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TAYLOR AND MACLAURIN SERIES.

Deﬁnition. If f has a power series representation at a that is, if

f(x) =

n=0

c n (x a) n

for

|x a| < R

then its coeﬃcient are given by formula

c n = f (n) (a) n!

.

Deﬁnition. The power series of the form

f(x) =

is called the Taylor Series.

n=0

f (n) (a)

n!

(x a) n

Deﬁnition. The particular case of the Taylor series for a = 0 is called the Maclaurin series.

f(x) =

n=0

f (n) (0)

n! x n

Theorem. If f (x) = T n (x)+R n (x) where T n is the nth-degree Taylor poly- nomial of f at a and

n R n (x) = 0

lim

for |x a| < R then f is equal to the sum of its Taylor series on the interval |x a| < R.

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TAYLOR AND MACLAURIN SERIES.

Theorem. (Taylors inequality) If |f (n+1) (x)| ≤ M for all |x a|R then the remainder R n (x) of the Taylor series satisﬁes the inequality

|R n (x)

M

1)! |x a| n+1

(n +

for

|x a| < R

(1)

Example 1. Find the Maclaurin series for the function f (x) = sin 2 (x). Solution. Note that sin 2 (x) = 1 2 (1 cos(2x)). Hence

1

1

sin 2 (x) = 2 (1cos(2x)) = 2 (1

n=0

(1) n (2x) 2n

2n!

)

= 1

2

n=1

(1) n (2x) 2n

2n!

=

n=1

(1) n+1 2 2n1 x 2n

2n!

Example 2. Evaluate the indeﬁnite integral sin(x 2 )dx as inﬁnite series. Solution. Note that

sin(x 2 )dx =

n=1

(1) n+1 2 2n1 x 2n

2n!

dx = C +

n=1

(1) n+1 2 2n1 x 2n+1

2n!(2n + 1)

Example 3. Find the Maclaurin series for the function f (x) = cos(x 3 ).

Solution.We set y = x 3 . Then f (x) = cos(x 3 ) = cos(y) =

. Example 4. Find the Maclaurin series for the function f (x) = xe x .

Solution. Note that e x =

(1) n y 2n

n=0

2n!

(1) n x 6n

n=0

2n!

n=0

(1) n x n n!

Therefore

xe x = x

n=0

(1) n x n

n!

=

n=0

(1) n x n+1

n!

.

Example 5. Find the limit lim x0 1cos(x)

1+xe x .

=

Solution. We decompose the functions cos(x) and e x using the Taylor’s polynomials:

cos(x) = 1 x 2

2

+

R 3 (x),

e x = 1 + x + x 2 2

+

˜

R 2 (x).

By formula (1) we have the estimates

4

|R 3 (x)| ≤ x 6 , | R 3 (x)| ≤

˜

e

2 |x| 3 x [1, 1].

TAYLOR AND MACLAURIN SERIES.

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Hence

lim

x0

1 cos(x) x = lim 1 + x e

x0

x

2

R 3 (x)

2 +

˜

x

2

2 +

R 2

(x) = 1.

Example 6. Find the limit lim x0 sin(x)x+ x 3

6

.

x 5

Solution.

sin(x) = x x 3

6

+ x

5

5! + R 6 (x),

Therefore

lim

x0

sin(x) x + x 3

6

x

5

= lim

x0

x x 3 + x 5 + R 6 (x) x +

6

5!

x 3

6

x

5

= lim

x0

x 5

R 6 (x)

5!

+

x

5

=

1

5! .