power out of the transformer. On the
other hand, voltage changes when it goes through a transformer, so the value of Vbase changes
at every transformer in the system according to its turns ratio. Because the base quantities
change in passing through a transformer, the process of referring quantities to a common
voltage level is automatically taken care of during per-unit conversion.

Example 3.3
A simple power system is shown in Figure 3.17. This system contains a 480-V generator
connected to an ideal 1:10 step-up transformer, a transmission line, an ideal 20:1 step-down
transformer, and a load. The impedance of the transmission line is 20 + j60 fl, and the
impedance of the load is l0<30o. The base values for this system are Chosen to be 480 V and
10 kVA at the generator.

(a) Find the base voltage, current, impedance, and apparent power at every point in the
power system.
(b) Convert this system to its per-unit equivalent circuit.
(c) Find the power supplied to the load in this system.
(d) Find the power lost in the transmission line.

Figure 3.17
The power system of Example 3.3.

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Solution
(a) In the generator region, Vbase = 480 V and Sbase = 10 kVA, so

Sbase
I base 1 =
Vbase1
10.000VA
=
480V
= 20.83A

Vbase1
Zbase 1 =
I base1
480V
=
80.83 A
= 23.04Ω

The turns ratio of transformer T1 is a = 1/10 = 0.1, so the base voltage in the transmission line
region is

Vbase1
Vbase 2 =
a
480V
=
0.1
= 4800 V

The other base quantities are:

S base 2 = 10 kVA

10.000VA
I base 2 =
4800V

= 2.083 A

4800V
Z base 2 =
2.083 A

= 2304 Ω

The turns ratio of transformer T2 is a = 20/1 = 20, so the base voltage in the load region is:

Vbase2
V base 3 =
a
4800V
=
20
= 240 V

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The other base quantities are:

S base 3 = 10 kVA
10.000VA
I base 3 =
240V
= 41.67 A

240V
Z base 3 =
41.67 A

= 5.76 Ω

(b) To convert a power system to a per-unit system, each component must be divided by its
base value in its region of the system. The generator’s per-unit voltage is its actual value
divided by its base value:

480∠0°V
V G,pu =
480V
= 1.0 ∠ 0º pu

The transmission line’s per-unit impedance is its actual value divided by its base value:

20 + j 60Ω
Z line,pu =
2304Ω
= 0.0087 + j 0.0260 pu

The load’s per-unit impedance is also given by actual value divided by base value:

10∠30°Ω
Z load,pu =
5.76Ω
= 1.736 ∠ 30º pu

The per-unit equivalent circuit of the power system is shown in Figure 3.18.

Figure 3.18
The per-unit equivalent circuit for Example 3.3.

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(c) The current flowing in this per-unit power system is:

VPU
Ipu =
Z tot , PU
1∠0°
=
(0.0087 + j 0.0260) + (1.736∠30°)
1∠0°
=
(0.0087 + j 0.0260) + (1.503 + j 0.868)
1∠0°
=
1.512 + j 0.894
1∠0°
=
1.757∠30.6°
= 0.569 ∠ -30.6º pu

Therefore, the per-unit power of the load is:

Pload, pu = I2puRpu
= (0.569)2(1.503)
= 0.487

and the actual power supplied to the load is:

Pload = Pload,pu Sbase


= (0.487)(10,000 VA)
= 4870 W

(d) The per-unit power lost in the transmission line is:

Pline,pu =I2puRline,pu
= (0.569)2(0.0087)
= 0.00282

and the actual power lost in the transmission line is:

Pline = Pline,pu Sbase


= (0.00282)(10,000 VA)
= 28.2W

When only one device (transformer or motor) is being analyzed, its own ratings are usually
used as the base for the per-unit system. If a per-unit system based on the transformer’s own
ratings is used, a power or distribution transformer’s characteristics will not vary much over a
wide range of voltage and power ratings. For example, the series resistance of a transformer
is usually about 0.01 per unit, and the series reactance is usually between 0.02 and 0.10 per
unit. In general, the larger the transformer is the smaller the series impedances. The
magnetizing reactance is usually between about 10 and 40 per unit, while the core-loss
resistance is usually between about 50 and 200 per unit. Because per unit values provide a
convenient and meaningful way to compare transformer characteristics when they are of
different sizes, transformer impedances are normally given in per-unit or as a percentage on

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the transformer’s nameplate.

The same idea applies to synchronous and induction machines as well: Their per-unit
impedances fall within relatively narrow ranges over quite large size ranges.

If more than one machine and one transformer are included in a single power system, the
system base voltage and power maybe chosen arbitrarily, but the entire system must have the
same base. One common procedure is to choose the system base quantities to be equal to the
base of the largest component in the system. Per-unit values given to another base can be
converted to the new base by converting them to their actual values (volts, amperes, ohms,
etc.) as an in-between step. Alternatively, they can be converted directly by the equations.

Sbase1
(P,Q,S)PU on base 2 = (P,Q,S) PU on base 1
Sbase 2

Figure 3.19
(a) Atypical 13.2 kV to 120/240V distribution transformer. (b) A cutaway view of the distribution transformer
showing the shell-form transformer inside it.

Vbase1
VPU on base 2 = VPU on base 1
Vbase 2
(Vbase1 ) 2 ( Sbase 2 )
(R, X, Z) PU on base 2 = (R, X, Z) PU on base1
(Vbase 2 ) 2 ( Sbase1 )

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Example 3.4
Sketch the approximate per-unit equivalent circuit for the transformer in Example 3.2. Use the
transformer’s ratings as the system base.

Solution.
The transformer in Example 3.2 is rated at 20 kVA, 8000/240 V. The approximate equivalent
circuit (Figure 3.16) developed in the example was referred to the high-voltage side of the
transformer, so to convert it to per-unit, the primary circuit base impedance must be found.
On the primary,

Vbasel = 8000 V

Sbase 1 = 20,000 VA

(Vbase1 ) 2
Zbase 1=
Sbase1
(8000V )2
=
20.000VA

= 3200 Ω

Therefore,

38.4 + j192Ω
ZSE,PU =
3200Ω

= 0.012 + j0.06PU

159kΩ
RC,PU =
3200Ω

= 49.7 PU

38.4kΩ
ZM,PU =
3200Ω

= 12PU

The per-unit approximate equivalent circuit, expressed to the transformer’s own base, is
shown in Figure 3.20.

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Figure 3.20
The per-unit equivalent circuit of Example 3.4.

3.6. TRANSFORMER VOLTAGE REGULATION AND EFFICIENCY

Because a real transformer has series impedances within it, the output voltage of a transformer
varies with the load even if the input voltage remains constant. To conveniently compare
transformers in this respect, it is customary to define a quantity called voltage regulation
(VR). Full-load voltage regulation is a quantity that compares the output voltage of the
transformer at no load with the output voltage at full load. It is defined by the equation

VS, n, l − VS, fl
VR = x 100%
VS, fl

Since at no load, VS = VP/a, the voltage regulation can also be expressed as

VP / a − VS, fl
VR = x 100%
VS, fl

If the transformer equivalent circuit is in the per-unit system, then voltage regulation can be
expressed as

VP , PU − VS , fl, PU
VR = x100%
VS , fl , PU

Usually it is a good practice to have as small a voltage regulation as possible. For an ideal
transformer, VR = 0 percent. It is not always a good idea to have a low-voltage regulation,
though—sometimes high-impedance and high-voltage regulation transformers are deliberately
used to reduce the fault currents in a circuit.

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3.7. TRANSFORMER TAPS AND VOLTAGE REGULATION

In previous sections of this chapter, transformers were described by their turns ratios or by
their primary-to-secondary-voltage ratios. Throughout those sections, the turns ratio of a
given transformer was treated as though it were completely fixed. In almost all real
distribution transformers, this is not quite true. Distribution transformers have a series of taps
in the windings to permit small changes in the turns ratio of the transformer after it has left the
factory. A typical installation might have four taps in addition to the nominal setting with
spacings of 2.5 percent of full-load voltage between them. Such an arrangement provides for
adjustments up to 5 percent above or below the nominal voltage rating of the transformer.

Example 3.5
A 500-kVA, 13,200/480-V distribution transformer has four 2.5 percent taps on its primary
winding. What are the voltage ratios of this transformer at each tap setting?

Solution
The five possible voltage ratings of this transformer are
+5.0% tap 13,860/480V
+2.5% tap 13,530/480V
Nominal rating 13,200/480V
-2.5% tap 12,870/480V
-5.0% tap 12,540/480V

The taps on a transformer permit the transformer to be adjusted in the field to accommodate
variations in local voltages. However, these taps normally cannot be changed while power is
being applied to the transformer. They must be set once and left alone.

Sometimes a transformer is used on a power line whose voltage varies widely with the load.
Such voltage variations might be due to a high line impedance between the generators on the
power system and that particular load (perhaps it is located far out in the country). Normal
loads need to be supplied an essentially constant voltage. How can a power company supply a
controlled voltage through high-impedance lines to loads which are constantly changing?

One solution to this problem is to use a special transformer called a tap changing under load
(TCUL) transformer or voltage regulator. Basically, a TCUL transformer is a transformer
with the ability to change taps while power is connected to it. A voltage regulator is a TCUL
transformer with built-in voltage sensing circuitry that automatically changes taps to keep the
system voltage constant. Such special transformers are very common in modern power
systems.

3.8. THE AUTOTRANSFORMER

On some occasions it is desirable to change voltage levels by only a small amount. For
example, it may be necessary to increase a voltage from 110 to 120 V or from 13.2 to 13.8
kV. These small rises may be made necessary by voltage drops that occur in power systems a
long way from the generators. In such circumstances, it is wasteful and excessively expensive
to wind a transformer with two full windings, each rated at about the same voltage. A special-
purpose transformer, called an autotransformer, is used instead.

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A diagram of a step-up autotransformer is shown in Figure 3.21. In Figure 3.21a, the two coils
of the transformer are shown in the conventional manner. In Figure 3.21b, the first winding is
shown connected in an additive manner to the second winding. Now, the relationship between
the voltage on the first winding and the voltage on the second winding is given by the turns
ratio of the transformer. However, the voltage at the output of the whole transformer is the
sum of the voltage on the first winding and the voltage on the second winding. The first
winding here is called the common winding, because its voltage appears on both sides of the
transformer. The smaller winding is called the series winding, because it is connected in series
with the common winding.

A diagram of a step-down autotransformer is shown in Figure 3.22. Here the voltage at the
input is the sum of the voltages on the series winding and the common winding, while the
voltage at the output is just the voltage on the common winding.

Figure 3.21
A transformer with its windings (a) connected in the conventional manner and
(b) reconnected as an auto-transformer.

Because the transformer coils are physically connected, a different terminology is used for the
autotransformer than for other types of transformers. The voltage on the common coil is
called the common voltage VC and the current in that coil is called the common current IC The
voltage on the series coil is called the series voltage VSE, and the current in that coil is called
the series current ISE. The voltage and current on the low-voltage side of the transformer are
called VL and IL respectively, while the corresponding quantities on the high-voltage side of
the transformer are called VH and IH. The primary side of the autotransformer (the side with
power into it) can be either the high-voltage side or the low-voltage side, depending on
whether the autotransformer is acting as a step-down or a step-up transformer. From Figure
3.21b the voltages and currents in the coils are related by the equations

VC NC
=
VSE NSE

The voltages in the coils are related to the voltages at the terminals by the equations

VL =VC
VH = VC + VSE

and the currents in the coils are related to the currents at the terminals by the equations

IL = IC + ISE

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IH = ISE

Voltage and Current Relationships in an Autotransformer

What is the voltage relationship between the two sides of an autotransformer? It is quite easy
to determine the relationship between VH and VL The voltage on the high side of the
autotransformer is given by

Figure 3.22
A step-down autotransformer connection.

VH = VC + VSE

But
VC NC
= , so
VSE NSE

NSE
VH = VC + VC
NC

Finally, noting that VL = VC, we get

NSE
VH = VL + VL
NC

NSE + NC
= VL , or
NC

VL NC
=
VH NSE + NC

The current relationship between the two sides of the transformer can be found by noting that

IL = IC + ISE
NSE
IC = xISE , so
NC

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NSE
IL = xISE +ISE
NC

Finally, noting that IH= ISE , we find

NSE
IL = xIH + IH
NC
NSE + NC
= xIH , or
NC

IL NSE + NC
=
IH NC

The Apparent Power Rating Advantage of Autotransformers

It is interesting to note that not all the power traveling from the primary to the secondary in
the autotransformer goes through the windings. As a result, if a conventional transformer is
reconnected as an autotransformer, it can handle much more power than it was originally
rated for.

To understand this idea, refer again to Figure 3.21b. Notice that the input apparent power to
the autotransformer is given by
Sin = VLIL

and the output apparent power is given by

Sout = VHIH

It is easy to show, by using the voltage and current equations, that the input apparent power is
again equal to the output apparent power:
Sin = Sout = SIO

where SIO is defined to be the input and output apparent powers of the transformer. However,
the apparent power in the transformer windings is

SW = VCIC = VSEISE

The relationship between the power going into the primary (and out the secondary) of the
transformer and the power in the transformer’s actual windings can be found as follows:

SW = VCIC

= VL (IL - IH)
= VLIL - VLIH

NC
SW = VLIL - VLIL
NSE + NC

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( NSE + NC ) − NC
= VLIL
NSE + NC

NSE
= SIO
NSE + NC

Therefore, the ratio of the apparent power in the primary and secondary of the
autotransformer to the apparent power actually traveling through its windings is

SIO NSE + NC
=
SW NSE

Equation above describes the apparent power rating advantage of an autotransformer over a
conventional transformer. Here SIO is the apparent power entering the primary and leaving the
secondary of the transformer, while SW is the apparent power actually traveling through the
transformer’s windings (the rest passes from primary to secondary without being coupled
through the transformer’s windings). Note that the smaller the series winding, the greater the
advantage.

For example, a 5000-kVA autotransformer connecting a 110-kV system to a 138-kV system


would have an NC/NSE turns ratio of 110:28. Such an autotransformer would actually have
windings rated at

NSE
SW = SIO
NSE + NC

28
= (5000 kVA)
28 + 110
= 1015 kVA

Figure 3.23
The autotransformer of Example 3.6

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The autotransformer would have windings rated at only about 1015 kVA, while a con-
ventional transformer doing the same job would need windings rated at 5000 kVA. The
autotransformer could be 5 times smaller than the conventional transformer and also would be
much less expensive. For this reason, it is very advantageous to build transformers between
two nearly equal voltages as autotransformers.

The following example illustrates autotransformer analysis and the rating advantage of
autotransformers.

Example 3.6.
A 100-VA 120/12-V transformer is to be connected so as to form a step-up autotransformer
(see Figure 3.23). A primary voltage of 120 V is applied to the transformer.
(a) What is the secondary voltage of the transformer?
(b) What is its maximum voltampere rating in this mode of operation?
(c) Calculate the rating advantage of this autotransformer connection over the transformer’s
rating in conventional 120/12-V operation.

Solution. To accomplish a step-up transformation with a 120-V primary, the ratio of the turns
on the common winding NC to the turns on the series winding NSE in this transformer must be
120:12 (or 10:1).

(a) This transformer is being used as a step-up transformer. The secondary voltage is VH :

NSE + NC
VH = VL
NC

12 + 120
= 120V
120
= 132 V

(b) The maximum volt-ampere rating in either winding of this transformer is 100 VA. How
much input or output apparent power can this provide? To find out, examine the series
winding. The voltage VSE on the winding is 12 V, and the volt-ampere rating of the
winding is 100 VA. Therefore, the maximum series winding current is

S max
ISE,max =
VSE
100VA
=
12V

= 8.33 A

Since ISE is equal to the secondary current IS (or IH) and since the secondary voltage VS = VH =
132 V, the secondary apparent power is

Sout = VSIS = VHIH


= (132 V)(8.33 A)
= 1100 VA = Sin

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(c) The rating advantage can be calculated from part (b)


(d) From part b,

SIO 1100VA
=
SW 100VA

= 11

SIO NSE + NC
=
SW NSE

12 + 120
=
12
= 11

By either equation, the apparent power rating is increased by a factor of 11.


It is not normally possible to just reconnect an ordinary transformer as an auto-transformer
and use it in the manner of Example 3.6, because the insulation on the low-voltage side of the
ordinary transformer may not be strong enough to withstand the full output voltage of the
autotransformer connection. In transformers built specifically as autotransformers, the
insulation on the smaller coil (the series winding) is made just as strong as the insulation on
the larger coil.

It is common practice in power systems to use autotransformers whenever two voltages fairly
close to each other in level need to be transformed, because the closer the two voltages are,
the greater the autotransformer power advantage becomes. They are also used as variable
transformers, where the low-voltage tap moves up and down the winding. This is a very
convenient way to get a variable ac voltage. Such a variable autotransformer is shown in
Figure 3.24.

The principal disadvantage of autotransformers is that, unlike ordinary transformers, there is a


direct physical connection between the primary and the secondary circuits, so the electrical
isolation of the two sides is lost. If a particular application does not require electrical
isolation, then the autotransformer is a convenient and inexpensive way to tie nearly equal
voltages together.

The Internal Impedance of an Autotransformer


Autotransformers have one additional disadvantage compared to conventional transformers. It
turns out that, compared to a given transformer connected in the conventional manner, the
effective per-unit impedance of an autotransformer is smaller by a factor equal to the
reciprocal of the power advantage of the autotransformer connection.
The proof of this statement is left as a problem at the end of the chapter.

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Figure 3.24
A variable-voltage autotransformer. (b) Cutaway view of the autotransformer.

The reduced internal impedance of an autotransformer compared to a conventional two-


winding transformer can be a serious problem in some applications where the series
impedance is needed to limit current flows during power system faults (short circuits). The
effect of the smaller internal impedance provided by an autotransformer must be taken into
account in practical applications before autotransformers are selected.

Example 3.7
A transformer is rated at 1000 kVA, 12/1.2 kV, 60 Hz when it is operated as a conventional
two-winding transformer. Under these conditions, its series resistance and reactance are given
as 1 and 8 percent per unit, respectively. This transformer is to be used as a 13.2/12—kV step-
down autotransformer in a power distribution system. In the autotransformer connection, (a)
what is the transformer’s rating when used in this manner and (b) what is the transformer’s
series impedance in per-unit?

Solution
(a) The NC/NSE turns ratio must be 12:1.2 or 10:1. The voltage rating of this transformer will
be 13.2/12 kV, and the apparent power (voltampere) rating will be

NSE + NC
SIO = SW
NSE
1 + 10
= 1000kVA
1
= 11.000kVA

(b) The transformer’s impedance in a per-unit system when connected in the conventional
manner is
Zeq = 0.01 + j0.08 PU separate windings

The apparent power advantage of this autotransformer is 11, so the per-unit impedance of the
autotransformer connected as described is

0.01 + j 0.08
Zeq =
11

= 0.00091 + j 0.00727 PU autotransformer

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3.9. THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS

Almost all the major power generation and distribution systems in the world today are three-
phase ac systems. Since three-phase systems play such an important role in modem life, it is
necessary to understand how transformers are used in them.

Transformers for three-phase circuits can be constructed in one of two ways. One approach is
simply to take three single-phase transformers and connect them in a three-phase bank. An
alternative approach is to make a three-phase transformer consisting of three sets of windings
wrapped on a common core. These two possible types of transformer construction are shown
in Figures 3.25 and 3.26. The construction of a single three-phase transformer is the preferred
practice today, since it is lighter, smaller, cheaper, and slightly more efficient. The older
construction approach was to use three separate transformers. That approach had the
advantage that each unit in the bank could be replaced individually in the event of trouble, but
that does not outweigh the advantages of a combined three-phase unit for most applications.
However, there are still a great many installations consisting of three single-phase units in
service.

Three-Phase Transformer Connections

A three-phase transformer consists of three transformers, either separate or combined on one


core. The primaries and secondaries of any three-phase transformer can be independently
connected in either a wye (Y) or a delta (A). This gives a total of four possible connections for
a three-phase transformer bank:

1. Wye—wye (Y - Y)
2. Wye—delta (Y - Δ)
3. Delta—wye (Δ - Y)
4. Delta—delta (Δ - Δ)

These connections are shown in Figure 3.27


The key to analyzing any three-phase transformer bank is to look at a single transformer in the
bank. Any single transformer in the bank behaves exactly like the single-phase transformers
already studied. The impedance, voltage regulation, efficiency, and similar calculations for
three-phase transformers are done on a per-phase basis, using exactly the same techniques
already developed for single-phase transformers.

The advantages and disadvantages of each type of three-phase transformer connection are
discussed below.

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Figure 3.25
A three-phase transformer bank composed of independent transformers.

Figure 3.26
A three-phase transformer wound on a single three-legged core.

WYE-WYE CONNECTION.
The Y-Y connection of three-phase transformers is shown in Figure 3.27a. In a Y-Y
connection, the primary voltage on each phase of the transformer is given by VøP = VLP / √3.
The primary-phase voltage is related to the secondary-phase voltage by the turns ratio of the
transformer. The phase voltage on the secondary is then related to the line voltage on the
secondary by VLS = √3VØs. Therefore, overall the voltage ratio on the transformer is

VLP 3VθP
= =a Y-Y
VLS 3VθS

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Figure 3.27
Three-phase transformer connections and wiring diagrams: (a) Y-Y

The Y-Y connection has two very serious problems:

1. If loads on the transformer circuit are unbalanced, then the voltages on the phases of the
transformer can become severely unbalanced.
2. Third-harmonic voltages can be large.

If a three-phase set of voltages is applied to a Y—Y transformer, the voltages in any phase
will be 120º apart from the voltages in any other phase. However, the third-harmonic
components of each of the three phases will be in phase with each other, since there are three
cycles in the third harmonic for each cycle of the fundamental frequency. There are always
some third-harmonic components in a transformer because of the nonlinearity of the core, and
these components add up. The result is a very large third-harmonic component of voltage on
top of the 50- or 60-Hz fundamental voltage. This third-harmonic voltage can be larger than
the fundamental voltage itself.

Both the unbalance problem and the third-harmonic problem can be solved using one of two
techniques:

1. Solidly ground the neutrals of the transformers, especially the primary winding’s neutral.
This connection permits the additive third-harmonic components to cause a current flow
in the neutral instead of building up large voltages. The neutral also provides a return path
for any current imbalances in the load.
2. Add a third (tertiary) winding connected in Δ to the transformer bank. If a third Δ -
connected winding is added to the transformer, then the third-harmonic components of
voltage in the A will add up, causing a circulating current flow within the winding. This

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suppresses the third-harmonic components of voltage in the same manner as grounding


the transformer neutrals.

The Δ -connected tertiary windings need not even be brought out of the transformer case, but
they often are used to supply lights and auxiliary power within the substation where it is
located. The tertiary windings must be large enough to handle the circulating currents, so they
are usually made about one-third the power rating of the two main windings.

One or the other of these correction techniques must be used any time a Y—Y transformer is
installed. In practice, very few Y—Y transformers are used, since the same jobs can be done
by one of the other types of three-phase transformers.

WYE-DELTA CONNECTION.
The Y-Δ connection of three-phase transformers is shown in Figure 3-27b. In this connection,
the primary line voltage is related to the primary phase voltage by VLP = √3VθP, while the
secondary line voltage is equal to the secondary phase voltage VLS = VθS. The voltage ratio of
each phase is

VθP
=a
VθS

so the overall relationship between the line voltage on the primary side of the bank and the
line voltage on the secondary side of the bank is

VLP 3VθP
=
VLS VθS

VθP
= 3a Y-Δ
VθS

The Y-Δ connection has no problem with third-harmonic components in its voltages, since
they are consumed in a circulating current on the A side. This connection is also more stable
with respect to unbalanced loads, since the A partially redistributes any imbalance that occurs.

This arrangement does have one problem, though. Because of the connection, the secondary
voltage is shifted 30º relative to the primary voltage of the transformer. The fact that a phase
shift has occurred can cause problems in paralleling the secondaries of two transformer banks
together. The phase angles of transformer secondaries must be equal if they are to be
paralleled, which means that attention must be paid to the direction of the 30º phase shift
occurring in each transformer bank to be paralleled together.

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Figure 3.27 (continued)


(b) Y-Δ.

The connection shown in Figure 3.27b will cause the secondary voltage to be lagging if the
system phase sequence is abc. If the system phase sequence is acb, then the connection shown
in Figure 3.54b will cause the secondary voltage to be leading the primary voltage by 30º.

Figure 3.27 (continued)


(c) Δ.-Y

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DELTA-WYE CONNECTION.
A Δ-Y connection of three-phase transformers is shown in Figure 3.27c. In a Δ-Y connection,
the primary line voltage is equal to the primary-phase voltage VLP = VθP while the secondary
voltages are related by VLS = 3 VθS. Therefore, the line-to-line voltage ratio of this
transformer connection is
VLP VθP
=
VLS 3VθS

VLP 3
= Δ-Y
VLS a

This connection has the same advantages and the same phase shift as the Y—A transformer.
The connection shown in Figure 3.27c makes the secondary voltage lag the primary voltage
by 30º, as before.

Figure 3.27 (continued)


(d) Δ-Δ

DELTA-DELTA CONNECTION.
The Δ-Δ connection is shown in Figure 3.27d. In a Δ-Δ connection, VLP = VθP and VLS =
VθS,so the relationship between primary and secondary line voltages is

VLP VφP
= =a Δ- Δ
VLS VφS

This transformer has no phase shift associated with it and no problems with unbalanced loads
or harmonics.

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The Per-Unit System for Three-Phase Transformers


The per-unit system of measurements applies just as well to three-phase transformers as to
single-phase transformers. The single-phase base equations apply to three-phase systems on a
per-phase basis. If the total base voltampere value of the transformer bank is called Sbase, then
the base voltampere value of one of the transformers SIØ base

Sbase
SIØ,base =
3

and the base phase current and impedance of the transformer are

S I φ , base
IØ,base =
Vφ , base

Sbase
IØ,base =
3Vφ ,base

(V φ ,base ) 2

Z,base =
S Iφ ,base

3(Vφ ,base )
2

Z,base =
S base

Line quantities on three-phase transformer banks can also be represented in the per-unit
system. The relationship between the base line voltage and the base phase voltage of the
transformer depends on the connection of windings. If the windings are connected in delta,
VL,base = VØ,base, while if the windings are connected in wye, VL,,base = √3VØ,base. The base line
current in a three-phase transformer bank is given by

S base
IL,base =
3VL ,base

The application of the per-unit system to three-phase transformer problems is similar to its
application in the single-phase examples already given.

Example 3.8.
A 50-kVA 13,800/208-V Δ-Y distribution transformer has a resistance of

1 Percent and a reactance of 7 percent per unit.


(a) What is the transformer’s phase impedance referred to the high-voltage side?
(b) Calculate this transformer’s voltage regulation at full load and 0.8 PF lagging, using the
calculated high-side impedance.
(c) Calculate this transformer’s voltage regulation under the same conditions, using the per-
unit system.

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Solution
(a) The high-voltage side of this transformer has a base line voltage of 13,800 V and a
base apparent power of 50 kVA. Since the primary is A-connected, its phase voltage is
equal to its line voltage. Therefore, its base impedance is

3(Vφ ,base )
2

Zbase =
S base

3(13.800)
2
=
50.000

= 11.426Ω

The per-unit impedance of the transformer is

Zeq = 0.01 + jO.07 pu

so the high-side impedance in ohms is

Zeq = Zeq,PUZbase
= (0.01 + j0.07PU)(11.426Ω)
= 114.2 + j800Ω

(b) To calculate the voltage regulation of a three-phase transformer bank, determine the
voltage regulation of any single transformer in the bank. The voltages on a single
transformer are phase voltages, so

VφP − aVφS
VR = x100%
aVφS

The rated transformer phase voltage on the primary is 13.800 V, so the rated phase current on
the primary is given by

S
IØ =
3Vφ

The rated apparent power S = 50 kVA, so

IØ = 50 . 000 VA
3 (13 .800 V )

= 1.208 A

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The rated phase voltage on the secondary of the transformer is 208 V/√3 = 120V. When
referred to the high-voltage side of the transformer, this voltage becomes VØS = aVØS =
13.800 V. Assume that the transformer secondary is operating at the rated voltage and current,
and find the resulting primary phase voltage:
T
ØP = aVØS +ReqIØ + jXeqIØ
=13,800 ∠ 0ºV+(114.2Ω)(1.208 ∠ -6.87ºA)+(j800 Ω)(1.208 ∠ -36.87ºA)
=13,800 + 138 ∠ -36.87º + 966.4 ∠ 53.13º
=13,800 + 110.4 -j82.8 + 579.8 +j773.1
=14,490 +j690.3
=14,506 ∠ 2.73º V
Therefore,

VφP − aVφS
VR = x100%
aVφS

14.506 − 13.800
= x100%
13.800

= 5.1 %

(c) In the per-unit system, the output voltage is 1 ∠ 0º, and the current is 1 ∠ -36.87º.
Therefore, the input voltage is

VP = 1 ∠ 0º+ (0.01)(1 ∠ -36.87º) + (j0.07)(1 ∠ -36.87º)


= 1 + 0.008 - j0.006 + 0.042 + j0.056
= 1.05 +j0.05
= 1.051 ∠ 2.730

The voltage regulation is

1.051 − 1.0
VR = x100%
1.0

= 5.1%

Of course, the voltage regulation of the transformer bank is the same whether the calculations
are done in actual ohms or in the per-unit system.

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3.10. SUMMARY

A transformer is a device for converting electric energy at one voltage level to electric energy
at another voltage level through the action of a magnetic field. It plays an extremely important
role in modem life by making possible the economical long-distance transmission of electric
power.

When a voltage is applied to the primary of a transformer, a flux is produced in the core as
given by Faraday’s law. The changing flux in the core then induces a voltage in the secondary
winding of the transformer. Because transformer cores have very high permeability, the net
magnetomotive force required in the core to produce its flux is very small. Since the net
magnetomotive force is very small, the primary circuit’s magnetomotive force must be
approximately equal and opposite to the secondary circuit’s magnetomotive force. This fact
yields the transformer current ratio.

A real transformer has leakage fluxes that pass through either the primary or the secondary
winding, but not both. In addition there are hysteresis, eddy current, and copper losses. These
effects are accounted for in the equivalent circuit of the transformer. Transformer
imperfections are measured in a real transformer by its voltage regulation and its efficiency.

The per-unit system of measurement is a convenient way to study systems containing


transformers, because in this system the different system voltage levels disappear. In addition,
the per-unit impedances of a transformer expressed to its own ratings base fall within a
relatively narrow range, providing a convenient check for reasonableness in problem
solutions.

An autotransformer differs from a regular transformer in that the two windings of the
autotransformer are connected. The voltage on one side of the transformer is the voltage
across a single winding, while the voltage on the other side of the transformer is the sum of
the voltages across both windings. Because only a portion of the power in an autotransformer
actually passes through the windings, an autotransformer has a power rating advantage
compared to a regular transformer of equal size. However, the connection destroys the
electrical isolation between a transformer’s primary and secondary sides.

The voltage levels of three-phase circuits can be transformed by a proper combination of two
or three transformers. Potential transformers and current transformers can sample the voltages
and currents present in a circuit. Both devices are very common in large power distribution
systems.

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4
EXPERIMENT

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SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER

4.1. POLARITY OF TRANSFORMER

OBJECTIVE
After completing this experiment, you will be able to determine the polarity of the
transformer.

EQUIPMENT
1. Single Phase Transformer unit (LFT-TET-P1A)
2. Single Phase Transformer unit (LFT-TET-P1B)
3. 1.5 V Battery
4. Push Button Switch.
5. Analog DC Voltmeter
6. Connection Leads

DISCUSSION

The terms primary and secondary refer to source and load sides, respectively (i.e., energy
flows from primary to secondary). However, in many applications energy can flow either
way, in which case the distinction is meaningless. The terms step up and step down refer to
what the transformer does to the voltage from source to load. ANSI standards require that for
a two-winding transformer the high-voltage and low-voltage terminals be marked as H1-H2
and X1-X2, respectively, with H1 and X1 markings having the same significance as dots for
polarity markings.
Additive and subtractive transformer polarity refer to the physical positioning of high-voltage,
low-voltage dotted terminals as shown in Figure 4.1-1. If the dotted terminals are adjacent,
then the transformer is said to be subtractive, because if these adjacent terminals (H1-X1) are
connected together, the voltage between H2 and X2 is the difference between primary and
secondary. Similarly, if adjacent terminals X1 and H2 are connected, the voltage (H1-X2) is
the sum of primary and secondary values.

Figure 4.1-1. Transformer polarity (a) Subtractive (b) Additive

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If the primary voltage is positive at the dotted end of the winding with respect to the undotted
end, then the secondary voltage will be positive at the dotted end also. Voltage polarities are
the same with respect to the dots on each side of the core.
If the primary current of the transformer flows into the dotted end of the primary winding, the
secondary current will flow out of the dotted end of the secondary winding.

PROCEDURES:
1. Prepare all equipment.
2. Build the circuit as shown in Figure 4.1-2a.
12V I
PB
12A

A 0 0 H

24V G
1.5Vdc

+ B 220V 6A

0 F

C 240V 42V E

3A DCV
+ -

0 D

(a)
PB

A 0 120V G

5A
1.5Vdc
B 220V 0 F
+

120V E

C 240V 5A DCV
+ -

0 D

(b)
Figure 4.1-2. Polarity Testing

3. Observe Figure 4.1-2a. It shows that terminal A is given (-) polarity and terminal C to
(+) polarity. On the secondary winding, terminal E and D are connected to DC
voltmeter.
4. Press PB switch momentary while observing the DC voltmeter. What is the response
of the voltmeter? Fill the result into table 4.1-1.

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Table 4.1-1. Polarity Test


Voltmeter deviation
No Point Remark
(Left/Right)
1 E-D
2 G-F
3 I-H

5. Repeat step 3 and 4. Change the DC voltmeter to G-F and I-H respectively. Write
down the result into table 4.1-1.
6. Return the circuit configuration as Figure 4.1-2a.
7. Change the battery polarity to opposite direction. Battery (+) to A and battery (-) to C.
8. Press PB switch momentary while observing the DC voltmeter. What is the response
of the voltmeter? Write down the result.
9. Let’s move to Figure 4.1-2b. It shows a single phase transformer as well, but has
larger secondary power and voltage ratings. Terminal A is given (-) polarity and
terminal C to (+) polarity. On the secondary winding, terminal E and D are connected
to DC voltmeter.
10. Press PB switch momentary while observing the DC voltmeter. What is the response
of the voltmeter? Fill the result into table 4.1-2.
Table 4.1-2. Polarity Test
Voltmeter deviation
No Point Remark
(Left/Right)
1 E-D
2 G-F

11. Repeat step 9 and 10. Change the DC voltmeter to G-F. Write down the result into
table 4.1-2.
12. Change the battery polarity to opposite direction. Battery (+) to A and battery (-) to C.
13. Press PB switch momentary while observing the DC voltmeter. What is the response
of the voltmeter? Write down the result.
14. Draw the transformer block diagram above and mark the polarity based on your
experiment result.
15. Remove the jumper connection after completing the experiments. Return the
equipment to their respective place.

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4.2. SERIES CIRCUIT IN A MULTIPLE WINDING TRANSFORMER.

OBJECTIVE

After completing this experiment you will able to connect a transformer in series winding so
that it will either aid or oppose each other.

EQUIPMENT

1. Single Phase- Transformer Experimental Trainer base station. (LFT-TET-B)


2. Single-phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1A)
3. Connection Leads

DISCUSSION

Some transformers are made with more than one primary as well as more than one secondary.
Multiple transformer windings can be connected in series or in parallel to change the voltage
or current capabilities. Either primary or secondary windings (or both) can be connected in
series or in parallel.
For parallel connections, windings should have identical ratings. They must have identical
voltage ratings. Before windings are connected in parallel, their phasing must be correct
Phasing refers to the instantaneous polarity of the windings. When the secondary winding has
identical voltage rating the negative ends of the two secondary windings are connected
together, as are the positive ends. With this connections the output voltage is still but the
current will double.
Incorrect phasing in parallel winding causes a dead short on the secondaries of the
transformer. The voltage of each winding aids the other winding in producing secondary
current. Only the resistance of the secondary winding limits the secondary current. Therefore
the current becomes very high. If not protected against overload the transformer will soon
burn out.
Transformer windings also can be connected in series so that they either aid or oppose each
other,
PRIMARY

Power + 10V/1A
PRIMARY

Power Source
+ 10V/1A -
Source 220VAC
- 4V/
220VAC
16V/ 1A
1A +
6V/2A
+ -
6V/2A
-

Figure 4.2-1. (a). Series aiding winding connections (b) Series opposing winding connections

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In Figure 4.2-1 the polarity markings indicate the instantaneous polarities for one half cycle.
In the series-aiding configuration (Fig 4.2-1a), the output voltage is the sum of the two
secondary voltages. However the current is restricted to the lower rating of the two windings.
This because all of the load current flows through both secondaries.
When connected in a series-opposing configuration the two winding produce a voltage equal
to the difference between the two voltages. We say the two voltages are bucking one another.
Note that the current is limited to the lower current rating of the two windings.
In summary, it is possible to obtain four voltages from two secondary windings:
- The voltage of secondary 1
- The voltage of secondary 2
- The sum of the voltages of secondaries 1 and 2
- The difference between the voltages of secondaries 1 and 2

PROCEDURES:

1. Prepare all equipment.


2. Ensure the power is OFF. Make circuit connections as shown in Figure 4.2-2.
3. Ask your instructor to recheck your wiring.

12V I

RCCB 12A

N A 0 0 H

24V G
V1 B 220V 6A
0 F
L MCB
V2
C 240V
GND 42V E
3A
GND 0 D

CAUTION: HIGH VOLTAGE!!

Figure 4.2-2. Series aiding winding connections

4. Turn on the RCCB and MCB.


5. Measure the voltage at the primary and secondary points. Write down the result into table
4.2-1.
6. Turn off the MCB and RCCB.
7. Remove the secondary connection leads.

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8. Connect point G-H.


9. Turn on the power.
10. Measure the voltage at point F-I. Write down the result into table 4.2-1.
Table 4.2-1. Series aiding winding connections

Step no V1 (Vac) V2 (Vac)


5
10

11. Turn off the power. Remove the secondary connection leads.
12. Build the circuit as shown in Figure 4.2-3.
13. Ask your instructor to recheck your circuit.
12V I

RCCB 12A

N A 0 0 H

24V G
V1 B 220V 6A
0 F
L MCB

C 240V
GND 42V E V2
3A
GND
0 D

CAUTION: HIGH VOLTAGE!!

Figure 4.2-3. Series opposing winding connections

14. Turn on the power.


15. Measure the voltage (V1) and (V2). Fill the result into table 4.2-2.
16. Turn off the power.
17. Change the secondary connections. Connect terminal G to terminal I, and voltmeter (V2)
connected to terminal H-F.
18. Turn on the power. Measure the voltage (V1) and (V2). Fill the result into table 4.2-2.
19. Turn off the power.
20. Remove the jumper connection after completing the experiments. Return the equipment to
their respective place.

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Table 4.2-2. Series opposing winding connections

Step no V1 (Vac) V2 (Vac)


15
18

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4.3. OPEN CIRCUIT TESTING

OBJECTIVE

After completing this exercise you will be able to measure and determine the excitation
impedance of a transformer.

EQUIPMENT

1. Single Phase Transformer Experimental Trainer base station (LFT-TET-B)


2. Single phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1A)
3. Single phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1B)
4. Connection Leads

BASIC INFORMATION

It is possible to experimentally determine the values of the inductances and resistances in the
transformer model. An adequate approximation of these values can be obtained with only two
tests, the open-circuit test and the short-circuit test.
In the open-circuit test, a transformer secondary winding is open-circuited, and its primary
winding is connected to a full-rated line voltage. Look at the equivalent circuit in Figure 4.3-
1. Under the conditions described, all the input current must be flowing through the excitation
branch of the transformer. The series elements RP and XP are too small in comparison to RC
and XM to cause a significant voltage drop, so essentially all the input voltage is dropped
across the excitation branch.

Figure 4.3-1 a) The transformer model referred to its primary voltage level.
b) The transformer model referred to its secondary voltage level.

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The open-circuit test connections are shown in Figure 4.3-2. Full line voltage is applied to the
primary of the transformer, and the input voltage, input current, and input power to the
transformer are measured. From this information, it is possible to determine the power factor
of the input current and therefore both the magnitude and the angle of the excitation
impedance.
The easiest way to calculate the values of RC and XM is to look first at the admittance of the
excitation branch. The conductance of the core-loss resistor is given by
1
Gc =
RC
and the susceptance of the magnetizing inductor is given by
1
BM =
XM
Since these two elements are in parallel, their admittances add, and the total excitation
admittance is
YE = Gc - jBM

1 1
= – j
RC XM

Figure 4.3-2. Connection for transformer open-circuit test.

The magnitude of the excitation admittance (referred to the primary circuit) can be found
from the open-circuit test voltage and current:

I OC
YE =
VOC

The angle of the admittance can be found from a knowledge of the circuit power factor. The
open-circuit power factor (PF) is given by
PF = cos θ

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POC
=
VOC I OC
and the power-factor angle θ is given by
POC
θ = cos –1
VOC
The power factor is always lagging for a real transformer, so the angle of the current always
lags the angle of the voltage by θ degrees. Therefore, the admittance YE is
I OC
YE = ∠ -θ
VOC

I OC
= ∠ cos –1 PF
VOC

PROCEDURES
1. Prepare all equipment required.

2. Ensure the power is OFF. Build circuit as shown in Figure 4.3-3.


12V I

RCCB 12A
WATTMETER
N A 0 0 H
A1 A
24V G
V
V1 B 220V 6A

L MCB
0 F

C 240V 42V E
GND
3A
GND
0 D

CAUTION: HIGH VOLTAGE!!


Figure 4.3-3. Open circuit testing

3. Ask your instructor to recheck your wiring.


4. Turn on the RCCB and MCB.
5. Observe the voltage, current and power
Primary Voltage (Voc) = ……….V
Primary Current (Ioc) = ……….A
Power (Poc) = ……….W

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6. Calculate the power factor of the transformer


PF = cos θ
POC
=
VOC I OC
7. Calculate the admittance of the transformer
I OC
Y = ∠ cos –1 PF
VOC

8. Turn off the power and remove the connection leads.


9. Build a circuit as shown in Figure 4.3-4. It uses the single phase transformer (LFT-
TET-P1B).
10. Ask your instructor to recheck your wiring.
11. Turn on the power.
12. Measure the voltage, current and power.
Primary Voltage (Voc) = ……….V
Primary Current (Ioc) = ……….A
Power (Poc) = ……….W

RCCB
WATTMETER
N A 0 120V G
A1 A
5A
V
V1
B 220V 0 F

L MCB
120V E

C 240V 5A
GND

GND 0 D

CAUTION : HIGH VOLTAGE!!

Figure 4.3-4. Open circuit testing

13. Calculate the power factor of the transformer


PF = cos θ
POC
=
VOC I OC
14. Calculate the admittance of the transformer

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I OC
Y = ∠ cos –1 PF
VOC

15. Turn off the power.


16. Remove the jumper connection after completing the experiments. Return the
equipment to their respective place.

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4.4. SHORT CIRCUIT TESTING

OBJECTIVE

After completing this experiment you will able determine the current ratio and impedance
of a transformer

EQUIPMENT

1. Single Phase Transformer Experimental Trainer base station (LFT-TET-B)


2. Single-phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1A)
3. Single phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1B)
4. Variable Power Supply
5. Connection Leads

DISCUSSION
In the short-circuit test, the secondary terminals of the transformer are short-circuited, and the
primary terminals are connected to a fairly low-voltage source, as shown in Figure 3.15. The
input voltage is adjusted until the current in the short-circuited windings is equal to its rated
value. (Be sure to keep the primary voltage at a safe level. It would not be a good idea to burn
out the transformer’s windings while trying to test it.) The input voltage, current, and power
are again measured.
IIIIIII

Figure 4.4-1. Short circuit testing

Since the input voltage is so low during the short-circuit test, negligible current flows through
the excitation branch. If the excitation current is ignored, then all the voltage drop in the
transformer can be attributed to the series elements in the circuit. The magnitude of the series
impedances referred to the primary side of the transformer is

VSC
Z SE =
I SC

The power factor of the current is given by

PF = cos θ

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PSC
=
VSC I SC

and is lagging. The current angle is thus negative, and the overall impedance angle θ is
positive:

PSC
θ = cos-1
VSC I SC

PROCEDURE
1. Prepare all equipment required.

2. Ensure the power and meter switch are OFF. Build circuit as shown in Figure 4.4-2.
12V I

RCCB 12A
WATTMETER
N A 0 0 H
A1 A
24V G
AUTO
TRANSFORMER V
V1 B 220V 6A A2

L MCB
0 F

C 240V 42V E
GND
3A
GND
0 D

CAUTION: HIGH VOLTAGE!!


Figure 4.4-2. Short circuit testing.

3. Set the autotransformer to minimum position.


4. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches.
5. Adjust the autotransformer gently until the ammeter (A2) shows 6 Amperes.
CAUTION: DO NOT EXCEED THE MAXIMUM CURRENT RATING!!
6. Read the meter measurement.
V1 (Vsc) = ……….. Vac
A1 (Isc) = ……….. Vac
W (Psc) = ……….. W
A2 = 6A
7. Set the autotransformer to minimum position and turn off the power and meter switches.
Remove the cable jumper connections.
8. Prepare the single phase transformer unit LFT-TET-P1B.

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9. Build the circuit as shown in Figure 4.4-3.


RCCB
WATTMETER
N A 0 120V G
A1 A
5A
V
V1
B 220V 0 F

L MCB
120V E

C 240V 5A A2
GND

GND 0 D

CAUTION: HIGH VOLTAGE!!


Figure 4.4-3. Short circuit testing.

10. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches.
11. Adjust the autotransformer gently until the ammeter (A2) show 5 Ampere. Read the meter
measurement.
V1 (Vsc) = ……….. Vac
A1 (Isc) = ……….. Vac
W (Psc) = ……….. W
A2 = 5A
12. Set the autotransformer to minimum position and turn off the power and meter switches.
Remove the cable jumper connections.

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4.5. TURNS RATIO OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WINDING OF


A TRANSFORMER.

OBJECTIVES
After completing this experiment you will able to determine the voltage values according to
the turns ratio and calculate the turn ratio by determining the voltage values.

EQUIPMENT
1. Single Phase- Transformer experimental Trainer base station. (LFT-TET-B)
2. Single-phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1A)
3. Connection Leads
4. Variable Transformer

DISCUSSION
A transformer can either step up or step down a voltage. If the primary voltage is greater than
the secondary voltage, the transformer is stepping the voltage down. If the voltage in the
secondary exceeds the voltage in the primary the transformer is a step-up transformer. Some
transformers with multiple secondaries have one or more step-up or step-down secondaries.
Whether a secondary is a step-up or step down winding is determined by the primary to
secondary turns ratio. When the primary turns exceed the secondary turns and the coupling is
100 percent, the transformer steps down the voltage. In fact, with 100 percent coupling, the
turns ratio and the voltage ratio are equal. Mathematically we can write:

Vpri Npri
_______ ________
=
Vsec Nsec

In this formula, N is the abbreviation for the number of turns. This formula can be rearranged
to show that:

Npri Nsec
_______ ________
=
Vpri Vsec
In this new arrangement, the relationship between voltage and turns is very informative. It
shows that the turns-per-volt ratio is the same for both the primary and the secondary.
Furthermore, the turns-per-volt ratios of all secondary windings in a multiple-secondary
transformer are equal. Thus, once you determine the turns-per-volt ratio of any winding, you
know the ratios of all other windings.
In this experiment we will use a single phase step-down transformer that consist of a primary
winding and three secondary windings with the following specifications:

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Primary: Input voltage : 240 Volt


Turns : 377
Φ : 1 mm
Connection Terminals : A - C

Secondary: Output voltage : 42 Volt


Turns : 67
Max. current : 3 Amp.
Φ : 1.25 mm
Connection Terminals : D - E

Output voltage : 24 Volt


Turns : 36
Max. current : 6 Amp.
Φ : 1.8 mm
Connection Terminals : F - G

Output voltage : 12 Volt


Turns : 18
Max. current : 6 Amp.
Φ : 2.5 mm
Connection Terminals : H - I

PROCEDURES:
1. Prepare all equipment.
2. Ensure the RCCB, MCB and meter switches are OFF. Build a circuit as shown in
Figure 4.5-1.
3. Ask your instructor to recheck your circuit.
4. Adjust autotransformer to minimum.
5. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Wait a moment then turn on the Voltmeter switch (V1)
and Ammeter switch (A1).
6. Observe the Voltmeter and Ammeter reading and record the result in Table 4.5-1.
7. By using Voltmeter (V2) measure the voltage on terminals D - E. Observe and record
the result in Table 4.5-1. Also measure the voltage on terminal F – G and H – I.

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12V I

RCCB 12A

N A 0 0 H
A1
24V G
AUTO
TRANSFORMER
V1 B 220V 6A

L MCB
0 F

C 240V 42V E
GND
3A V2
GND
0 D

CAUTION: HIGH VOLTAGE!!


Figure 4.5-1. Turn ratio experiment

8. Increase primary input voltage by adjusting the variable Transformer output until
voltmeter V1 shows 50Vac, and then measure the voltage on terminals D – E; F – G;
and H – I.
Nsec
Vsec = _______ x Vpri
Npri

Note:
Vsec = Secondary voltage on points; D – E; F – G; and H – I.
Vpri = Primary voltage on point A-C
Nsec = Secondary winding
N pri = Primary winding
9. Repeat step 8 above, for primary input voltage: 100V; 150V; 200V and 220V. Record
the result in Table 4.5-1
10. Set the autotransformer to minimum position, turn off the power and meter switches.
Remove the cable jumper connections.

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Table 4.5-1. Turn ratio measurement

Variable Measurement (Volt)


Calculation (Volt)
Transformer Primary Secondary
Output
A-C D-E F-G H-I D-E F-G H-I

0V

50V

100V

150V

200V

220V

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4.6. IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION

OBJECTIVES
In this exercise you will practice how a transformer can change the value of a resistance

EQUIPMENT

1. Single Phase- Transformer experimental Trainer base station (LFT-TET-P1B)


2. Single-phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1A)
3. Connection Leads
4. Variable load unit (LFT-TET-01)

DISCUSSION
For ideal transformer, there is no exciting current, and the resistance of its windings should be
zero. Also it will no leakage flux, and leakage reactance. The voltage on the secondary
terminals E2 is given by the voltage ratio equation:
Es = (Ns / Np) Ep
Since it is no exciting current, the impedance between terminals A – B is infinite. This
corresponds to the infinite impedance between secondary terminals C – D.
If a resistor R is connected across the secondary terminals C and D, the impedance between
the primary terminals A and B is no longer infinite. It is equal to the value R multiplied by the
square of the turns ratio.
Zp = (Np / Ns)2 R
This is an example of impedance transformation. When the resistance R is connected to the
secondary terminals, the resulting secondary current Is is:
Is = (Es / R)
The secondary current causes a current flow in the primary given by the current ratio
equation:
Ip = (Ns / Np) Is
The impedance ZAB seen between terminals A and B is:
ZAB = (Ep / Ip)
We see that the impedance between the primary terminals is equal to the resistance across the
secondary terminals multiplied by the square of the turns ratio. Thus the transformer has the
remarkable property of being able to transform the value of a resistance.

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PROCEDURES
1. Prepare all equipment required in this experiment.
2. Ensure the RCCB and MCB and meter switches are OFF.
3. Build circuit as shown in Figure 4.6-1.

12V I A2

RCCB 12A
V2
N A 0 0 H
A1
24V G

V1 B 220V 6A

L MCB
0 F

C 240V 42V E
GND
3A
GND
0 D

CAUTION: HIGH VOLTAGE!!


Figure 4.6-1. Impedance measurement.

4. Calculate the theoretical value of the impedance that should appear between terminals A
and B when the load resistor = 15 Ω :
Zp = (Np / Ns)2 R = ………… Ω

5. Set the variable load unit (Rheostat) to 15 Ω.


Note: You are not recommended to turn on the power while the rheostat is set to
minimum position (below 1Ω). It will burn the rheostat unit.
6. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Wait a moment then turn on all of the meter switches.
7. With load = 15 Ω measure primary current on ammeter A1. Calculate the value of the
impedance Zp that appears across terminal A and B:
Zp = Vp/Ip = …….. Ω

8. With the same way as you have done on above steps, change the load as shown in Table
4.6-1 and write your measurement results.
9. After completing this experiment, turn off the MCB and RCCB. Remove cable
connections and return the equipment to their place.

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Table 4.6-1

Primary Secondary
Load
(H-I) Ep Ip Zp Zp Es Is Zs
(V1) (A1) (Ep/Ip) Calculation (V2) (I2) (Es/Is)

Resistor
15 Ohm

Resistor
20 Ohm

Resistor
30 Ohm

Resistor
50 Ohm

Resistor
100 Ohm

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4.7. VOLTAGE REGULATION

OBJECTIVES
After completing this experiment, you will be able to measure the voltage regulation of a
transformer

EQUIPMENT

1. Single Phase- Transformer experimental Trainer base station (LFT-TET-B)


2. Single-phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1A)
3. Single-phase transformer. (LFT-TET-P1B)
4. Connection Leads
5. Variable load unit (LFT-TET-01)

DISCUSSION

The measure of how well a power transformer maintains constant secondary voltage over a
range of load currents is called the transformer's voltage regulation. It can be calculated from
the following formula:

“Full-load” means the point at which the transformer is operating at maximum permissible
secondary current. This operating point will be determined primarily by the winding wire size
and the method of transformer cooling.

Incidentally, this would be considered rather poor (or “loose”) regulation for a power
transformer if less than 3%. Inductive loads tend to create a condition of worse voltage
regulation, so this analysis with purely resistive loads was a “best-case” condition.

PROCEDURE

1. Prepare all equipment required in this experiment.


2. Ensure the RCCB and MCB and meter switches are OFF.
3. Build circuit as shown in Figure 4.7-1.

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12V I

RCCB 12A

N A 0 0 H
A1
24V G

V1 B 220V 6A

L MCB
0 F

C 240V 42V E A2
GND
3A
V2
GND
0 D

CAUTION: HIGH VOLTAGE!!

Figure 4.7-1. Voltage regulation measurement

4. Set the variable load unit (Rheostat) knob to middle position.


Note: You are not recommended to turn on the power while the rheostat is set to minimum
position (below 1Ω). It will burn the rheostat unit.
5. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Wait a moment then turn on the meter switches.
6. Set the rheostat until the ammeter (A2) show 3A. Read the voltage at voltmeter (V2).
V2 : ……………Vac (Full-load voltage)
7. Set the rheostat to maximum (500 Ω). This condition can be said no load condition,
because the current will be very small. Read the voltage at voltmeter (V2)
V2 : ……………Vac (No-load voltage)
8. Calculate the regulation percentage based on your experiment data.
Vfull-load – Vno-load
Regulation percentage = x 100 %
Vno-load
9. After completing this experiment, turn off the MCB and RCCB. Remove cable
connections and return the equipment to their place.

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4.8. FULL WAVE RECTIFIER


OBJECTIVE

In this experiment you will practice how measure voltage characteristic of a fullwave rectifier
with and without load.

EQUIPMENT

1. Single Phase- Transformer experimental Trainer base station (LFT-TET-B)


2. Single-phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1A)
3. Single-phase transformer (LFT-TET-P1B)
4. Connection Leads
5. DC Voltmeter
6. Oscilloscope

DISCUSSION
Figure 4.8-1 is the circuit diagram of a transformer-fed bridge rectifier. The high-voltage
secondary winding of transformer T supplies four silicon rectifiers, D1 to D4. Operation of the
circuit is as follows: Assume that during the positive alternation (alternation 1) of the input
sine wave, point C is positive with respect to D (the voltages at the opposite ends of a
transformer winding are 180° out of phase). This makes the anode of D1 positive with respect
to its cathode and D1is therefore forward-biased. Similarly the cathode of D3, connected to
point D, is negative relative to its anode. Hence, D3 is forward-biased. It is evident also that
D2 and D4 are reverse-biased during alternation 1. Thus, in a circuit Dl and D3 will conduct
during alternation 1 while D2 and D4 will be cut off.

Figure 4.8-1. Full wave rectifier

Figure 4.8-2a shows that during the positive alternation there is a complete path for current
for rectifiers D1 and D3, which are connected in series with the load resistor RL. Current flows
through RL, through D1; through winding CD, and through D3, with the polarity shown.
Figure 4.8-2b shows the positive-voltage waveform developed during alternation 1 across RL.
During the negative alternation (alternation 2), D1 and D3 are reverse-biased and are cut off. If
D2 and D4 were not in the circuit, D1 and D3 would act as a half-wave rectifier.

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Figure 4.8-2c shows that during the negative alternation (alternation 2), that is, when point C
is negative relative to point D, the anode of D2 is positive with respect to its cathode, and the
cathode of D4 is negative with respect to its anode. Hence, rectifiers D2 and D4 are forward-
biased, while D1 and D3 are reverse-biased.

Figure 4.8-2. Action of bridge rectifier (a, b) on positive alternation;(c,d) on negative alternation

Now D2 and D4 conduct, permitting current through RL. The polarity across RL is the same as
in Figure 4.8-2d.
Thus D1 in series with D3 rectifies during the positive alternation of the input, while D2 in
series with D4 rectifies during the negative alternation. A bridge rectifier is therefore a full-
wave rectifier. The center tap (CT) of the secondary is not connected in the bridge rectifier. In
a conventional circuit rectifier, the CT acts as the common return, and the voltage across each
diode is one-half the voltage across the transformer. Hence, if the same transformer is used,
the output voltage of a conventional full-wave rectifier is only one-half that of a bridge
circuit.
The same type of filter arrangement can be used with a bridge rectifier as with any other
rectifier circuit. For the bridge rectifier the voltage rating of the filter capacitors must be at
least twice for the full-wave rectifier using the same transformer.

PROCEDURE
1. Prepare all equipment required in this experiment.
2. Ensure the RCCB and MCB and meter switches are OFF.
3. Build circuit as shown in Figure 4.8-3.
4. Set the rheostat to 20 Ω.
5. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches.

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6. Observe the waveform at the input and output of the bridge rectifier. Compare the
waveform. Draw the waveform into table 4.8-1.
7. Read the voltage and current measurement at V2, A2, and DC Voltmeter (Vdc). Fill
the result into table 4.8-1.
8. Repeat step 6-7 for other load values as listed on table 4.8-1.
12V I

RCCB 12A

N A 0 0 H
A1
24V G A2

V1 B 220V 6A
V2
L MCB
0 F

C 240V 42V E
GND
VDC
3A
GND
0 D OSCILLOSCOPE

Figure 4.8-3. Fullwave rectifier

Table 4.8-1

LOAD A2 (A) V2 (Vac) VDC Waveform


20 Ω
25 Ω
50 Ω
100 Ω

9. Turn off the RCCB, MCB and meter switches.


10. Assemble the circuit as shown on Figure 4.8-4.
11. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches.
12. Read the voltage and current measurement at V2, A2, and DC Voltmeter (VDC). Fill
the result into table 4.8-1.
13. Repeat step 12 for other load values as listed on table 4.8-2.

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RCCB

N A 0 120V G A2
A1
5A
V2
V1
B 220V 0 F

L MCB
120V E
VDC
C 240V 5A
GND

GND 0 D

Figure 4.13. Rectifier with load


Table 4.8-2

LOAD A2 (A) V2 (Vac) VDC


120 Ω
150 Ω
200 Ω
500 Ω

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THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER

4.9. Y-Δ CONNECTION

OBJECTIVE
After completing this experiment you will be able to construct three phase transformer and
able to verify the voltage and current relationships in a wye-delta transformer.

EQUIPMENT
1. Three Phase Transformer Experimental Trainer base station (LFT-TET-B)
2. Three Phase Transformer Unit (LFT-TET-P3)
3. Three Phase Load Unit/Rheostat (LFT-TET-06)
4. Connection Leads

DISCUSSION
Three phase voltages can be transformed either by a single three phase transformer or by three
single phase transformer. The end is the same, all three of the phase voltages are changed.
The structure of a three-phase transformer is illustrated in Figure 4.9-1.

Primary Primary Primary


phase 1 phase 2 phase 3

A C E
B D F

G I K

H J L

Secondary Secondary Secondary


phase 1 phase 2 phase 3

Figure 4.9-1. Illustration of a 3 phase transformer construction

The flux in the phase 1 lag is equal to the phase 2 flux plus phase 3. Phase 2 flux equals
phase 3 flux plus phase 1 flux etc. This is caused by the flux, like the current, of each phase is
displaced by 120°.
In Figure 4.9-2 the flux of each phase is assumed to be in step with the current in the phase.
(This assumption implies that the core has no hysteresis loss). At instant A, the phase 1

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current is zero. Therefore, the phase 1 flux is also zero. At instant B, current in phase 1 and
phase 3 are both positive. At this same time phase 2 current is negative and of twice the value
of either phase 1 current or phase 3 current. Thus the phase 2 lag of the core has twice as
much flux as either phase 1 or phase 3.
A B C D

Phase 1

Current
Phase 2

Phase 3

Time

Figure 4.9-2. Core flux in a three phase transformer.


The primary and secondary windings of a three phase transformer may be either wye
connected or delta connected. The secondary does not have to have the same configuration
(wye or delta) as the primary. Figure 4.9-3 shows four possibility ways to connect a three
phase transformer. The dots on one end of each winding indicate the beginning of each
winding. Notice that all windings are wound in the same direction (counterclockwise) when
you start at the dotted end of the winding. Identifying the start of the windings is necessary
before they can be properly phased.

Primary Secondary

a) Delta-delta (Δ −Δ)

Primary

Secondary

b) Delta – wye (Δ − Y)

Primary Secondary

c) Wye – wye (Y − Y)

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Secondary

Primary

d) Wye - Delta (Y − Δ)
Figure 4.9-3. Three phase transformer connections

The diagram in Figure 4.9-3 shows four ways of connecting the windings to obtain correct
phasing. With a wye connection, correct phasing can also be obtained by connecting all the
dotted ends to the star point. In the delta connection all three windings can be reversed; just be
sure that two dotted ends are not connected together. On a transformer, the dotted (start) of a
winding is identified by the manufacturer. The identification may be made in several ways. It
may be a colored strip wrapped around the insulation of the start lead or may be a number on
a diagram mounted on the transformer.
Incorrect phasing of the primary, in either the wye or the delta configuration, causes
excessively high primary current. If not protected against overload, the incorrectly phased
primary can be destroyed by the excess current. Improper phasing of a delta connected
secondary also causes excessive, destructive current.
The Y-Δ connection of three-phase transformers is shown in Figure 4.9-4. In this connection,
the primary line voltage is related to the primary phase voltage by VLP = √3VθP, while the
secondary line voltage is equal to the secondary phase voltage VLS = VθS. The voltage ratio of
each phase is
VθP
=a
VθS
so the overall relationship between the line voltage on the primary side of the bank and the
line voltage on the secondary side of the bank is
VLP VθP
= 3
VLS VθS

VθP
= 3 a Y-Δ
VθS
Primary Secondary
a c’
NP1
VLP NS2
NP2
b V θP NS3 b’
NP3 NS1
VLS
c Vθ S
a’

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PRIMARY SECONDARY
a c’

VLP VθP NP1 NS1 VθS

b b’

N P2 N S2

c a’

N P3 N S3
n

Figure 4.9-4.
The Y-Δ connection has no problem with third-harmonic components in its voltages, since
they are consumed in a circulating current on the Δ side. This connection is also more stable
with respect to unbalanced loads, since the Δ partially redistributes any imbalance that
occurs.

PROCEDURES
1. Prepare all equipment required in this experiment.
2. Ensure the RCCB and MCB and meter switches are OFF.
3. Make connections between base station and transformer module as shown in Figure 4.9-5.
4. Ask your instructor to recheck your circuit.
5. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches.
6. Measure the voltage and current as list on Table 4.9-1.

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I 415V 415V R

H 380V 41.5V Q
V2

L1 ILP1 G 0 0 P
A1
F 415V 415V O
V1 V1
L2 ILP2
A1
E 380V 41.5V N

V1 V2

L3 ILP3
A1 D 0 0 M

C 415V 415V L
N

B 380V 41.5V K
V2

GND
A 0 0 J

GND

CAUTION: HIGH VOLTAGE!!


Figure 4.9-5. Wye-Delta Configuration

Note: The ammeter (A1), voltmeter (V1, V2) are used interchangeable. Turn off the
MCB when you change the ammeter and voltmeter position.
Table 4.9-1. Wye-Delta measurement result

Description Measurement Result


VLine pri
VF-I V
VC-F V
VC-I V
Vphase pri
VC-G V
VF-G V
VI-G V

ILine pri

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ILP1 A
ILP2 A
ILP3 A
VLine sec
VJ-L V
VM-O V
VP-R V
7. Calculate the line-to line voltage at the primary winding.
VLLP = (VC-F + VF-I + VC-I) / 3 = ………….. V
8. Calculate the ratio of VLine and Vphase on the primary side.
VC-F / VC-G : …………
VF-I / VF-G : ………………

VC-I / VI-G : ………………

Does the comparison close to √3?


9. Measure the power which is drawn by the transformer without load. The wattmeter has
been wired internally.
P = ……… W
Note: The wattmeter has been defaulted to measure the power on the primary winding
10. Turn off the power and meter switches. Make circuit as shown in Figure 4.9-6.
ILS1
I 415V 415V R
A2

H 380V 41.5V Q
V2 VLS1

L1 ILP1 G 0 0 P
A1 ILS2
VLP3 F 415V 415V O
VLP1 A2
V1 V1
L2 ILP2
A1
E 380V 41.5V N
VLP2 V1 V2 VLS2

L3 ILP3
A1 D 0 0 M
ILS3
C 415V 415V L
A2
N

B 380V 41.5V K
V2 VLS3

GND
A 0 0 J

GND

Figure 4.9-6. Wye-delta connections with load

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11. Set the Rheostat to 400 Ω.


12. Turn on the power. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches.
13. Measure the voltage and current as shown in Table 4.9-2.
Table 4.9-2. Wye-Delta with load measurement result

Description Measurement Result


VLS1 V
VLS2 V
VLS3 V
ILS1 A
ILS2 A
ILS3 A
IPS1 A
IPS2 A
IPS3 A

14. Turn off the RCCB, MCB and meter switches.


15. Make circuit as shown in Figure 4.9-7.
16. Turn on the power. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches.
17. Measure the current as shown in Table 4.9-2.
I 415V 415V R

H 380V 41.5V Q

IPS1
L1 G 0 0 P
A2

F 415V 415V O

L2
E 380V 41.5V N

L3
IPS2
D 0 0 M
A2
C 415V 415V L
N

B 380V 41.5V K

GND
IPS3
A 0 0 J
A2

GND

Figure 4.9-7. Current measurement

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18. Calculate ratio of the phase current and line current of the secondary winding.
ILS1 / IPS1 : ………

ILS2 / IPS2 : ………

ILS2 / IPS2 : ………

Does the ratio close to √3 ?


Note that in the delta connections, Vline will be same with the Vphase.
19. Turn off the MCB and RCCB.
20. Remove all cable connections and return the equipment to their respective place.

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4.10. Y-Y CONNECTION

OBJECTIVE
After completing this experiment you will be familiar with three phase transformer and able
to verify the voltage and current relationships in a wye-wye transformer.

EQUIPMENT
1. Three Phase Transformer experimental Trainer base station (LFT-TET-B)
2. Three Phase Transformer (LFT-TET-P3)
3. Three Phase Load Unit (LFT-TET-06)
4. Connection Leads
5. Digital Multimeter

DISCUSSION

The Y-Y connection of three-phase transformers is shown in Figure 4.10-1. In a Y-Y


connection, the primary voltage on each phase of the transformer is given by VøP = VLP / √3.
The primary-phase voltage is related to the secondary-phase voltage by the turns ratio of the
transformer. The phase voltage on the secondary is then related to the line voltage on the
secondary by VLS = √3VØs. Therefore, overall the voltage ratio on the transformer is

VLP 3VθP
= =a Y-Y
VLS 3VθS

The Y-Y connection has two very serious problems:

1. If loads on the transformer circuit are unbalanced, then the voltages on the phases of the
transformer can become severely unbalanced.
2. Third-harmonic voltages can be large.

If a three-phase set of voltages is applied to a Y—Y transformer, the voltages in any phase
will be 120º apart from the voltages in any other phase. However, the third-harmonic
components of each of the three phases will be in phase with each other, since there are three
cycles in the third harmonic for each cycle of the fundamental frequency. There are always
some third-harmonic components in a transformer because of the nonlinearity of the core, and
these components add up. The result is a very large third-harmonic component of voltage on
top of the 50- or 60-Hz fundamental voltage. This third-harmonic voltage can be larger than
the fundamental voltage itself.

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Figure 4.10-1. Three-phase transformer connections and wiring diagrams Y-Y

Both the unbalance problem and the third-harmonic problem can be solved using one of two
techniques:

1. Solidly ground the neutrals of the transformers, especially the primary winding’s neutral.
This connection permits the additive third-harmonic components to cause a current flow
in the neutral instead of building up large voltages. The neutral also provides a return path
for any current imbalances in the load.
2. Add a third (tertiary) winding connected in Δ to the transformer bank. If a third Δ -
connected winding is added to the transformer, then the third-harmonic components of
voltage in the A will add up, causing a circulating current flow within the winding. This
suppresses the third-harmonic components of voltage in the same manner as grounding
the transformer neutrals.

The Δ -connected tertiary windings need not even be brought out of the transformer case, but
they often are used to supply lights and auxiliary power within the substation where it is
located. The tertiary windings must be large enough to handle the circulating currents, so they
are usually made about one-third the power rating of the two main windings.

One or the other of these correction techniques must be used any time a Y—Y transformer is
installed. In practice, very few Y—Y transformers are used, since the same jobs can be done
by one of the other types of three-phase transformers.

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PROCEDURES

1. Prepare all equipment required in this experiment.


2. Ensure the RCCB and MCB and meter switches are OFF.
3. Make connections between base station and transformer module as shown in Figure 4.10-
2.
4. Ask your instructor to recheck your circuit.
5. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches.
I 415V 415V R

VPP1 V1
H380V 41.5V Q
V2 VPS1 V2 VLS1

L1 ILP1 G 0 0 P
A1
VLP3 F 415V 415V O
VLP1 V1 V1
L2 ILP2
A1
E 380V 41.5V N
V1 V2 VLS2 V2 VLS3
VLP2 V1 V2 VPS2
VPP2
L3 ILP3
A1 D 0 0 M

C 415V 415V L
N

B 380V 41.5V K
V1 V2 VPS3

GND VPP3

A 0 0 J

GND

Figure 4.10-2. Y-Y Connections

6. Measure the voltage, current and power according to Table 4.10-1.


Table 4.10-1. Y-Y Connections Measurement

Description Measurement Result


VLP1 V
VLP2 V
VLP3 V
VPP1 V
VPP2 V
VPP3 V

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VLS1 V
VLS2 V
VLS3 V
VPS1 V
VPS2 V
VPS3 V
ILP1 A
ILP2 A
ILP3 A

7. According to your result in step 5 and 6, calculate the ratio of:


VLP1 / VPP1 = ………….
VLP1 / VPP2 = ………….
VLP1 / VPP3 = ………….
VLS1 / VPS1 = ………….
VLS2 / VPS1 = ………….
VLS3 / VPS1 = ………….
Is the ratio close to √3 ?
8. Measure the power which is drawn by the transformer without load.
P = ………….. Watt
Note: The wattmeter has been defaulted to measure the power on the primary winding
9. Calculate the average value of line to line voltage on the primary and secondary side
VLLP = (VLP1 + VLP1 + VLP1 ) / 3 = ………….. V
VLLS = (VLS1 + VLS2 + VLS3) / 3 = ………….. V
10. Turn off the power and meter switches. Make circuit connections as shown in Figure 4.10-
3.
11. Set the rheostat to 500 Ω.
12. Ask your instructor to recheck your wiring.
13. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches.
14. Measure the voltage, current and power according to Table 4.10-2.

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ILS1
I 415V 415V R
A2

VPP1 V1
H380V 41.5V Q
V2 VPS1 V2 VLS1

L1 ILP1 G 0 0 P
A1
ILS2
VLP3 F 415V 415V O
VLP1 V1 V1
A2

L2 ILP2
A1
E 380V 41.5V N
V1 V2 VLS2 V2 VLS3
VLP2 V1 V2 VPS2
VPP2
L3 ILP3
A1 D 0 0 M
ILS3
C 415V 415V L
A2
N

B 380V 41.5V K
V1 V2 VPS3

GND VPP3

A 0 0 J

GND

Figure 4.10-3. Y-Y Connections with Load

Table 4.10-2. Y-Y Connections with Load Measurement Result

Description Measurement Result


VLP1 V
VLP2 V
VLP3 V
VPP1 V
VPP2 V
VPP3 V
VLS1 V
VLS2 V
VLS3 V
VPS1 V
VPS2 V
VPS3 V
ILP1 A
ILP2 A
ILP3 A
ILS1 A

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ILS2 A
ILS3 A

15. Measure the power which is drawn by the transformer with load.
P = ……….Watt
Note: The wattmeter has been defaulted to measure the power on the primary winding
16. Compare with your calculation.
P = √3 VLLP x ILLP
17. Turn off the RCCB and MCB. Remove the jumper cable connections.

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4.11. THREE PHASE RECTIFIER

OBJECTIVE
After completing this experiment you will be able to measure the characteristic of a three
phase rectifier

EQUIPMENT
1. Three Phase Transformer experimental Trainer base station (LFT-TET-B)
2. Three Phase transformer (LFT-TET-P3)
3. Single Phase Load Unit (LFT-TET-01)
4. Connection Leads
5. Digital Multimeter

DISCUSSION
Parallel connection via interphase transformers permits the implementation of rectifiers for
high current applications. Series connection for high voltage is also possible, as shown in the
full-wave rectifier of figure 4.14. With this arrangement, it can be seen that the three common
cathode valves generate a positive voltage respect to the neutral, and the three common anode
valves produce a negative voltage. The result is a dc voltage twice the value of the half wave
rectifier. Each half of the bridge is a three-pulse converter group.
This bridge connection is a two-way connection, and alternating currents flow in the valve-
side transformer windings during both half periods, avoiding dc components into the
windings, and saturation in the transformer magnetic core. These characteristics made the also
called Graetz Bridge the most widely used line commutated thyristor rectifier. The
configuration does not need any special transformer, and works as a six-pulse rectifier.

Figure 4.11-1

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PROCEDURE
1. Prepare all equipment required in this experiment.
2. Ensure the RCCB and MCB and meter switches are OFF.
3. Make connections between base station and transformer module as shown in Figure 4.11-
2.
4. Ask your instructor to recheck your circuit.
5. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches.
ILS1
I 415V 415V R
A2

VPP1 V1
H 380V 41.5V Q
V2 VLS1

L1 ILP1 G 0 0 P
A1 ILS2
VLP3 F 415V 415V O
VLP1 V1 V1
A2 Vo
L2 ILP2
A1
E 380V 41.5V N
V1
VLP2 V1 V2 VLS2
VPP2
L3 ILP3
A1 D 0 0 M
ILS3
C 415V 415V L
A2
N

B 380V 41.5V K
V1 V2 VLS3

GND VPP3

A 0 0 J

GND

Figure 4.11-2.
6. Measure the voltage and current according to Table 4.11-1.

Table 4.11-1

Description Measurement Result


VLP1 V
VLP2 V
VLP3 V
VPP1 V
VPP2 V
VPP3 V
VLS1 V
VLS2 V

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VLS3 V
ILS1 A
ILS2 A
ILS3 A
*Note that VLS will be same with VPS

7. Measure the output of the bridge diode using dc voltmeter.


Vo = ………….. Vdc
8. Turn off the power and meter switches.
9. Connect output circuit in Figure 4.11-2 with single phase load unit as shown in Figure
4.11-3.
10. Set the load to 500 Ω.
11. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches.
ILS1
I 415V 415V R
A2

VPP1 V1
H 380V 41.5V Q
V2 VLS1

L1 ILP1 G 0 0 P
A1 ILS2
A2 ILS1
VLP3 F 415V 415V O
Vo

Rheostat
VLP1 A2
V1 V1
L2 ILP2
A1
E 380V 41.5V N
V1
VLP2 V1 V2 VLS2
VPP2
L3 ILP3
A1 D 0 0 M
ILS3
C 415V 415V L A2 ILS2
A2
N
A2 ILS2
B 380V 41.5V K
V1 V2 VLS3

GND VPP3

A 0 0 J

GND

Figure 4.11-3

12. Measure the voltage, current, and power. Write down into Table 4.11-2.
13. Change the load as list on Table 4.11-2. Repeat step 12.

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Table 4.11-2.
Load
Description
500Ω 400Ω 300Ω 250Ω
VLP1 V V V V
VLP2 V V V V
VLP3 V V V V
VPP1 V V V V
VPP2 V V V V
VPP3 V V V V
VLS1 V V V V
VLS2 V V V V
VLS3 V V V V
ILS1 A A A A
ILS2 A A A A
ILS3 A A A A
ILP1 A A A A
ILP2 A A A A
ILP3 A A A A
Vo Vdc Vdc Vdc Vdc
P W W W W
Note: The wattmeter has been wired to measure the power on the primary winding
VLS will be same with VPS

14. Calculate the secondary current ratio


ILP1 / ILS1 : ………
ILP2 / ILS2 : ………
ILP3 / ILS3 : ………
Does the ratio close to √3?
15. Calculate the power and compare with measured power!
P = √3 x VLP x ILP
16. Turn off the RCCB and MCB. Remove the jumper cable connections.

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