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A Report on Amul

Chapter 1

Evolution of AMUL

Before the cooperative movement began, middlemen who supplied milk to the
consumers were exploiting the dairy industry in the Kaira District. It began as a
response to this exploitation and put an end to it. It grew because it responded
to the farmers financially as well as with services. It has thrived because
farmers who have a stake in its success, own it. And because it has been
managed by capable professionals and strengthened by dedicated scientists,
technologists and workers, it has forged ahead. Today in India, there are 75,000
dairy cooperative societies, spread all over the country with a membership of 10
million. The farmer in the village is now assured of a better future thanks to these
cooperatives. Recently one of the European Embassies in Delhi requested Amul
for information on the five biggest "companies" in the dairy business. The first
three are in the cooperative sector - The Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing
Federation (GCMMF), The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union
Limited and The Mehsana District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union. The Kaira
District Cooperative is the second best in the country. It helped to create
GCMMF, the apex body of all cooperatives in Gujarat.

The Root Cause

In the forties one firm - Polsons, dominated the dairy industry. Established by a
rather enterprising gentleman who discovered that Kaira District, of what was
then Bombay Presidency, produced a good deal of milk. He established a
creamery and for a while the name Polsons was synonymous with butter - much
as Amul is today.
One of Polson's businesses was to supply milk to Bombay. As Kaira district was
an abundant source of the commodity, Polson was chosen to procure it from
there. He in turn, entered into an arrangement with a number of contractors who
actually went to the villages and collected the milk. Everyone was happy.
Bombay received reasonably good quality milk and Polson made a handsome

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profit. The contractors too managed to earn large margins by over quoting the
farmers. It was only the poor farmers who were unhappy for it. They invested in
the animal feed and fodder and they put in their labor. Yet, it was they who
received the smallest share of the Bombay consumers' rupee. The arrangement
benefited everyone but them.

The First Step: Formation of Kaira Union

Realizing that something needed to be done about the unequal balance of


wealth, they turned to Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel for advice. Sardar Patel knew
that their only chance of earning a decent income was when they themselves
gained control over the resources they created. He also knew that the
cooperatives offered them the best chance of gaining that control. So he advised
them to stop selling milk to Polson and form a cooperative of their own. In his
opinion they were to own their own dairy unit. He said, "Throw out Polson and his
milk contractors". They followed his advice and the Kaira District Cooperative
Milk Producers' Union (AMUL) was born, in 1946. By good fortune, they could get
as Chairman - Shri Tribhuvandas Patel, an equally remarkable man. He
understood the concept of cooperation and he understood people. His integrity
was absolute. Because the farmers of Kaira district trusted and respected
Tribhuvandas Patel, the cooperative was able to pass through some very difficult
times and eventually become a model of cooperative dairying throughout the
world.

The Kaira Union began with a clear goal, to ensure that its producer members
received the highest possible share of the consumers' rupee. This goal itself
defined their direction. The focus was on production by the masses, not mass
production. By the early 'sixties, the modest experiment in Kaira had not only
become a success, people began to recognize it as such. Farmers came from all
parts of Gujarat to learn. They went back to their own districts and started their
own cooperatives. The result - Together, the district milk producers unions of
Gujarat own the Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation, which markets

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the milk and milk products manufactured by its owners. The Federation's
turnover was over Rs. 1700 crore making it the largest in the food industry.

In 1964, the then Prime Minister Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri came to inaugurate
cattle feed factory owned by Amul near Anand. Impressed by the cooperative's
success, he expressed his wish to "transplant the spirit of Anand in many other
places". He wanted the Anand model of dairy development replicated in other
parts of the country. With institutions owned by rural producers, which were
sensitive to their needs and responsive to their demands, it was an ideal tool for
progress. The National Dairy Development Board was created in 1965 in
response to this call.

AMUL: The Origin

The mighty Ganges at its origin is but a tiny stream in the Gangotri ranges of the
Himalayas. Similar is the story of Amul, which inspired 'Operation Flood' and
heralded the 'White Revolution' in India. It began with two village cooperatives
and 250 liters of milk per day, nothing but a trickle compared to the flood it has
become today. Today Amul collects processes and distributes over a million liters
of milk and milk products per day, during the peak, on behalf of more than a
thousand village cooperatives owned by half a million-farmer members. Further,
as Ganga-ma carries the aspirations of generations for moksha, Amul too has
become a symbol of the aspirations of millions of farmers, creating a pattern of
liberation and self-reliance for every farmer to follow.

The start of a revolution

The revolution started as awareness among the farmers that grew and matured
into a protest movement and the determination to liberate them. Over four
decades ago, the life of a farmer in Kaira District was very much like that of his
counterpart anywhere else in India. His income was derived almost entirely from
seasonal crops. The income from milch buffaloes was undependable. Private
traders and middlemen controlled the marketing and distribution system for the

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milk. As milk is perishable, farmers were compelled to sell it for whatever they
were offered. Often, they had to sell cream and ghee at throwaway prices. In this
situation, the one who gained was the private trader. Gradually, the realization
dawned on the farmers that the exploitation by the trader could be checked only
if marketed their milk themselves. In order to do that they needed to form some
sort of an organization. This realization is what led to the establishment of the
Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union Limited (popularly known
as Amul) that was formally registered on December 14, 1946.

The Kaira Union began pasteurizing milk for the Bombay Milk Scheme in June
1948. An assured market proved a great incentive to the milk producers of the
district. By the end of 1948, more than 400 farmers joined in more village
societies, and the quantity of milk handled by one Union increased from 250 to
5,000 liters a day.

Obstacles: Springboards for success

Each failure, each obstacle, each stumbling block can be turned into a success
story. In the early years, Amul had to face a number of problems. With every
problem came opportunity. A chance to turn a negative into a positive. Milk by
products and supplementary yield, which suffered from the same lack of
marketing and distribution facilities, became encumbrance. Instead of being
bogged down by their fate they were used as stepping-stones for expansion.
Backward integration of the process led the cooperatives to advances in animal
husbandry and veterinary practice.

Milk By Products: An excuse to expand

The response to these provided stimulus for further growth. For example, as the
movement spread in the district, it was found that the Bombay Milk Scheme
could not absorb the extra milk collected by the Kaira Union in winter, when the
production on an average was 2.5 times more than in summer. Thus, even by
1953, the farmer-members had no assured market for the extra milk produced in

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winter. They were again forced to sell a large surplus at low rates to the
middlemen. The remedy was to set up a plant to process milk into products like
butter and milk powder. A Rs 5 million plant to manufacture milk powder and
butter was completed in 1955. In 1958, the factory was expanded to manufacture
sweetened condensed milk. Two years later, a new wing was added for the
manufacture of 2500 tons of roller-dried baby food and 600 tons of cheese per
year, the former based on a formula developed with the assistance of Central
Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), Mysore. It was the first time
anywhere in the world that cheese or baby food was made from buffalo milk on a
large, commercial scale. Another milestone was the completion of a project to
manufacture balanced cattle feed. The plant was donated by OXFAM under the
Freedom from Hunger Campaign of the FAO.

To meet the requirement of milk powder for the Defense, the Kaira Union was
asked by the Government of India in 1963 to setup additional milk drying
capacity. A new dairy capable of producing 40 tons of milk powder and 20 tons of
butter a day was speedily completed. It was declared open in 1965. The Mogar
Complex where high protein weaning food, chocolate and malted food are being
made was another initiative by Amul to ensure that while it fulfilled the social
responsibility to meet the demand for liquid milk, its members were not deprived
of the benefits to be had from the sale of high value-added products.

Cattle: From stumbling blocks to building blocks

Traditionally dairying was a subsidiary occupation of the farmers of Kaira.


However, the contribution to the farmer's income was not as prominent as his
attachment to dairying as a tradition handed down from one generation to the
next. The milk yield from animals, which were maintained mainly on the by
products of the farm, was decidedly low. That together with the lack of facilities to
market even the little produced rendered the scientific practice of animal
husbandry irrational as well as unaffordable. The return on the investment as

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well as the prospects of being able to market the product looked very bleak. It
was a vicious cycle reinforced by generations of beliefs.

The Kaira Union broke the cycle by not only taking upon themselves the
responsibility of collecting the marketable surplus of milk but also provided the
members with every provision needed to enhance production. Thus the Kaira
Union has full-fledged machinery geared to provide animal health care and
breeding facilities. As early as late fifties, the Union started making high quality
buffalo semen. Through village society workers artificial insemination service was
made available to the rural animal population. The Union started its mobile
veterinary services to render animal health care at the farmers' doorstep.
Probably for the first time in the country, veterinary first aid services, by trained
personnel, were made available in the villages. Fully qualified staff mans the
Union’s 16 mobile veterinary dispensaries. All the villages are visited bi-monthly,
on a predetermined day, to provide animal health care. A 24-hour Emergency
Service is also available at a fee (Rs. 35 for members and Rs. 100 for non-
members). All the mobile veterinary vans are equipped with Radio Telephones.

The Union runs a semen production center where it maintains high pedigreed
Surti buffalo bulls; Holstein Friesian bulls, Jersey bulls and 50 per cent crossbred
bulls. The semen obtained from these bulls is used for artificial breeding of
buffaloes and cows belonging to the farmer members of the district. The artificial
insemination service has become very popular because it regulates the
frequency of calving in cows and buffaloes thus reducing their dry period. Not
only that, a balanced feed concentrate is manufactured in the Union's Cattle
Feed Plant and sold to the members through the societies at cost price.

Impressive though its growth, the unique feature of the Amul sagas did not lie in
the extensive use of modern technology, nor the range of its products, not even
the rapid inroads it made into the market for dairy products. The essence of the
Amul story lies in the breakthrough it achieved in modernizing the subsistence
economy of a sector by organizing the rural producers in the areas.

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8
Chapter 2
Production Function

Introduction

Explosion of the production technology and changes in technical field is going to


bring out revolution in the industry sector which eventually gives stand to study
and favors the come backing subject i.e. production and management.

Production and operation management is planning, organizing, staffing, directing


and controlling of all the production system those portion of organization that
convert inputs into products and services. In general production system takes
raw material, personnel, machines, buildings and other resources and produce
products and services.

The core of production system is its conversion subsystem where in workers; raw
materials are used to convert inputs into products and services. This production
department is at heart of the firm, as it is able to produce low cost products and
superior quality in timely manners.

Thus, there arises enormous need of giving due importance to this department
as a whole and a strong concrete base being foundation pillars of a
manufacturing organization, if the intention is to succeed domestically and
globally.

Co-operative Milk Producing Societies in Gujarat

Following are the cooperatives that function under GCMMF.

• Ahmedabad Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Ahmedabad. Soc: 433,
Mems: 52,428. Av Milk Proc: 90,000 lpd.

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• Banaskantha Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Palanpur. Soc: 1,130,
Mems: 97,251. Av Milk Proc: 295,000 lpd.
• Baroda Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Baroda. Soc: 783, Mems:
156,691. Av Milk Proc: 225,000 lpd.
• Bharuch Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Bharuch. Soc: 289, Mems:
37,900. Av Milk Proc: 38,000 lpd.
• Bhavnagar Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Bhavnagar. Soc: 190,
Mems: 25,532. Av Milk Proc: 23,000 lpd.
• Gandhinagar Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Gandhinagar. Soc: 56,
Mems: 13,000. Av Milk Proc: 46,500 lpd.
• Junagadh Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Junagadh. Soc: 400, Mems:
41,500. Av Milk Proc: 73,000 lpd.
• Kaira Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Amul Dairy, Anand. Soc: 943,
Mems: 513,280. Av Milk Proc: 740,000 lpd.
• Kutch Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Kutch Dairy, Madhapar. Av Milk
Proc: 25,000 lpd.
• Mehsana Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Dudhsagar Dairy, Mehsana.
Soc: 1,020, Mems: 292,800. Av Milk Proc: 704,402 lpd.
• Panchmahal Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Godhra. Soc: 1,133,
Mems: 126,510. Av Milk Proc: 112,000 lpd.
• Rajkot Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Rajkot. Soc: 193, Mems: 29,620.
Av Milk Proc: 50,000 lpd.
• Sabarkantha Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Sabar Dairy, Himatnagar.
Soc: 1,315, Mems: 200,482. Av Milk Proc: 322,346 lpd.
• Surat Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Sumul Dairy, Surat. Soc: 864,
Mems: 160,000. Av Milk Proc: 300,000 lpd.
• Surendranagar Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Surendranagar. Soc:
486, Mems: 31,000. Av Milk Proc: 30,000 lpd.
• Valsad Dist Coop Milk Producers’ Union Ltd, Vasudhara Dairy, Valsad. Soc:
348, Mems: 35,900. Av Milk Proc: 74,400 lpd.

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Plant Layout
Plant layout is the overall arrangement of the machine tools, handling
equipments, storeroom and other various accessories required for facilitating
production in a factory. These arrangements are pre-planned with the results that
the building has been constructed to fit a layout of a given process.

AMUL plant is indigenously worked out with facilitation of various production


processes and production of multi products under one plant. The total plot is
nearly about 2.27 kms. Separate buildings are provided with required
arrangements of machine tools handling and computers connection through the
control room to fit for varying product-manufacturing departments.

The plant is engaged in producing milk, ice creams, milk powder and ghee.
Entire department is uniquely provided with facilities for the processing each
product. There are 4 production departments and packaging departments
pertaining to each product respectively.

Thus, plant layout encompasses all production and service facilities and provides
for the most effective utilization of the men, materials and machines constituting
the process. It is the master blue print of coordinating all operations.

A good layout results in elimination or minimization of accidents and hazards and


cost while increases the output. Thus a good layout specifically is observed to be
beneficial on the following grounds:

• Efforts minimization
• Fewer material handling will be provided manufacturing units cost will be lover
• Bottlenecking of production will be eliminated
• Total item in process will be less
• Specialization of operations is facilitated

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• Less inspection will be required
• Production control will be easier to achieve
• Plant investment can be held to the necessary minimum
• Plant and equipment obsolescence may be less
• Wastage space will be eliminated

Thus, a true beneficiary is provided to the plant through good and sound planning
for plant layout.

Operating Analysis
Amul’s only source of raw material is Village Milk societies. Milk is brought from
such village milk societies every morning and evening. This milk is then sent to
the dairy plant. In the dairy plant the milk is processed i.e. it is made free from
germs.

Milk Processing
The entire process of milk can be divided into following steps:

Steps:

Milk Processing Chart:

Collection of Raw-Milk
Electronic Milk Test

Methyline Blue Reduction Test


Purchasing And Standardizing Process

Separation Process

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Quality Check

Packaging Process

Cold Storage

Steps in Production Process

1. Collection of Raw Milk


Raw milk is collected from different co-operative societies of Gujarat. About
122000 liters of raw milk is collected per day. Before this milk is sent to the
laboratory for testing the ‘FAT & SNF’ proportion, the milk is separated from the
raw milk. The milk is taken from the chilling centers to Ahmedabad with the help
of trucks.

After collecting the samples of milk, they are taken to the laboratory ,where two
types of tests are conducted.

• Electronic milk test


• Methyline blue reduction test

Electronic Milk Test


Before pasteurizing the milk the samples are taken to the laboratory. In the
laboratory with the help of machine called electronic milk tester, the proportion of

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SNF & FAT is checked with phosphate solution. When the colour of the milk
becomes yellow, it is sent for pasteurisation.

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Methyline Blue Reduction Test
Another test, which is taken in the laboratory, is called Methyline blue reduction
test. This test is conducted for checking for how long the milk will remain fresh.
To check this, 10 ml of milk is taken and 1 ml of methyline blue solution is added
to it. It is then kept under water at 57-degree C. After one hour, if the solution
losses its colour than it is called raw milk. If the solution remains the same even
after 5 hours than it is considered as fresh milk, which remains constant for a
long period of time.

The dairy fixes the proportion of FAT & SAF.


MILK SNF FAT
Buffalo 9% 6%
Cow 8.5% 4.5%

After laboratory gives green signal and confirming the raw milk at the reception
dock is brought in to the house connected with the pump is sent to the milk
processing plant. This is than chilled below 4 degree C. and then stored in milk
silos. After that milk is processed which has two steps i.e. pasteurising and
standardizing.

2. Pasteurising & standardizing


After collecting and checking and conducting laboratory tests, the pasteurising
process is conducted. To pasteurized the milk means to kill all the germs in the
milk by a particular method which was invented by a scientist called James
Pasteur and so the name pasteurisation.

In pasteurizing, the milk is first heated at 72 C to 76 C for 15 seconds and then it


is immediately cooled below 4 C. By this method they destroy the pathogenic
bacteria present in the raw milk. But if the right degree of temperature is not
provided there are chances that the milk might still contain germs. After this

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process some milk goes to separator machine and remaining is proportionately
sent for standardization.

Standardization process is known such as it bifurcates the milk in 3 categories


varying according to that FAT & SNF contents. The equipment named OSTA.
Auto standardization adjusts the fat directly. The computer is just ordered
whether gold or standard milk is to be rationed and the same will be received
with appropriate contents.
Ready Milk = Pasteurised + Standardized.

3. Separation process
Separator machine separates two kinds of products, skimmed milk & cream,
through channels. There are 100 disks fixed in separator machines, which
revolve at 5000 rpm (revolution per minute). It is taken to the tanks, which has
the capacity of 20000 litres. Whenever the milk is needed from the tank, it is
tested in the laboratory and the deficit proportion fat is added by mixing cream.
This process continues for 24 hours.

4 Quality Check
Pasteurized milk is sent for a quality check in the Quality Assurance laboratory
of the dairy plant. Within 14 seconds FAT and SNF proportion is received
regarding 30 lack litres of milk. The total investment put into the lab by the Dairy
plant is of Rs. 6 crores.

This laboratory only checks and analyses the powder, milk and ghee. There is a
separate ice-cream analysing laboratory.

5 Packing Process
After this the milk is sent for packing to the milk packing station in the dairy plant.
In the milk packaging station there are huge pipelines and behind each of them
there is polyfill machine from which the material to pack milk comes out. There

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are 12 such polyfill machines in the packaging station from which the materials to
pack milk comes out. From each of these 12 machines 100 pouches are packed
in one single minute.

6. Storage
Then the milk is sent to the cold storage of the dairy where the milk is stored until
it is dispatched. Here the milk is stored at temperature ranging from 5 C to 10 C,
it is maintained with the help of exhaust fans having silicon chips. About 40000
litres of milk is dispatched from the cold storage of the dairy plant everyday. The
damaged pouches are kept a side and the milk is once again put to the tank.

Milk Powder
For converting milk powder first of all water content is evaporated in condensing
plant. By this process they get condensed milk, it is used as a raw material.
There after the milk is sent to the drying plant. The spray drying plant is huge in
size with a height of 70 feet. The plant is divided into many floors to enable easy
use of the plant. First of all the raw material i.e. condensed milk is put into the
first floor of the plant along with air at 200° C. By this process the remaining
water, which the condensed milk might have retained is also evaporated and milk
comes as powder but this is not the last stage.

This powder is again put in to a machine called milk calendaria, where it is turned
in to real milk powder. Its capacity is 1000 litres per 15 minutes. Then again this
milk powder is put into a Dense Waise Vessel. Here the lumps are removed and
uniform milk powder is sent up.

After processing the powder is sent for quality checking at quality assurance
laboratory. After the quality confirms, this milk powder is differentiated, by adding
different flavors to them like elaichi, chocolate & sugar free milk powder.
Thereafter they are packed in tins and boxes. Afterwards it is stored at storage
department.

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Chapter 3

GCMMF: An Overview

Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF) is the India’s largest


food product marketing organization. It is a state level apex body of milk
cooperatives in Gujarat, which aims to provide remunerative returns to the
farmers and also serve the interest of consumers by providing quality products
that are good value for money.

Members 12 district cooperative milk producers'


Union

No. of Producer Members 2.36 million

No. of Village Societies 11,333

Total Milk handling capacity 6.9 million litres per day

Milk collection (Total – 2003-04) 1.81 billion litres

Milk collection (Daily Average 2003- 4.97 million litres


04)

Milk Drying Capacity 511 metric Tons per day

Cattle feed manufacturing Capacity 2340 MTs per day

Sales Turnover Rs (million) US $ (in million)


1996-97 15540 450
1997-98 18840 455
1998-99 22192 493
1999-00 22185 493
2000-01 22588 500

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2001-02 23365 500
2002-03 27457 575
2003-04 28941 616

List of Products Marketed

Bread spreads

• Amul Butter
• Amul Lite Low Fat Breadspread
• Amul Cooking Butter

Cheese Range

• Amul Pasteurized Processed Cheddar Cheese


• Amul Processed Cheese Spread
• Amul Pizza (Mozarella) Cheese
• Amul Shredded Pizza Cheese
• Amul Emmental Cheese
• Amul Gouda Cheese
• Amul Malai Paneer (cottage cheese), Frozen, Refrigerated and Tinned
• Utterly Delicious Pizza

Mithaee Range (Ethnic sweets)

• Amul Shrikhand (Mango, Saffron, Almond Pistachio, Cardamom)


• Amul Amrakhand
• Amul Mithaee Gulabjamuns
• Amul Mithaee Gulabjamun Mix
• Amul Mithaee Kulfi Mix
• Avsar Ladoos

UHT Milk Range

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• Amul Shakti 3% fat Milk
• Amul Taaza 1.5% fat Milk
• Amul Gold 4.5% fat Milk
• Amul Lite Slim-n-Trim Milk 0% fat milk
• Amul Shakti Toned Milk
• Amul Fresh Cream
• Amul Snowcap Softy Mix

Pure Ghee

• Amul Pure Ghee


• Sagar Pure Ghee
• Amul Cow Ghee

Infant Milk Range

• Amul Infant Milk Formula 1 (0-6 months)


• Amul Infant Milk Formula 2 (6 months above)
• Amulspray Infant Milk Food

Milk Powders

• Amul Full Cream Milk Powder


• Amulya Dairy Whitener
• Sagar Skimmed Milk Powder
• Sagar Tea and Coffee Whitener

Sweetened Condensed Milk

• Amul Mithaimate Sweetened Condensed Milk

Fresh Milk

• Amul Taaza Toned Milk 3% fat

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• Amul Gold Full Cream Milk 6% fat
• Amul Shakti Standardized Milk 4.5% fat
• Amul Slim & Trim Double Toned Milk 1.5% fat
• Amul Saathi Skimmed Milk 0% fat
• Amul Cow Milk

Curd Products

• Yogi Sweetened Flavored Dahi (Dessert)


• Amul Masti Dahi (fresh curd)
• Amul Butter Milk
• Amul Lassee

Amul Ice creams

• Royal Treat Range (Rajbhog, Cappuchino, Chocochips, Butterscotch,


Tutti Frutti)
• Nut-o-Mania Range (Kaju Drakshi, Kesar Pista, Roasted Almond, Kesar
Carnival, Badshahi Badam Kulfi, Shista Pista Kulfi)
• Utsav Range (Anjir, Roasted Almond)
• Simply Delicious Range (Vanilla, Strawberry, Pineapple, Rose,
Chocolate)
• Nature's Treat (Alphanso Mango, Fresh Litchi, Anjir, Fresh Strawberry,
Black Currant)
• Sundae Range (Mango, Black Currant, Chocolate, Strawberry)
• Millennium Ice cream (Cheese with Almonds, Dates with Honey)
• Milk Bars (Chocobar, Mango Dolly, Raspberry Dolly, Shahi Badam Kulfi,
Shahi Pista Kulfi, Mawa Malai Kulfi, Green Pista Kulfi)
• Cool Candies (Orange, Mango)
• Cassatta
• Tricone Cones (Butterscotch, Chocolate)
• Megabite Almond Cone

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• Frostik - 3 layer chocolate Bar
• Fundoo Range - exclusively for kids
• SlimScoop Fat Free Frozen Dessert (Vanilla, Banana, Mango,
Pineapple)
• Health Isabcool

Chocolate & Confectionery

• Amul Milk Chocolate


• Amul Fruit & Nut Chocolate

Brown Beverage

• Nutramul Malted Milk Food

Milk Drink

• Amul Kool Flavoured Milk

Health Beverage

• Amul Shakti White Milk Food

Ready to Serve Soups

• Masti Tomato Soup


• Masti Hot & Sour Soup

Recently launched

• Amul Ganthiya

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Organisation Structure

Organization Structure is divided into two parts:

• External Organization Structure


• Internal Organization Structure

• External Organization Structure


External Organization Structure is the organization structure that affects the
organization from the out side.

State Level Marketing Federation

District Milk Product Union Ltd.

Village Milk Product Union Ltd.

Villagers

As we know, GCMMF is unit of Gujarat Milk Marketing Federation, which is a co-


operative organization. The villagers of more than 10000 villages of Gujarat are
the bases of this structure. They all make village milk producers union, district
level milk producers union and then a state level marketing federation is
established. The structure is line relationship, which provides easy way to
operation. It also provides better communication between two stages.

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• Internal Organization Structure:

The following is internal organisation chart of Amul:

Organization Structure Chart

Chairman

Managing Director

General Manager

Ass. General Manager

Finance Production Marketing Sales & Purchase


Personnel
Dept. Dept. Dept. Dept. Dept.

Senior Senior Senior Senior


Senior
Manager Manager Manager Manager
Manager

Finance Production Marketing Sales


Personnel
Manager Manager Manager Manager
Manager

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Accountant Officer Marketing Officer
P.R.F.
Executive

Officers Supervisor F.S.R. Salesmen


Executive

A systematic & well-defined organizational structure plays a vital role & provides
accurate information to the top-level management. An organisation structure
defines a clear-cut line of authorities & responsibilities among the employees of
GCMMF. The Organisation structure of Amul is well-arranged structure. At a
glance a person can completely come to know about the organization structure.

Amul is leaded by the director under him five branches viz. Factory, Marketing,
Accounts, Purchase, Human Resources Department.

Factory department has a separate general manager under him there are six
braches viz. Production, Stores, Distribution, Cold Storage, Quality, and Deep-
freezing. This department takes care of the factory work.

Marketing department has regional senior marketing manager and under him
there is a regional manager. This department takes care of the marketing
aspects of Amul.

Accounts department takes care regarding accounts i.e. day-to-day work. Under
the accountant there is one clerk.

Purchase department takes care regarding the purchase of raw materials and
many other things.

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Chapter 4
Marketing Function

Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF)

GCMMF was the first co-operative to be set up under operation flood. GCMMF’S
dairy plant commissioned in 1994 is one of the most modern and largest plants. It
can handle up to 1million litres of milk per day. The plant also has facilities for
pasteurizing and packing. It was funded by NDDB. GCMMF’s milk is sold under
its flagship brand Amul.

GCMMF was formed in 1973. As an apex marketing federation of 12 district milk


unions of Gujarat to operate own marketing and distribution network in India and
abroad.

GCMMF sales turnover grew by 21% Rs. 15.5 billion to Rs. 18.8 billion including
consignment sales of Rs. 3.7 billion sale of Amul milk in Gujarat and Maharastra
increased by 11% and 16% respectively. Dairy product turnover registered a
19% growth. Amul butter registered 18% growth. The sale of Amul & Sagar Ghee
increased by 47%. Amul Cheese registered 60% value growth.

GCMMF’s sales to the defense services were Rs.233 million during the year,
were mainly to Burma, Uganda and West Africa. The company plans to expand
its export markets in Saudi Arabia and other Middle East countries.

During 1999, launching it in 8 states and 2 union territories extended the Amul
ice-cream brand franchise. Amul ice creams have become India’s 2nd largest
brand. Recently it has commissioned a dairy at Kolkata.

New products launched during the early 2000 were Amul Pizza, Cheese and
Amul slice cheese, Amul paneer and Amul Mithaee range. Safal mango drink has

28
been launched by Strategic alliance with Safal (A union of NDDB). The product
range to be launched under the Safal brand will include fruit drinks, squashes,
pickles, jams, and ketchup and mango pulp.

Amul ice-cream brand franchise was extended with launch in 8 states & 2 union
territories. Amul ice cream has become the 2nd largest brand in the country & has
garnered major share in its existing markets in a short time span of 3 years.
Amul’s main ice-cream manufacturing facility is located at Gandhinagar which is
Asia’s largest and most modern integrated ice-cream manufacturing plant and
uses world renewed refrigeration units and an efficient cold chain. GCMMF has
become very popular because of its excellent marketing strategy. GCMMF
marketing strategy is to understand the consumer needs, develop products that
provide superior value at fewer prices. GCMMF has shown a tremendous
commitment to the floodwater situations. GCMMF has never stopped the supply
of milk and other milk products. And unlike other competitors, it has never taken
wrong benefits in these kinds of situations. It has developed an excellent
distribution channel to provide its products to the consumers. It has made its
products available in each part of Gujarat & India.

Market Segmentation

Market segment is a very important function for the market department of the
GCMMF, because the market consists of buyers different in many ways. They
are different in their wants resources, locating buying practices. Because buyers
have unique needs and wants, each buyer is potentially separate market.

Geographic segmentation

Under these variables, GCMMF has divided market into different geographic
units such as region, states, cities etc. GCMMF sells its products by geographic
segment action like in the north where production of milk is very high the sale of

29
Amul’s product is not much. But in the western region it is high. GCMMF
identifies this kind of variables and deals with it.

Demographic Segmentation

Under this variable GCMMF has divided market into several segments such as
age, gender, family, size, income, occupation etc. For each group GCMMF
marketing strategy is different. In milk Amul targets all the class where as in the
other products like butter, ghee, ice-cream etc. it targets to the middle and higher
middle class.

Distribution Network
Most producers work with marketing intermediaries to bring their products to
market. The marketing intermediaries make up a marketing channel also called
distribution cannel. Distribution channels are sets of interdependent
organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for
use or consumption.

The Head Office of GCMMF is located at Anand. The entire market is divided in
5 zones. The zonal offices are located at Ahmedabad, Mumbai, New Delhi,
Kolkata and Chennai. Moreover there are 49 Depots located across the country
and GCMMF caters to 13 Export markets.

A zero level of channel also called a direct marketing channel consists of a


manufacturer selling directly to the final customers. A one level channel; contains
one selling intermediary such as retailer to the final customers. A two level
channel two intermediaries are typically wholesaler and retailer. A three level
channel are typically wholesaler, retailer and jobber in between.

GCMMF has an excellent distribution. It is its distribution channel, which has


made it so popular. GCMMF’s products like milk and milk products are
perishable. It becomes that much important for them to have a good distribution.

30
31
Distribution Chart

Products

Agents

Wholesaler

Retailer

Consumer

We can see from above figure that GCMMF distribution channel is simple and
clear. The products change hands for three times before it reaches to the final
consumer. First of all the products are stored at the Agents end who are mere
facilitators in the network. Then the products are sold to wholesale dealers who
then sell to retailers and then the product finally reaches the consumers.

Amul Parlors
Amul has come out with a unique concept of Amul Parlours. They have classified
them under four types namely:

• Center for excellence


• On the Move
• Amul Parlours
• Amul Preferred Outlets

Center for Excellence: These Amul Parlours are specifically at a place, which
has a class of excellence of its own. We can find such parlors at the Infosys,
IIMA, NID Ahmedabad etc.

32
On the Move: These parlors are at the railway stations and at different state bus
depots across different cities.

Amul Parlours: These parlors can be seen at different gardens across different
cities. These are fully owned by Amul.

Amul Preferred Outlets: These are the private shops that keep the entire of
product range of Amul. They also agree not to keep any competitor brands in the
outlets. They can keep other brands that are in the non-competitor category.

Amul has more than 200 such outlets right now. It wants to have 1,00,000 parlors
by the end of the year 2010.

Managing Competition
The Indian market is dominated by a large number of small local and regional
players. There are an estimated 150 manufacturers in the organized segment,
which accounts for 30-35% of sales and about 1000 units in the unorganized
segments of the market. In the organized segment the significant brands are
Kwality Walls , Vadilal, Amul, Havmor, Mother dairy and Baskins & Robbins.
GCMMF is facing very tough competition from both in and outside India.

Amul combats competition from its competitors by providing quality products at a


price which its customers value. Along with good quality products and reasonable
price the packaging is also very good. Most of its products are available in many
flavors. Excellent advertising backs its products and helps GCMMF (AMUL) to
leave its competitors a tough time. Also Amul has come out with Amul Parlours to
cater to various segments of customers. Amul has a very strong Brand Image in
the Domestic market. Many products are exported by GCMMF.

33
Exports

GCMMF is India's largest exporter of Dairy Products. It has been accorded a


"Trading House" status. GCMMF has received the APEDA Award from
Government of India for Excellence in Dairy Product Exports for the last 9 years.

The major export products are:

Consumer Packs

• Amul Pure Ghee


• Amul Butter
• Amul Shrikhand
• Amul Mithaee Gulabjamun
• Nutramul Brown Beverage
• Amulspray Infant Milk Food
• Amul Cheese
• Amul Malai Paneer
• Amul UHT Milk (Long Life)
• Amul Fresh Cream

Bulk Packs

• Amul Skimmed Milk Powder


• Amul Full Cream Milk Powder

The products are exported to 18 countries namely, USA, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE,
Yemen, Bahrain, Muscat, Saudi Arabia, Tanzania, Madagascar, Sri Lanka,
Singapore, Nepal, Bangladesh, Nepal Thailand and Australia.

34
Advertising by Amul
Amul has two agencies that look after its entire range of products namely FCB
Ulka and Da Cunha.

FCB Ulka looks after a broad range of products namely, Amul Lite Breadspread,
Amul Shrikhand, Amul Chocolates, Amul Paneer, Amul SnowCap Softy Mix Ice
cream, Amul/Sagar Ghee, Amul Infant Milk Formula 1 & 2, Sagar Tea and Coffee
whitener, Amul Spray Infant Milk Food, Amul Mithaee, Amul Gulab Jamun,
Amulya Dairy Whitener, Mithaimate Sweetened Condensed Milk, Amul Ice
cream, Sagar Skimmed Milk Powder and Amul Whole milk Powder.

Da Cunha looks after the Amul butter. Da Cunha also prepares the very popular
Amul butter billboard campaigns, which we see at various locations. Over and
above the Amul butter, Da Cunha also looks after the Amul Cheese, Cheese
spread, Gouda Cheese, Emmental Cheese, Masti Dahi and Buttermilk, Amul
Slim-n-Trim, Amul Taaza and Amul Gold (all different brands of milk), Amul Fresh
Cream, Amul Chocolate Milk, Amul Fresh Milk and Nutramul.

FCB Ulka also looks after the corporate campaign.

35
Chapter 5

Finance Function

Introduction

Financial management is that managerial activity which is concerned with the


planning and controlling of the firm’s financial resources. Finance is nothing to
other but the money. Money is necessary input for economic activities. In the
other wards “Finance is the common denominator for carrying out vast range of
corporate objectives.” This is a co-operative unit, so the finance is raised from
members by a way of share capital. In this share capital is limited. This unit has
invested so many rupees in the structure of organization. Amul has a long-term
finance project.

Financial Details

Name of bankers

• The Kaira District Central Co-op. Bank Ltd.

• State Bank of India

• State Bank of Saurashtra

• UTI Bank Ltd

• Corporation Bank

Name of the Auditor: A.B. Gadhvi


Special Auditor (Milk)
Milk Audit Office
Anand

36
Financial Analysis

Analysis of Relevant Ratios

• Debt – Equity v/s Long Term Debt – Equity

The debt – equity ratio shows the percentage of debt and net worth. Long-term
debt to equity ratio shows the percentage of long-term debt to net worth.

Debt-Equity v/s Long term Debt-Equity Ratio

1 0.87
0.85
0.78 0.75
0.8
0.53 0.55
0.6
Ratio

0.45
0.4 0.34

0.2
0
2001 2002 2003 2004
Debt-Equity Ratio 0.85 0.87 0.53 0.55
Long term Debt-Equity 0.78 0.75 0.34 0.45
Ratio

Year

It seems that GCMMF has used more of long – term debt as compared to Short –
term debt. As a result it has ended up paying more of interest. But as far as the
percentage of debt to equity is concerned the use of debt has been declining
over years. Of the total capital employed debt is more as compared to equity.
Thus, it can be concluded that the stake of creditors and bankers is more in the
total capital employed.

37
• Interest Coverage Ratio

Interest coverage ratio is used to test the firm’s debt servicing capacity. It shows
the number of times interest charges are covered by funds that are ordinarily
available for payment.

Interest coverage Ratio

10 8.28
8
6
Ratio

4 2.36 2.63
1.84
2
0
2001 2002 2003 2004
Interest coverage 1.84 2.36 2.63 8.28
Ratio

Year

Interpretation
Interest coverage ratio of the firm was 1.84 times in 2001, which has increased to
8.28 times in 2004. This indicates that firm is easily able to pay the interest
charges out of its present earnings.

38
• Dupont Analysis

Components of ROCE

40
33
30
26
Ratio

23 23.91 23
20 17.85
15.57 15.25
10

0 1.45 1.69 1.36 1.26


2001 2002 2003 2004
PBDIT/Sales 1.45 1.69 1.36 1.26
Sales/CE 15.57 15.25 23.91 17.85
ROCE 23 26 33 23
Year

Interpretation

The company’s profit before depreciation, interest and tax has remained constant
over the years. In 2003, though the sales/CE has increased the PBDIT/Sales
ratio has declined. This can be attributed increasing level of expenditure of the
company. But the ROCE has increased due to decreasing capital employed in
the year 2003. Overall ROCE has remained around 26%.

39
• Components of ROE

Components of ROE

40
33 31.75
30
26
Ratio

23 21.2 23
20 20.9
17.63
13.7
10 10.4 8.92
7.36
0 1.85 1.9 1.21 1.89
2001 2002 2003 2004
PBDIT/CE 23 26 33 23
PAT/PBDIT 17.63 20.9 21.2 31.75
CE/Net Worth 1.85 1.9 1.21 1.89
ROE 7.36 10.4 8.92 13.7

Year

Interpretation
The trend in CE/Net Worth has remained steady over the years except during
2003 where the CE/Net Worth ratio has declined. This can be attributed to an
increase in Net Worth and a decrease in the Capital Employed. PAT/PBDIT
showing an increasing trend, this can be attributed to the declining taxes over the
years. PBDIT/CE ratio has increased in 2003 because of decrease in capital
employed and decreased in 2004 due to increase in capital employed. ROE has
increased due to an increase in PAT.

40
• ROCE v/s ROE

ROCE v/s ROE

40
33
30
26
Ratio

23 23
20
13.7
10 10.4 8.92
7.36
0
2001 2002 2003 2004
ROCE 23 26 33 23
ROE 7.36 10.4 8.92 13.7
Year

Interpretation

ROCE and ROE have shown an increasing trend up to year 2002, but after that
in the year 2003 it is showing an opposite trend. This is due to an increase in Net
worth and decrease in capital employed. Again, in 2004 there is an opposite
trend in both ROCE and ROE because of increase in capital employed.

41
Common Size Statement of P & L Statement of GCMMF

2001 2002 2003 2004

Total Income 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

EXPENDITURE:
Raw Materials 92.09 90.92 91.08 74.77
Power & Fuel Cost 0.57 0.66 0.71 0.50
Employee Cost 0.84 0.96 0.95 0.86
Other Manufacturing Expenses 1.03 1.31 1.58 17.91
Selling and Administration Expenses 3.89 4.07 4.22 0.81
Miscellaneous Expenses 0.16 0.41 0.11 3.85
Less: Pre-operative Expenses Capitalised 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Total Expenditure 98.59 98.33 98.65 98.71

Operating Profit 1.41 1.67 1.35 1.29


Interest 0.37 0.36 0.24 0.08
Gross Profit 1.04 1.31 1.11 1.21
Depreciation 0.73 0.83 0.72 0.61
Profit Before Tax 0.31 0.49 0.39 0.59
Tax 0.06 0.14 0.11 0.18
Deferred Tax 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Reported Net Profit 0.25 0.35 0.29 0.41
Extraordinary Items 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Adjusted Net Profit 0.25 0.35 0.29 0.41

Adjst. below Net Profit 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

42
P & L Balance brought forward 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Statutory Appropriations 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Appropriations 0.25 0.35 0.29 0.41
P & L Balance carried down 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Dividend 0.18 0.17 0.19 0.14


Preference Dividend 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Equity Dividend % 0.59 0.58 0.51 0.36

Interpretation

Up to 2003 raw material cost has remained steady, but in 2004 it has declined by
18%. Selling and Administrative expenses have also shown a declining trend
such that in 2004 it is showing only a nominal part of total expenditure. Even
though there is a decline in the above-mentioned expenditures, the total
expenditure has almost remained constant. This is due to a drastic increase of
1033% in other manufacturing expenses. Operating profit is showing a declining
trend since 2002.

Common Size Statement of Balance sheet of GCMMF

2001 2002 2003 2004


SOURCES OF FUNDS:
Share Capital 23.63 22.31 40.62 25.20
Reserves Total 30.55 30.32 42.32 27.60
Total Shareholders Funds 54.18 52.64 82.94 52.80
Secured Loans 45.82 47.36 17.06 4.65
Unsecured Loans 0.00 0.00 0.00 42.55
Total Debt 45.82 47.36 17.06 47.20

43
Total Liabilities 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

APPLICATION OF FUNDS:
Gross Block 154.14 167.74 248.28 171.55
Less : Accumulated Depreciation 83.73 92.89 145.19 101.20
Net Block 70.41 74.85 103.10 70.35
Lease Adjustment 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Capital Work in Progress 11.76 3.60 2.15 0.00
Investments 0.26 0.25 0.34 0.21
Current Assets, Loans & Advances
Inventories 123.18 139.46 203.27 79.91
Sundry Debtors 19.40 21.84 32.71 12.28
Cash and Bank 62.36 62.54 74.11 42.34
Loans and Advances 6.87 10.13 17.64 40.26
Total Current Assets 211.81 233.97 327.72 174.80
Less : Current Liabilities and
Provisions
Current Liabilities 193.31 207.72 325.27 124.08
Provisions 4.67 4.95 8.03 18.67
Total Current Liabilities 197.98 212.67 333.31 142.74
Net Current Assets 13.82 21.30 -5.58 32.05
Miscellaneous Expenses not written off 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Deferred Tax Assets 3.75 0.00 0.00 1.20
Deferred Tax Liability 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.80
Net Deferred Tax 3.75 0.00 0.00 -2.61

Total Assets 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00

Contingent Liabilities 302.18 263.26 204.48 10.89

44
Interpretation

The proportion of debt in total liabilities has increased from 17.06% in 2003 to
47.20% in 2004. Total Shareholders funds have decreased from 82.94% in 2003
to 52.80% in 2004.

Assets have reduced by around 30% in the year 2004; this may be due the sale
of assets. Current assets have reduced as compared to 2003. Working capital
was negative in 2003 and in 2004 there has been a considerable improvement of
around 670%. Also, contingent liabilities have reduced to a great extent, which is
a positive sign.

Cash Flow Analysis of GCMMF

Rs. In crore
2004 2003
Cash Flow Summary
Cash and Cash Equivalents at Beginning of the
84.08 79.18
year
Net Cash from Operating Activities 50.41 29.5
Net Cash Used in Investing Activities -13.95 -17.39
Net Cash Used in Financing Activities -47.56 -7.21
Net Inc/(Dec) in Cash and Cash Equivalent -11.1 4.9
Cash and Cash Equivalents at End of the year 72.98 84.08

Interpretation

45
Gains from operating activities have increased 70.44% in 2004. Uses of cash in
investment activities have decreased 19% in 2004. There has been whopping
increase in financing activities that is at 559% in 2004.

Thus there has been a decrease 13% in cash in 2004 from 2003.

46
Chapter 6

Human Resource Function

Introduction
The success to any industrial unit depends upon their effective personnel
department. Personnel department is basically commercial with human resource
of an enterprise and it also continues procurement, development, non-monetary
comparison, integration and maintenance of the personnel purpose of
contribution towards the accomplishment of the organization’s major goal and
objectives. Personnel management in opinion of many authors is true
management. So sometimes it is told that management means to manage
human behaviour. Personnel management is that phase of management, which
deals with the effective control of use of manpower as distinguished from other
source of power.

The management includes all aspects of works such as recruitment, selection,


medical checkups, various types of training, transfer, welfare activities, union
activities, etc.

Recruitment

Recruitment forms the first stage in the process which continues with selection
and cased with the placement of the candidate recruitment makes it possible to
acquire the number and types of people necessary to ensure to continues
operation of the organization requirement has, been regarded as the most
important function of personnel administration.

Amul’s recruitment and selection process is very systematic and comprehensive.


All division head in inform about their manpower requirements. According to the
requirement of the personnel division they get require employees by resources

47
like postal services employment exchange education institution and
advertisement.

Amul Dairy receives lots of applications in response to their advertisement.


These forms contain general information about the candidates. Then forms are
to be checked by authorized person and after scrutinizing eliminates the
unqualified applications. Short listed Applicants are called for personal interview.
Interview committee conducts this interview. When applicants are too many, then
they conduct a written test. Those who pass this test are called for interview and
are selected on the basis of smart selection process.

Sources of Recruitment

• By giving advertisement in news papers


• Labour Union
• Voluntary Organisation
• Leasing Contract
• Private Employment Agency
• Government Employment Exchange
• School, Colleges, Universities and Professional Institutes
• Recommendation of present Employee
• Recruitment as Temporary Workers

Selection

Selection process is concerned with screening relevant information about an


applicant. The objective of selection process is to determine whether an applicant
meets the qualification for a specific job and to choose the applicant who is most
likely to perform well in that job.

Training & Development

48
Training and management development are the two separate things. Training is
required for persons working at operation level and it is required for increasing
the knowledge and skills of employees so that they can perform their tasks in the
best manner while management development refers to the activities that take
place in order to improve the performance of the managerial level personnel.
Training and management development contribute a lot in increasing the
productivity. To facilitate newly selected person at operation level, he is placed at
the work under supervision of a senior worker who gives guidance and
instructions about the particular work. For the managerial level personnel, they
select only those people who are having an experience of at least three years in
similar fields. Then a newly selected person’s performance is observed for three
months.

Promotion & Transfer Policy

Promotion
Two main policies followed by the organisation are:
• Automatic promotion
• Merit cum seniority
During the period of 1972, promotion was given automatically to a person who
had completed his 6 yrs and 2nd promotion was given after 7 yrs. At that time
they had a policy of rewarding merit on the basis of seniority. But now it is solely
based on merit. Managing Director signs the promotion order after the
recommendation by the personnel & Administration department.

Transfer
Transfer is the pre-relative right of the management. Transfer is done if it is
necessary for the organization. Transfer is generally affected to build up a more
satisfactory work team & to achieve a specific purpose. In this organisation

49
transfer takes place in flash season. Transfers are also to adjust the work forces
of one plant with another.

Wage & Salary Administration


Attendance is considered to be one of the major & important factors responsible
for the Wage & Salary Administration.

At present catalogue record is received from the time keeping office and is
maintained in the register, which is known as master roll. Timekeeper sends this
master roll to the accounts department. Attendance of each & every employee is
analyzed & entered into the computer. The record is scrutinized and a statutory
and non-statutory deduction is made and then after salary is calculated for each
employee.

The wages are paid in cash & also credited in corporate salary a/c. Employee
wages are deducted according to grades of workers. It consists of A, B, C, D, E,
and F grade of workers.

Job Description
Job Description is an important document, which is basically descriptive in nature
and contains a statement of job analysis. It defines the scope of job activities i.e.
major responsibilities & positioning of job in organization. It provides the worker
and supervisor with a clear idea of what kind of work they need to do to meet the
demands of the job. Here those who are at senior Level make job description
regarding managerial position.

50
Chapter 7

SWOT Analysis

Strengths

• Demand profile: Absolutely optimistic. Milk being a necessity product, the


demand will stay and the sales at GCMMF are bound to increase over a period of
time.
• Margins: Quite reasonable, even on packed liquid milk. The margins are
enough to limit the entry of potential entrants.
• Flexibility of product mix: Tremendous. With balancing equipment, GCMMF
has kept adding a wide array of products to its product line.
• Availability of raw material: Abundant. Presently, more than 80 per cent of
milk produced is flowing into the unorganized sector, which requires proper
channelization. Amul & GCMMF have leveraged this and has got itself a strong
base of suppliers who provide them milk throughout the year. Large number of
dairy plants in public and cooperative sectors besides several others coming up
in the private sector would result in competition. Because of this the end
consumer would benefit and a good product mix would emerge.
• Technical manpower: Professionally trained, technical human resource
pool, built over last 30 years is the strength that GCMMF has. The employees of
GCCMF are highly recognized in the industry and have earned name for
themselves as well as the federation.
• Enhanced Milk Production: Increase in the milk production with
consequently increased availability of milk processing has led to increase in
consumption and faster access to the consumers through effective distribution.
The technology is brought from Denmark and the production of milk has
benefited from that.
• Transportation: The transportation facilities and the easy availability of the
special trucks have provided a boost. Cold refrigerated trucks are there in place

51
and the warehouses also have the cold storage facilities that facilitate the
transportation.
• Vast resources: Country has vast natural resources which offer immense
potential growth and development for dairying. Moreover the financial resources
available with the federation are immense and the reputation is such that in case
of any further requirements, it can approach any institution and raise any form of
capital.
• Increasing purchase power and changing tastes of the consumers: The
purchasing power of the residents is increasing. As a result a lot of products are
being consumed. Moreover, the consuming habits are changing. As a result, the
demand for products such as butter and cheese is increasing at a very rapid rate.

Weaknesses
• Perishability: Pasteurization has overcome this weakness partially. UHT
gives milk long life. Still perishability is there at the milk vendors end. This does
result in loss of some production. But Amul Dairy is taking steps to store milk at
the vendors end. Surely, many new processes will follow to improve milk quality
and extend its shelf life.

• Lack of control over yield: Theoretically, there is little control over milk yield.
A lot depends upon the monsoon in the country. This is because of the quality of
cattle feed that would be available will not have the required nutritional content.
Steps are taken to provide awareness regarding these and the penetration of
quality feed is being increased. Moreover, increased awareness of developments
like embryo transplant, artificial insemination and properly managed animal
husbandry practices, coupled with higher income to rural milk producers should
automatically lead to improvement in milk yields.
• Logistics of procurement: Woes of bad roads and inadequate
transportation facility make milk procurement problematic. All these factors lead
to perishability of the procured milk. But with the overall economic improvement
in India, these problems would also get solved.

52
• Erratic power supply: The erratic power supply would cause harm in the
processing of milk.
• Underdeveloped systems: There still exist underdeveloped raw milk
collection systems in some parts of the country. However steps are being taken
such as setting up of cold storage points at key collection centers to combat the
situation.
• Lack of proper implementation: Dairy development programmes have not
been fully implemented as per the needs of the region in different agro-climatic
zones.
• Infrastructure: The infrastructure that is available is not up to the current
world standards. Also lack of infrastructure for offering dairy business
management programmes to the trained personnel is creating a hindrance.

Opportunities

"Failure is never final, and success never ending”. Dr Kurien bears out this
statement perfectly. He entered the industry when there were only threats. He
met failure head-on, and now he clearly is an example of ‘never ending success’!
If dairy entrepreneurs are looking for opportunities in India, the following areas
must be tapped:

• Competition: With so many newcomers entering this industry, competition is


becoming tougher day by day. But then competition has to be faced as a ground
reality. The market is large enough for many to carve out their niche. Moreover
due to competition, there is a chance to better serve the market with innovative
products.

• Value addition: There is a phenomenal scope for innovations in product


development, packaging and presentation. Given below are potential areas of
value addition:
o Steps should be taken to introduce value-added products like shrikhand,
ice creams, paneer, khoa, flavored milk, dairy sweets, etc. This will lead to

53
a greater presence and flexibility in the market place along with
opportunities in the field of brand building.
o Addition of cultured products like yoghurt and cheese lend further strength
- both in terms of utilization of resources and presence in the market
place.
o Yet another aspect can be the addition of infant foods, geriatric foods and
nutritional.
• Export potential: Efforts to exploit export potential are already on. Amul is
exporting to Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nigeria, and the Middle East. Following the
new GATT treaty, opportunities will increase tremendously for the export of agri-
products in general and dairy products in particular. There is a strong basis of
cost efficiency, which GCMMF can leverage in the world market.
• Markets: The market for the traditional as wells as processed dairy products
is expanding both at the domestic and international front.
• IT support: Software is now available for project formulation for dairy
enterprise. It has also computerized its production processes. Mother Dairy was
the first fully computerized dairy in India. In its Anand plant all products are
processed computerized, which does not have any hand touch during any stage
of process.

Threats

• Milk vendors, the un-organized sector: Today milk vendors are occupying
the pride of place in the industry. Organized dissemination of information about
the harm that they are doing to producers and consumers should see a steady
decline in their importance.
• Infestation: There are increasing incidents of chemical contaminants as well
as residual antibiotics in milk.
• Quality: The quality of the milk is found to be poor as compared to the
international standards. One of the reasons for these according to the EU and
America is the method of milching the milk. In these nations the milk is hands by

54
the farmers owning the cattle do milched with the help of machines, while in
India.
• Exploitation: The liberalization of the Dairy Industry is likely to be exploited
by the multinationals. They will be interested manufacturing the milk products,
which yield high profits. It will create milk shortage in the country adversely
affecting the consumers.
• Subsidy by Western Nations: There have been incidences wherein the
Western nations subsidizing the dairy products by a few means like
transportation. Because of such reasons the final price of the product goes below
the prices prevailing in the Indian Market. Hence it proves a threat to GCMMF’s
and other Indian dairy products.
• Creation of Non Tariff Barriers by Developed Nations: The Developed
Nations have created Non Tariff Barriers related to Quality of the milk specifically.
They want that the milk be processed with potable Air and Water. They also want
that the milching of cattle be done with the help of machines. However this type if
system is yet to evolve in India. Because of these reasons they are reducing the
market potential of Indian made products, where GCMMF holds a lions share.

The study of this SWOT analysis shows that the ‘strengths’ and ‘opportunities’ far
outweigh ‘weaknesses’ and ‘threats’. Strengths and opportunities are
fundamental and weaknesses and threats are transitory. Any investment idea
can do well only when you have three essential ingredients: entrepreneurship
(the ability to take risks), innovative approach (in product lines and marketing)
and values (of quality/ethics).

55
Chapter 8
Michael Porter’s Five-Force Analysis

• According to Porter (1980) a firm must be analyzed in relation to its industry.


Factors outside the industry tend to influence all the industry’s firms in the same
way and are thus not as important to study.

• To a large extent, industry structure governs the strategies open to the firms.
The profitability and attractiveness of an industry is dependent of the level of
competition. Competition in an industry originates from industry structure and
goes well beyond the behavior of individual competitors.

• According to Porter, each industry has a potential profitability and the profitability
for the firms is dependent on the competitive forces in the industry. Porter
identifies five competitive forces that derive from the ambition to obtain as large
share of the profitability as possible. The five forces are the foundation of the
five-force model.

Porter’s Five-Force Model

• The major competitors of the Amul dairy include:

Milk Gayatri

Royal

Sardar
Uttam
Shreshtha

Ice Crean Vadilal

Havmor

56
Kwality Walls Max
Local & Regional players

Ghee Gayatri
Nestle

Milk Powder Nestle

Chocolate Nestle

Cadbury

The success of the national and local competitor’s brands includes effective
distribution system, advertising, good pricing policy etc. The factors ascribed by
porter are:

• Threats of new entrants


• Bargaining power of suppliers
• Bargaining power of buyers
• Rivalry among competitors
• Threats from substitutes

These factors can be explained in context to GCMMF as below:

Threats of New Entrants

 Economies of Scale: GCMMF enjoys economies of scale, which is


difficult to match by any other competitor. It is because of this reason that
no regional competitor has grown to a national level.
 Cost and Resource advantages: Amul dairy is co-operative society.
That means “cooperation among competitive” is the fundamental principle.
Amul dairy is managed under the norms of GCMMF and market the

57
products under the brand name ‘Amul’, which has a very good reputation
at domestic and international level. Here, the raw material procurement is
very difficult for the new entrants. Consequently Capital requirement is
also high. Still new entrants are emerging such as domestic and
international players. So the threats of new entrants are moderate.
 Brand Preferences and Consumer Loyalty: There is an immense
level of Brand Preference of Amul in the minds of the people. The level of
preference specifically in the liquid milk sector is that they would go to
other retailer if the retailer does not have milk.
 Access to Distribution Channels: The distribution channel of
GCMMF is a very planned and perfect one. For any new entrant to enter it
would be a very difficult task. For GCMMF the result is years of hard work
and its investment in its employees as well as at different levels in the
distribution network.
 Inability to match the technology and specialized know-how of
firms already in the industry: The technology used by Amul is imported
from Denmark. It is a state of art technology. To get this technology in
India, a firm would require a huge amount of resources.
 Capital Requirements: The total investment required in the industry is
huge and is a decision worth considering even for MNC’s. The investment
decisions cover the processing costs as well as the marketing costs. To
compete with the brand Amul in India is difficult as Amul is synonymous to
Quality.

Bargaining power of supplier

 The objective of Amul dairy is not profiting. As it is a part of co-


operative society, it runs for the benefit of farmers those are the suppliers
of milk and users of milk products. According the concept of the
cooperative society supplier has bargaining power to have a good return
on his or her supply. However, supplier has limited rights to bargain with
the cooperative society because it is made and run for the sake of mass

58
and not for individual benefit. But it is made sure that the supplier gets his
fair share of return.
 There is appropriate bargaining power of the supplier. In olden days
there were not any kind of cooperative societies as the farmer was
exploited. But, nowadays the farmer’s rights are protected under the
cooperative rules and regulations, which ultimately results in moderate
power of bargaining from the supplier.

Bargaining power of buyers

 Cost of switching to competitor brands: The switching of brands is


seen very much in products such as ice cream, curd, milk powders, milk
additives etc. but it can be seen comparatively less in liquid milk category.
Even if the buyers shift to the other brands of milk, the value that they get
is less than they would get from consuming Amul.
 Large no. of buyers: Milk is a necessity product and hence is a mass
product. It has a considerable share of the rupee spent by any Indian.
Moreover the buyers are spread evenly over the country and do not have
any bargaining power.

Rivalry among competitors

 Demand for the product: The demand of the products of GCMMF is


increasing at a very healthy rate. To stand against the rivalry GCMMF is
coming with a wide range of products.

 Nature of Competitors: In different business category GCMMF faces


competition from different players. In the Milk powder category it faces
competition from Cadbury & Nestle, in the chocolate category also I faces
competition from Cadbury & Nestle. While in the ice cream market it faces
competition from Kwality Walls Max and Havmor. In butter and chesses it

59
faces competition from Britannia. Moreover in almost all categories there
is presence of local retailers and processors and milk vendors. Rivalry
intensifies as each of the competitors has different lines and this would in
turn depend on the importance the line holds for the competitor.

 Mergers and Acquisitions: As such in the industry there are no


mergers or acquisitions. However if any MNC wishes to enter through this
route then the competition might be severe.

Threats Of Substitute

 Availability of attractive priced substitutes: Different substitutes are


available for different category of products. There is ample availability of
low priced substitutes from local vendors and retailers. This is a front
where GCMMF is still finding hard to combat.

 Satisfaction level of substitutes: Customers do consider these


products as equal on quality if not better then the products of GCMMF.
Hence the rate of customers switching to the substitutes is very high.
Moreover the buyers also can switch to the customers easily without any
hurdles.

 Not immediate substitutes: Distant substitutes are present in many


of the categories of business of GCMMF. For example in the Masti
Buttermilk category it faces competition from cold drinks and ice cream.

These 5 forces interact among themselves at different degrees over a period of


time. Moreover it will get intense or loosen up depending upon the moves of its
competitors, buyers, suppliers, etc. However GCMMF has been able to
outperform on almost all fronts excluding a few lines of business.

60
61
Chapter 9
Future Plans

• To achieve and maintain competitive advantage, innovation in product design


and delivery are increasingly essential.
• To innovate at each stage in value chain – production, procurement,
processing, marketing and branding.
• To devise more effective ways of attracting and retaining skilled human
resources.
• To provide them an adequately self-motivating work environment that draws
the best out of them on a sustained basis.
• The ‘Dairy Demonstration Project’ is a collective effort of the Union and Bank.
The project envisages encouraging the farmers to use high yielding animals and
modern aids to increase production. The union will provide necessary guidance
to the milk producers on various techniques and required financial support will be
forthcoming with the co-participation of Bank. To illustrate and bring about better
understanding of the project, a “model farm” is being set up at Mogar and Khatraj
to impart training to the participants.
• “Suvarna Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana” helps its beneficiaries to avail loan
from the bank with the Government approval. Under this scheme a marginal
producer intending to avail the benefits, is allocated an amount adequate for
purchase of 2 milch animals along with required other implements on a soft loan
basis. This scheme not only help enhance the productivity and living standards of
subscribing producers, the union in turn will also be benefited by the way of
enlarged membership and increased milk procurement.

Future Challenges

The organization may face the following challenges in the future:

• Global demands and changes.


• Foreign affiliations.

62
• Competition.
• Liberalisation.
• Changing values.
• Urban shifting.
• Changing interests.
• Adoption of latest technology.
• Production according to international standards with foremost quality.
• Increase need for R&D.
• To keep the prices steady and reduce production and maintenance expenses.
• To enhance milk production by adopting better animal husbandry practices
and improving calf rearing practices in order to assure a stand in international
market in the foreseeable future.
• Expansion and upgrading of plant and equipment to meet increasing
demanded for quality and quantity with the help of better-qualified personnel.
• Rapid increase in productivity while respecting the basic man and animal
dynamic i.e., to control dairy and agriculture development in India.
• Development of new markets and expansion of old ones replacing additional
system with quality packaged milk products and vegetable.
• Creating a national information network to ensure that accurate timely
information is available to all who need it.
These are some of the challenges, which the organisation foresees and requires
coping up with.

63
Chapter 10
Conclusion

Amul means different things to different people.

To a milk producer – A life enriching experience


To a consumer – Assurance of having wholesome milk
To a mother – A reliable source of nourishment for her child
To the country – Rural development and self reliance

Amul has given a new dimension to marketing. It showed that a democratically


owned and managed farmer organisation can successfully develop national
market, but by doing this Amul provided virtually guaranteed marketing service to
the milk producer at his door step. Amul has displayed dynamic initiative at a
time when its multinational competitors were merely content to use depreciated
machinery.

Following factors have given us the insight to conclude, why Amul is thriving with
success today:
• Emphasis on Quality: All the products of Amul are of highest grade.
Consumers were very quick to perceive this and the sales success that followed
reflected the public’s stamp of approval.
• Modern marketing: A good product alone cannot succeed unless backed by
innovative marketing, including packaging, price and promotion. Amul’s
advertising campaigns created a splash in the market that eventually led to a
tidal wave that rocked the competition.
• Management: The judicious handling of people, recognition of performance
and encouragement for a good try has gone a long way to build a sound
foundation of people. All the basic components of management that is
production, marketing, finance and organisation behavior are nicely arrayed at
Amul.

64
• The co-operative concept: The fundamental thesis underlying the Anand
model is that the rural producer must own and enjoy the assets they have helped
to create. The model has inspired the creation of hundreds of other Anand.

The system has succeeded mainly because of involvement of people on such a


large scale, providing assured market at remunerated prices for milk producers,
enables the consumers access to high quality milk and milk products, ploughing
back the profit to the members, part of the profit is used by the society for
common good and community development.

Amul is doing everything in the best possible manner. Just look at its product
quality, packaging, advertising and nation wide marketing network. This has
given Amul an edge over its competitors.

65
BIBLIOGRAPHY

• Johnson Gerry, Scholes Kevan; “Exploring Corporate Strategy-Text and


Cases”, Sixth Edition, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. 2004, pp 100-102,134,183.
• Thompson Arthur A. Jr., Strickland J. A. III; “Strategic Management-Concepts
and Cases”, Thirteenth Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd. 2003, pp
117, 123 –127.
• Patel, Rameshbhai P., “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’
Union Ltd. Anand, 50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• Dr. Kurien., “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd.
Anand, 50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• Carter, Thomas R., “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’
Union Ltd. Anand, 50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• Patel, T. K., “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd.
Anand, 50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• Gowda, Shri Deve, “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’
Union Ltd. Anand, 50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• Halse, Michael, “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union
Ltd. Anand, 50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• Baxi, J. J. “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd.
Anand, 50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• Singh, Katar, Mittal, S. P., Singh Virendra, “Amul, The Kaira District
Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd. Anand, 50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• Dr. Oza, D. R., “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union
Ltd. Anand, 50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• Thodarson, Bruce, “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’
Union Ltd. Anand, 50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• Singh, Katar, “Amul, The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union
Ltd. Anand, 50 Years of Milk & Health.”
• GCMMF, 30th Annual Report 2003 –2004.

66
• The Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers’ Union Ltd. Anand, 58th Annual
Report 2003 –2004.

Website Visited
• www.amul.coop
• www.indiadairy.com
• www.indianmilkproducts.com

67
Annexure
Annexure I - Profit & loss account of GCMMF ltd.

Particulars Mar 1999 Mar 2000 Mar 2001 Mar 2002 Mar 2003 Mar 2004
Rs. Crore (Non-
Annualised) 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths
-
Income
Operating income 1818.59 1909.15 1983.28 2057.5 2362.46 2833.78
Other income 2.46 2.54 3.8 4.69 3.98 4.3
Change in stocks -20.7 26.91 44.84 29.03 13.44 -72.19
Non-recurring income 1.86 1.34 1.3 0.48 1 0.88
-
Expenditure
Operating expenses 240.69 295.46 345.98 395.01 472.61 489.78
Purchase of finished
goods 1453.3 1518.71 1544.21 1521.02 1715.58 2068.72
Energy (power & fuel) 0 9.36 11.61 12.72 15.63 13.96
Salaries & wages 11.32 13.36 17.15 20.18 22.64 23.85
VRS expenses 0 0 0 0 0 0
Indirect taxes 0.71 9.94 8.62 18.04 22.34 22.34
Other expenses 60.93 64.59 76.64 89.92 99.72 111.68
Less: expenses
capitalized 0 0 0 0 0 0
Non-recurring
expenses 0.07 0 0.3 0.09 0.29 0.72
-
Profits / losses
PBDIT 35.19 28.52 28.71 34.72 32.07 35.72
Financial charges 6.8 7.01 7.53 7.44 5.7 2.26
PBDT 28.39 21.51 21.18 27.28 26.37 33.46
Depreciation 13.88 14.42 14.86 17.18 17.07 17.01
PBT 14.51 7.09 6.32 10.1 9.3 16.45
Tax provision 1.5 1.3 1.25 2.85 2.5 5.11
PAT 13.01 5.79 5.07 7.25 6.8 11.34
-
Appropriation of
profits
Dividends 3 3.6 3.6 3.6 4.5 4
Retained earnings 10.01 2.19 1.47 3.65 2.3 7.34

68
69
Annexure II - Assets of Gujarat Co-Op. Milk Mktg. Federation Ltd.

70
Particulars Mar 1999 Mar 2000 Mar 2001 Mar 2002 Mar 2003 Mar 2004
Rs. Crore (Non-
Annualised) 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths
-
Gross fixed assets 160.98 183.59 210.64 230.37 246.63 272.32
Land & building 22.77 23.61 28.2 34.16 35.65 37.24
Plant & machinery 124.52 135.53 151.94 174.3 190.03 207.82
Other fixed assets 13.37 14.45 15.57 17.07 18.83 20.58
Capital WIP 0.32 10 14.93 4.84 2.12 6.68
Less: cumulative
depreciation 73.39 89.81 106.31 124.89 142.97 160.65
Net fixed assets 87.59 93.78 104.33 105.48 103.66 111.67

Investments 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33


In group / associate cos. 0 0 0 0.09 0.09 0.09
In mutual funds 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other investments 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.24 0.24 0.24
-
Marketable investment 0.09 0 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09
In group / associate cos. 0 0 0 0.09 0.09 0.09
Quoted investment 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09
Market value of quoted
investment 0 0 2.18 0 3.42 7.47
-
Deferred tax assets 0 0 0 0 0 1.9
-
Inventories 83.7 111.49 156.4 187.52 200.16 126.85
Raw materials and
stores 4.82 5.85 5.92 8.01 7.21 6.09
Finished and semi-
finished goods 78.88 105.64 150.48 179.51 192.95 120.76
Stock of traded /
finished goods 78.18 104.79 148.91 178.51 191.82 119.97
-
Receivables 27.05 40.85 49.83 57.56 66.66 83.41
Sundry debtors 8.28 18.04 24.63 29.36 32.21 19.5
Debtors exceeding six
months 0.25 0.05 0.46 2.21 1.51 0.65
Accrued income 0 0.21 0.41 1.37 2.51 0.09
Advances / loans to
corporate bodies 0 0 0 0 0 0
Group / associate
cos. 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other cos. 0 0 0 0 0 0
Deposits with govt. /
agencies 0.21 4.91 5.64 0.68 0.62 0.59
Advance payment of tax 11.41 12.71 14.81 16.42 21.25 23.55
Other receivables 7.15 4.98 4.34 9.73 10.07 39.68
-
Cash & bank balance 57.11 82.84 79.18 84.08 72.98 67.21
71
Cash in hand 21.33 44.51 34.8 37.47 36.28 26.84
Bank balance 35.78 38.33 44.38 46.61 36.7 40.37
Total assets 255.78 329.29 390.07 434.97 443.79 391.37
72
Annexure III – Liabilities of Gujarat Co-Op. Milk Mktg. Federation Ltd.

Mar
Particulars 1999 Mar 2000 Mar 2001 Mar 2002 Mar 2003 Mar 2004
Rs. Crore (Non-
Annualised) 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths
-
Net worth 69.36 69.23 68.78 70.77 81.68 83.81
Authorised capital 50 50 50 50 50 50
Issued equity capital 20 30 30 30 40 40
Paid-up equity capital 20 30 30 30 40 40
Bonus equity capital 0 10 10 0 10 10
-
Reserves & surplus 49.36 39.23 38.78 40.77 41.68 43.81
Free reserves 34.07 26.23 27.67 15.22 15.8 17.27
Other free reserves 34.07 26.23 27.67 15.22 15.8 17.27
Specific reserves 15.29 13 11.11 25.55 25.88 26.54
-
Borrowings 60.75 63.62 58.18 63.68 153.7 74.93
Bank borrowings 5.24 8.27 4.43 12.16 153.7 74.93
Short term bank
borrowings 5.24 8.27 4.43 12.16 153.7 74.93
Govt. / sales tax
deferral borrowings 55.51 55.35 53.75 51.52 0 0
-
Secured borrowings 60.75 63.62 58.18 63.68 16.8 7.38
Unsecured borrowings 0 0 0 0 136.9 67.55
-
Deferred tax liabilities 0 0 0 0 0 6.04
-
Current liabilities &
provisions 125.67 196.44 263.11 300.52 208.41 226.59
Current liabilities 113.46 182.34 245.64 279.29 183.42 196.96
Sundry creditors 68.11 148.43 206.06 244.75 138.95 136.49
Interest accrued /
due 0 0 0 0 0 0
Creditors for capital
goods 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other current
liabilities 45.35 33.91 39.58 34.54 44.47 60.47
Share application
money 0 0 0 0 0 0
Advance against
wip 0 0 0 0 0 0

73
Provisions 12.21 14.1 17.47 21.23 24.99 29.63
Tax provision 9.18 10.48 11.73 14.58 17.08 22.08
Dividend provision 3 3.6 3.6 3.6 4.5 4
Dividend tax
provision 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other provisions 0.03 0.02 2.14 3.05 3.41 3.55
Total liabilities 255.78 329.29 390.07 434.97 443.79 391.37
Contingent liabilities
Disputed taxes 1.84 1.98 5.14 4.63 6.73 3.16
Total guarantees 291.57 340.83 377.59 348.4 193.6 14.12
Liabilities on capital
account 2.67 25.38 11.43 7.99 4.02 2.31

74

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