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OSI TCP/IP

Open System Interconnection Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

7. APPLICATION / PRIMJENA Trace-route Telnet/RLogin DNS NFS/RPC

Ping FTP SNMP


4.
6. PRESENTATION / PRIKAZ APPL. SMTP TFTP

LDAP
5. SESSION / SESIJA

3.
4. TRANSPORT / TRANSPORT TRAN. TCP UDP

2. ICMP IGMP
3. NETWORK / MREŽA NETW. IP
ARP RARP

2. DATA LINK / VEZA LLC


1.
PHY.
1. PHYSICAL / FIZIČKI MAC

Fizikalni medij

Fizički sloj Protokoli transportnog sloja

MAC – Medium Access Control (CSMA/CD, Token TCP – Transport Control Protocol
Bus, Token Ring) UDP – User Datagram Protocol
LLC – Logical Link Control

Protokoli mrežnog sloja Protokoli i usluge aplikacijskog sloja

ARP – Address Resolution Protocol FTP – File Transfer Protocol


RARP – Reverse Address Resolution Protocol SMTP – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (e-mail)
IP – Internet Protocol SNMP – Simple Network Management Protocol
ICMP – Internet Control Message Protocol LDAP – Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
IGMP – Internet Group Message Protocol RPC – Remote Procedure Call
RIP – Routing Information Protocol (prvi IGP, u NFS – Network File System
manjim mrežama) TFTP – Trivial File Transfer Protocol
OSPF – Open Shortest Path First (nasljednik RIP-a) DNS – Domain Name System
BGP – Border Gateway Protocol (EGP protokol) POP3 – Post Office Protocol (e-mail)
IDRP – Inter Domain Routing Protocol (ISO/OSI IMAP – Internet Message Access Protocol (e-mail)
protokol, koristi se IPv6) HTTP – Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
RSVP – Resource reSerVation Protocol NNTP – Network News Transfer Protocol
SSL – Secure Socket Layer
RTP – Real-Time Protocol
RTCP – Real-Time Control Protocol
MBONE – Multicasting Backvone
NTP – Network Time Protocol
TCP/IP ADRESE
7 8
A 0 Network Host 1.0.0.0 – 127.255.255.255

15 16
B 128.0.0.0 – 191.255.255.255
10 Network Host

23 24
C 192.0.0.0 – 223.255.255.255
110 Network Host

D 224.0.0.0 – 239.255.255.255
1110 Multicast Address

E 11110 rezervirano za buduće primjene 240.0.0.0 – 247.255.255.255

127.0.0.1 – Loopback (ne ide u mrežu)


HostID – sve 1 --> Broadcast
HostID – sve 0 --> taj Host

IP Header
4 bit 4 bit 8 bit
version header type of service 16 bit total length (in bytes)
length (TOS)
16 bit identification flags 13 bit fragment offset
8 bit TTL (time to live) 8 bit protocol 16 bit header checksum
32 bit source IP address
32 bit destination IP address
options (if any) padding

data (TCP or UDP header, then actual data...)

Protocol – Protokol u Data polju


Total length – duljina cijelog IP datagrama (zaglavlje + podaci)
IHL – Internet Header Length (u 32 bitnim riječima, min 5, max 15, najduže moguće zaglavlje 60 okteta )
Version – verzija IP protokola (=4)
TOS – Type Of Service (pouzdanost, prednost, kašnjenje, propusnost)
Flags – 3 bita, za fragmentaciju
Identification – koristi se u slučaju fragmentacije paketa
TTL – Time To Live (maximalni broj routera kroz koji paket može proći prije nego se odbaci iz mreže)
Header Checksum – zaštitna suma zaglavlja (ne nad podacima)
Options – sigurnost, pamćenje puta, vremena, stream ID
Data – do 64 kB
TCP Header
16 bit source port number 16 bit destination port number
32 bit sequence number
32 bit acknowledgement number
4 bit 6 bit U A P P S F
header reserved R C S S Y I 16 bit window size
length G K H T N N
16 bit TCP checksum 16 bit urgent pointer
options (if any)

data (if any)

Sequence Number – broj sekvence


Acknowledgement number – sadrži sljedeći broj sekvence koju prijemnik očekuje (ACK=SN+1)
Flags URG – koristi se urgent pointer
ACK – koristi se acknowledgement number
PSH – prijemnik treba čim prije predati ove podatke aplikaciji
PST – resetiraj konekciju
SYN – sinkroniziraj brojeve sekvenci na oba hosta, da bi se inicirala konekcija
FIN – predajnik je završio slanje paketa
Window Size – koliko je okteta prijemnik spreman primiti prije nego što dobije potvrdu da je primio neki
paket, max 65535
Urgent Pointer – pozivni offset kojega treba dodati broju sequence ovog segmenta da bi se odredio položaj
zadnjeg okteta urgentnih podataka

UDP Header
16 bit source port number 16 bit destination port number
16 bit UDP length 16 bit UDP checksum

data (if any)

Ethernet Datagram
56 bit preamble...
...preamble 8 bit SOF
48 bit ethernet destination address...
...ethernet destination address 48 bit ethernet source address...
...ethernet source address
16 bit type code

IP header, then TCP or UDP header, then data........end of data, then padding
32 bit ethernet checksum
Ethernet Header – 14 okteta, ne računamo preamble, SOF, data i checksum
Preamble – izmjenjuju se 0 i 1, služi sa sinkronizaciju
Type Code – opisuje sadržaj data polja, npr. za IP, Type Code=0x0800
Data – 46–1500 okteta, padding služi ako ima premalo podataka, treba biti neki minimalni broj data okteta
SOF – Start Of Frame