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Knowledge Engineering
TRANSFORMER TRAINER
EXPERIMENT MANUAL
MODEL : LFTTET
Tran sform er Tra iner Experimen t Manua l EFT TET
CONTENTS
CONTENTS ............................................................................................................. i
1. OVERVIEW .......................................................................................................... 1
4. EXPERIMENT .................................................................................................. 53
4.1. POLARITY OF TRANSFORMER…………………………………….. ..... 54
4.2. SERIES CIRCUIT IN A MULTIPLE WINDING TRANSFORMER……. 57
4.3. OPEN CIRCUIT TESTING…………………………………………… ....... 61
4.4. SHORT CIRCUIT TESTING ........................................................................ 66
4.5. TURN RATIO OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WINDING................. 69
4.6. IMPEDANCE TRANSFORMATION ........................................................... 73
4.7. VOLTAGE REGULATION .......................................................................... 76
4.8. FULL WAVE RECTIFIER ............................................................................ 78
4.9. WYE – DELTA CONNECTION ................................................................... 82
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1
OVERVIEW
Transformer trainer is designed for student to learn and practice about the typical application
of the transformer. There are many kind of transformer applications that can be observed in
this trainer. This trainer is also completed with all equipment that needed in the experiment,
so makes the learning process easier.
The trainer is divided into two parts, the base station and transformer module. The base
station is fixed in the special case for safety user and easy operation. In the top cover of the
base station, there are two voltmeters and two ammeters that are used to measure the voltage
and current. Either voltmeters or ammeters can be switch on and off in order to give
protection to them when the power source is turned on. In the main base station, there are
many components that support in the experiment, such as RCCB, MCB, and Digital
Wattmeter. RCCB is provided in this trainer to detects current leakage and protect the user
from electric shock.
The voltage and current characteristics of the transformers in the different load can be
observed by change the loads of the transformer. Student can make any connections
according the manual instruction using jumper cables by plugin it into the jumper cable
sockets that available on the base station.
The student can make connections from transformer module to the base station using jumper
cables and absolutely have to follow the experiment manual instruction. The experiment
manual is accompanied this trainer in order to give the basic theory of the transformer and
how to use the trainer to the student.
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2
ABOUT THE TRAINER
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3
BASIC THEORY
A transformer is a device that changes ac electric power at one voltage level to ac electric
power at another voltage level through the action of a magnetic field. It consists of two or
more coils of wire wrapped around a common ferromagnetic core. These coils are (usually)
not directly connected. The only connection between the coils is the common magnetic flux
present within the core.
One of the transformer windings is connected to a source of ac electric power, and the second
(and perhaps third) transformer winding supplies electric power to loads. The transformer
winding connected to the power source is called the primary winding or input winding, and
the winding connected to the loads is called the secondary winding or output winding. If there
is a third winding on the transformer, it is called the tertiary winding.
Figure 3.1
The first practical modem transformer, built by William Stanley in 1885.
Note that the core is made up of individual sheets of metal (laminations).
The first power distribution system in the United States was a 120V dc system invented by
Thomas A. Edison to supply power for incandescent light bulbs. Edison’s s first central power
station went into operation in New York City in September 1882. Unfortunately, his power
system generated and transmitted power at such low voltages that very large currents were
necessary to supply significant amounts of power. These high currents caused huge voltage
drops and power losses in the transmission lines, severely restricting the service area of a
generating station. In the 1880s, central power stations were located every few city blocks to
overcome this problem. The fact that power could not be transmitted far with lowvoltage dc
power systems meant that generating stations had to be small and localized and so were
relatively inefficient.
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The invention of the transformer and the concurrent development of ac power sources
eliminated forever these restrictions on the range and power level of power systems. A
transformer ideally changes one ac voltage level to another voltage level without affecting the
actual power supplied. If a transformer steps up the voltage level of a circuit, it must decrease
the current to keep the power into the device equal to the power out of it. Therefore, ac
electric power can be generated at one central location, its voltage stepped up for transmission
over long distances at very low losses, and its voltage stepped down again for final use. Since
the transmission losses in the lines of a power system are proportional to the square of the
current in the lines, raising the transmission voltage and reducing the resulting transmission
currents by a factor of 10 with transformers reduces power transmission losses by a factor of
100. Without the transformer, it would simply not be possible to use electric power in many
of the ways it is used today.
The principal purpose of a transformer is to convert ac power at one voltage level to ac power
of the same frequency at another voltage level. Transformers are also used for a variety of
other purposes (e.g., voltage sampling, current sampling and impedance transformation), but
this chapter is primarily devoted to the power transformer.
Power transformers are constructed on one of two types of cores. One type of construction
consists of a simple rectangular laminated piece of steel with the transformer windings
wrapped around two sides of the rectangle. This type of construction is known as core form
and is illustrated in Figure 3.2. The other type consists of a threelegged laminated core with
the windings wrapped around the center leg. This type of construction is known as shell form
and is illustrated in Figure 3.3. In either case, the core is constructed of thin laminations
electrically isolated from each other in order to minimize eddy currents.
The primary and secondary windings in a physical transformer are wrapped one on top of the
other with the lowvoltage winding innermost. Such an arrangement serves two purposes:
1. It simplifies the problem of insulating the highvoltage winding from the core.
2. It results in much less leakage flux than would be the case if the two windings were
separated by a distance on the core.
Power transformers are given a variety of different names, depending on their use in power
systems. A transformer connected to the output of a generator and used to step its voltage up
to transmission levels (110+ kV) is sometimes called a unit transformer The transformer at
the other end of the transmission line, which steps the voltage down from transmission levels
to distribution levels (from 2.3 to 34.5 kV), is called a substation transformer. Finally, the
transformer that takes the distribution voltage and steps it down to the final voltage at which
the power is actually used (110, 208, 220 V, etc.) is called a distribution transformer All these
devices are essentially the same, the only difference among them is their intended use.
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In addition to the various power transformers, two specialpurpose transformers are used with
electric machinery and power systems. The first of these special transformers is a device
specially designed to sample a high voltage and produce a low secondary voltage directly
proportional to it. Such a transformer is called a potential transformer. A power transformer
also produces a secondary voltage directly proportional to its primary voltage; the difference
between a potential transformer and a power transformer is that the potential transformer is
designed to handle only a very small current. The second type of special transformer is a
device designed to provide a secondary current much smaller than but directly proportional to
its primary current. This device is called a current transformer. Both specialpurpose
transformers are discussed in a later section of this chapter.
An ideal transformer is a loss less device with an input winding and an output winding. The
relationships between the input voltage and the output voltage, and between the input current
and the output current, are given by two simple equations. Figure 3.4 shows an ideal
transformer.
The transformer shown in Figure 3.4 has NP turns of wire on its primary side and NS turns of
wire on its secondary side. The relationship between the voltage vP(t) applied to the primary
side of the transformer and the voltage vS(t) produced on the secondary side is
VP (t ) N
= P =a
VS (t ) NS
Figure 3.2.
Coreform transformer construction.
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Figure. 3.3
(a) Shellform transformer construction. (b) A typical shellform transformer
Figure 3.4
(a) Sketch of an ideal transformer. (b) Schematic symbols of a transformer.
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Np
a =
NS
The relationship between the current iP(t) flowing into the primary side of the transformer and
the current iS(t) flowing out of the secondary side of the transformer is
NPiP(t) = NSiS(t)
iP (t ) 1
or =
iS (t ) a
VP
=a
VS
and
IP 1
=
IS a
Notice that the phase angle of VP is the same as the angle of VS and the phase angle of IP is
the same as the phase angle of IS. The turns ratio of the ideal transformer affects the
magnitudes of the voltages and currents, but not their angles.
The equations above describe the relationships between the magnitudes and angles of the
voltages and currents on the primary and secondary sides of the transformer, but they leave
one question unanswered: Given that the primary circuit’s voltage is positive at a specific end
of the coil, what would the polarity of the secondary circuit’s voltage be? In real transformers,
it would be possible to tell the secondary’s polarity only if the transformer were opened and
its windings examined. To avoid this necessity, transformers utilize the dot convention. The
dots appearing at one end of each winding in Figure 3.4 tell the polarity of the voltage and
current on the secondary side of the transformer. The relationship is as follows:
1. If the primary voltage is positive at the dotted end of the winding with respect to the
undotted end, then the secondary voltage will be positive at the dotted end also. Voltage
polarities are the same with respect to the dots on each side of the core.
2. If the primary current of the transformer flows into the dotted end of the primary winding,
the secondary current will flow out of the dotted end of the secondary winding.
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The power supplied to the transformer by the primary circuit is given by the equation
where θP is the angle between the primary voltage and the primary current. The power
supplied by the transformer secondary circuit to its loads is given by the equation.
where θS is the angle between the secondary voltage and the secondary current. Since voltage
and current angles are unaffected by an ideal transformer, θPθS = θ. The primary and
secondary windings of an ideal transformer have the same power factor.
How does the power going into the primary circuit of the ideal transformer compare to the
power coming out of the other side? It is possible to find out through a simple application of
the voltage and current equations. The power out of a transformer is
VP
Pout = (aIP) cos θ
a
Thus, the output power of an ideal transformer is equal to its input power.
The impedance of a device or an element is defined as the ratio of the phasor voltage across it
to the phasor current flowing through it:
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VL
ZL =
IL
One of the interesting properties of a transformer is that, since it changes voltage and current
levels, it changes the ratio between voltage and current and hence the apparent impedance of
an element. To understand this idea, refer to Figure 3.21. If the secondary current is called IS
and the secondary voltage VS, then the impedance of the load is given by
VS
ZL =
IS
VP
Z′L =
IP
VP = aVS
VS
IP =
a
VP aVS V
Z′L = = = a2 S
IP IS / a IS
Z′L = a2ZL
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Figure 3.5
(a) Definition of impedance. (b) Impedance scaling through a transformer
If a circuit contains an ideal transformer, then the easiest way to analyze the circuit for its
voltages and currents is to replace the portion of the circuit on one side of the transformer by
an equivalent circuit with the same terminal characteristics. After the equivalent circuit has
been substituted for one side, then the new circuit (without a transformer present) can be
solved for its voltages and currents. In the portion of the circuit that was not replaced, the
solutions obtained will be the correct values of voltage and current for the original circuit.
Then the turns ratio of the transformer can be used to determine the voltages and currents on
the other side of the transformer. The process of replacing one side of a transformer by its
equivalent at the other side’s voltage level is known as referring the first side of the
transformer to the second side.
How is the equivalent circuit formed? Its shape is exactly the same as the shape of the original
circuit. The polarities of voltage sources in the equivalent circuit will be reversed from their
direction in the original circuit if the dots on one side of the transformer windings are reversed
compared to the dots on the other side of the transformer windings.
The solution for circuits containing ideal transformers is illustrated in the following example.
Example 3.1
A singlephase power system consists of a 480V 60Hz generator supplying a load Zload = 4 +
j3 Ω through a transmission line of impedance Zline = 0.18 + j0.24 Ω. Answer the following
questions about this system.
(a) If the power system is exactly as described above (Figure 3.6a), what will the voltage at
the load be? What will the transmission line losses be?
(b) Suppose a 1:10 stepup transformer is placed at the generator end of the transmission line
and a 10:1 stepdown transformer is placed at the load end of the line (Figure 3.6b). What
will the load voltage be now? What will the transmission line losses be now?
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Solution
(a) Figure 3.6a shows the power system without transformers. Here IG = Iline = Iload. The line
current in this system is given by
Figure. 3.6
The power system of Example 31 (a) without and (b) with transformers
at the ends of the transmission line.
V
Iline =
Z line + Z load
480∠0º V
=
(0.18Ω + j 0.24Ω) + (4Ω + j 3Ω)
480∠0º
=
4.18 + j 3.24
480∠0º
=
5.29∠37.8º
= 90.8 ∠ – 37.8° A
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(b) Figure 3.7b shows the power system with the transformers. To analyze this system, it is
necessary to convert it to a common voltage level. This is done in two steps:
1. Eliminate transformer T2 by referring the load over to the transmission line’s voltage
level.
2. Eliminate transformer T1 by referring the transmission line’s elements and the
equivalent load at the transmission line’s voltage over to the source side.
The value of the load’s impedance when reflected to the transmission system’s voltage is
Z′load = a2 Zload
2
⎛ 10 ⎞
= ⎜ ⎟ (4 Ω + j3 Ω)
⎝1⎠
= 400 Ω + j300 Ω
= 400.18 + j300.24 Ω
= 500.3 ∠ 36.88° Ω
This equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 3.8a. The total impedance at the transmission line
level (Zline + Z′load) is now reflected across T1 to the source’s voltage level:
Z′eq = a2Zeq
= a2(Zline + Z′load)
2
⎛1⎞
= ⎜⎝ 10 ⎟⎠ (0.18 Ω + j0.24 Ω + 400 Ω + j300 Ω
= (0.0018 Ω + j0.0024 Ω + 4 Ω + j3 Ω)
= 5.003 ∠ 36.88° Ω
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Figure 3.7
(a) System with the load referred to the transmission system voltage level. (b) System with the load and
transmission line referred to the generator’s voltage level.
Notice that Z″load = 4 + j3 Ω and Z′line = 0.0018 + j0.0024. The resulting equivalent circuit is
shown in Figure 3.7b. The generator’s current is
480∠0º V
IG =
5.003∠36.88º Ω
= 95.94 ∠ −36.88° A
Knowing the current IG, we can now work back and find Iline and Iload. Working back through
T1, we get
NP1IG = NSlIline
Iline = NP1 IG
1
= (95.94 ∠ −36.88° A)
10
= 9.594 ∠ −36.88° A
NP2Iline = NS2Iload
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1
= (9.594 ∠ −36.88° A)
10
= 95.94 ∠ −36.88° A
It is now possible to answer the questions originally asked. The load voltage is given by
= 479.7 ∠ 0.01° V
Notice that raising the transmission voltage of the power system reduced transmission losses
by a factor of nearly 90. Also, the voltage at the load dropped much less in the system with
transformers compared to the system without transformers. This simple example dramatically
illustrates the advantages of using highervoltage transmission lines as well as the extreme
importance of transformers in modem power systems.
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The ideal transformers described in section 3.3 can of course never actually be made. What
can be produced are real transformers, two or more coils of wire physically wrapped around a
ferromagnetic core. The characteristics of a real transformer approximate the characteristics
of an ideal transformer, but only to a degree. This section deals with the behavior of real
transformers.
To understand the operation of a real transformer, refer to Figure 3.8. It shows a transformer
consisting of two coils of wire wrapped around a transformer core. The primary of the
transformer is connected to an ac power source, and the secondary winding is opencircuited.
The hysteresis curve of the transformer is shown in Figure 3.9.
The basis of transformer operation can be derived from Faraday’s law:
dλ
eind =
dt
where λ is the flux linkage in the coil across which the voltage is being induced. The flux
linkage λ is the sum of the flux passing through each turn in the coil added over all the turns
of the coil:
N
λ= ∑φ
i =1
i
Figure 3.8
Sketch of real transformer with no load attached to its secondary.
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Figure 3.9
The hysteresis curve of the transformer.
The total flux linkage through a coil is not just Nφ, where N is the number of turns in the coil,
because the flux passing through each turn of a coil is slightly different from the flux in the
other turns, depending on the position of the turn within the coil. However, it is possible to
define an average flux per turn in a coil. If the total flux linkage in all the turns of the coils is
λ and if there are N turns, then the average flux per turn is given by
λ
φ =
N
dφ
eind = N
dt
1
NP ∫
φ = VP (t )dt
This equation states that the average flux in the winding is proportional to the integral of the
voltage applied to the winding, and the constant of proportionality is the reciprocal of the
number of turns in the primary winding 1/NP.
This flux is present in the primary coil of the transformer. What effect does it have on the
secondary coil of the transformer? The effect depends on how much of the flux reaches the
secondary coil. Not all the flux produced in the primary coil also passes through the
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secondary coil—some of the flux lines leave the iron core and pass through the air instead
(see Figure 3.10). The portion of the flux that goes through one of the transformer coils but
not the other one is called leakage flux. The flux in the primary coil of the transformer can
thus be divided into two components: a mutual flux, which remains in the core and links both
windings, and a small leakage flux, which passes through the primary winding but returns
through the air, bypassing the secondary winding:
Figure 3.10
Mutual and leakage fluxes in a transformer core.
φ P = φM + φLP
There is a similar division of flux in the secondary winding between mutual flux and leakage
flux which passes through the secondary winding but returns through the air, by passing the
primary winding:
φS = φM + φLS
With the division of the average primary flux into mutual and leakage components, Faraday’s
law for the primary circuit can be reexpressed as
dφ P
vP(t) = NP
dt
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dφ M d φ LP
= NP + NP
dt dt
The first term of this expression can be called eP(t), and the second term can be called eLP(t).
If this is done, then equation can be rewritten as
The voltage on the secondary coil of the transformer can also be expressed in terms of
Faraday’s law as
dφ S
vS(t) = NS
dt
dφM d φ LS
= NS + NS
dt dt
= eS(t) + eLS(t)
dφ M
eP(t) = NP
dt
dφ M
eS(t) = NS
dt
eP (t ) dφ M eS (t )
= =
NP dt NS
Therefore,
eP (t ) N
= P
eS (t ) NS
This equation means that the ratio of the primary voltage caused by the mutual flux to the
secondary voltage caused by the mutual flux is equal to the turns ratio of the transformer.
Since in a welldesigned transformer φM >> φLP and φM >> φLS, the ratio of the total voltage
on the primary of a transformer to the total voltage on the secondary of a transformer is
approximately
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vP (t ) N P
= =a
vS (t ) N S
The smaller the leakage fluxes of the transformer are, the closer the total transformer voltage
ratio approximates that of the ideal transformer discussed in section 3.3.
1. The magnetization current iM, which is the current required to produce the flux in the
transformer core.
2. The coreloss current ih+e, which is the current required to make up for hysteresis and
eddy current losses.
Figure 3.11 shows the magnetization curve of a typical transformer core. If the flux in the
transformer core is known, then the magnitude of the magnetization current can be found
directly from Figure 3.11.
Ignoring for the moment the effects of leakage flux, we see that the average flux in the core is
given by
1
NP ∫
φ = vP (t )dt
If the primary voltage is given by the expression vP(t) = vM cos ωt V, then the resulting flux
must be
1
NP ∫
φ = VM Cos.ωt.dt
VM
= Sin.ωt.Wb
ωN P
If the values of current required to produce a given flux (Figure 3.11a) are compared to the
flux in the core at different times, it is possible to construct a sketch of the magnetization
current in the winding on the core. Such a sketch is shown in Figure 3.11b. Notice the
following points about the magnetization current:
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Figure 3.11
(a) The magnetization curve of the transformer core.
(b) The magnetization current caused by the flux in the transformer core.
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The other component of the noload current in the transformer is the current required to
supply power to make up the hysteresis and eddy current losses in the core. This is the core
loss current. Assume that the flux in the core is sinusoidal. Since the eddy currents in the core
are proportional to dφ/dt, the eddy currents are largest when the flux in the core is passing
through 0 Wb. Therefore, the coreloss current is greatest as the flux passes through zero. The
total current required to make up for core losses is shown in Figure 3.12.
The total noload current in the core is called the excitation current of the transformer. It is
just the sum of the magnetization current and the coreloss current in the core:
iex = im + ih+e
The total excitation current in a typical transformer core is shown in Figure 3.13
Figure 3.12
The coreloss current in a transformer.
Figure 3.13
The total excitation current in a transformer.
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In the opencircuit test, a transformer’s secondary winding is opencircuited, and its primary
winding is connected to a fullrated line voltage.
The opencircuit test connections are shown in Figure 3.14. Full line voltage is applied to the
primary of the transformer, and the input voltage, input current, and input power to the
transformer are measured. From this information, it is possible to determine the power factor
of the input current and therefore both the magnitude and the angle of the excitation
impedance.
The easiest way to calculate the values of RC and XM is to look first at the admittance of the
excitation branch. The conductance of the coreloss resistor is given by
1
Gc =
RC
and the susceptance of the magnetizing inductor is given by
1
BM =
XM
Since these two elements are in parallel, their admittances add, and the total excitation
admittance is
YE = Gc  jBM
1 1
= – j
RC XM
Figure 3.14
Connection for transformer opencircuit test.
The magnitude of the excitation admittance (referred to the primary circuit) can be found
from the opencircuit test voltage and current:
I OC
YE =
VOC
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The angle of the admittance can be found from a knowledge of the circuit power factor. The
opencircuit power factor (PF) is given by
PF = cos θ
P
= OC
VOC I OC
and the powerfactor angle θ is given by
POC
θ = cos –1
VOC
The power factor is always lagging for a real transformer, so the angle of the current always
lags the angle of the voltage by θ degrees. Therefore, the admittance YE is
I OC
YE = ∠ θ
VOC
I OC
= ∠ θ cos –1 PF
VOC
In the shortcircuit test, the secondary terminals of the transformer are shortcircuited, and the
primary terminals are connected to a fairly lowvoltage source, as shown in Figure 3.15. The
input voltage is adjusted until the current in the shortcircuited windings is equal to its rated
value. (Be sure to keep the primary voltage at a safe level. It would not be a good idea to burn
out the transformer’s windings while trying to test it.) The input voltage, current, and power
are again measured.
Since the input voltage is so low during the shortcircuit test, negligible current flows through
the excitation branch. If the excitation current is ignored, then all the voltage drop in the
transformer can be attributed to the series elements in the circuit. The magnitude of the series
impedances referred to the primary side of the transformer is
VSC
Z SE =
I SC
PF = cos θ
P
= SC
VSC I SC
and is lagging. The current angle is thus negative, and the overall impedance angle θ is
positive:
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PSC
θ = cos1
VSC I SC
Therefore,
VSC ∠0°
ZSE =
I SC ∠ − θ °
V
= SC ∠0°
I SC
IIIIIII
Figure 3.15
Connection for transformer shortcircuit test.
It is possible to determine the total series impedance referred to the primary side by using this
technique, but there is no easy way to split the series impedance into primary and secondary
components. Fortunately, such separation is not necessary to solve normal problems.
Also these same tests may be performed on the secondary side of the transformer if it is more
convenient to do so because of voltage levels or other reasons. If the tests are performed on
the secondary side, the results will naturally yield the equivalent circuit impedances referred
to the secondary side of the transformer instead of to the primary side.
Example 3.2
The equivalent circuit impedances of a 20kVA, 8000V 240V, 60Hz transformers are to be
determined. The opencircuit test and the Shortcircuit test were performed on the primary
side of the transformer, and the following data were taken:
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Find the impedances of the approximate equivalent circuit referred to the primary side, and
sketch that circuit.
Solution.
The power factor during the opencircuit test is:
POC
PF = cos θ =
VOC I OC
400W
= cos θ =
(8000V )(0.214 A)
= 0.234 lagging
I OC
YE = ∠ – Cos1 PF
VOC
0.214 A
= ∠ – Cos1 0.234
8000V
= 0.0000268 ∠ – 76.5º Ω
= 0.0000063 – j 0.0000261
1 1
= –j
RC XM
Therefore,
RC = 1 .
0.0000063
= 159kΩ
1
XM =
0.0000261
0.000026 1
= 38.4kΩ
VSC
ZSE = ∠  Cos1 PF
I SC
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489V
= ∠ 78.7º
2.5 A
= 195.6 ∠ 78.7º
= 38.4 + j l92 Ω
As the relatively simple Example 3.2 showed, solving circuits containing transformers can be
quite a tedious operation because of the need to refer all the different voltage levels on
different sides of the transformers in the system to a common level. Only after this step has
been taken can the system be solved for its voltages and currents.
Figure 3.16
The equivalent circuit of example 3.2
There is another approach to solving circuits containing transformers which eliminates the
need for explicit voltagelevel conversions at every transformer in the system. Instead, the
required conversions are handled automatically by the method itself, without ever requiring
the user to worry about impedance transformations. Because such impedance transformations
can be avoided, circuits containing many transformers can be solved easily with less chance
of error. This method of calculation is known as the perunit (pu) system of measurements.
In the perunit system, the voltages, currents, powers, impedances, and other electrical
quantities are not measured in their usual SI units (volts, amperes, watts, ohms, etc.). Instead,
each electrical quantity is measured as a decimal fraction of some base level. Any quantity
can be expressed on a perunit basis by the equation
LABTECH 27
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It is customary to select two base quantities to define a given perunit system. The ones
usually selected are voltage and power (or apparent power). Once these base quantities have
been selected, all the other base values are related to them by the usual electrical laws. In a
singlephase system, these relationships are:
Vbase
Zbase =
I base
I
Y base = base
Vbase
(Vbase ) 2
and Zbase =
Sbase
Once the base values of S (or P) and V have been selected, all other base values can be
computed easily.
In a power system, a base apparent power and voltage are selected at a specific point in the
system. A transformer has no effect on the base apparent power of the system, since the
apparent power into a transformer equals the apparent power out of the transformer. On the
other hand, voltage changes when it goes through a transformer, so the value of Vbase changes
at every transformer in the system according to its turns ratio. Because the base quantities
change in passing through a transformer, the process of referring quantities to a common
voltage level is automatically taken care of during perunit conversion.
Example 3.3
A simple power system is shown in Figure 3.17. This system contains a 480V generator
connected to an ideal 1:10 stepup transformer, a transmission line, an ideal 20:1 stepdown
transformer, and a load. The impedance of the transmission line is 20 + j60 fl, and the
impedance of the load is l0<30o. The base values for this system are Chosen to be 480 V and
10 kVA at the generator.
(a) Find the base voltage, current, impedance, and apparent power at every point in the
power system.
(b) Convert this system to its perunit equivalent circuit.
(c) Find the power supplied to the load in this system.
(d) Find the power lost in the transmission line.
Figure 3.17
The power system of Example 3.3.
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Solution
(a) In the generator region, Vbase = 480 V and Sbase = 10 kVA, so
Sbase
I base 1 =
Vbase1
10.000VA
=
480V
= 20.83A
Vbase1
Zbase 1 =
I base1
480V
=
80.83 A
= 23.04Ω
The turns ratio of transformer T1 is a = 1/10 = 0.1, so the base voltage in the transmission line
region is
Vbase1
Vbase 2 =
a
480V
=
0.1
= 4800 V
S base 2 = 10 kVA
10.000VA
I base 2 =
4800V
= 2.083 A
4800V
Z base 2 =
2.083 A
= 2304 Ω
The turns ratio of transformer T2 is a = 20/1 = 20, so the base voltage in the load region is:
Vbase2
V base 3 =
a
4800V
=
20
= 240 V
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S base 3 = 10 kVA
10.000VA
I base 3 =
240V
= 41.67 A
240V
Z base 3 =
41.67 A
= 5.76 Ω
(b) To convert a power system to a perunit system, each component must be divided by its
base value in its region of the system. The generator’s perunit voltage is its actual value
divided by its base value:
480∠0°V
V G,pu =
480V
= 1.0 ∠ 0º pu
The transmission line’s perunit impedance is its actual value divided by its base value:
20 + j 60Ω
Z line,pu =
2304Ω
= 0.0087 + j 0.0260 pu
The load’s perunit impedance is also given by actual value divided by base value:
10∠30°Ω
Z load,pu =
5.76Ω
= 1.736 ∠ 30º pu
The perunit equivalent circuit of the power system is shown in Figure 3.18.
Figure 3.18
The perunit equivalent circuit for Example 3.3.
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VPU
Ipu =
Z tot , PU
1∠0°
=
(0.0087 + j 0.0260) + (1.736∠30°)
1∠0°
=
(0.0087 + j 0.0260) + (1.503 + j 0.868)
1∠0°
=
1.512 + j 0.894
1∠0°
=
1.757∠30.6°
= 0.569 ∠ 30.6º pu
Pload, pu = I2puRpu
= (0.569)2(1.503)
= 0.487
Pline,pu =I2puRline,pu
= (0.569)2(0.0087)
= 0.00282
When only one device (transformer or motor) is being analyzed, its own ratings are usually
used as the base for the perunit system. If a perunit system based on the transformer’s own
ratings is used, a power or distribution transformer’s characteristics will not vary much over a
wide range of voltage and power ratings. For example, the series resistance of a transformer
is usually about 0.01 per unit, and the series reactance is usually between 0.02 and 0.10 per
unit. In general, the larger the transformer is the smaller the series impedances. The
magnetizing reactance is usually between about 10 and 40 per unit, while the coreloss
resistance is usually between about 50 and 200 per unit. Because per unit values provide a
convenient and meaningful way to compare transformer characteristics when they are of
different sizes, transformer impedances are normally given in perunit or as a percentage on
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The same idea applies to synchronous and induction machines as well: Their perunit
impedances fall within relatively narrow ranges over quite large size ranges.
If more than one machine and one transformer are included in a single power system, the
system base voltage and power maybe chosen arbitrarily, but the entire system must have the
same base. One common procedure is to choose the system base quantities to be equal to the
base of the largest component in the system. Perunit values given to another base can be
converted to the new base by converting them to their actual values (volts, amperes, ohms,
etc.) as an inbetween step. Alternatively, they can be converted directly by the equations.
Sbase1
(P,Q,S)PU on base 2 = (P,Q,S) PU on base 1
Sbase 2
Figure 3.19
(a) Atypical 13.2 kV to 120/240V distribution transformer. (b) A cutaway view of the distribution transformer
showing the shellform transformer inside it.
Vbase1
VPU on base 2 = VPU on base 1
Vbase 2
(Vbase1 ) 2 ( Sbase 2 )
(R, X, Z) PU on base 2 = (R, X, Z) PU on base1
(Vbase 2 ) 2 ( Sbase1 )
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Example 3.4
Sketch the approximate perunit equivalent circuit for the transformer in Example 3.2. Use the
transformer’s ratings as the system base.
Solution.
The transformer in Example 3.2 is rated at 20 kVA, 8000/240 V. The approximate equivalent
circuit (Figure 3.16) developed in the example was referred to the highvoltage side of the
transformer, so to convert it to perunit, the primary circuit base impedance must be found.
On the primary,
Vbasel = 8000 V
Sbase 1 = 20,000 VA
(Vbase1 ) 2
Zbase 1=
Sbase1
(8000V )2
=
20.000VA
= 3200 Ω
Therefore,
38.4 + j192Ω
ZSE,PU =
3200Ω
= 0.012 + j0.06PU
159kΩ
RC,PU =
3200Ω
= 49.7 PU
38.4kΩ
ZM,PU =
3200Ω
= 12PU
The perunit approximate equivalent circuit, expressed to the transformer’s own base, is
shown in Figure 3.20.
LABTECH 33
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Figure 3.20
The perunit equivalent circuit of Example 3.4.
Because a real transformer has series impedances within it, the output voltage of a transformer
varies with the load even if the input voltage remains constant. To conveniently compare
transformers in this respect, it is customary to define a quantity called voltage regulation
(VR). Fullload voltage regulation is a quantity that compares the output voltage of the
transformer at no load with the output voltage at full load. It is defined by the equation
VS, n, l − VS, fl
VR = x 100%
VS, fl
VP / a − VS, fl
VR = x 100%
VS, fl
If the transformer equivalent circuit is in the perunit system, then voltage regulation can be
expressed as
VP , PU − VS , fl, PU
VR = x100%
VS , fl , PU
Usually it is a good practice to have as small a voltage regulation as possible. For an ideal
transformer, VR = 0 percent. It is not always a good idea to have a lowvoltage regulation,
though—sometimes highimpedance and highvoltage regulation transformers are deliberately
used to reduce the fault currents in a circuit.
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In previous sections of this chapter, transformers were described by their turns ratios or by
their primarytosecondaryvoltage ratios. Throughout those sections, the turns ratio of a
given transformer was treated as though it were completely fixed. In almost all real
distribution transformers, this is not quite true. Distribution transformers have a series of taps
in the windings to permit small changes in the turns ratio of the transformer after it has left the
factory. A typical installation might have four taps in addition to the nominal setting with
spacings of 2.5 percent of fullload voltage between them. Such an arrangement provides for
adjustments up to 5 percent above or below the nominal voltage rating of the transformer.
Example 3.5
A 500kVA, 13,200/480V distribution transformer has four 2.5 percent taps on its primary
winding. What are the voltage ratios of this transformer at each tap setting?
Solution
The five possible voltage ratings of this transformer are
+5.0% tap 13,860/480V
+2.5% tap 13,530/480V
Nominal rating 13,200/480V
2.5% tap 12,870/480V
5.0% tap 12,540/480V
The taps on a transformer permit the transformer to be adjusted in the field to accommodate
variations in local voltages. However, these taps normally cannot be changed while power is
being applied to the transformer. They must be set once and left alone.
Sometimes a transformer is used on a power line whose voltage varies widely with the load.
Such voltage variations might be due to a high line impedance between the generators on the
power system and that particular load (perhaps it is located far out in the country). Normal
loads need to be supplied an essentially constant voltage. How can a power company supply a
controlled voltage through highimpedance lines to loads which are constantly changing?
One solution to this problem is to use a special transformer called a tap changing under load
(TCUL) transformer or voltage regulator. Basically, a TCUL transformer is a transformer
with the ability to change taps while power is connected to it. A voltage regulator is a TCUL
transformer with builtin voltage sensing circuitry that automatically changes taps to keep the
system voltage constant. Such special transformers are very common in modern power
systems.
On some occasions it is desirable to change voltage levels by only a small amount. For
example, it may be necessary to increase a voltage from 110 to 120 V or from 13.2 to 13.8
kV. These small rises may be made necessary by voltage drops that occur in power systems a
long way from the generators. In such circumstances, it is wasteful and excessively expensive
to wind a transformer with two full windings, each rated at about the same voltage. A special
purpose transformer, called an autotransformer, is used instead.
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A diagram of a stepup autotransformer is shown in Figure 3.21. In Figure 3.21a, the two coils
of the transformer are shown in the conventional manner. In Figure 3.21b, the first winding is
shown connected in an additive manner to the second winding. Now, the relationship between
the voltage on the first winding and the voltage on the second winding is given by the turns
ratio of the transformer. However, the voltage at the output of the whole transformer is the
sum of the voltage on the first winding and the voltage on the second winding. The first
winding here is called the common winding, because its voltage appears on both sides of the
transformer. The smaller winding is called the series winding, because it is connected in series
with the common winding.
A diagram of a stepdown autotransformer is shown in Figure 3.22. Here the voltage at the
input is the sum of the voltages on the series winding and the common winding, while the
voltage at the output is just the voltage on the common winding.
Figure 3.21
A transformer with its windings (a) connected in the conventional manner and
(b) reconnected as an autotransformer.
Because the transformer coils are physically connected, a different terminology is used for the
autotransformer than for other types of transformers. The voltage on the common coil is
called the common voltage VC and the current in that coil is called the common current IC The
voltage on the series coil is called the series voltage VSE, and the current in that coil is called
the series current ISE. The voltage and current on the lowvoltage side of the transformer are
called VL and IL respectively, while the corresponding quantities on the highvoltage side of
the transformer are called VH and IH. The primary side of the autotransformer (the side with
power into it) can be either the highvoltage side or the lowvoltage side, depending on
whether the autotransformer is acting as a stepdown or a stepup transformer. From Figure
3.21b the voltages and currents in the coils are related by the equations
VC NC
=
VSE NSE
The voltages in the coils are related to the voltages at the terminals by the equations
VL =VC
VH = VC + VSE
and the currents in the coils are related to the currents at the terminals by the equations
IL = IC + ISE
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IH = ISE
What is the voltage relationship between the two sides of an autotransformer? It is quite easy
to determine the relationship between VH and VL The voltage on the high side of the
autotransformer is given by
Figure 3.22
A stepdown autotransformer connection.
VH = VC + VSE
But
VC NC
= , so
VSE NSE
NSE
VH = VC + VC
NC
NSE
VH = VL + VL
NC
NSE + NC
= VL , or
NC
VL NC
=
VH NSE + NC
The current relationship between the two sides of the transformer can be found by noting that
IL = IC + ISE
NSE
IC = xISE , so
NC
LABTECH 37
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NSE
IL = xISE +ISE
NC
NSE
IL = xIH + IH
NC
NSE + NC
= xIH , or
NC
IL NSE + NC
=
IH NC
It is interesting to note that not all the power traveling from the primary to the secondary in
the autotransformer goes through the windings. As a result, if a conventional transformer is
reconnected as an autotransformer, it can handle much more power than it was originally
rated for.
To understand this idea, refer again to Figure 3.21b. Notice that the input apparent power to
the autotransformer is given by
Sin = VLIL
Sout = VHIH
It is easy to show, by using the voltage and current equations, that the input apparent power is
again equal to the output apparent power:
Sin = Sout = SIO
where SIO is defined to be the input and output apparent powers of the transformer. However,
the apparent power in the transformer windings is
SW = VCIC = VSEISE
The relationship between the power going into the primary (and out the secondary) of the
transformer and the power in the transformer’s actual windings can be found as follows:
SW = VCIC
= VL (IL  IH)
= VLIL  VLIH
NC
SW = VLIL  VLIL
NSE + NC
LABTECH 38
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( NSE + NC ) − NC
= VLIL
NSE + NC
NSE
= SIO
NSE + NC
Therefore, the ratio of the apparent power in the primary and secondary of the
autotransformer to the apparent power actually traveling through its windings is
SIO NSE + NC
=
SW NSE
Equation above describes the apparent power rating advantage of an autotransformer over a
conventional transformer. Here SIO is the apparent power entering the primary and leaving the
secondary of the transformer, while SW is the apparent power actually traveling through the
transformer’s windings (the rest passes from primary to secondary without being coupled
through the transformer’s windings). Note that the smaller the series winding, the greater the
advantage.
NSE
SW = SIO
NSE + NC
28
= (5000 kVA)
28 + 110
= 1015 kVA
Figure 3.23
The autotransformer of Example 3.6
LABTECH 39
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The autotransformer would have windings rated at only about 1015 kVA, while a con
ventional transformer doing the same job would need windings rated at 5000 kVA. The
autotransformer could be 5 times smaller than the conventional transformer and also would be
much less expensive. For this reason, it is very advantageous to build transformers between
two nearly equal voltages as autotransformers.
The following example illustrates autotransformer analysis and the rating advantage of
autotransformers.
Example 3.6.
A 100VA 120/12V transformer is to be connected so as to form a stepup autotransformer
(see Figure 3.23). A primary voltage of 120 V is applied to the transformer.
(a) What is the secondary voltage of the transformer?
(b) What is its maximum voltampere rating in this mode of operation?
(c) Calculate the rating advantage of this autotransformer connection over the transformer’s
rating in conventional 120/12V operation.
Solution. To accomplish a stepup transformation with a 120V primary, the ratio of the turns
on the common winding NC to the turns on the series winding NSE in this transformer must be
120:12 (or 10:1).
(a) This transformer is being used as a stepup transformer. The secondary voltage is VH :
NSE + NC
VH = VL
NC
12 + 120
= 120V
120
= 132 V
(b) The maximum voltampere rating in either winding of this transformer is 100 VA. How
much input or output apparent power can this provide? To find out, examine the series
winding. The voltage VSE on the winding is 12 V, and the voltampere rating of the
winding is 100 VA. Therefore, the maximum series winding current is
S max
ISE,max =
VSE
100VA
=
12V
= 8.33 A
Since ISE is equal to the secondary current IS (or IH) and since the secondary voltage VS = VH =
132 V, the secondary apparent power is
LABTECH 40
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SIO 1100VA
=
SW 100VA
= 11
SIO NSE + NC
=
SW NSE
12 + 120
=
12
= 11
It is common practice in power systems to use autotransformers whenever two voltages fairly
close to each other in level need to be transformed, because the closer the two voltages are,
the greater the autotransformer power advantage becomes. They are also used as variable
transformers, where the lowvoltage tap moves up and down the winding. This is a very
convenient way to get a variable ac voltage. Such a variable autotransformer is shown in
Figure 3.24.
LABTECH 41
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Figure 3.24
A variablevoltage autotransformer. (b) Cutaway view of the autotransformer.
Example 3.7
A transformer is rated at 1000 kVA, 12/1.2 kV, 60 Hz when it is operated as a conventional
twowinding transformer. Under these conditions, its series resistance and reactance are given
as 1 and 8 percent per unit, respectively. This transformer is to be used as a 13.2/12—kV step
down autotransformer in a power distribution system. In the autotransformer connection, (a)
what is the transformer’s rating when used in this manner and (b) what is the transformer’s
series impedance in perunit?
Solution
(a) The NC/NSE turns ratio must be 12:1.2 or 10:1. The voltage rating of this transformer will
be 13.2/12 kV, and the apparent power (voltampere) rating will be
NSE + NC
SIO = SW
NSE
1 + 10
= 1000kVA
1
= 11.000kVA
(b) The transformer’s impedance in a perunit system when connected in the conventional
manner is
Zeq = 0.01 + j0.08 PU separate windings
The apparent power advantage of this autotransformer is 11, so the perunit impedance of the
autotransformer connected as described is
0.01 + j 0.08
Zeq =
11
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Almost all the major power generation and distribution systems in the world today are three
phase ac systems. Since threephase systems play such an important role in modem life, it is
necessary to understand how transformers are used in them.
Transformers for threephase circuits can be constructed in one of two ways. One approach is
simply to take three singlephase transformers and connect them in a threephase bank. An
alternative approach is to make a threephase transformer consisting of three sets of windings
wrapped on a common core. These two possible types of transformer construction are shown
in Figures 3.25 and 3.26. The construction of a single threephase transformer is the preferred
practice today, since it is lighter, smaller, cheaper, and slightly more efficient. The older
construction approach was to use three separate transformers. That approach had the
advantage that each unit in the bank could be replaced individually in the event of trouble, but
that does not outweigh the advantages of a combined threephase unit for most applications.
However, there are still a great many installations consisting of three singlephase units in
service.
1. Wye—wye (Y  Y)
2. Wye—delta (Y  Δ)
3. Delta—wye (Δ  Y)
4. Delta—delta (Δ  Δ)
The advantages and disadvantages of each type of threephase transformer connection are
discussed below.
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Figure 3.25
A threephase transformer bank composed of independent transformers.
Figure 3.26
A threephase transformer wound on a single threelegged core.
WYEWYE CONNECTION.
The YY connection of threephase transformers is shown in Figure 3.27a. In a YY
connection, the primary voltage on each phase of the transformer is given by VøP = VLP / √3.
The primaryphase voltage is related to the secondaryphase voltage by the turns ratio of the
transformer. The phase voltage on the secondary is then related to the line voltage on the
secondary by VLS = √3VØs. Therefore, overall the voltage ratio on the transformer is
VLP 3VθP
= =a YY
VLS 3VθS
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Figure 3.27
Threephase transformer connections and wiring diagrams: (a) YY
1. If loads on the transformer circuit are unbalanced, then the voltages on the phases of the
transformer can become severely unbalanced.
2. Thirdharmonic voltages can be large.
If a threephase set of voltages is applied to a Y—Y transformer, the voltages in any phase
will be 120º apart from the voltages in any other phase. However, the thirdharmonic
components of each of the three phases will be in phase with each other, since there are three
cycles in the third harmonic for each cycle of the fundamental frequency. There are always
some thirdharmonic components in a transformer because of the nonlinearity of the core, and
these components add up. The result is a very large thirdharmonic component of voltage on
top of the 50 or 60Hz fundamental voltage. This thirdharmonic voltage can be larger than
the fundamental voltage itself.
Both the unbalance problem and the thirdharmonic problem can be solved using one of two
techniques:
1. Solidly ground the neutrals of the transformers, especially the primary winding’s neutral.
This connection permits the additive thirdharmonic components to cause a current flow
in the neutral instead of building up large voltages. The neutral also provides a return path
for any current imbalances in the load.
2. Add a third (tertiary) winding connected in Δ to the transformer bank. If a third Δ 
connected winding is added to the transformer, then the thirdharmonic components of
voltage in the A will add up, causing a circulating current flow within the winding. This
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The Δ connected tertiary windings need not even be brought out of the transformer case, but
they often are used to supply lights and auxiliary power within the substation where it is
located. The tertiary windings must be large enough to handle the circulating currents, so they
are usually made about onethird the power rating of the two main windings.
One or the other of these correction techniques must be used any time a Y—Y transformer is
installed. In practice, very few Y—Y transformers are used, since the same jobs can be done
by one of the other types of threephase transformers.
WYEDELTA CONNECTION.
The YΔ connection of threephase transformers is shown in Figure 327b. In this connection,
the primary line voltage is related to the primary phase voltage by VLP = √3VθP, while the
secondary line voltage is equal to the secondary phase voltage VLS = VθS. The voltage ratio of
each phase is
VθP
=a
VθS
so the overall relationship between the line voltage on the primary side of the bank and the
line voltage on the secondary side of the bank is
VLP 3VθP
=
VLS VθS
VθP
= 3a YΔ
VθS
The YΔ connection has no problem with thirdharmonic components in its voltages, since
they are consumed in a circulating current on the A side. This connection is also more stable
with respect to unbalanced loads, since the A partially redistributes any imbalance that occurs.
This arrangement does have one problem, though. Because of the connection, the secondary
voltage is shifted 30º relative to the primary voltage of the transformer. The fact that a phase
shift has occurred can cause problems in paralleling the secondaries of two transformer banks
together. The phase angles of transformer secondaries must be equal if they are to be
paralleled, which means that attention must be paid to the direction of the 30º phase shift
occurring in each transformer bank to be paralleled together.
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The connection shown in Figure 3.27b will cause the secondary voltage to be lagging if the
system phase sequence is abc. If the system phase sequence is acb, then the connection shown
in Figure 3.54b will cause the secondary voltage to be leading the primary voltage by 30º.
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DELTAWYE CONNECTION.
A ΔY connection of threephase transformers is shown in Figure 3.27c. In a ΔY connection,
the primary line voltage is equal to the primaryphase voltage VLP = VθP while the secondary
voltages are related by VLS = 3 VθS. Therefore, the linetoline voltage ratio of this
transformer connection is
VLP VθP
=
VLS 3VθS
VLP 3
= ΔY
VLS a
This connection has the same advantages and the same phase shift as the Y—A transformer.
The connection shown in Figure 3.27c makes the secondary voltage lag the primary voltage
by 30º, as before.
DELTADELTA CONNECTION.
The ΔΔ connection is shown in Figure 3.27d. In a ΔΔ connection, VLP = VθP and VLS =
VθS,so the relationship between primary and secondary line voltages is
VLP VφP
= =a Δ Δ
VLS VφS
This transformer has no phase shift associated with it and no problems with unbalanced loads
or harmonics.
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Sbase
SIØ,base =
3
and the base phase current and impedance of the transformer are
S I φ , base
IØ,base =
Vφ , base
Sbase
IØ,base =
3Vφ ,base
(V φ ,base ) 2
Z,base =
S Iφ ,base
3(Vφ ,base )
2
Z,base =
S base
Line quantities on threephase transformer banks can also be represented in the perunit
system. The relationship between the base line voltage and the base phase voltage of the
transformer depends on the connection of windings. If the windings are connected in delta,
VL,base = VØ,base, while if the windings are connected in wye, VL,,base = √3VØ,base. The base line
current in a threephase transformer bank is given by
S base
IL,base =
3VL ,base
The application of the perunit system to threephase transformer problems is similar to its
application in the singlephase examples already given.
Example 3.8.
A 50kVA 13,800/208V ΔY distribution transformer has a resistance of
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Solution
(a) The highvoltage side of this transformer has a base line voltage of 13,800 V and a
base apparent power of 50 kVA. Since the primary is Aconnected, its phase voltage is
equal to its line voltage. Therefore, its base impedance is
3(Vφ ,base )
2
Zbase =
S base
3(13.800)
2
=
50.000
= 11.426Ω
Zeq = Zeq,PUZbase
= (0.01 + j0.07PU)(11.426Ω)
= 114.2 + j800Ω
(b) To calculate the voltage regulation of a threephase transformer bank, determine the
voltage regulation of any single transformer in the bank. The voltages on a single
transformer are phase voltages, so
VφP − aVφS
VR = x100%
aVφS
The rated transformer phase voltage on the primary is 13.800 V, so the rated phase current on
the primary is given by
S
IØ =
3Vφ
IØ = 50 . 000 VA
3 (13 .800 V )
= 1.208 A
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The rated phase voltage on the secondary of the transformer is 208 V/√3 = 120V. When
referred to the highvoltage side of the transformer, this voltage becomes VØS = aVØS =
13.800 V. Assume that the transformer secondary is operating at the rated voltage and current,
and find the resulting primary phase voltage:
T
ØP = aVØS +ReqIØ + jXeqIØ
=13,800 ∠ 0ºV+(114.2Ω)(1.208 ∠ 6.87ºA)+(j800 Ω)(1.208 ∠ 36.87ºA)
=13,800 + 138 ∠ 36.87º + 966.4 ∠ 53.13º
=13,800 + 110.4 j82.8 + 579.8 +j773.1
=14,490 +j690.3
=14,506 ∠ 2.73º V
Therefore,
VφP − aVφS
VR = x100%
aVφS
14.506 − 13.800
= x100%
13.800
= 5.1 %
(c) In the perunit system, the output voltage is 1 ∠ 0º, and the current is 1 ∠ 36.87º.
Therefore, the input voltage is
1.051 − 1.0
VR = x100%
1.0
= 5.1%
Of course, the voltage regulation of the transformer bank is the same whether the calculations
are done in actual ohms or in the perunit system.
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3.10. SUMMARY
A transformer is a device for converting electric energy at one voltage level to electric energy
at another voltage level through the action of a magnetic field. It plays an extremely important
role in modem life by making possible the economical longdistance transmission of electric
power.
When a voltage is applied to the primary of a transformer, a flux is produced in the core as
given by Faraday’s law. The changing flux in the core then induces a voltage in the secondary
winding of the transformer. Because transformer cores have very high permeability, the net
magnetomotive force required in the core to produce its flux is very small. Since the net
magnetomotive force is very small, the primary circuit’s magnetomotive force must be
approximately equal and opposite to the secondary circuit’s magnetomotive force. This fact
yields the transformer current ratio.
A real transformer has leakage fluxes that pass through either the primary or the secondary
winding, but not both. In addition there are hysteresis, eddy current, and copper losses. These
effects are accounted for in the equivalent circuit of the transformer. Transformer
imperfections are measured in a real transformer by its voltage regulation and its efficiency.
An autotransformer differs from a regular transformer in that the two windings of the
autotransformer are connected. The voltage on one side of the transformer is the voltage
across a single winding, while the voltage on the other side of the transformer is the sum of
the voltages across both windings. Because only a portion of the power in an autotransformer
actually passes through the windings, an autotransformer has a power rating advantage
compared to a regular transformer of equal size. However, the connection destroys the
electrical isolation between a transformer’s primary and secondary sides.
The voltage levels of threephase circuits can be transformed by a proper combination of two
or three transformers. Potential transformers and current transformers can sample the voltages
and currents present in a circuit. Both devices are very common in large power distribution
systems.
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4
EXPERIMENT
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OBJECTIVE
After completing this experiment, you will be able to determine the polarity of the
transformer.
EQUIPMENT
1. Single Phase Transformer unit (LFTTETP1A)
2. Single Phase Transformer unit (LFTTETP1B)
3. 1.5 V Battery
4. Push Button Switch.
5. Analog DC Voltmeter
6. Connection Leads
DISCUSSION
The terms primary and secondary refer to source and load sides, respectively (i.e., energy
flows from primary to secondary). However, in many applications energy can flow either
way, in which case the distinction is meaningless. The terms step up and step down refer to
what the transformer does to the voltage from source to load. ANSI standards require that for
a twowinding transformer the highvoltage and lowvoltage terminals be marked as H1H2
and X1X2, respectively, with H1 and X1 markings having the same significance as dots for
polarity markings.
Additive and subtractive transformer polarity refer to the physical positioning of highvoltage,
lowvoltage dotted terminals as shown in Figure 4.11. If the dotted terminals are adjacent,
then the transformer is said to be subtractive, because if these adjacent terminals (H1X1) are
connected together, the voltage between H2 and X2 is the difference between primary and
secondary. Similarly, if adjacent terminals X1 and H2 are connected, the voltage (H1X2) is
the sum of primary and secondary values.
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If the primary voltage is positive at the dotted end of the winding with respect to the undotted
end, then the secondary voltage will be positive at the dotted end also. Voltage polarities are
the same with respect to the dots on each side of the core.
If the primary current of the transformer flows into the dotted end of the primary winding, the
secondary current will flow out of the dotted end of the secondary winding.
PROCEDURES:
1. Prepare all equipment.
2. Build the circuit as shown in Figure 4.12a.
12V I
PB
12A
A 0 0 H
24V G
1.5Vdc
+ B 220V 6A
0 F
C 240V 42V E
3A DCV
+ 
0 D
(a)
PB
A 0 120V G
5A
1.5Vdc
B 220V 0 F
+
120V E
C 240V 5A DCV
+ 
0 D
(b)
Figure 4.12. Polarity Testing
3. Observe Figure 4.12a. It shows that terminal A is given () polarity and terminal C to
(+) polarity. On the secondary winding, terminal E and D are connected to DC
voltmeter.
4. Press PB switch momentary while observing the DC voltmeter. What is the response
of the voltmeter? Fill the result into table 4.11.
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5. Repeat step 3 and 4. Change the DC voltmeter to GF and IH respectively. Write
down the result into table 4.11.
6. Return the circuit configuration as Figure 4.12a.
7. Change the battery polarity to opposite direction. Battery (+) to A and battery () to C.
8. Press PB switch momentary while observing the DC voltmeter. What is the response
of the voltmeter? Write down the result.
9. Let’s move to Figure 4.12b. It shows a single phase transformer as well, but has
larger secondary power and voltage ratings. Terminal A is given () polarity and
terminal C to (+) polarity. On the secondary winding, terminal E and D are connected
to DC voltmeter.
10. Press PB switch momentary while observing the DC voltmeter. What is the response
of the voltmeter? Fill the result into table 4.12.
Table 4.12. Polarity Test
Voltmeter deviation
No Point Remark
(Left/Right)
1 ED
2 GF
11. Repeat step 9 and 10. Change the DC voltmeter to GF. Write down the result into
table 4.12.
12. Change the battery polarity to opposite direction. Battery (+) to A and battery () to C.
13. Press PB switch momentary while observing the DC voltmeter. What is the response
of the voltmeter? Write down the result.
14. Draw the transformer block diagram above and mark the polarity based on your
experiment result.
15. Remove the jumper connection after completing the experiments. Return the
equipment to their respective place.
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OBJECTIVE
After completing this experiment you will able to connect a transformer in series winding so
that it will either aid or oppose each other.
EQUIPMENT
DISCUSSION
Some transformers are made with more than one primary as well as more than one secondary.
Multiple transformer windings can be connected in series or in parallel to change the voltage
or current capabilities. Either primary or secondary windings (or both) can be connected in
series or in parallel.
For parallel connections, windings should have identical ratings. They must have identical
voltage ratings. Before windings are connected in parallel, their phasing must be correct
Phasing refers to the instantaneous polarity of the windings. When the secondary winding has
identical voltage rating the negative ends of the two secondary windings are connected
together, as are the positive ends. With this connections the output voltage is still but the
current will double.
Incorrect phasing in parallel winding causes a dead short on the secondaries of the
transformer. The voltage of each winding aids the other winding in producing secondary
current. Only the resistance of the secondary winding limits the secondary current. Therefore
the current becomes very high. If not protected against overload the transformer will soon
burn out.
Transformer windings also can be connected in series so that they either aid or oppose each
other,
PRIMARY
Power + 10V/1A
PRIMARY
Power Source
+ 10V/1A 
Source 220VAC
 4V/
220VAC
16V/ 1A
1A +
6V/2A
+ 
6V/2A

Figure 4.21. (a). Series aiding winding connections (b) Series opposing winding connections
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In Figure 4.21 the polarity markings indicate the instantaneous polarities for one half cycle.
In the seriesaiding configuration (Fig 4.21a), the output voltage is the sum of the two
secondary voltages. However the current is restricted to the lower rating of the two windings.
This because all of the load current flows through both secondaries.
When connected in a seriesopposing configuration the two winding produce a voltage equal
to the difference between the two voltages. We say the two voltages are bucking one another.
Note that the current is limited to the lower current rating of the two windings.
In summary, it is possible to obtain four voltages from two secondary windings:
 The voltage of secondary 1
 The voltage of secondary 2
 The sum of the voltages of secondaries 1 and 2
 The difference between the voltages of secondaries 1 and 2
PROCEDURES:
12V I
RCCB 12A
N A 0 0 H
24V G
V1 B 220V 6A
0 F
L MCB
V2
C 240V
GND 42V E
3A
GND 0 D
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11. Turn off the power. Remove the secondary connection leads.
12. Build the circuit as shown in Figure 4.23.
13. Ask your instructor to recheck your circuit.
12V I
RCCB 12A
N A 0 0 H
24V G
V1 B 220V 6A
0 F
L MCB
C 240V
GND 42V E V2
3A
GND
0 D
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OBJECTIVE
After completing this exercise you will be able to measure and determine the excitation
impedance of a transformer.
EQUIPMENT
BASIC INFORMATION
It is possible to experimentally determine the values of the inductances and resistances in the
transformer model. An adequate approximation of these values can be obtained with only two
tests, the opencircuit test and the shortcircuit test.
In the opencircuit test, a transformer secondary winding is opencircuited, and its primary
winding is connected to a fullrated line voltage. Look at the equivalent circuit in Figure 4.3
1. Under the conditions described, all the input current must be flowing through the excitation
branch of the transformer. The series elements RP and XP are too small in comparison to RC
and XM to cause a significant voltage drop, so essentially all the input voltage is dropped
across the excitation branch.
Figure 4.31 a) The transformer model referred to its primary voltage level.
b) The transformer model referred to its secondary voltage level.
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The opencircuit test connections are shown in Figure 4.32. Full line voltage is applied to the
primary of the transformer, and the input voltage, input current, and input power to the
transformer are measured. From this information, it is possible to determine the power factor
of the input current and therefore both the magnitude and the angle of the excitation
impedance.
The easiest way to calculate the values of RC and XM is to look first at the admittance of the
excitation branch. The conductance of the coreloss resistor is given by
1
Gc =
RC
and the susceptance of the magnetizing inductor is given by
1
BM =
XM
Since these two elements are in parallel, their admittances add, and the total excitation
admittance is
YE = Gc  jBM
1 1
= – j
RC XM
The magnitude of the excitation admittance (referred to the primary circuit) can be found
from the opencircuit test voltage and current:
I OC
YE =
VOC
The angle of the admittance can be found from a knowledge of the circuit power factor. The
opencircuit power factor (PF) is given by
PF = cos θ
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POC
=
VOC I OC
and the powerfactor angle θ is given by
POC
θ = cos –1
VOC
The power factor is always lagging for a real transformer, so the angle of the current always
lags the angle of the voltage by θ degrees. Therefore, the admittance YE is
I OC
YE = ∠ θ
VOC
I OC
= ∠ cos –1 PF
VOC
PROCEDURES
1. Prepare all equipment required.
RCCB 12A
WATTMETER
N A 0 0 H
A1 A
24V G
V
V1 B 220V 6A
L MCB
0 F
C 240V 42V E
GND
3A
GND
0 D
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RCCB
WATTMETER
N A 0 120V G
A1 A
5A
V
V1
B 220V 0 F
L MCB
120V E
C 240V 5A
GND
GND 0 D
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I OC
Y = ∠ cos –1 PF
VOC
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OBJECTIVE
After completing this experiment you will able determine the current ratio and impedance
of a transformer
EQUIPMENT
DISCUSSION
In the shortcircuit test, the secondary terminals of the transformer are shortcircuited, and the
primary terminals are connected to a fairly lowvoltage source, as shown in Figure 3.15. The
input voltage is adjusted until the current in the shortcircuited windings is equal to its rated
value. (Be sure to keep the primary voltage at a safe level. It would not be a good idea to burn
out the transformer’s windings while trying to test it.) The input voltage, current, and power
are again measured.
IIIIIII
Since the input voltage is so low during the shortcircuit test, negligible current flows through
the excitation branch. If the excitation current is ignored, then all the voltage drop in the
transformer can be attributed to the series elements in the circuit. The magnitude of the series
impedances referred to the primary side of the transformer is
VSC
Z SE =
I SC
PF = cos θ
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PSC
=
VSC I SC
and is lagging. The current angle is thus negative, and the overall impedance angle θ is
positive:
PSC
θ = cos1
VSC I SC
PROCEDURE
1. Prepare all equipment required.
2. Ensure the power and meter switch are OFF. Build circuit as shown in Figure 4.42.
12V I
RCCB 12A
WATTMETER
N A 0 0 H
A1 A
24V G
AUTO
TRANSFORMER V
V1 B 220V 6A A2
L MCB
0 F
C 240V 42V E
GND
3A
GND
0 D
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L MCB
120V E
C 240V 5A A2
GND
GND 0 D
10. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches.
11. Adjust the autotransformer gently until the ammeter (A2) show 5 Ampere. Read the meter
measurement.
V1 (Vsc) = ……….. Vac
A1 (Isc) = ……….. Vac
W (Psc) = ……….. W
A2 = 5A
12. Set the autotransformer to minimum position and turn off the power and meter switches.
Remove the cable jumper connections.
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OBJECTIVES
After completing this experiment you will able to determine the voltage values according to
the turns ratio and calculate the turn ratio by determining the voltage values.
EQUIPMENT
1. Single Phase Transformer experimental Trainer base station. (LFTTETB)
2. Singlephase transformer (LFTTETP1A)
3. Connection Leads
4. Variable Transformer
DISCUSSION
A transformer can either step up or step down a voltage. If the primary voltage is greater than
the secondary voltage, the transformer is stepping the voltage down. If the voltage in the
secondary exceeds the voltage in the primary the transformer is a stepup transformer. Some
transformers with multiple secondaries have one or more stepup or stepdown secondaries.
Whether a secondary is a stepup or step down winding is determined by the primary to
secondary turns ratio. When the primary turns exceed the secondary turns and the coupling is
100 percent, the transformer steps down the voltage. In fact, with 100 percent coupling, the
turns ratio and the voltage ratio are equal. Mathematically we can write:
Vpri Npri
_______ ________
=
Vsec Nsec
In this formula, N is the abbreviation for the number of turns. This formula can be rearranged
to show that:
Npri Nsec
_______ ________
=
Vpri Vsec
In this new arrangement, the relationship between voltage and turns is very informative. It
shows that the turnspervolt ratio is the same for both the primary and the secondary.
Furthermore, the turnspervolt ratios of all secondary windings in a multiplesecondary
transformer are equal. Thus, once you determine the turnspervolt ratio of any winding, you
know the ratios of all other windings.
In this experiment we will use a single phase stepdown transformer that consist of a primary
winding and three secondary windings with the following specifications:
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PROCEDURES:
1. Prepare all equipment.
2. Ensure the RCCB, MCB and meter switches are OFF. Build a circuit as shown in
Figure 4.51.
3. Ask your instructor to recheck your circuit.
4. Adjust autotransformer to minimum.
5. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Wait a moment then turn on the Voltmeter switch (V1)
and Ammeter switch (A1).
6. Observe the Voltmeter and Ammeter reading and record the result in Table 4.51.
7. By using Voltmeter (V2) measure the voltage on terminals D  E. Observe and record
the result in Table 4.51. Also measure the voltage on terminal F – G and H – I.
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12V I
RCCB 12A
N A 0 0 H
A1
24V G
AUTO
TRANSFORMER
V1 B 220V 6A
L MCB
0 F
C 240V 42V E
GND
3A V2
GND
0 D
8. Increase primary input voltage by adjusting the variable Transformer output until
voltmeter V1 shows 50Vac, and then measure the voltage on terminals D – E; F – G;
and H – I.
Nsec
Vsec = _______ x Vpri
Npri
Note:
Vsec = Secondary voltage on points; D – E; F – G; and H – I.
Vpri = Primary voltage on point AC
Nsec = Secondary winding
N pri = Primary winding
9. Repeat step 8 above, for primary input voltage: 100V; 150V; 200V and 220V. Record
the result in Table 4.51
10. Set the autotransformer to minimum position, turn off the power and meter switches.
Remove the cable jumper connections.
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0V
50V
100V
150V
200V
220V
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OBJECTIVES
In this exercise you will practice how a transformer can change the value of a resistance
EQUIPMENT
DISCUSSION
For ideal transformer, there is no exciting current, and the resistance of its windings should be
zero. Also it will no leakage flux, and leakage reactance. The voltage on the secondary
terminals E2 is given by the voltage ratio equation:
Es = (Ns / Np) Ep
Since it is no exciting current, the impedance between terminals A – B is infinite. This
corresponds to the infinite impedance between secondary terminals C – D.
If a resistor R is connected across the secondary terminals C and D, the impedance between
the primary terminals A and B is no longer infinite. It is equal to the value R multiplied by the
square of the turns ratio.
Zp = (Np / Ns)2 R
This is an example of impedance transformation. When the resistance R is connected to the
secondary terminals, the resulting secondary current Is is:
Is = (Es / R)
The secondary current causes a current flow in the primary given by the current ratio
equation:
Ip = (Ns / Np) Is
The impedance ZAB seen between terminals A and B is:
ZAB = (Ep / Ip)
We see that the impedance between the primary terminals is equal to the resistance across the
secondary terminals multiplied by the square of the turns ratio. Thus the transformer has the
remarkable property of being able to transform the value of a resistance.
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PROCEDURES
1. Prepare all equipment required in this experiment.
2. Ensure the RCCB and MCB and meter switches are OFF.
3. Build circuit as shown in Figure 4.61.
12V I A2
RCCB 12A
V2
N A 0 0 H
A1
24V G
V1 B 220V 6A
L MCB
0 F
C 240V 42V E
GND
3A
GND
0 D
4. Calculate the theoretical value of the impedance that should appear between terminals A
and B when the load resistor = 15 Ω :
Zp = (Np / Ns)2 R = ………… Ω
8. With the same way as you have done on above steps, change the load as shown in Table
4.61 and write your measurement results.
9. After completing this experiment, turn off the MCB and RCCB. Remove cable
connections and return the equipment to their place.
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Table 4.61
Primary Secondary
Load
(HI) Ep Ip Zp Zp Es Is Zs
(V1) (A1) (Ep/Ip) Calculation (V2) (I2) (Es/Is)
Resistor
15 Ohm
Resistor
20 Ohm
Resistor
30 Ohm
Resistor
50 Ohm
Resistor
100 Ohm
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OBJECTIVES
After completing this experiment, you will be able to measure the voltage regulation of a
transformer
EQUIPMENT
DISCUSSION
The measure of how well a power transformer maintains constant secondary voltage over a
range of load currents is called the transformer's voltage regulation. It can be calculated from
the following formula:
“Fullload” means the point at which the transformer is operating at maximum permissible
secondary current. This operating point will be determined primarily by the winding wire size
and the method of transformer cooling.
Incidentally, this would be considered rather poor (or “loose”) regulation for a power
transformer if less than 3%. Inductive loads tend to create a condition of worse voltage
regulation, so this analysis with purely resistive loads was a “bestcase” condition.
PROCEDURE
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12V I
RCCB 12A
N A 0 0 H
A1
24V G
V1 B 220V 6A
L MCB
0 F
C 240V 42V E A2
GND
3A
V2
GND
0 D
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In this experiment you will practice how measure voltage characteristic of a fullwave rectifier
with and without load.
EQUIPMENT
DISCUSSION
Figure 4.81 is the circuit diagram of a transformerfed bridge rectifier. The highvoltage
secondary winding of transformer T supplies four silicon rectifiers, D1 to D4. Operation of the
circuit is as follows: Assume that during the positive alternation (alternation 1) of the input
sine wave, point C is positive with respect to D (the voltages at the opposite ends of a
transformer winding are 180° out of phase). This makes the anode of D1 positive with respect
to its cathode and D1is therefore forwardbiased. Similarly the cathode of D3, connected to
point D, is negative relative to its anode. Hence, D3 is forwardbiased. It is evident also that
D2 and D4 are reversebiased during alternation 1. Thus, in a circuit Dl and D3 will conduct
during alternation 1 while D2 and D4 will be cut off.
Figure 4.82a shows that during the positive alternation there is a complete path for current
for rectifiers D1 and D3, which are connected in series with the load resistor RL. Current flows
through RL, through D1; through winding CD, and through D3, with the polarity shown.
Figure 4.82b shows the positivevoltage waveform developed during alternation 1 across RL.
During the negative alternation (alternation 2), D1 and D3 are reversebiased and are cut off. If
D2 and D4 were not in the circuit, D1 and D3 would act as a halfwave rectifier.
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Figure 4.82c shows that during the negative alternation (alternation 2), that is, when point C
is negative relative to point D, the anode of D2 is positive with respect to its cathode, and the
cathode of D4 is negative with respect to its anode. Hence, rectifiers D2 and D4 are forward
biased, while D1 and D3 are reversebiased.
Figure 4.82. Action of bridge rectifier (a, b) on positive alternation;(c,d) on negative alternation
Now D2 and D4 conduct, permitting current through RL. The polarity across RL is the same as
in Figure 4.82d.
Thus D1 in series with D3 rectifies during the positive alternation of the input, while D2 in
series with D4 rectifies during the negative alternation. A bridge rectifier is therefore a full
wave rectifier. The center tap (CT) of the secondary is not connected in the bridge rectifier. In
a conventional circuit rectifier, the CT acts as the common return, and the voltage across each
diode is onehalf the voltage across the transformer. Hence, if the same transformer is used,
the output voltage of a conventional fullwave rectifier is only onehalf that of a bridge
circuit.
The same type of filter arrangement can be used with a bridge rectifier as with any other
rectifier circuit. For the bridge rectifier the voltage rating of the filter capacitors must be at
least twice for the fullwave rectifier using the same transformer.
PROCEDURE
1. Prepare all equipment required in this experiment.
2. Ensure the RCCB and MCB and meter switches are OFF.
3. Build circuit as shown in Figure 4.83.
4. Set the rheostat to 20 Ω.
5. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches.
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6. Observe the waveform at the input and output of the bridge rectifier. Compare the
waveform. Draw the waveform into table 4.81.
7. Read the voltage and current measurement at V2, A2, and DC Voltmeter (Vdc). Fill
the result into table 4.81.
8. Repeat step 67 for other load values as listed on table 4.81.
12V I
RCCB 12A
N A 0 0 H
A1
24V G A2
V1 B 220V 6A
V2
L MCB
0 F
C 240V 42V E
GND
VDC
3A
GND
0 D OSCILLOSCOPE
Table 4.81
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RCCB
N A 0 120V G A2
A1
5A
V2
V1
B 220V 0 F
L MCB
120V E
VDC
C 240V 5A
GND
GND 0 D
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OBJECTIVE
After completing this experiment you will be able to construct three phase transformer and
able to verify the voltage and current relationships in a wyedelta transformer.
EQUIPMENT
1. Three Phase Transformer Experimental Trainer base station (LFTTETB)
2. Three Phase Transformer Unit (LFTTETP3)
3. Three Phase Load Unit/Rheostat (LFTTET06)
4. Connection Leads
DISCUSSION
Three phase voltages can be transformed either by a single three phase transformer or by three
single phase transformer. The end is the same, all three of the phase voltages are changed.
The structure of a threephase transformer is illustrated in Figure 4.91.
A C E
B D F
G I K
H J L
The flux in the phase 1 lag is equal to the phase 2 flux plus phase 3. Phase 2 flux equals
phase 3 flux plus phase 1 flux etc. This is caused by the flux, like the current, of each phase is
displaced by 120°.
In Figure 4.92 the flux of each phase is assumed to be in step with the current in the phase.
(This assumption implies that the core has no hysteresis loss). At instant A, the phase 1
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current is zero. Therefore, the phase 1 flux is also zero. At instant B, current in phase 1 and
phase 3 are both positive. At this same time phase 2 current is negative and of twice the value
of either phase 1 current or phase 3 current. Thus the phase 2 lag of the core has twice as
much flux as either phase 1 or phase 3.
A B C D
Phase 1
Current
Phase 2
Phase 3
Time
Primary Secondary
a) Deltadelta (Δ −Δ)
Primary
Secondary
b) Delta – wye (Δ − Y)
Primary Secondary
c) Wye – wye (Y − Y)
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Secondary
Primary
d) Wye  Delta (Y − Δ)
Figure 4.93. Three phase transformer connections
The diagram in Figure 4.93 shows four ways of connecting the windings to obtain correct
phasing. With a wye connection, correct phasing can also be obtained by connecting all the
dotted ends to the star point. In the delta connection all three windings can be reversed; just be
sure that two dotted ends are not connected together. On a transformer, the dotted (start) of a
winding is identified by the manufacturer. The identification may be made in several ways. It
may be a colored strip wrapped around the insulation of the start lead or may be a number on
a diagram mounted on the transformer.
Incorrect phasing of the primary, in either the wye or the delta configuration, causes
excessively high primary current. If not protected against overload, the incorrectly phased
primary can be destroyed by the excess current. Improper phasing of a delta connected
secondary also causes excessive, destructive current.
The YΔ connection of threephase transformers is shown in Figure 4.94. In this connection,
the primary line voltage is related to the primary phase voltage by VLP = √3VθP, while the
secondary line voltage is equal to the secondary phase voltage VLS = VθS. The voltage ratio of
each phase is
VθP
=a
VθS
so the overall relationship between the line voltage on the primary side of the bank and the
line voltage on the secondary side of the bank is
VLP VθP
= 3
VLS VθS
VθP
= 3 a YΔ
VθS
Primary Secondary
a c’
NP1
VLP NS2
NP2
b V θP NS3 b’
NP3 NS1
VLS
c Vθ S
a’
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PRIMARY SECONDARY
a c’
b b’
N P2 N S2
c a’
N P3 N S3
n
Figure 4.94.
The YΔ connection has no problem with thirdharmonic components in its voltages, since
they are consumed in a circulating current on the Δ side. This connection is also more stable
with respect to unbalanced loads, since the Δ partially redistributes any imbalance that
occurs.
PROCEDURES
1. Prepare all equipment required in this experiment.
2. Ensure the RCCB and MCB and meter switches are OFF.
3. Make connections between base station and transformer module as shown in Figure 4.95.
4. Ask your instructor to recheck your circuit.
5. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches.
6. Measure the voltage and current as list on Table 4.91.
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I 415V 415V R
H 380V 41.5V Q
V2
L1 ILP1 G 0 0 P
A1
F 415V 415V O
V1 V1
L2 ILP2
A1
E 380V 41.5V N
V1 V2
L3 ILP3
A1 D 0 0 M
C 415V 415V L
N
B 380V 41.5V K
V2
GND
A 0 0 J
GND
Note: The ammeter (A1), voltmeter (V1, V2) are used interchangeable. Turn off the
MCB when you change the ammeter and voltmeter position.
Table 4.91. WyeDelta measurement result
ILine pri
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ILP1 A
ILP2 A
ILP3 A
VLine sec
VJL V
VMO V
VPR V
7. Calculate the lineto line voltage at the primary winding.
VLLP = (VCF + VFI + VCI) / 3 = ………….. V
8. Calculate the ratio of VLine and Vphase on the primary side.
VCF / VCG : …………
VFI / VFG : ………………
H 380V 41.5V Q
V2 VLS1
L1 ILP1 G 0 0 P
A1 ILS2
VLP3 F 415V 415V O
VLP1 A2
V1 V1
L2 ILP2
A1
E 380V 41.5V N
VLP2 V1 V2 VLS2
L3 ILP3
A1 D 0 0 M
ILS3
C 415V 415V L
A2
N
B 380V 41.5V K
V2 VLS3
GND
A 0 0 J
GND
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H 380V 41.5V Q
IPS1
L1 G 0 0 P
A2
F 415V 415V O
L2
E 380V 41.5V N
L3
IPS2
D 0 0 M
A2
C 415V 415V L
N
B 380V 41.5V K
GND
IPS3
A 0 0 J
A2
GND
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18. Calculate ratio of the phase current and line current of the secondary winding.
ILS1 / IPS1 : ………
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OBJECTIVE
After completing this experiment you will be familiar with three phase transformer and able
to verify the voltage and current relationships in a wyewye transformer.
EQUIPMENT
1. Three Phase Transformer experimental Trainer base station (LFTTETB)
2. Three Phase Transformer (LFTTETP3)
3. Three Phase Load Unit (LFTTET06)
4. Connection Leads
5. Digital Multimeter
DISCUSSION
VLP 3VθP
= =a YY
VLS 3VθS
1. If loads on the transformer circuit are unbalanced, then the voltages on the phases of the
transformer can become severely unbalanced.
2. Thirdharmonic voltages can be large.
If a threephase set of voltages is applied to a Y—Y transformer, the voltages in any phase
will be 120º apart from the voltages in any other phase. However, the thirdharmonic
components of each of the three phases will be in phase with each other, since there are three
cycles in the third harmonic for each cycle of the fundamental frequency. There are always
some thirdharmonic components in a transformer because of the nonlinearity of the core, and
these components add up. The result is a very large thirdharmonic component of voltage on
top of the 50 or 60Hz fundamental voltage. This thirdharmonic voltage can be larger than
the fundamental voltage itself.
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Both the unbalance problem and the thirdharmonic problem can be solved using one of two
techniques:
1. Solidly ground the neutrals of the transformers, especially the primary winding’s neutral.
This connection permits the additive thirdharmonic components to cause a current flow
in the neutral instead of building up large voltages. The neutral also provides a return path
for any current imbalances in the load.
2. Add a third (tertiary) winding connected in Δ to the transformer bank. If a third Δ 
connected winding is added to the transformer, then the thirdharmonic components of
voltage in the A will add up, causing a circulating current flow within the winding. This
suppresses the thirdharmonic components of voltage in the same manner as grounding
the transformer neutrals.
The Δ connected tertiary windings need not even be brought out of the transformer case, but
they often are used to supply lights and auxiliary power within the substation where it is
located. The tertiary windings must be large enough to handle the circulating currents, so they
are usually made about onethird the power rating of the two main windings.
One or the other of these correction techniques must be used any time a Y—Y transformer is
installed. In practice, very few Y—Y transformers are used, since the same jobs can be done
by one of the other types of threephase transformers.
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PROCEDURES
VPP1 V1
H380V 41.5V Q
V2 VPS1 V2 VLS1
L1 ILP1 G 0 0 P
A1
VLP3 F 415V 415V O
VLP1 V1 V1
L2 ILP2
A1
E 380V 41.5V N
V1 V2 VLS2 V2 VLS3
VLP2 V1 V2 VPS2
VPP2
L3 ILP3
A1 D 0 0 M
C 415V 415V L
N
B 380V 41.5V K
V1 V2 VPS3
GND VPP3
A 0 0 J
GND
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VLS1 V
VLS2 V
VLS3 V
VPS1 V
VPS2 V
VPS3 V
ILP1 A
ILP2 A
ILP3 A
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ILS1
I 415V 415V R
A2
VPP1 V1
H380V 41.5V Q
V2 VPS1 V2 VLS1
L1 ILP1 G 0 0 P
A1
ILS2
VLP3 F 415V 415V O
VLP1 V1 V1
A2
L2 ILP2
A1
E 380V 41.5V N
V1 V2 VLS2 V2 VLS3
VLP2 V1 V2 VPS2
VPP2
L3 ILP3
A1 D 0 0 M
ILS3
C 415V 415V L
A2
N
B 380V 41.5V K
V1 V2 VPS3
GND VPP3
A 0 0 J
GND
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ILS2 A
ILS3 A
15. Measure the power which is drawn by the transformer with load.
P = ……….Watt
Note: The wattmeter has been defaulted to measure the power on the primary winding
16. Compare with your calculation.
P = √3 VLLP x ILLP
17. Turn off the RCCB and MCB. Remove the jumper cable connections.
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OBJECTIVE
After completing this experiment you will be able to measure the characteristic of a three
phase rectifier
EQUIPMENT
1. Three Phase Transformer experimental Trainer base station (LFTTETB)
2. Three Phase transformer (LFTTETP3)
3. Single Phase Load Unit (LFTTET01)
4. Connection Leads
5. Digital Multimeter
DISCUSSION
Parallel connection via interphase transformers permits the implementation of rectifiers for
high current applications. Series connection for high voltage is also possible, as shown in the
fullwave rectifier of figure 4.14. With this arrangement, it can be seen that the three common
cathode valves generate a positive voltage respect to the neutral, and the three common anode
valves produce a negative voltage. The result is a dc voltage twice the value of the half wave
rectifier. Each half of the bridge is a threepulse converter group.
This bridge connection is a twoway connection, and alternating currents flow in the valve
side transformer windings during both half periods, avoiding dc components into the
windings, and saturation in the transformer magnetic core. These characteristics made the also
called Graetz Bridge the most widely used line commutated thyristor rectifier. The
configuration does not need any special transformer, and works as a sixpulse rectifier.
Figure 4.111
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PROCEDURE
1. Prepare all equipment required in this experiment.
2. Ensure the RCCB and MCB and meter switches are OFF.
3. Make connections between base station and transformer module as shown in Figure 4.11
2.
4. Ask your instructor to recheck your circuit.
5. Turn on the RCCB and MCB. Wait a moment and then turn on the meter switches.
ILS1
I 415V 415V R
A2
VPP1 V1
H 380V 41.5V Q
V2 VLS1
L1 ILP1 G 0 0 P
A1 ILS2
VLP3 F 415V 415V O
VLP1 V1 V1
A2 Vo
L2 ILP2
A1
E 380V 41.5V N
V1
VLP2 V1 V2 VLS2
VPP2
L3 ILP3
A1 D 0 0 M
ILS3
C 415V 415V L
A2
N
B 380V 41.5V K
V1 V2 VLS3
GND VPP3
A 0 0 J
GND
Figure 4.112.
6. Measure the voltage and current according to Table 4.111.
Table 4.111
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VLS3 V
ILS1 A
ILS2 A
ILS3 A
*Note that VLS will be same with VPS
VPP1 V1
H 380V 41.5V Q
V2 VLS1
L1 ILP1 G 0 0 P
A1 ILS2
A2 ILS1
VLP3 F 415V 415V O
Vo
Rheostat
VLP1 A2
V1 V1
L2 ILP2
A1
E 380V 41.5V N
V1
VLP2 V1 V2 VLS2
VPP2
L3 ILP3
A1 D 0 0 M
ILS3
C 415V 415V L A2 ILS2
A2
N
A2 ILS2
B 380V 41.5V K
V1 V2 VLS3
GND VPP3
A 0 0 J
GND
Figure 4.113
12. Measure the voltage, current, and power. Write down into Table 4.112.
13. Change the load as list on Table 4.112. Repeat step 12.
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Table 4.112.
Load
Description
500Ω 400Ω 300Ω 250Ω
VLP1 V V V V
VLP2 V V V V
VLP3 V V V V
VPP1 V V V V
VPP2 V V V V
VPP3 V V V V
VLS1 V V V V
VLS2 V V V V
VLS3 V V V V
ILS1 A A A A
ILS2 A A A A
ILS3 A A A A
ILP1 A A A A
ILP2 A A A A
ILP3 A A A A
Vo Vdc Vdc Vdc Vdc
P W W W W
Note: The wattmeter has been wired to measure the power on the primary winding
VLS will be same with VPS
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