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(

G.F. (Jerry) Gilman

The information Because neither

presented the author

in this publication nor the publisher

is for the general education have any control to exercise sound application.

of the reader,

over the use of the informaprofessional judgment in

tion by the reader, both [he author using any of the information Additionally, neither

and the publisher in a particular

disclaim any and all liability of any kind

arising out of such use. The reader is expected presented

About the Author

the author

nor the publisher for reviewing presented products


a,<JY

have investigated

or considered

the effect appli-

of any patents on the abiliry of the reader to use any of the information cation. The reader is responsible particular use of the information to commer-cial belong any possible patents

in a particular

that may affect any Jerry only- Neither the or the Gilman's career has spanned over 35 years with Procter new technology & Gamble product (P&G), and its subto improving systems areas at P&G in the

Any references author author product cation. Copyright

in the work are cited as examples referenced commercial regarding product.

sidiaries. As a process control control US and foreign engineering: countries.

systems engineer

for P&G, Gilman in numerous

was dedicated

nor the publisher nor the publisher product must be followed

endorses

Any trademarks

systems and implementing One improving

trade names referenced commercial

to the respective

owner of the mark or name. Neither instructions

of his areas of expertise systems. Jerry Gilman currently

has been with boiler control

makes any representation

the availability of any referenced on use of any commercial in this publi-

efficiency, conserving

energy, and working as a primary troubleshooter

at any time. The manufacturer's

on boilers and other combustion A licensed numerous professional utility engineer,

at all times, even if in conflict

with the information

provides

training startups,

and consulting tuning,

to

and industrial expertise

planes. This

includes

performing

and troufor

2005 by

ISA - The Instrumentation, 67 Alexander Research Drive P. 0. Box 12277 Triangle

Systems, and Automation

Society

bleshooting

more than a hundred to retrofitting

boilers and combustion control existing installations

sys,ems such as dryers, roasters, and ranges from finding solutions in order to save fuel, change fuels, or

ovens, Gilman's

in fuels and combustion

new unit applications Park, NC 27709 lization to help

im-prove overall control. He has applied approaches are easy to understand is also an instructor Society) Management

his experience in combustion testing and energy utisimplify boiler performance moniroring techniques and methods. His
and use effectively and course reviewer for lSA (The Instrumentation, Systems, and

All rights reserved.


Printed in the United States of America

Jerry Gilman "ISA Burner and other stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted photocopying, recording or otherwise, in any without Jerry Gilman grarnmable Data Management

10 9 87 6 5 4 3 2 ISBN 1-55617-907-3

and Automation

and developed management,

(he "ISA Boiler Control

Systems Engineering"

Systems Engineering"

training courses. He has been a guest speaker


meetings Boller he was a technical ISA. ISA SP84 ProBurner advisor for "Win

on boiler control, burner

and boiler safety issues at various rSA section sold through

user groups and seminars. Additionally,

No part of this work may be reproduced, form or by any means, electronic, the prior written permission

Sim," a PC based boiler traini;"'g program is an active member Electronic Systems System Working

mechanical,

of the publisher.

on the following (PES) for Use

ISA Standards Committees: in Safety Applications;

lSA SP84

Library of Congress

Cataloging-in-Publication

Croup; and ISA SP77 fossil Fuel Power Plant Standards.

Gilman, G. f Gerry), Boiler control systems engineering

I G.E Gerry) Gilman.

About the Cover Illustration


The COYer graphic in the program \Xlindows-based whose interest is a representation Boiler simulation include program of the fuel g-JS, water was developed tube, forced draft boiler simulated and sold through 151'1.. he T personnel procedures air cool, allowing and tuning drum a burner Win Sim developed

pcm.
ISBN 1-55617-907-3 (pbk.) 1_Steam-boilers--Automatic control. 1. Title_ TJ288.G527200S 621.1 '94--dc22 2005010930

by Len Klochek

as a training

boiler operations,

as well as instrumentation three element/single control. element

and co nrrol maintenance level control, management allowing per-

and design, to obtain an understanding used on water flow/fuel tube boilers including: flow cross limiting, Chapter

of the various control strategies In addition,

and steam pressure of the NFPA from 5: Single Burner

system that follows the requirements Code, 2004 Edition, sonnel program to simulate

85 Boiler and Combustion drum, light-off

Systems Hazard to full load. The

Boilers, is part of the simulation filling boiler seminars

a full boiler scarwp

is used by the author

as pan of the ISA training

on boiler control.

VII

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - Boiler Fundamentals Basic Boilers . _ , .. , _ Boiler Components Furnace _ , , _ Fans, _ , Windbox __ . _ __ Flue Gas Heat Exchangers .... _ Combustion Air Preheater _. _ , Economizer _. _ . _ _. _ Superheater , , _, Boiler Drums __ __ _. _ Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P&IDs) ., _ Design Basis Check List _, . , , Chapter 2 - Control of Boilers . , Control Strategies . , ,., Burnpless Transfer _ _ Simple Feedback Control. .. , ,. Feedforward plus Feedback Control .. Cascade Control __ .. _ .. , Ratio Control _ ,......... , Feedforward Control ,. Controller Tuning , , .. Determ.ining Gain, Reset, and Derivative Gain vs. Proportional Band (PE) Controller Actions _. _ Controller Actions Setup . _ The Effects on Tuning _ Calibration Effect on Gain, . . . . . . . Transmitters , .. __ Redundancy .. , . , __ , Interlock Circuitry _ .. _. ' Final Control Elements , Chapter 3 - Furnace Draft Pressure Fired Boilers Ba1111Ced Draft Boiler Fans Furnace Pressure Control _ , _ _. , __ .. , _. , _ ,_ _ _. .

__ , _ , ,

1 , .. 1

2
2 _.. 2 _.. 2

.........
_. , _ _.. _ __ , _. . . . . . . . . . . .. _ , " .. , " .. _ _ , _ , __ _. _ , , .. , _

2 5 5
6 6 7

__ . _

_ .. 9 __ . 9 9 , 9

10 11

I
j

,i

_ 12 12 13 15 , 17 ,,., 17 . 20 __, . . . . _ 20 ' .. , .. _ , 20 _ _ .. 20 ,., , . , . _.. 21 __ .. , _21 _ , _ , _22 _23 23 24 24

,.,

_. _

,
, __

VIII
Chapter 4 - Feedwater ,, Once-Through Boilers , . , . , .. , .. , Drum Level Feedwater Control, . , . , . , , Transmitters ., ,, .. __ Shrink and Swell _ . _ , _ . __ Single Element Level Control, , Two Element Level Control .. , , _. _ Three Element Level Control , . . . _ , . ' , Control System Configuration __ , . , , , , , Summer _. _. , , , ,,,,,,. __ .. , . , , , 31 ,, , , . , , .. _ , , . , , , , . , , . 31 . , . _ , , . , . , .. , , .. , .. , _ . , .. 32 _, __ .. , , 37 , , 38 , , 40 _ , 40 , . . . . _ _ , , . , , . . . . . , _. . _ _ _ , 44 , ... __ , . , , , , .. ' _ , , 44 , , .. , , , .. , ,, , , , . 44

IX

I
, , ,

I
1 i

, , ,

Chapter 10 - Control Valve Sizing, , .. , _.. , , ,. .,',., Valve Characteristics, . , , , ' . , , , _. , , , , , . _. , , , , , .. - . , , , , , Valve Characteristic Graph, ' , , , ' . , , . , , , _ , , .. , , . , - . , . , . , , Recommended Velocities. _... , . _ , .... _ , . , . , . , , .. ' .. , , , Valve Sizing for Different Control Media, , , . _ . _. , , , , . ' , - . , , Control Valve Sizing Calculations, " ",.,",' ,,",., ".,' Gas Valve .Sizing . , , , . _ , , , , ' " _ . , , , ... , . , , , , - . , .. , , , . ' . , Acronyms Appendix ...,...,"
_

, , , ,

" 103 , . , , , 103 . , . ' , , 104 .. , 104 , - , 105 ,. , , ,- 105 , , , ' , " 106

1j
'j

.... .. ....
_ ,

....

,.

_.

.....

, , , 109

A. , , , , , , , , . , , , , , ' . , . , , , ' , _.. , , .. ' - . , , , , , ... , , , , , . , .111

Chapter 5 - Coal Fired Boilers , .. _.... , .. , , , , .. , . , , , , . , , , . , , , , 49 Pulverized Coal Fired Boilers, , ,_ " .. ,"", .. ,.,", .. "",.,.,,. 49 ,52 Raw Coal and Feeder , , , , . , , _..... _ . ,54 Stoker Boilers Cyclone Boiler . , , , , , ... _ .. , , , . , . , . , ......... ,.'" ' .. " .54 Chapter 6 - Fuel and Air Control Fuel and Air Control Gas Oil " Fuel and Air Control Characterization Excess Air to Oxygen , , , , , . , , , , , Multiple Fuel Control. , , ,. ,,,. Oxygen (02)Trim Control Multiple Boilers ", .. _ . ,.,., Chapter 7 - Steam Temperature Three Elem.em Level Control . ,. , , , , , , , , , , ' , ... , , . , _ , _ , , , . , , . , . , , __ , .. , , , . , _. _ . _, , __ , , , ..... ,,, _. _ .. , . , . , , . , , , , ." ,,, .. , , ,,,, ,, ,,,, , .... , , , , , , . , 59 , , , . , , . , 64 . , , , . , . , .. , .. , . , , . _ , _ , , , __ . , _ , ,, , _. _, , , .. ' , .. , , , 66 68

Appendi.x B , , , , , , ' _, .. , , . ' . , , , , ' , , . , . , . "' -. ,-., , , .. -, .. , . , , , , 121 Bibliography, Reference Glossary. .,_ , . , . , ' " .. , .. " , " . , , , ,, , .. , . , , , ' 127

..I
1

• I

,,,"
,.,-

,_.,",

....
, , , -, -,

,', .. "."'.

_, , . _. , , . _, , . _. , , , , , . _129
, .. ,., ... ' .. ""'" _137

1
j

i
j

, .. , , ...

69
70 72

,,.,, , . , .. , , , , , .. 73 _., .. ".,' _ .. , , .. , , , , , . , . , _ . 75 _.. ,,, ,,, ,,, , , , , , , , , , 83 , 83 . 83 , 84

Chapter 8 -Burner Management Systems , Burner Management System (EMS) Control. _ __. , , , NFPA 85 Code , , , , .... , , , , , , , , , , .. , , . , Purge Control . , . _ , , , , , , , , .. __ . , , ' .. Requirement for Independence of Control (Hardware/Software) . Flame Detection _ , ' , , , , , , , , . ' _ , _ , _ , , , , . , , _ , , , , , , , , , , , Flame Monitoring and Tripping System (Multiple Burner Boilers) Flame Tripping Validation __ . __ , . , , , , , .. , , , , .. , , , . , , Chapter 9 - Environment, ,,.,,,,, NO" and NOx Control- . , , , , , , " , Excess lUI to Oxygen " , , , , , .. , ,

J I

, , , , , .. , 85 , , , . , ., 86 . , , , . __ . 86 ... 87

.1

i
I , 1

I
i

, , . , , , , , , .. , . , , , ..... , . , , , 99 ,,.,, , , . , , .. , . , , , , 99 ,.,,., , , .. , , , , , 101

j
j
j

-~

I ,

XI

Figures and Tables

Chapter 1
Fisure " Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 1-1 1-2 Basic diagram of a boiler. , . Boiler components . , . _ , Typical power plant eilluents Simple boiler plus combustion Economizer .. _ _""" Boiler drums. , .. __ , ,,. '.,,, and emissions air heater _. _. , , , , , . , .. _.. _ , . _..... , ,.,., , .,,, , , , . _. , _... . , . , . , . , _. _ """ . _ , .. _. 1 " ,3 , , ... 4 _.. , , 5 ... 6 _ .. 7

1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6

,I

i
I

i,

i ,j
j

II
1
_!

Chapter 2 Figure 2-1 Figure 2-2 Figure 2-3 Figure 2-4 Figure 2-5 Table 2-1 Figure 2-6 Figure 2-7 Figure 2-8 Figure 2-9 Figure 2-10 Figure 2-11 Chapter 3 Figure 3-1 Figure 3-2 Figure 3-3 Figure 3-4 Figure 3-5 Figure 3-6 figure Figure Figure Figure

Simple feedback control . _. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . 10 Feedforward plus feedback control ., , " .. 11 Cascade control , . . . . .. _. _ , .. , 11Ratio control __ .. , , . , ,' 12 Ziegler Nichols tuning . , , , ' 14 Tuning terms/equations. __ _ 15 Typical control system responses , _ , .. 16 Typical output variable _ _. . . . . . _ . 17 Deviation between set point and process variable _ 18 Upset in return to recovery with reset .. , . , .. __ , , .. 18 Upset in return to recovery with derivative action and reset. .. 19 Steady process variable with randomly varying load. .. __ .. , 19

1
'1

1
,1

I
1

! .

Pressure fired boiler _ , . , . , ... , .. ' _ .... , . , .. ... , ... 23 Block diagram of boiler control- furnace control, _ , .. , . , 24 Furnace pressure transmitter , , _. , 25 Furnace pressure transmitters ' . , . , " __ .. ' ,." 26 SAMA logic for furnace draft. _ . " " __ ,., __ . 27 Furnace draft control. (Single-element feedback control of an induced draft fan.) .. , .. , .. , . , . ,_ _.... "," __ . _ .. , .. , . 28 3-7 Furnace draft control. (Feedforward-plus-feedback control of an induced draft fan.) _.. _ . , . , , ... , . , .. . , , . , ... _ . __ .. 28 3-8 Damper and fan speed control _ __ .... ,., 29 3-9 Damper and fan speed control non-interacting method " __ 29 3-10 Variable speed fan characteristics - reduction in horsepower .. _30

l
,

XII
Chapter Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 4 4-1 4-2 Figure 6-12 Table 6-1 Figure 6-13 Figure 6-14 Table 6-2 Chapter 7 Figure 7-1 Figure 7-2 Figure 7-3 Figure 7-4 Figure 7-5 Figure 7-6 Figure 7-7 Chapter 8 Figure 8-1 Figure 8-2 Table 8-1 Table 8-2 Table 8-3 Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Excess air vs. boiler load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Relationship of excess air to oxygen. . . . . . . . . Dual fuel cross limiting control Running fuel change, dual fuel 02 trim. . . . . . . . . . .. . Various fuel Btu values per pound by state _ ..'

XIII
67

Block diagram of boiler control - drumlevel feedwater . 31 Boiler drums/level measurement. ........... . 33 4-3 Indicated level vs. drum pressure. . . . . . . . . . . 33 4-4 Typical drum level difiercnnal pressure transmitter connections .. 34 4-5 Gage glass drum level indication 35 4-6 Drum level transmitter. . . 35 4-7 Simple feedback control loop . . . . . . .. . 36 4-8 Single element control anion . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 4-9 Shrink and swell . . . . . . . . . ................. . .. 38 4-10 Single element contwldrum level .. . .. . 39 4-11 Single element feedwater control (SAMA symbols) 39 4-12 Single element feedwater: control (ISA symbols) 40 4-13 Two element feedwater control 41 4-14 Performance two element (ideal conditions). . 42 4-15 Performance two element (efIect of feedwater variation) 42 4-16 Two element feedwarer control . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 4-17 Three element Ieedwater control. . . . . . . . 45 4-18 P&ID for three element control using ISA symbols 46

68 69
71

72

Block diagram of boiler control - steam temperature control .. 73 Typical single element superheat control 74 Typical two element superheat control. 75 Typical three element superheat control 76 Typical superheater single-stage atternperator arrangement 77 Temperature measurement taken at outled of intermediate superheater section . . . . . . . . . . 78 Three element control for spray atternperator. 79

Chapter 5 Table 5-1 Figure 5-1 Figure 5-2 Figure 5-3 Figure 5-4

.j

I1

Figure 5-5 Figure 5-6 Figure 5-7 Chapter 6 Figure 6-1 Figure 6-2 Figur:e 6-3 Figure 6-4 Figure 6-5 Figure 6-6 Figure 6-7 Figure 6-8 Figure 6-9 Figure 6-10 Figure 6-11

Fuel Btu Values per Pound by State Direct firing system for pulverized coal Modified direct fired pulverized coal system Control system for a pulverized coal boiler . . . . . . . . . . . Excess oxygen and carbon monoxide relationship at . various loads for a gas-fired boiler. . Chain grate stoker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control scheme for a stoker boiler. . . . . Combustion control for cyclone-fired boiler . . . . . . . . . .

49

50 51 . 53
54 55

8-3
8-4

55
. 56

8-5 8-6 8-7

Flame detectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . Interlock system for multiple burner boiler . . . . . . . . . .. NFPA table of shutdown requirements Communicating startup perrnissives, shutdown, alarms and status - single boilers Communicating startup perrnissives, shutdown, alarms and status - multiple boilers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Typical g,L5igniter Typical steam or alr atomizing system light oil . . . . .. . Typical main oil burner system mechanical atomizing Typical main gas burner system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typical steam or air atomization system

86
. 88

89
91 . 92

93 94
95 . 96

97

Chapter Block diagram of boiler control - fuel air control. 59 Mechanical positioning system. . . . . . . . . . 60 Parallel positioning with no file! air measurement 60 Fuel follow air series metering system . . . . . . . 62 Air follow fuel series metering system _ . 62 Basic parallel metering. . . . ... . . . . _ . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 63 Parallel meter fuel flow interlock 64 Parallel meter air flow interlock. 64 Firing single fuel/cross limiting 65 Output from flow transmitters. . . 66 Characterization curve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 67

9 Controlling ammonia injection

Figure 9-1

101

I
I
!

Chapter 10 Figure 10-1 Typical flow characteristic curves

104

CHAPTER 1

Boiler Fundamentals
Basic Boilers
}ii

boiler

is comprised through

of two basic systems. (See Figure the water tubes, converted a chemical

1-1.) One syslem is [he sceam water and heated

system also called the waterside

of the boiler, In rhe waterside, water is introduced

by transference

to steam, and leaves the system as steam. in which this is done can interact must be considered blowdown with

Boilers must maintain the feedwater control

balance. The manner

system. The amount ratio time,

of blow down

in the feedwater is the common rate. The of (be

control scheme, especially if the blowdown is continuous. by the concentration the feedwater water

Often, the blowdown flow is divided

flow. Continuous
to

method for controlling


matically blowdown blowdown, by measuring ratioing

the chemical [he boiler

concentration.On
conductivity by combining

large boilers this may be done autocontrol [he blowdown the conductivity with ratio control basis or when

rote may also be achieved


blowdown is achieved

to feedwater

flow In utility plants, conductivity on a periodic

is usually meas-

ured and blowdown

manually. This is required

co nd u cti vity ge ts roo high.


·1

! I I

Conductivity (resistance).
to

is measured The other

in micro mhos which boiler system

is equal to the reciprocal gas system,

of 1 mechanical also referred

ohm

is the fuel air-flue

to as the The inputs is also

fireside of the boiler. This system provides this system are the fete! and air required to as the windbox. The outputs referred

the heat that is transferred

to thewater,

to burn the fuel. The fuel and air chamber

··1
WATER

are the flue gas and ash.

..
MIXING OF FUEL&AIR

STEAM $TEAMWATER SYSTEM BlOWDOWN~

FUEL

FUR.NACE

'"
AIR

HEAT TRANSFER SURFACE

. FLUE GAS

ASH

l>

Figure 1-1 Basic diagram of a boiler. Boiler fundamentals 1

'c

BOiler Control Systems Engineerillg

BOiler Fundamentals

Boiler Components
Note that in the boiler diagram, the steam goes [0 a header. This is common plants; however, demand me firing rate me particular in utility
Oll

in industrial The

power firing on

plants the boiler demand,

is directly

connected

to the turbine.

in industrial system.

plants is based on header pressure or drum pressure. U riliry plants controi or throttle pressure. The firing rate demand depends

megawatt

a: w o
w
z;
:;';' <{ <{

a: w
w

Furnace
The combustion chamber/furnace release, the heat and becomes to maintain the heat transfer system.There and turbuare three T's required for combustion to take place in the fiirnace: time, temperature, Negative

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w Zz

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LL

lence. The control of the furnace draft is required is a common control point. The control setting is defined

a negative pressure in (he furnace

in a balanced draft boiler. This pressure is defined by the boiler manufacturer.

0.5 inches
doors. Draft equipment,
.1

w
(f)

t
+-

I-

set point may be raised during inspection and environmental positive.

rounds from

0.5 inches to 1.0 inches co minimize the possibility of flame coming out of inspection pressure control

by the boiler manufacturer

Under certain conditions,

the tiumace pressure may be controlled

0,,-

:;';'

Fans
Figure 1-2 illustrates the basic components (Induced Draft) fan and an FD (Forced and rwo FD fans.The furnace, thus creating On utiJity boilers, FD tertiary air as well. Due to the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, as precipitators, (See Figure 1-3.) bag houses, and sulfur If environmental equipment there is often emission dioxide scrubbers on is added, booster control me equipment such of a coal-fired boiler. The boiler consists of an ID a negative pressure in the through the boiler. air) with primary Draft) fan. Large utility boilers Illay have two ID fans the boiler producing

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draft control. The FD fan pushes air for combustion


normally supply secondary and overfire (tertiary

ill

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..

air (P.A.) flow being supplied by the PA. fans. Industrial

boilers often have separate fans for the

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discharge

of boilers. equipment.

w
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ID fans may be required.The and environmental

draft pressure control is defined by born the boiler manufacturer

< w :r:
w
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II: ::J II

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Windbox
The windbox distributes secondary air co the burners. The windbox combustion. may have damper adjusta: !I
-w
I-~ O<{ :I:

ments to create turbulence

to improve

«0..

Flue Gas Heat E.Jl:changers


To reduce hear loss in the boiler flue gases and co improve
to

boiler efficiency, heat exchangers

<
0
<{

are added to me boiler to recover heat and

cool the flue gases.

S
a:

Bailer Control

Systems

Engineering

Boiler Fundamentals

Combustion

Air Preheater
air preheater is one type of heal; exchanger. the combustion (See Figure 1-4.) & the flue gas combustion air passes air preheater. The

('.)1-

ow

II:

The combustion through

LL_<>: >l:JV-'-S

leaves the boner, it passes through the air preheater

;;:

heat exchanger

before being mixed with the fuel.

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WATER

STEAM

FUEL BOILER

ri.
0

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AIR PREHEATER

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air heater,

FLUE GAS

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AIR PREHEATER PURPOSE· PREHEAT COMBUSTION AIR AND ABSORB ADDITIONAL HEAT FROM FLUE GAS

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Fig.ure 1-4 Simple boiler pi u s combustion Since the flue g<l5 temperature flue gas to the combustion temperature enhances improving

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0 Co

chan [he air temperature,

heat is transferred

fi:om the air the

air via the convection

heat transfer surface of the combustion air entering

<>:

B :l

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<.'J

preheater, This transfer of heat cools the flue gas and thus reduces its heat loss and reduces of the air co the stack.The added heat in the combustion reduces the fuel requirement transterred the combustion efficiency. one percent in an amount

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the fil(nlce equal in heat thus

value to the amount

of heat that has been

in the combustion

air preheater,

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By the use of an air preheater, approximately


the combustion air temperature.

of fuel is saved for each 40°F rise in

Economizer Another flue gas heat recovery


to

~ ;;1:2' -al-----I lH~3


:l:a::o.
l!l

,iIw

method

is through

the use of an economizer.


to

The economizer air. In the econand enters the than

heats the feedwarer heat in the feedwater omizer through arrangement which economizer

improve shown

boiler efficiency in Figure

and reduce heat loss

[he stack. The increased

reduces the boiler's requirement

for fuel and combustion

:r:
f-

1-5, rhe flue gas leaves rhe boiler

where it makes contact the boiler feedwater

with the heat transfer surface, in the form of water tubes, flows. Since the flue gas is at a higher [emperamre is increased. equal
to

(emper<lmre

the water, the flue gas is cooled reduces its heat loss in an amount
- _to; ..

and [he water

Cooling

[he flue gas to the boiler.

the increased

heat in the feedwater

Both types of heat exchangers

are often used in large boilers.

.....,

-~.'.

Boiler Control Systems

Engineering

Boiler Fundamentals

When both JJl air preheater and an economizer are used, the normal practice consists of passing the Hue go.sesfirst through the economizer and {hen through the combustion air preheater. (See Figure 1-5.) Utility boilers normally have economizers and air heaters. \Vhi]e economizers are used to recover heat from the flue gas, the use of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) requires flue gas temperatures above a specified minimum temperature to operate. To extend [he range of operation of the SCR, the economizer surface may be bypassed to raise flue gas temperatures at lower loads.

I
I

Figure 1-6 has an tipper and lower drum. Industrial plants commonly have both upper and lower drums. The heating of the tubes initiates a natural circulation of the water. In some large utility boilers, this circulation is not sufficient and a pump is installed to produce the required circulation. The circulation of the water creates a cooling effect to keep the tubes from overheating. STEAM

WINDBOX

AIR FUEL

l
j

l 1
j
BOILER FLUE

1
GAS FUEL
INLET VANE CONTROL AIR

FLUE GAS

INLET VANE CO~ITROL

ECONOMIZER

CIRCULATION

DRAFT FAN
.1

FORCED

AIR PREHEATER FLUE

GAS

INDUCED DRAFT FAN

I Figure 1-5 Economizer.

i
j
1

GAS BAFFLES

j,
Figure 1-6 Boiler drums.

Superheater

l
i
i

The superheater provides additional heat to the steam to remove any moisture from the steam, thereby improving the quality of the steam. The dryness of the steam (in percent) is the determining factor o( its qualiryWhen there is no moisture in the steam, the quality is 100 percent.

1
Boiler Drums 1

! I
!

Piping and Instrument

Diagrams

(P&IDs)

The boiler in Figure 1-2 JOtS not have a lower drum. High pressure utility boilers used (or power geneution have only an upper drum.' Boilers may consist of an upper drum, or steam or water drum, and a lower drum, or mud drum, The mud drum terminology comes from the function of the lower drum. Although the water is treated to eliminate dissolved solids, some solids always remain in the water.These solids collect in the lower drum, and a drum blowdown is required to remove rhe solids that collect in the lower drum.The blowdown may be manual or automatic.

The purpose ofP&lDs is to provide an initial design basis for the boiler. The P&ID provides the engineering requirements co identify the measurements and functions that are to be controlled. It may be used to define the number of inputs and outputs and may also consist of a design basis check list (DBCL).The DECL lists all the instruments and functions. Utility plants generally define the control systems on Scientific Apparatus Makers Association (SAI\1A) drawings and do not have a P&ID. .' By identifying the required measurements and control functions, an I/O count can be defined. By defining the control functions, the memory requirements can be established. Memory and 110 capabilities em be important in selecting a basic process control system and/or logic system. Utility plants commonly use the term process control system (PCS).

.,

Boiler Control Systems Engineering

r
instruments, a distributive control system of both

CHAPTER 2

The controls

system may consist of panel mounted

•!
I

1
1

(DCS), logic system, or a combination. This also includes measurement and final control elements. The numbering identification system will be based
OD

rhe amount

of redundancy

is used by most companies. identifies


JS

the standard for the plant, The ISA and SfIJ'vL"I.letter ISA and SA.MA identification letters are thesame.
section for more inforrnation.) The numbering tag number number transmitter, Note P is tiled
CJl\

Control of Boilers
Control Strategies control strategies that are used in process control.They plus feedback control, of boilers, all five of the fundamental
all drawings

(See ISA and SiVvlA identification letter configuration resents temperature. identification or loop number.

tables in the Reference letter is a transmitter,

The

the letter definition. For example, when T is the first letter, it rep~
will consist of the consist of a system the pressure transThere are basically five fundarnenral simple feedback feedforward used. Many vendor control, feedforward In the control control. are: are a PT: and the wg number.The and 1001 the instrument

T as a succeeding

letters, such

An example

would be: PT 115 1001. The PT represents

mitter, the 115 the system number, In the examples

cascade control, ratio control, and control strategies Most as PID controllers. This is because control

on the design basis check list, the PT is a pre,sure used for a pressure indicating controller.

for both pres;;ure and vacuum. PIC is the abbreviation

PV is the pressure valve.V is used for valves, vanes, or dampers.

companies

show all controllers due format

algorithms/function

blocks for control

are defined

as FlD controllers.

loops are PI only, therefore

is used in this book.

Design Basis Check List


The purpose of tile design basis check list (DJ3CL) is to track the instrumentation.

Bumpless The NFPA opment responsibility


Calibration -4 to +4 "v«:"

Transfer 85 Code requires bumpless transfer from manual systems) and to automatic. electronic Before [he develit was the

of the

DeS (distributive
control.These

control

systems,

Example of a design basis check list Type Tag if 1001 Sen/ice Draft Control Draft Vane Draft Control SPCS Model A 1234

of the operator

to line up the set point

and the process variable before transferthe process toautomatic control.

ring to automatic P&ID


Delivery Spec Status

systems have the capability of the set point tracking

variable so they are aligned when control is transferred

PT
PV PIC

1001 1001

I
-4 to +4 "we:

I
drawand plant team. such

Simple Feedback Control


With simple feedback differential between ulated variable control, changes in the primary variable feed back an output
to J

control function,

as shown in Figure 2-1.The The DJ3CL may have numerous ings, serial numbers, columns including items such as SiVvlA drawings.Icgic by the engineering

process variable is compared to bring

to the set point of the controller.The signal to the rnanipcan be integral-

the set point and process variable generates (as shown), proportion-only,

or any other items determined

and adjusts the variable

it back to set point. The function


proportional-plus-derivative,

proportional-plus-integral

The D13CL may be used as a relational as delivery sums, hardware rnenrs, or any sort categories
co determine

data base providing

the ability co son by caregories to determine

only, or proportional-plus-illtegral-plus~derivative. In all these cases, the controller between the primary or measured includes an error detector output action function, which measures the error

missing items, hardware

spare require-

required.

variable and the set point. Other control

terms are used such as process variable by a combination that are built into between or summation the controller, amount multivariable.

variable. The controller

is determined
capabilities

of the effects of the different or gain multiplication and the set point, plied by error

This can be gain, reset, derivative, the integral

or any combination

of the three.These

are the proportional the measured

of the error magnitude, and the derivative

the difference

action based on incremental in the SA1v1A drawing

rime a-way from set point of the measured examples, although

magnitude,

or rate of change

I
j

Derivative

action is nor represented

it may be used.

Control of Boilers

1
J

10

Boiler Control Systems Engineering

Control of Boilers

11

PRIMARY

VARIABLE

PRIMARY VARIABLE

A
PROCESS PROCESS

----~Z~\
MANIPULATED VARIABLE


L--'

MANIPULATED VARIABLE

Figure 2·2 Feedforward

plus feedback

control.

Note: See Refermce sectionJOl explanation oj SAJ\lUl symbols.


Derivative such action should through only be used when A change action manipulated there is dead ume or a slow responding output changes output changes the process selected process
,1$

Figure 2-1 Simple feedback

control.

Cascade Control
Cascade control consists essentially of two feedback loop acting as set point control loops connected together with the output between of the primary fOJ; the secondary variable loop. (See Figure 2-3.) Casrelationship

as temperature variable. The

control.

in the controller

the manipulated the variable. or a

cade control

is applied to stabilize the manipulated variable and the primary

variable so that a predictable can be maintained control

variable, which primary

of the process, variable

may also be referred

to as the process

the manipulated

For drum level control, the manipulated ulated variable is typically combination More of vane or damper

variable is the water flow On drafi control, the manipand may be ID fan speed control

the ID fan vane or damper and speed. integral,

To avoid control

instabilitv due to interaction


constants

between

the MO feedback

loops, it is
of the sec-

necessary that the responsetime

be substantially

different. Process response

detail on how proportional,

and derivative

action function

is covered

in

PRIMARY VARIABLE C011-

troller tuning.

Feedforward plus Feedback Control


In feedforward-plus-feedback with the manipulated ondary primary control, a secondary variable variable to change that has a predictable relationship variable is connected. (See Figure 2-2.) In this case, a change in the sec-

variable causes the manipulated action that originates

in anticipation

of a change portion

in the
of the

PROCESS

variable. This reduces the magnitude the set point and can. contain gain is adjustable.

of the primary

variable change functions

due to the more of the basic feed-

timely control loop contains

from the secondary

variable. The feedback

any of the controller

back loop. The feedforward

Basically, the feedfo,,"'""rd portion at the desired set point.

of the control

loop minimizes

Llpsets and keeps the process

---/-!.

fIx)

MANIPULATED VARIABLE

Figure 2·3 Cascade control.

12
cndary

Boiler Control Systems

Engineering

Control of BOilers of

13

control loop should be the faster of the two. A general rule is that the time constant loop process respome time constant application (a normally would should be a minimum be temperature of5
to

the primary

10 times that of the secondary


slow loop) cascading are tem-

measured determines

variable sends tills information

to a feedtorward

controller. The feedforward

controller

loop. The longer of this, a normal onto flow control perature

of the primary fast loop). Other control

loop indicates control

a much slower response. Because (a normally for cascade control

the required change in the manipulated with the change in the manipulated of feedforward

variable, so that when [he effecc of the change variable, no change Feedforward occurs in the controlled control has some signifiin

is combined

suitable candidates

variable. This perfect correction cant problems. The contigurarion advance, that the changes undetected

is difficult to accomplish.

cascading onto pressure

and level control

cascading onto flo-w- control.

control assumes that tile changes are known associated with them, and that no important

will have transmitters

changes "viii occur. Steam flow is used as a feedforward can. be used to add derivative

signal for the set point of an cool feed.

Ratio Ratio

Control control consists of a feedback variable. (See Figure or another controller, controller whose set point is in direct proportion to an

O2 analyzer, OJ; the signal from a fuel flow can be used to set a fuel air ncb (See Figll{e 5-3 in Chapter 2-4.) The operator or J feedforward for different of the proce&\ can set rhe proportional signal on automatically fuels.
-,

5.) Feedforword

to increase pulverizer

uncontrolled relationship, used


to

adjust it. \Vhen control is

ControHer There are


J

Tuning number ofprocedures for tuning controllers. There is Default Tuning, S.WA.G

boilers burn multiple

fuels, air requirements of air required


UNCONTROLLED

for the different

fuels may vary. Ratio

ratio the quantity

culling, Ziegler

Nichols,

Lambda, and self tuning.

Some startup engineers

still use the trial and

VARIABLE ....-

error or S.\V.A.G. method. Self tuning controller tuning tunir1g algorithms compensate are now available for insertion the controller tuning into control systems. Such conchange.

YT
CONTROLLED VARIABLE

trollers automatically Adaptive "Lambda componencs loop response

as process 01;boiler conditions

can also be implemented


WJ$

from load or some other variable of the process. design method required whereby the controller must of the

originated

in the synthesis

cancel out the process dynamics. In more technical


PROCESS

words, given me transfer functions to produce closed-loop response

of a feedback loop, synthesize (loop in amomJtic).The


WJ$

the controller by Dahlin Tuning

a specific dosedis a first-order paramthe tuning

simplest achievable

lag. This !"Csponse hence response the name


to

originally

proposed

(1.968), who defined produces

eter with Greek letter LAJ"v1BDA, to signify the time constant Lambda Tuning. Lambda a set point change.This repeatable

of the conrrol Icop in automatic, a first order, over-shoot, non-oscillatory on automatic, uniform have great flexias more

is done

by selecting

the desired time constant more popular

__~~I~~A~
Figure 2-4 Ratio control.

__~~~I

Loops CUlled using Lambda Tuning bility, and present products are required, minimum

will minimize

(or eliminate) is becoming

results. This method variability

MANIPULATED VARIABLE

i, demanded,

and stable processes are needed." 1 method is used. In 1942, Ziegler

To demonstrate and Nichols studying lating

tile various tuning modes the Ziegler processes, they arrived to as the ultimate

Nichols

were the first to propose a standard

method

for tuning control

feedback controllers.Afier that can be used for calculoops. They developed two of gain in the determination mode

As shown, the mathematical trolled variable changes is changed, multiplication

funcrion

is a multiplier.
to

If the ratio is set, the set point of the conin the uncontrolled or ratio between variable. If the the controlled

numerous Onc

at a series of equations method period because

in direct

proportion

changes

the gain, reset, and derivative is referred allowable gain (sensitivity)

values for feedback

the direct proportional

relationship,

and the uncontrolled Most boiler control matrix

variable, is changed. applications will consist of an overall control system in an interconnected

l j

methods.

it requires

[he ultimate operation

and the ultimate

for the control


'NJVe

loop. The ultimate

is the maximum

value of gain for a controller

with only a proportional

for which the closed loop system shows a stable sine developed by Ziegler and Nichols

response to a disturbance. loops was based on curve

of the five types of control. Control. is used in a number variable of configurations to improve process control. In feedin the system. The

Feedforward Feedforward forward


is used to detect a process change

The second method is simply the reaction the reaction to the process,
!

for wning

control

control

control,

a measured

data from the process reaction of an components

curve for the system under

control. The process reaction the controller)

of rhe proces, to a step change

ill. rhe input signal, This process WIve is to a seep change

in the control syseem (excluding

I
1

10m Dorsch.t'Lambda

Tuning-An

Alccrrurive

[0

Ziegler

Nichols," OC:::~:Jlih~.1997:

Fish~r

Ccnrrcls.

14

Boiler

Control

Systems

Engi neering

Control 2-5 and Table

of Boilers

15

The ultimate is ultimate reset/integral

method

is also referred This method

co as the quarter decay tuning. (See figure


requires defining

2-1 for the equations.) sensitivity turned steady state output

the Su and the Pu. (See Figure 2-6.) Su band that creates a continuous sine wave, 2~6.This is determined with the

Table 2·1 Tuning terms/equations Terms a....' KG = gain Ii = in teg ral. reset (1ime i ntegraJ) Td = derivative Clime)
'Equations ·are,

and is the g<lin or proportional off. Pu is the ultimate period

as indicated

on the center graph in figure

or time between

the peaks of the steady state

Pu = ultimate

period

sine viave in Figure 2-6.

Su = ultimate sensitivity

Process response curve 1/4 decay


OUTPUT

Proportional. only
Kc = 0.5 Su Pro porti on a 1- I u s-Hesst P Kc '" 0.45 Su

Proportional KG = 05 Su

on 1'1Figure 2-6 a
0.5 x 9 = 4.5 gain Figure 2-6 b

Prcportlonel-plus-reset KG = 0.45 Su

0.45 x 9 = 4.05 gain


7.5 / 1 .2 ~ 6.25 reset

Ii = Pu/1.2 minirpt Proportional· P Ius- Derivative


Kc = 0.6 Su

Ii = Pu/1 .2 min/rpt

Proportional-Pl LI s- Res et -PI" s- Derivative


Figure 2·6 c 0.6 x g ~ SA gain Kc = 0.6 Su

:
Figure 2·5 Ziegler Nichols tuning.

Td = PuiS
Proportion a I·PI u s- Res et ·PI us-De rivative

The ultimate method


the difference between

is used in the examples proportional/

because

it is easy to understand and derivative

and demonstrates

I
I

n = 0.5
Kc = 0.6 Su

Pu min/rpt

0.5 x 7.5 = 3.75 reset 7.5 I 8 = 0.94 derivative

Td = PuiS

n = 0.5

Pu min!rpi

Td = Pu/8
USing. the equations from Figure 2-6.

gain, reset/integral, developed

control

by using PC-

CorlU"oLAB 3, a software training program The top diagram variations become this diagram

by Harold Wade Associates and sold by ISA .. demonstrates this method dampened response.In In

Su = 9 and Pu = 7.5 minutes

in Figure 2-6 demonstrates become

an unstable response. In chis di<1graOlthe output diagram there is overshoot.

larger and larger. The bottom

che outpms

smaller and smaller. \Vith

some cases, it is important The center diagram dors use repeats/minute For any feedback
Gill

to tune the system so that there is no overshoot. a stable response. From this diagram or proportional we can determine of gain. one and varibefore oscillathe

demonstrates

Su and the Pu. In these equations,

gain is used and [he integral is in minutes/repeat band, instead

Some ven-

I I
., .,

Determining

Gain,

Fieset, and Derivative gain and rhe ultimate 3 provides period, remove the reset and derivative to turn off the reset by going action to tune

16 determine

the ultimate

instead of minutes/repeat,

from the controller options and turning

by setting the derivative ofi:"reset. in the automatic

time to zero and the reset time to infinity, or turn the ability

the reset off. PC ControL.AB

control

system, if the loop is closed (and the controller gain, during increased, which time the loop will tend cycling, or oscillation gain. The period continuous

is on automatic),
to

increase

the controller

oscillate more

more. If the gain is further it becomes

in the controller

With the controller imposed to change

mode, the loop closed, and the gain set at 12, an upset is observed. The easiest way to impose an upsec is curve produced does not dampen response), the gain is too high. curve dampens
OLl[

able, will be observable. This is the maximum unstable; therefore, three situations tions is called the ultimate unstable. These period.

gain at which the system can be operated of these sustained

on the control

loop and the response

this is the ultimate are illustrated

If the gain is increased

further still, the system will become

1 ~
! ,

the set point by a small amount.

If [he response

in Figure 2-6.

out and is unstable Widl [he gain set 2-6 - dampened


to

(top of Figure 2-6 - unstable

3, an upset is created. If the response the gain is too low was obtained.

(bottom

of Figure repeated

response),

The gain was increased

and upsets

1 , j
t

until a stable response

16

Boiler Control Systems

Engineering

Control of Boilers

17

OUTPUT

Gain vs. Proportional Band (PBJ Gain and proportional band are used as tuning terms. Gain is [he reciprocal of proportional band. Proportional band (PB) is in percent

UNSTABLE RESPONSE TIME


Fig. 2·6 a

Prop Band = 100 I' Gain Gain = 100 I' Prop Band Examples: If Gain is 2, PB = %. = 0.5 X 100 = 50% PE or 100% / :2 = 50% If Gain is 0.5, PB = 1 = 2 X 100/0.5 = 200% PB or 100% / 0.5 = 2()O'Yi
vs,

Repeats per minute

minutes pee repeat:

STABLE RESPONSE

Integral Anion is minutes per repeat or. repelcs per minute. Repeats per minute is the reciprocal of minutes per repeac. Example: 0.5 Min/Repeat
=

1/0.5 = 2 Repeats/Min

-l

,
! i

Fig. 2·6 b

Figure 2-7 demonstrates a typical output variable.

j,
J
J
i Figure 2·6

DAMPED RESPONSE

Fig. 2-6 c

Typical control system responses.

..

I
:1
\

.,- t
"1
."j

0"-."1

1
1

When a stable response is obtained, the values of the ultimate gain (Su) and the ultimate period (Pu) of theassociated response curve should he noted. The ultimate period is determined by the time period between successive peaks on the stable response curve. The ultimate gain (also called the ultimate sensitivity or Sui is the gain setting of the controller when a stable response is reached (center of Figure 2-6 - stable response). Using PC-ControLA..B 3, the stable response is achieved with a gain of 9, and the time from peak to peak is approximately 7.5 minutes. The 7.5 nun utes is the peak to peak time on Figure 2-7. The cycle is generated with a gain of 9 and no reset (reset turned oft).

Figure 2·7 Typical output variable.

Note: Only a small o~tput cycle is required to determine the Su and Pu values. Controller Actions Gain/Proportional Action \\!hen gain/proportional control only is used, there is a one-orne seep change based on deviarion from set point. A feedback conuoller with gain/proportional control only; may not stabilize the set point. (See Figure 2-8.) Note the difference between me proces.s variable (PV) and set point (SP). For gain/proportional only control, me gain is 4.5 (see Table 2-1).

18

Boiler Control Systems

Engineering

Control of Boilers

19

Derivative Action
When there is dead time or a slow reacting process, derivative can be added to-improve rime action contributes an immediate valve/output change proportional action contributes additional control. control time. Derivative to the rate of the initial

change of the error. As the error increases, the proportional valve movement. contribution Derivative Later, the contribution of the proportional

action 'Will have equaled

of the rate action. The time it takes for this to happen is called the derivative action is applied to a process that is slow or has dead time. Note in Figure 2-7, only a small output cycle was required lines out at set point in approximately

in Figure 2-10, with 10 minutes for the Su to determine

the addition of derivative, the measurement gain. As was noted and

Pu

values.

1
j
!

Figure 2-8 Deviation between setpoint and process variable.

j .,.

Integral/Reset Action
Integral action is time-based change in minutes and repeats the gain change or minutes until the loop stabilizes at set point. The tuning set point setting is in repeats per minute per repeat. Note

1 t
1

in Figure 2-9 with gain/proportional

and integral/reset action, the measurement lines out at in approximately 30 minutes. Also note the recovery on [he second cycle is one quarter of the first cycle. For gain/proportional plus reset control, the gain is 4.05 and reset is
6.25 (se.eTable 2-1).

1
Figure 2·10 Upset in return to recovery with derivative action and reset. The Ziegler method Nichols method can be used on most process control loops. of a process with randomly Nichols varying load and with PID loops; however,
110

i_
one can be used on all control

Figure 2-11 is an example control and the tuning

of control

determined

by using Ziegler

tuning parameters.

Figure 2·9 Upset in return to recovery with reset.

Figure 2-11 Steady process va riable with randomly varying load.

20

Boiler Control Systems

Engineering

Control of Boilers

21

Controller

Actions

Setup

There are many different functions required in design and configuration and/or programming a control system. Controller functions need to be determined. CoJ1troller functions can be direct or reverse acting. A direct acring controller output increases as the PV (process Variable) increases, and a reverse acting controller output decreases as the PV increases. If the control system is programmable, the systems engineer must make the selection. The failure mode of the control valve 01: damper determines whether the controller is a direct or reverse actmg controller.Units of measurement are in percent or engineering units.When we think of the various control signals such as [he process variable or set points, we can define rhern as a percentage or
assign engineering units.

loop transferred to manual.When three transmitters are employed, excessive deviation between (he transmiuers must be alarmed. A median select signal is required by the N._FPA Code for 85 furnace pressure measurement and is commonly used when there are multiple transmitters, Whim writing specifications tl)r transmitters or switches, it is important to include calibration range and span. Also include materials of construction, especially the wetted parts. For transrnitters consider the effect on [lining control loops. If the span is significant, the gain on the controller may be difficult co set.

Redundancy
\Vhen two transmitters or switches are employed, it may be configured as 1-0-0-2 - one out of rwo. This is called redundancy. Two protective circuits are operating essentially in parallel. A single point failure will disable one of the ""'0 circuits while the redundant circuit continues to provide the needed protection. A failure defection mode such as no outpur must be defined. \Xfhen two transmitters OJ: switches are employed, it Imy be a 2-0-0-2 - two out of two, This is not redundancy, because a single point failure in either circuit will cause an output tripping action. This allows no fault tolerance, yet has two circuits required to hold. \Vhere 1-0-0-2 might be a parallel circuit (normal operation energized with de-energize to trip), 2-0-0-2 would be a series circuit. If two flame detectors are required to S~~ flame, or the boiler will trip, this is 2-0-0-2. This demonstrates that it is possible to have a J -0-0-1 circuit with a 2-0-0-2 portion, a 1-0-0-2 circuit with a 2-0-0-2 portion, or a 2-0-0-3 circuit in which a critical portion is 2-0-0-2. V/Len three transmitters or switches are employed, it could be configured as 2-0-0-3 voting, This could be called triple redundancy: In this type of interlock system, the output of two om of three individual interlock circuits must agree co hold in a circuit in monitoring normal operation. If two out of three agree to trip, tripping action will trip-the process equipment device. Any single point failure involving the interlock devices will not trip the operating equipment. A maximum of two such fililures will crip,just as a minimum of two good circuits will allow continued operation. Three transmitters or switches 2-0-0-3 could be configured voting with fault tolerance. While this type of system requires two out of three voting to keep process equipment operating, more than two single point failures in separate circuits can be tolerated, For example, if the total circuit is made triple redundant and each circuit broken into three sequential parts, 27 separate potential pathways in 9 circuit segments exist.

The Effects

on Tuning

There are numerous things that affect the tuning of control lcops. Some examples are: reaction. rime of process, process noise (furnace pressure, air flow), calibration of transn~tter (span ~f [he transmitter), linearity of process (pH loop), linearity of final dement, speed of response ot final element (valves, dampers), valve sizing and valve hysteresis. The addition of a valve pOSlt10ner can improve control by providing valve position repeatabilityfor a specific input Temperature control would be an example of a slow rdponding process. Flow control would be an example of a fast responding process.

Calibration Effect on Gain Example: Span of transmitter

0-2000 psi 4-20 rna = 125 psi/rna 1QOO 2000 psi 4-20 ma == 62.5 psi/ma to Note, the span is one number and calibration range is tWO numbers Usinz enzineerina units in ellis ~xarnple, the span of 0-2000 is two times that of the span 10002()OO~ h:refore, clle g;lin would be (:"#0 times greater than when calibrated with a span of T 0-20()O psi.This is a common problem particularly on high pressure boilers.With a wide span, a control output may cycle and yet the process appears to be steady. There is no one method of control tuning that is best for all proc~ss loops. Different types of processes, control valves or dampers, vendor control algorithms or function blocks can make this impractical.

I I

Interlock Circuitry One, two" or three transmitters may be required. When only one transmitter is employed, it is referred to as 1-0-0-1 - one out of one. In this configuration, a single circuit with a single point failure in the syscem will cause an. output action. The circuit itself should be designed so that any output action is always safe (e.g., shutdown the equipment). ASl'v1Erecommends median select.The NFPA 85 Code requires median select for furnace pressure measurement.

Transmitters

Each control loop should be reviewed by a risk analysis to determine if a redundant rransmitter or switch is required. Field transmitter or switch device redundancy should be provided to the excent necessary to achieve desired system reliability. When two rransrmrrers or .switches are employed, excessive deviation between the devices must be alarmed and the associated control

22

Boiler Control Systems

Engineering

CHAPTER 3
to fail safe on loss of demand signal or motive muse be determined by rhe user

Final Control Elements .!>Jl final control dements


are to be designed power, i.e., open, close, or lock in place. The fail safe position and based upon the specific application.

furnace Draft
Pressure F.ired Boilees

A pressure fired boiler does not have an induced pressure over some portion varies as the load is changed sure in the boiler furnace. Figure 3-1 represents that the vert hot flue circumstances and creating the physical arrangement
g<l5

drafi fan and lllay operate in draft losses with respen

LInder a positive

or all of the load range. In this type of boiler, the furnace due
to

pressure

the variation

to boiler load. As

the firing tate increases, more air is supplied by the forced dwft (FD) fun increasing the pres-

of a pw;sure

fired boiler system. A key point is necessary the furnace so A small leak under such walls

with these boilers is that the furnace

must be airtight around

and the flue gastight.This ir, eventually destroying

of the furnace cannot leak to the atmosphere. the material hazard. Furnaces

will deteriorate
an operational to observe

for pressure fired boilers are made pressure-tight

with a welded inner casing or seal between the furnace a sealed window the flame and fiirnace

wall sream-gencrating

tubes and have

conditions.

FUEL WINDBOX INLET VANE CONTROL

I
i

BOILER

FORCED DRAFT FAN

STACK

Figure 3·1 Pressure

fired boiler.

Furnace Draft

23

24

Boiler Control Systems

Engineering

Fumace

Dr-aft

25
the Per-

Balanced Draft Boile.r Fans


The fireplace in our homes is an example of a natural draft system. As heat rises, the draft is is no fan forcing air inro or out of me of mechanical chaff, which is prodraft created bv the natural heat rise to the outside air.There fireplace. 'Utility and industrial boilers require duced by the combustion tion air through takes its suction the section air fans. Balanced

outlet of the ID fun. The typical boiler with draft control boiler Harn.e.. Monitoring boiler functions \l1<1yimprove when opening sonnel must wear proper face protection

has inspection operation inspection doors.

doors co observe a problem.

OJ; detect

some form

draft boilers consist of an FD and an induced from the atmosphere

(ID) f.1n(s). An FD fan, or air blower, takes suction from the boiler

and forces combus-

the system. The ID fan is located at the end of the boiler flow system path and flue gas stream, discharging
two

the. flue gas to the stack Large definition of fans, see

lltiJji)' boilers may have two FD fans and on boiler componems_

ID fans. For an additional

Furnace Pressure Control


Control control svsrems are divided into furnace, drum level feedwater, control.

FURNACE PRESSURE

(0...._,

S+

fi_,el air, and tem-perature

ser romr

(s~e FiguI;e 3-2)_ The first system is furnace

r
p
are FD plus stack; FD and that adversely on some

INPUT

~
INCLUDE DRAFT FAN FI NAL CONTROL DEVICE(S)

Figure 3·3 Furnace pressure transmitter.

The fan combinations


STEAM TEMPERATURE

available to the boiler sys(em designer furnace require special draft control

In plus
affect

stack; and fD plus stack. Tall stacks can produce

draft conditions
provisions

CONTROL

Figure 3·2 The pmpose

B.leck diagram of boiler control - furnace control. of pressure control is to maintain pressure prevents a constant pressure in the boiler furnace. In most and helps avoid an external range is -10 to fire to lIlay have an effect on the tuning,

I
inches we, the to a Referring

flame stability

and could

small industrial is to

boilers. The static pressure and flow characteristics the specific design of the particular install variable pitch axial flow fans in fossil total auxiliary power consumption. 1992.
POWel:

of a centrifugal versus axial fan result ficm auxiliary power requirements generating systems. At 100% unit load, aux&

fan, One 'Nay co reduce

iliary power savings llsing a variable pitch axial flow fan will be 400() kW, or about 7% ofrhe Wilcox Company, Furnace

boilers, negative furnace as well as maintaining calibration range

flame excursions

the boiler or injury co personnel.The spm is 20 inches wc. Referring is minus

span of the transmitter

cs. 23-22)

(Babcock

& Wilcox_ Steam. 40th Edition. The Babcock

good draft control. If the calibration 2 to plus 2 inches wc

+ 10

to a 4-20 rna signal 4-20 equals 1_25 inches we per n1<1_f the I the span is 4 inches. narrow sparJ "Will provide better control; set point may range from in a uriiiry plant, Note: Some

pressure control is required on balanced the furnace FD Eln(s) controls

draft boilers. While either the FD £3.n(s) or [he that the ID 85 Code head control. The NFPA

ID fants) may be used to control i:m(s) be us;d. The requires capability the furnace

pres<;ure, the NFPA 85 Code requires to be designed If che upper


0 separate

4-20 rna signal, 4-20 equals 0.25 inches we per rna.The minus 0.5 inches in industrial

the air for combustion

however, span varies wirh the type and size of the boiler. The control plants to several inches negative for positive pressure. utility plants may have a set point The furnace pressllre control ID fan(s) pulls air through
C311

and flue gas removal sys[em equipment.

so that the maximum

of the induced
to

drafi fan system with ambient plus 20 inches or greater,

air does not exceed transmitter

[he design presto

be achieved by simple feed[OIvvJ.rd control. (See Figure 3-3.) The a negative pressure from the furnace
co the

the boiler, maintaining

j I
J

sure of fumace,

ducts, and associated

and lower limit of the f,u;nace may be required must

press me is minus 20

measure the [<lnge limits of the boiler furnace

for high and low trip. The design pressure

be defined the same os the wind and seismic messes of SEll ASCE 7 -02, Alinimum Design Loads

for Buildings and Other Struaures.

26

Boiler Control Systems

Engineering

A transmitter auctioneered median select scheme is to be used for control purposes_ Furnace presmre is co be measured with three furnace pressure transmitters, each on a separa[e measurement tap_ Three Iurnace pre.ssure transmitters in an auctioneered median select system with separate pressure sensing taps and suitable monitoring are required to minimize the possibiliry of operating with a faulty furnace pressure measurement. (See Figure 3-4.) It utilizes a feed-forward signal characterized to represent the position of the forced dnft control devicels). In a properly designed and calibrated system, the output of me furnace pressure controller will remain near its midrange for all ail; flow-s.
FURNACE PRESSURE (DRAFn TRANSMITIERS ABC

NORMAL CONTROL FURNACE PRESSURE TRANSMIITIER

?
~
SP

Furnace Draft

27

TWO·OUT·OF·THREE VOTING WIDE RANGE

r-::::7l

SP

m..,._ T
FROMMFT-...

lC_j-4in. 'FROM FD CONTROL

SP + 4 in.

99
v
-

...

OVERRIDE CONTROL SETPOINT~ • FAN INTERLOCK NOT SHOWN

FEEDFORWAHD 'FROM AIR FLOW----------. CONTROL DEMAND

CfJ
(0

Figure 3"5 SAMA

Ioqic for furnace draft,

IILI HII
I I , I I I

The furnace draft is controlled by modulating a vanets) or dampens) on the induced draft (ID) fan or by adjusting the speed of the ID fan. There may also be a combination of both speed and damper or vane control. Large utility boilers often have multiple ID and FD fans with variable speed drivel on the ID fan. Although the ID fan and fD L1nare two separate loops, [hey must be set up and tuned JS a system. In the draft control drawing (see Figure 3-3), the draft is controlled by single element feedback control. As the firing rate demand is changed, the furnace pressure increases or decreases as the FD fm(s) changes air flow to the furnace for fuel air control. In Figure 3-6 the furnace pressure changes as the demand changes. If feedforward is added from the PD control output the control can be improved as seen in Figure 3-7. By controlling both damper and speed, the operating range of the damper is optimized. In Figure 3-8, speed control is required for the damper to remain near its midrange. A satisfactory non-interacting method of combining damper and speed control is depicted in Figure 3-9. This is called split range or gap control. The positioners on the actuators are adjusted to split the control signal range with overlap in the center of the range. The damper control drive is adjusted to open the damper completely as the control signal changes fr.orn o percent to approximately 60 percent_ The damper provides the best control in the overlap area between 40 and 60 percent. The damper becomes less responsive as it nears the 100 percent open position. By combining the two in chis portion of the range there is a somewhat uniform flow response over [he entire range.

~~~

...

:
I I I I

,
I~-

SLOCK DECREASE

~ __

eLOCK INCREASE

~
INDUCED DRAFT FAN FINAL CONTROL DEVICE(S)

Figure 3-4

Furnace

pressure transmitters_

Figure 3-5 is a representation .ofan approach to the entire furnace draft control logic, including implosion protection, The delta takes the difference between the set point and PV; and hi/lo selectors limir the difference set by the K values.

28

Boiler Control Systems

Engineering

Furnace Draft

29

DAMPER

BOTH FURNACE DRAFT -1.5

STEAM CONTROL VALVE

so
7(1

<
..J

60

ADJUST FOR MIN. SPEED STEAM FLOW % CONTROL SIGNAL

50
40 30 20 10 0

figure 3-6 Damper and fan speed control.

TIME

If both speed and damper are controlled, Figure 3-9 depicts a method of controlling speed and damper CQl1twL

Figure 3-6

Furnace draft control.


CONTROL

(Single·elei11ent feedback control or induced draft fan.l

, ._- J _, ,
r--

AT z
n,

SIGNAL

SET POINT

..

A)----_J

(5

r-l.l.l co -1.0

FURNACE DRAFT

-1.5 60

30 20 10 DAMPER

2
SPEED

5f

o~----------------------------TiME

Figure 3-9 Damper and fan speed contro'l.non"interacting method,

Figure 3-7 Furnace draft control. (Feedfor'Nard-plus-feedback control of an induced draft ran.)

30

Boiler Control Systems Engineering

Another significant advantage is the reduction in horsepower as indicated in Figure 3-10.

1m

,--------,--------r--------r--------~------_,

I
~
t

CHAPTER 4

80
SHAFT HORSE· POWER

Feedwater

Feedwater is the next section of a control system that will be discussed. (See Figure 4-1.)

~~~~~+-~~~+-------,_~~---+------~
INPUT
+

BOILER

OUTPUT

L-

_L

20

40

60

80

100

FLOW OUTPUT. 1000 cfm

Figure 3-10 Variable

speed fan characteristics

- reduction in horsepower.

STEAM TEMPERATURE

CONTROL

Figure 4-1 Block diagram of boiler control - drum level feed water.

Once-Through

Boilers

A once-through boiler can be thought of in terms of a long tube. Feedwater is pumped into one end of the tube, heated along its length, and superheated steam emerges out of the other end. Most once-through boilers operate at super critical pressures with a throttle pressure ranging from 3S00 psig to as high as 5500 psig, in drum-type boilers, the saturated steam leaves the drum and all superheat is added in the superheaters, which have fixed hear transfer areas. Drum-type boilers have separate systems for controlling combustion, feedwater, and steam temperature. Once-through boilers have only one coupled, water-saturated, steam-superheated steam circuit. The total boiler heat transfer surface is divided into variable area boiler and superheater heat transfer surfaces. During operation, there is a constant shifting in heating surface area. Consequently. the steam temperature control and other boiler control fimcrions must be coordinated together.
Feedwater

31

32

BOiler Control Systems

Engineering

Feedwater

33

AJl such units have some form of flash tank for startup and low load operation. Bypass valving
sysrems isolate the turbine from the boiler during of steam could the initial part of the startup process; otherBoiler manufacturers have

wise cold water


proprietary

instead

flow to the turbine.

arrangements

for such flash tank and bypass systems. flow control is an integral pan of turbine throttle steam

In once-through calibrated operating parallel

boilers, [he feedwater

pressure and superheat temperature in the cascade mode.

control. The pumping flow control

and firing rate system is a carefully system that has both flow controls

firing rare and feedwater

This type of boiler can function and [he turbine If the electrical maintaining

in a very stable manner, is held constant

with the firing rate demand in the turbine

on manual mode. to the

the steam pressure with operation

following

WATER TUBES

load is correct, pumping

and the 6l:1ng rate is adjusted

point of stable set point steam temperature. Due to the extreme system performance configuration, pumping rate. Figure 4-2 Boiler drums/level measurement. interactions of once-through boilers while on automatic approach. operation, the flow

can be improved

by using a control

coordinator

ill this system

combinations

of inputs trim the firing

rate au d also trim. the teedwater

Drum Level Feedwater

Control

Drum Level
The drum level must be controlled water carryover to the limits specified into the superheater by the boiler manufacturer.
OJ;

If the damage
N C H E

drum level does not stay within these limits, there may be water carryover. If the level exceeds
the limits, boiler resulting the turbine the turbine may cause in extensive maintenance costs or outages of either or the boiler. If the and serious accidents, A rupture or crack the drum level gets too

0 -0.5 ·1 ·1.5 ·2 -2.5 -3 ·3.5 ·4 ·4.5 ·5 1000

r-.

level is low, overheating resulting in expensive most commonly nect


to

of the water wall rubes may cause tube ruptures repairs, down time, and injury the tubes connect to the drum. When

S
F R 0 M 0 R

or death to personnel.

~r---.

occurs where

low; the boiler will trip to prevent damage to the tubes and cracks in the tubes where they conthe boiler drum. of the critical nature indicators of this measurement, and transmitters. a variety of devices are usually applied
to

Because monitor

the drum water level. A drum may have sight glasses, electrode (See Figure 4-2.)

columns, and differen-

c
N

tial pressure-based
Recommendations

T E

found in the American

(ABl'Vif'l.) Raommendations for Location. if Instrument and Con/wi Conneaions for the Operation and Control '!'f'J.-Vclf.erlube Boiler,.
Boiler Ivlanufacnuer i\ssodation'.1 pressure-based level devices (and even most sight glasses) experience
all boilers operating

for the location

of instrument

and control

equipment

connections

can be

\ \
o

N
I;

900

800

700

600

500

The differential

inaccura-

DRUM PRESSURE PSIG

cies in measurement rections must

when boiler steam drum pressure is not at its design value. These changes at lower pressures but, for most boilers, corFigure 4·-3 is a graph showing reading Figure 4·3 Indicated levels vs. drum pressure. for the changes in accuracy

in pressure can be overlooked be made

deviari 0 ns.

34

Boiler Control Systems

Engineering

Feedwater

35

CONSTANT HEAD CHAMBER h(l) < h(2) BECAUSE 1(1) < 1(2)
t~

WATER TEMPERATURE

h ~ HEIGHT OF WATER COLUMN

CORRECT

SLOWDOWN VALVE

TRANSMITTER OPERATOR

figure 4-5 Gage glass drum level indication.

TRANSMITTER NOTE: Other drum level monitoring instromentetior: may be applicable.

CONDENSATE RESERVOIR

Figure 4-4 Typical drum level diHerential pres.sure transmitter

connections.

STEAM

h(1)

On high pressure boilers, a condensate pot is necessary for the top connected water leg to stay full of condensate. If the condensate level varies in the rep connected leg, the drum level measurement will not be accurate. On low pressure boilers, a condensate pot may not be required. Figure 4-4 is an example of the correct method of installing a differential pressure transmitter. The correct installation allows the sediment to remain in the blowdown line without getting into the transmitter. The basic indication of the drum water level is that shown III a sight gage ghISS connected to the boiler drum. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASl'v1E)requires a direct reading of the drum level. Due to the configuration of the boiler, and the distance the boiler mum is from the operator, a line-of-sight indication may not be practicable. The gage glass image can be projected with a periscope arrangement of mirrors. (See Figure 4-5.) If the detection of the water level image is mechanically complex, ox practically impossible, other methods of sighting may be necessary. One method is to use closed circuit television; another method incorporates the use of a remote level indicator based on a fiber optics signal, The indication it provides is usually in error to some degree and is not as correct as J properly calibrated level measuring instrument. Condensate from cooling boiler steam circulates through the gage glass.TIllS cooling of the steam and irs condensate results in cooler water ill the gage glass than in the boiler drum. The greater density of the cooler water in the gage g11.SS indicates a lower level man is in the boiler drum.

WATER

h(2)

T
h(3)

h (1), h (2), h (3)70° WATER COLUMN EOUIVALENT

NETTRANSMITIER

PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL

= h (3) -

[h (1) + h(2)J TRANSMITTER

Figure 4·6 Drum level transmitter.

Figure 4-6 is a typical arrangement of a differential drum level measuring rransmitrer. The differential transmitter output signal increases as the differential pressure decreases. (Note the differential pressure connecrions.) The differential pressure range will vary between 15 and 30

36

Boiler Control Systems Engineering

Feedwater drum,

37

inches, depending pressure

on the size of the boiler of a water column

with a zero suppression


temperature

of several inches. drum equal to


SWEL~ NWL i-\-D-R-U-M-_J LEVEL 100 SHRINK

On the high pressure side of the measuring plus the weight between the distance a length column

device, the effective pressure equals boiler at ambient having a length of'saturated

the two drum pressure connections. drum pressure temperature connection having
<I

On the low pressure side, the effecsteam having of a

tive pressure equals boiler drum press me, plus the weight of a column from the upper of water at saturation

to the water level, and the weight

length fiom the 'water level to the lower

S
0 _j
u,

drum pressure connection, Typically, fer redundancy, figure The differential pressure there are three diffe,ent transmitter method represents methods used to measure measurement, drum level. (See and the probe

.2 « w

75 STEAM FLOW 50 \ FEEDWATER FLOW

r(f) "#

4-2.) In till, example. tile bulls eye technology

\1

is a direct reading level measurement.

the level control

type sensor is a common

for level alarms and low and high level shutdown.

25

Feedwater Control Some boilers utilize reasonably drum level measurement is-factory because the steaming fluctuating

TIME
RATE CONTROL DUE TO ',,","ALA"'.:E FEEDWATER FLOW.

steady loads so [hac only drum level control from single element comrol is used on boilers during startup or to Mechanical control has often been unsatwater storage compared system controlling

• 'NTE~ACTICN WITH fiRING BETWEEN STEAM ROWAND

is possible. Single element

low load regardless of capacity or rapid load swings. Single element some of the ne-wer boiler designs have minimum of control.A
two element

Figure 4·8 Sing.leelement

control action.

rate of the boiler. A majority

of the large-r sized unit> and those subject to rapidly the feed-

Single element

control

is proportional control

control

only: \Vhile

this may work S<ltisfocsystem "ill provide 4--8, the

loads require different methods

torily in a toilet, it may not be satisfactory more efficient control but a single element increase in steam demand

for J boiler. Adding

a control

water control valve from the steam flow signal and resetting the drum level signal is able to handle some of the less difficult systems, Larger units with small storage capacity related to throughput, and units experiencing ware!" flow is' watched Single element loop (See figure severe, rapid load swings, usually require three element control, whereby

may not be sufficient. In figure

results in a boiler drum swell, causing 0 decrease in water flow when

an increase in flew is required. To reduce the upset, the reset action must be slow.

with steam flow and reset from the drum level signal.
measures drum level only, This is a simplefeedback control Transmitters A differential
DRUM LEVEL

drum level control 4-7.)

pressure

transmitter

is used

tc

measure

drum

leveL If the instruments control

used are systems. 4-3.)

sensitive to density variation, steam flow and water (for more information

then density compensation

techniques

must be employed. A moss

flow signal is required

for both two and three dement the error due to density

refer to ANSI/ISA-77A2.01-1999

(R200S) - Fossil Hwl Power Plan:


(See figure

Ferdwilter Control System - Drum-1jlpe.) Observe


The drum level control zero as the controller indicator set point

sole for a 30 inch span would be ~15 to +15 inches we with On higher pressure boilers at other than tile operating typically above WOO psi, a considpressure3 exist when J differential

erable error in level measurement

pressure is used due to water density changes in the boiler drum. The top boiler connection to the transmitter

will be filled with condensate. Iv, the drum level


at the transmitter, [he signal to the by calibrating the

---'j

!
f(x)

increases, the two signals become percent. (See Figure drum level controller transmitter.

equal, tim> reading zero level when the drum level is at 100 may also be corrected

4-6.) By reversing the connections


may be reversed. The reading

t-\--------'

It is also critical

thar tile sensing line co the transmitter

be sloped typically

a half

1
Figure 4· 7 Simple feedback control loop.

inch per foor, This is co eliminate level readings.

air pockets in the sensing lines which would cause improper

38

Bailer Control

Systems

Engineering

Feedwater

39

The mass of the water flow and the steam flow must be regulated so that mass water flow equals the mass steam flow to maintain drum level.The feedwater control regulates the mass water flow co the boiler. The effects of the input control actions interact, since firing rate also affects steam temperature and feedwarer flow affects the steam pressure, which is the final arbiter of firing rate demand. The overall system must be applied and coordinated in a manner to minimize the effects of these interactions. The interactions can be greatly affected by the control system design. If the boiler operates under varying steam pressure, the calibration of the liquid level transmitter will also VJ.l·'1 with steam density.
~~~/\..

The firing rate change has an effect on drum level,but the most significant cause of shrink and swell is rapid changes in drum pressure expanding or shrinking the steam bubbles due to load changes. The three element control scheme utilizes the steam flow and water flow co effectively maintain teedwarer equal to steam flow As load increases and decreases, the water flow will increase or decrease.The drum level control is a slow responding loop. When J single dement control system is implemented, the level transmitter (LT) sends a signal to the level controller. (See Figures 4-10 and 4-11.) The process variable (input signal) to the controller is compared to the set point (SP).

- ·Sh~rink· and Swell ~- I


Shrink and swell must be considered in determining the control Strategy of a boiler. During a rapid increase in load, a severe increase in level may occur. Shrink and swell is a result of pressure changes in the drum changing water density. The water in the drum contains steam bubbles similar to when water is boiled. During a rapid increase in load, a severe rise in level may occur because of an increase in volume of the bubbles. This increased volume is the result of both a drop in steam pressure fiom the load increase and the increase in steam generation from the greater firing rate to march die load increase (i.e., bubbles expand). (See Figure 4-9.)
SATURATED

,.G.!

i-();~

'DJ3JZ~fJ,;:·

STEAM WATER

<.l?

". ... .
I ...

""
'" .. .. •••

•• :.

::..... . .\: .. ..: : ...... '.

',,'.

: STEA!v1,

:,',

:.'

Figure 4·10 Single element control - drum level.


DRUM LEVEL DRUM PRESSURE

.....

FEEDWATER

i.

PRESSURE COMPENSATION

SP

WATER-MIXED STEAM BUBBLES

LP
MIA CONTROL STATION
~

Figure 4-9 Shrink and swell,

When there is a decrease in demand, the drum prcssme increases and the firing rate changes, thus reducing the volume of the bubbles (i.e., bubbles get smaller). A sudden loss in load could result in drum shrinkage severe enough to [rip the boiler on low level.

control draWing.

Typical single element control system. Fer .simplicity, reouncant transmitters have not been shown on this typical

I-~("'~ )\\

FINAL CON TROL VALVE

Figure 4-11 Single element feedwater control (SAMA

Symbols),

40'

Boiler Control

Systems

Engineering

Feedwater

41

Single Element Level Control The output signal is modified and adjusts the final control device, The diagram for a p&rD would typically be in [SA symbols. (See Figure 4-12.) DRUM STEAM LEVEL PRESSURE FLOW TEMPERATURE

DRUM LEVEL DRUM PRESSURE PT

pyl+----

PRESSURE COMPENSATION ....

1 I

PRESSURE

Lie

PRESSURE COMPENSATION

FINAL CONTROL DEVICE

lQ CS"O I VALVE) (FOR

OR (FOR SPEED CONROL)

Figure 4-12 Single element feedwater

control USA Symbols}.

Two Element Level Control The two element control scheme utilizes steam flow in addition to drum level. This is a simple feedback plus feedforward control system (see Figure 4-13) with a secondary variable that has a predictable relationship with the manipulated variable. The secondary variable causes the manipulated variable to change to the primary variable. The steam flow adjusts the feedwarer control valve based on steam flow signal and the drum level controller signal.As the steam flow increases or decreases. the steam flow adjusts the output of the summer and directly sets the feed\~<lterfinal element. (See summer section for further discussion} If the conditions are ideal, as in Figure 4-14, the feedwater flow would be equal to steam flow, and the level in the drum would be maintained. If feedwater is not constant, as seen in Figure 4-15. the changes in pressure would affect water control.

MIA CONTROL STATION

FINAL CONTROL DEVICE


Typical single element control system. For simplicity, redundant transmitters have not been shown on this typical control drawing.

Figure 4-13 Two element feedwater

control.

42

Boiler Control Systerns Engirleering

Feedwater

43

'\
NWL SWELL-

The presentation of the diagram for a P&lD for two element control using ISA symbols is depicted in Figure 4~16,
DRUM LEVEL

FEEDWATER PRESSURE

SHRINK_:j,/

s o
_j

100

DRUM PRESSURE PT

II.

:2: « w
i-if.!

75 STEA,M FLOW-j!

if

I/

50

FEEDWATER \,t
I.

FLOW

2.5 -

OL__

_
TIME

Figure 4"14 Performance two element (ideal conditions).

T r

DRUM LEVEL

STEAM PRESSURE PT

STEAM FLOW

TEMPERATURE

cr
PRESSURE AND TE;:MPERATURE COM PE N SATION

PRESSURE CQMP ENSATION

NWL

SWELL

SHRINK

-+

,
V
\

DRUM LEVEL

:s 0
_j

u,

:;;;
(f)

« w
i-,0 0'

75

FEEDWATER FLOW

50

__

_: \
_

FINAL CONTROL DEVICE

OR (VALVE)

8
(SPEED CONTROL)

OL_

TIME

...

{
Figure 4-16 Two element feedwater control.

44

Boiler Control Systems Ellgineerillg

Feedwater

45

Three Three

Element element

Level Contro.1 to drum level. (See Figure 4-17_)

control utilizes steam and water flow in addition

feedforward, and cascade control loop. The steam flow adjusts the feedwarer comro! valve baled on the steam flow signal and the drum level controller signal As the steam flow increases or decreases, the steam flow adj usts [he output of the summer and
directly sets the feedwater is the feedback improved controller sec point. therefore

This is a simple feedback,

By

...J

adding feedwater what

flow, the measured controlled.

variable
0: W

o
0:
}---

to the controller,

measuring

is being

Control Is

by adding mass flow compensation of the di~gum [or a

to drum level, steam flow and water flow


f01; three

!;;:
is

The presentarion depicted Three

P&ID

element

control

using

rSA

symbols

5:
o
iu W u,

00 OJ::

zz

_j

~~
2Cf)

ZOW U::oo

...J}---O <;(Z5

ltw

in Figure 4-18. dement it


to

feedwater

adds [he feedwater

flow measurement equals steam flow

to the control
to

loop. The sigflow and drum level over


}---

nificanr advantage controlling is mainrained the boiler control

is measuring
range_The

whar is being controlled. controlled

By measuring

me feedwarer maintain

n,

a flow set point, the feedwater

variable water flow is measured.The in feedwater

desired fcedwarer

o
n,

and overrides

shrink and swell and variations

header pressure_

~
Cf)

~------------~

Control The drum depends

System

Configuration is configcu;ed to be either a reverse 01: direct acting controller. is configtl(ed is configured This

3: o ...J
2
-:::J 0: u,

level controller

on the configuration

of rhe final control the controller

device and the fail safe mode

of the control

valve. If the control

valve fails dosed,

to be a reverse acting conor a combination of bach.

W IT -:::J W 0: CL
LU

troller. If [he control valve fails open, the controller

to be a direct acting controller.

J -I
1

Cf) Cf)

The final control

element

may be a control

valve, speed control,

Summer A summer occurs when two or more values come into an equation based on the K values. The functions equation systems Figures 4-17 and 4-18 [he summer used will V<Il-ywith type the control and the output are referred equals the

.~

i r
::

0: -:::J I-c IT W 0..

<;(

sum of the inputs in percent blocks or algorithms.In use multiplication equation. number in Figure depending The equations

to ;IS function

is used. Some companies specified,


"NO

or division equations. The summer con be configLl1:ed using a basic summer including or more the inputs

2
w

_l

2
w
(f)

}---

of inputs, In the equation 4-18_ This on the vendor

below, a, b, and c represent of equation block.

inp urs. Only

inputs are used

<;(

is a common

that may have two

o
u,

s
_j

algorithm/fimction

K (a) + K (b) + _K (c)


A basic equation Considering the drum controller performing the same function

Bias = ompm systems.


Cf) Cf)

-:::J

~~

should be available with most control

rNO inpu ts to the summer, set both K values co 1. Set che bias co -50 percent. W-ith level controller output to in manual percent_ mode and the drum level at the desired let point, set the

W II 0..

50

STEAM PRESSURE PT

STEAM FLOW

TEMPERATURE TT

DRUM LEVEL

DRUM PRESSURE PT

FEEDFEED" WATEr~ WATE.R FLOW TEMPERATURE

T
TY

IT

PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION

PRESSURE COMPENSATION

TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION

AUTO ONLY

LY

FINAL CONTROL DEVICE

OR

0
(SPEED CONROL)

Figure 4-18 P&ID for three element control using ISA symbols.

CHAPTER 5

Coal Fired Boilers

Coal fired boilers are the 1110Stcommon of the overall cost of operation Coal can be transported mental power requirements lrwintenance information of monitoring are making controls, to sites where and pollution

boilers in power generating gas supplies control

plants primarily

because

and the location

of power plants relative to sources of energy. are nor available. However, coal higher Combustion (For a brief tutorial new environon fossil fuel based
011

the overall cost of burning equipment. A, Boiler see Appendix

due to the cost and Controls,

plant combustion

taken from ANSIIlSA-77.4t.Ol-2005,

Fossil Fuel Power PI",,/ Boiler Combustion

Controls.)
Coal fired boilers have specific problems to the common hazards involved that gas and oil fired boilers do not have. In addition of solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, other coal, including Btu values, must be spaces must be and the posand other enclosed of pulverized

in the combustion

hazards related to the physical characteristics designed to prevent sibility of spontaneous


·I

addressed in che design of tile firing systems, Coal bunkers accumulation combustion of methane

gas, a conU110D cause of explosions

resulting in fires in the coal pile.

,
Table 5-1 Fuel Btu Values per Pound by State
Table 5·1 Coal in Alabama
Illinois Indiana Kansas Kentucky Ohio Pennsylvania Colorado

.1 lI:

variations

of'Bcu values for coal are significam


effect on combustion

depending control.

Btu/lb
13.500 11.200 11.300 10.950 12,100 12,550 13,850 9,650 6.940

on the state where Refer

the coal comes from, The variations

Btu val lies have a significant

to Table 5-1 and Figure 6-14.

Pulverized Coal Fired Boilers


Pulverized boilers response or fluid required improvement due bed coal fired boilers are one of the most common plants; and are considered Bred boilers. The change More firing a vase rate over stoker
to

used in utility demand

is faster than stoker fired

boilers,

mechanical

equipment

is

North Dakota

co pulverize

rhe coal that is not required

in stoker coal system. Because explotrip,

fired boilers. Figure 5-1 is an example a pulverized figuration system and its components

of 0 direct fired pulverized should be designed

sions and fires are most likely to occur during

start up, shut down, or after an emergency for continuous

operation. The con-

of the boiler does not have coal shut off valves. The NFPA 85 Code now requires

Coal Fired Boilers

49

-~ "."

._.:,~~ ......_.:r~

-,

50

Boiler Control Systems Engineering

Coal Fired Boilers to existing boilers require management that they be installed. system (BMS) or a (See Figure 5-2.)

51

coal shut off valves; therefore, Examples of modifications basic process control

modifications

can include

installing

a burner

system (BPCS),

even if the logic has not changed.

x o
III

o
_J

ffi~ :::II-OZ
1110

..J

$:
[[ Ll.J

E ...
Q) I./l

>I./l
tl

Z
(])

[[

"i e
"C

IT: u,

::l

Q
l-

w :2 II

<J "C

.;:
011

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c.

wo <C_j
a: a: _w
<ttl.
i .l ,
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WO

.t:

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C.

"Si
Q)

:;

~ ::-

"C
fii Z
-c u. <t

t
a:<t
-tL -tL

1-:2 O<c
:1:0

!.'.:!

(f)

~:;(r NO
iIz
w<C(9
>_jz
-.lW-

a:

.2
IE oa: w a: o,
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a:

<CI-

o.

:J:JI?;: u, n,

>a:z

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>CI

rr

"C. Q) ;:

:c

... .. ..
e

(!l<t
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za: 0:0 Wo tl.w :20 wo:


OlL _j:2

00

tl.<C

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:0:

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Il

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.;,
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Cl

t:.0 00

a:

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e

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00:

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tL

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\ \

When a loss of flame is detected by a pulverizer, of flame is detected, an audible

on a predetermined alarm is required

number

or arrangement

of burners served tripped. When a loss is

that feeder, or pulverizer

and feeder, is to be automatically on each burner whether co determine

involved, and an operator

required to visually inspect flame conditions should be continued.

burner or pulverizer opera cion

52'

Boiler Control Systems Engineering

Coal Fired Boilers

53

The number and arrangement of burners for each pulverizer trip, showing me noc=ry loss of flame to automatically initiate a feeder, or pulverizer and feeder, is to be deeermined by me boiler manufacrurer, as a function of me spacial arrangement of burners and me unit load Under circumstances of operation where support between the operating burners does not exist.either from proven igniters or adjacent burners, loss of'flame on an individual burner must autornaeically initiate a trip of the feeder, or the pulverizer and feeder.
To prevent settling of pulverized coal in burner pipes, and ignition of the coal, the transport

air velocity ill all burner pipes must be maintained at or above a minimum value during operation, aud while purging me pipes during shutdown. This predererrained value is established by rhe manufacturer and verified by rests,The exception is during an emergency trip conditon when transport air must nor be maintained and a control system is required to control u:mpcrarure.. (See Figure 5-2_) The coal-air mixture temperature leaving me pulverizer must be maintained within rhe Limits specified by the pulverizer and burner manufacturerts) fOI me rype of coal being burned. The hearing of the coal removes the moisture from the coal and improves boiler efficiency.
of a control systcn: for J pulverized ccal boiler. The system has the lag control to maintain the proper fuel sir ratio. Pulverized coal utility boilers are more complex than this diagram indicates due [0 me number of burners and capacity. but the control strategy is alien similar. There is derrvsrive control on the ompm of the boiler drum pressure, This feedforward control signal will improve the response time for the coal feed, which is a result of me dead time berween a load demand change and a change in coal feed rare response. Steam flow ~ also a feedlorward signal ;;Q the output of drum pressure that will improve control. There is speed cocrrol and damper comml on the FD fan. By controlling the speed and damper position, the damper can operate in me mosr efficient opening range for beuer control, The 02 analyzer output is a feedforward control signal to air flow. Some control systems include combustibles as fecdforward control. There are risks in combustible control due to the narrow band of potencial control and the slow r.esponse time of combustible analyzers. (See Figure 5-4.) eros, limiting/lead Fi6'UJ:e 5-3 is an example

Ez ~~ ~~ ~ ~~
0<.:::;t-:-

"'~
~<

~a

"z §!"
5~ "-~ zo
"'t:l

~~

::z:I '" ~~

Off
cr

Raw Coal and .Feeder


The raw storage bin supplies the coal to the reeder. The coal feeder provides the coal supply ID me pulverizer which grinds me coal into a fine powder. The changes in me late of me reeder and me pulverizer control the coal ked to the boiler, in rum, controlling the boiler firing rare. The coal primary air fun blows the coal into the boiler. Hot primary air is used to remove some of me moisture fiom the c031 and transport me coal to [he berner. It also conrribures to me combustion air being provided co the furnace. explosions in the pulverizer or burner pipes, provisions must be made for cooling and emptying the pulverizers as parr of the proce" of shutting down the associated burners. Pulverized coal dust must be prevented from accumulating in pulverizer :11rducts. Methods must be provided to prevent the reverse flow of furnace gases inro idle burners or pulverizers. Pulverizers ane! pulverized fuel SOOGIge sysrecnsare required to be equipped with an inening ~'Su:m rhar is capable .of maintaining- an inert atmosphere. If a pulverizer is tripped
To minimize down

~~ ~
c

..
1l7----------;..jg ~~

"""
w;.1~

~; ~
,_

-ii

if

w-- ......

--.,J.II ~~

54

Boiler Control Systems

Engineering

Coal Fired Boilers

55

1000

~ ~
<L

900 800 700


LEGEND

~ a:
f-

w 0

z z
w

0
0

600 500 400 300 200


100 D 0

<)

28% STEAM FLOW FLOW

o 55% STEAM

z z
CD

4'
I[
I

t:,.

94% STEAM FLOW

0 ::;; 0

~~

a:

\
I

b\·.

A
0.5

\
1

\ ...
1,5

'A_

i&s
2

r-r

.A-

2.5

3,5 %

4.5

OXYGEN

CONCENTRATION,

Figure 5-4 Excess oxygen and carbon monoxide relationship at various loads for a gas-fired boiler. Figure 5-5 Chain grate stoker.
10

Note; The cr.avefor coalfiring is similar

the one for gas.

under load, the system must be inerted and maintained under an inert atmosphere until confirrnation that no burning 0'( smoldering fuel exists in the pulverizer, or until the fuel IS removed. 'i,'(lhen an inerting system is activated, proof of flow of the inert media IS required.

Stoker Boilers Stoker £ired boilers were the first coal fired boilers and their conrrol firing demand rate was adjusted manually. Figure 5-5 is a chain grate stoker.The firing rate is controlled by adding and decreasing fuel to the grate and also by adjusting the air entry under the grate. Figure 5-6 is a control scheme for a stoker boiler. The control in this diagram is a fuel flow air flow control system and the boiler firing rate demand is a gain and deri vrative control that will improve the changes in firing rate demand.
FUEUAIR RATIO

~
Cyclone Boiler The cyclone boiler was developed to burn a large variety of fuels including wood, bark, coal char, refuse, and petroleum coke. As a means of disposing of old tire>, for example, cyclone boilers have some of the same advantages as pulverized coal fired boilers, as well as some additional advantages. Wi.h cyclone boilers, there is a reduction in fly ash content in the flue gases. Coal does nor need to be pulverized but is crushed to approximately one-quarter inch. The ;;

FURNACE DRAFT CONTROL

§
AIR

@
FORCED DRAFT

@
STOKER SPEED INDUCED DRAFT

OVERFIRE

"Fsedforward to furnace draft control (if required).

Figure 5-6

Control scheme for a stoker boiler.

u.

r
56
;;:
;':: ?

Boiler Control Systems Engineering

.~

Coal Fired Boilers

57

..f:

~ ~~ ~ ...

"" s
.,,:;:;:

~~: ~*u.;
'§~2
OliCo,'l~

oi

~ ~
e-

~ ~

~
'" a
.~

'"

>-

c,

·1
j
..:

1
.11

cyclone haltom

furnace

is a smaller

ancillary

furnace

that typically

attaches

horizontally
to

near the ten feet.

of the main boiler

furnace. gravimetric

Diameters

of me main barrel range from five providing today, volumetric

Gravimetric

feeders are used to control coal feed based on weight feeders are mere common is controlled

mass coal flow. feeders are

See Figure 5-7. Although Centrifugal force throws

also used IQr coal feed flow measurement.Air

throat. wall. The temperature in the cyclone exceeds 3000°F, which melts the coal that forms a fluid slag on the cyclone walls. Heal II
the coal against the cyclone released at extremely high rates and combustion is completed depending within the combustion burners, space of in cum, the cyclone, with approximately or more cyclone furnaces 15% excess air. The heat from the cyclone

to each cyclone by a venture

supplies heat to the main boiler furnace. Sometimes, are used.

on the total boiler capacity, two

t;:

ci

u:

.$

·0
.c
"tI
Il)

.1

0
;f

~ ~ ~

'~

.: ...
Gl c
0 c.>

[-

,----------------r~----------·

.. .... c .. .. c
0
Q C
I:)

ii
>-

t
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&
.~

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:::I ,.g 0

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Il)
I

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;:)

..

ii:

CI

j
j
·lt

, "

I
~

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~

CHAPTER 6

F'ue;1and Air Control

The min! system of a control system is fisel air control,

INPUT

:0 ..

.!

BOIlER

OUTPUT

$T""oAAI TEMPSRAruRE

CONTROL

!=igut:'!

6·'

Bloc!. diagr<lm of boiler

cOlltrol - fuel ai~coilt7oL

One of the key components of the control is the ability of the fuel air control system to mainrain sufiicienr air proportional [0 fuel [0 eliminate me possibility of a firel-rich condition and die possibility of an explosion, Consideration should be given to the effects of fuel, air densiry, and temperature flucruacions as related to air flow and the performance of rhe fuel flowmeter in regulating the fuel air ratio.

me

particularly smaller uruts or unrts firing an unmeasurable fuel. utilize what positioning conrrol sysrem III which fuel and air are not measured. \See Figure 6-2.) Figure 6-3 is a SANl-'. eepreseneanve of a jackshafr posiriorung control system, The controller firing rare demand signal positions both the fuel and air. Their relationship is maintained by holding me positicns of the final operators ill correspondence with each other. Figure 6-3 IS a parallel posinoning sysrem ,,"1m no fuel or air measurement. Many installations,
is called ... jackshafi

Every positron or the rud valve is assumed co represent a repeatable value of rue! dow, ind z ccrrespondi ng position of the ai.r !low co represent a repeatable val ue of air flow The air characterizarion must be provided in the air damper drive, and sometimes on the fuel valve, so the final operators on track ill ilroPec sequence. A limited rrim adj=ent is provided In the fuel air ratio srarion to allow some modification of the initiallv calibrated fuel air rano, This may be acccmphshed auecmaccally, bur a manual station is mosc common method

"'"0

me

Fuel and Air Control

59

60

Boiler Control Systems

Engineering

Fuel and Air Control

61

fuel air ratio control is not precise. It depends on other parameTers and is affecred by varying fuel characteristics, fuel temperarure, and/or pressure variations, atmospheric conditions, etc. If these conditions are not held constant, me fuel :W: prio will be significantly affccred. Also, this system canaoc be applied to multiple burner installanons. On OUt oi service burners, air register position, system flow resistance, and consequendy; fuel flow rate, are all a function of the number of burners in service. To overcome the inherent

Since it is nor based on a measuremenc,

disadvanrages, so-called metering

systems are generally

applied

to

furnace conrrol, Fuel and air are measured, and flow control loops an: dosed on these variables. Mass air flow measurement must be a repeatable measurement signalrhat

is representative

or the

air emenng
1l0\1,

®
I

~c furnace. \llhelJ must be compensated ReSTAnON

volumetric elemenc

techniques

an: employed

and me air temperature (indicated)

ar me flow-measunng

varies 50Q f (28" C) or more, the measured to

for flowing air density to determine

the true mass air flow rate. Control the addition mode of excess fuel, combustion controlling

systems mus; have the air characterized .\ummacic tracking


11U!S[

fuel

10

prevent

be provided

for bumpless demand,

conrrol

transter, The

Figure 6·2 Mechanical

positioning

system.

control, which

responds

to me boiler energy

must be accomplished

by

furnace pressure (balanced It IS a prerequisite

drafi: systems), air demand, and fuel,


to

HEADER PRESSURE

for air concrol


to

be in auromatic

whenever regulation

filtd control

is io automatic.

Provisions must be made conditions

ensure rhat the automatic

or fuel will result in a fuel-to-

ai r ratio that provides safe boiler operation. T his includes linu ting fu el flow or air llow uncle r all to ensure ruel flow never exceeds !;;lfe combustion limit the air £10'0" will suppOrt.

me

E xc ess air is re quire dar all J cads to en Sl,l re proper co mb usri on of the fuel enteri n g furnace. The furnace should nor operate at an oxygen level in me flue gas below the boiler or burner
manufacturer's for NOx control
reqUiTeMcn!S. The exception 11.15 no excess

me

is 00 low NO"

conrrol. Sub-stoichiometric

fixing

air in the burners,

Two basic approaches to metering systems are series metering and parallel metering. Figure 6-4 illustrates :1 series metering syseem referred to as fuel follow air. All di£fereorial pressure
transmitter
FUEUAlR RA'lO ADJUST

signals must be converted pressure transmitter

[Q

a linear signal as depicted

in Figure 6-4 . The

diagrams

with a differemial

require square root extracnon,

depicting flow in the following which can be achieved in me aansmiuer


establishes

control schemes will


or in the BPCS. and the

FuE'... CONnOL

VAl...IE '

AIR DAMPER

III this system,


m,..mrenance consideration.

me firing

rate demand establishes

rhe set point fur the air flow controller, of the fuel flow controller. metered basis. With Therefore,

the air flow measurement the fuel demand

the set point

of fuel air rano is provided on 3 measured fuel follows air on load increase. There

rhis

configuradcn

Figure 6·3 Parallel pos'itioning There include are advantages and disadvanrages

with no fu:el air measurement.


to

a parallel jackshafi

posinoning

its simplicity. reliability applied


ill

responsiveness.

and COSt effectiveness.

system. Advantages On ~ pneumatic system systems have been slow, In addition,

is never greater than the actual measured air flo". This IS an important safety is no possibility of unburned fuel accumuiarion. Since the all: flow loop is usually somewhar slower responding than the fuel flow loop, parallel tracking or the [\\'0 occurs on load decrease.
Figure 6-5 illusrrares another Structured identically series metering system referred except Irs response to as an air follow fuel scheme. the fuel and air loops are reversed

with long transmission


successfullv

distances, for instance, parallel jackshafi some cases where metered

positioning

flow loops are undesirably

to the fuel follow air system syste:n

,,'"1e rangeabili ry of me sY'm~m is high, limited only b~'me fiml open tors,

this series mecenng

has one

advamage.

is optimum

because of

me faster

response of rhe fuel loop.

62

Boiler Ccruro

Systems Engineering

Fuel and Air Control

63

G S0[b
I

HEADER PRESSURE

AIRFLOW

FUEL FLOW

LY

L-vl ,
-

From a saf~ty standpoint,

this configuration

is undesirable.

As (he load increases, fuel will lead

air. Also, fu e I derna n d still has more fuel than ai r. The berrer configuration meteriag flow co m:ro I loops. One for combustion demand control

system, me firing-race

signa: is applied

is developed
In

In

Figu~

6-6. In this parallel


[01;\,""0

parallel as rhe ~et point

slave

flow control loop mOruWIS fuel and the other monitors

air,

FUEL FLOW

SP

FUEL FLOW CONTROL AlR DAMPER FUEL VALVE

Figure 6-4 Fuel follow

a,ir series metering

system.

HEADER PRESSURE

S?

FUEL FLOW

AIR FLOW

§
FUEL VALVE

0)

AIR DAMPER

figl.lre 6·5 Basic paJ"alilel

me~erji1g.
aCCUr3Ie

This sysrern provides fo:- stable,


normal steady-state ditions or during operation,

bur does not guarantee operating

control of energJ,' input and fuel air ratio during cornbusuon safety dunng rransienr conirregularities.

certain predictable

PV

~
SP

FUEL CONTROL

A parallel system incorporating a fuel flow interlock is illustrated in Figure 6-7. The interlock is accomplished by inserang J low lip selector in the set point signal LO me fuel !low conrroller, Tile second mput ro [he selector is controlled air flow. Thus. me demand SIgnal fur fuel is either fuing-rate demand signal or measured air flow, whichever is lower, Wid! this system, fuel demand can never exceed measured air flow and, on a load increase, fuel demand must follow air demand. Fuel cannot be increased until air flow increase is proven through [he air flow measurement loop.

me

me

§
FUEL VALVE AIR DAMPER

Figure insernng

6-8 is a parallel is measured

metering

svstem

wich air flow inreriock.


the demand

This

15 accomplished

by

a high signa: seiector in die set point signal to the air flow ccrrroller The second input fuel flow. Therefore, signal for air is either the firing-

to the selector

rate demand signal or the measured fuel flow. whichever is higher.

Figure 6-5 Air fonow fuel sedes metering

system.

With this svsrem, air demand can never be less dun measured fuel flow. On a load decrease, au: demand muse rollow fue1.Air cannot be decreased unci! fuel !low decrease IS proven through {he fuel flow measurement loop.

64

Boiler Control Systems Engineering

Fuel and Air Control

65

FUEL FLOW

7
~

HEADER PRESSURE

AIRFLOW

GAS FLOW

STEAM HEADER PRESSURE

~
FUEUAIR
RATIO ADJUST

--._
~ ~
FROM FUEL

FT

~
AIR RAnD
TRIM

.,.

9 G

AIRFLOW

C;V .,.
fj,
A
STEAr.J FLOW

°2

SP FUEL FLOW COI'ITROL

FUEL VALVE

@
AIR DAMPER

Figure 6·7 Parallel meter fuel flo·winte.rlock.

I
merit,

AIR CONTROL

FUEL FLOW

HEADER

PRESSURE

AIR FLOW

CfJ
SP

~
FUEUAIR RAnD
ADJUST SP

~ ~

'xl
FROM FUEL

AlR RATIO
TRIM

Figure 6-9 Firing single fuel/cross limiting_


First, "he steady-slaw and air controllers. measurement in parallel. condition which of this system is considered proportional-plus-integral load demand, with all values in percent.The action. act to continuously
tWO

fuel hold

FUEL VAl.VE

FUEL FLOW CONTROL

provide

mel Bow

equal 10 set point. Thereiore,

air dow sec pomr, :liT How measureflow loops an: set

set point, and fuel flow measurement

are all equal. The

L!Bi AJR

On a load increase, the low selector measurement signal. Fuel flow demand selector

rejects me load demand (ser point) becomes

signal and acceprs the air flow

DAMPER

equal to air flow measurement. and accepts the: mcreasmg


to

Figure 6·8 Paranel meter air flow interlock.

.~t d!e same arne, rhe b<¢ load demand acts as a series metering

rejects

rue'- no\,

measurement

signal. Air flow demand


system with

(sec poine) becomes equal

load demand.

The system

rue!

following

air.

Fuel and Air Control. Gas Oil


Figure 6-9 locks
IS

a parallel metenng system incorporating described. ThIS scheme

born the fuel flow and air flow inter-

is referred ro JS a cross lirruting or lead-lag oarallel-senes m=-:=-r"-..;~>4e."'" "r flow interlocked ~~~::n_ Gas and oil concol is ·;:ic-..ec:" this control scheme; however, the cross limiting control concept is commonly used for al: fuels and Ius been the standard for utility boilers since the 1960's.
previously

becomes

load decrease, the low selector accept> the load demand signal, and fuel demand (sec point) equal to load demand, Alr demand becomes equal [0 fuel flow. Ag;Un system is acnng as a series metering system. this rime with air following fueL
J

On

me

The advantage of this system is on a load mcrease actual increase in air !low measurement

ruel demand

cannot

be incre.ued

unnl an cannot be

is sensed, On a load decrease, air demand

66

Boiler Control Systems Engineenng

Fuel and f1Jr Controi

67

decreased

until an actual decrease

in fuel flow measurement

is sensed. reduced

On

an inadvertent

decrease in measured

air

fto\\; me

fuel

demand

IS

immediatelv

an equal amount,

Fuel and Air Contro'l Characterization


Oil

all

control

systems, me air must be characterized ilorTl me f101'0' transrniners control to control

to me fuel. Figure 6-10 is an example

of

what me output

may look like. The air curve

.lnd the fue: curve

must match (or cross luniting the air increases first, modifying decrease ~._ ~ter ir demand, than
It IS

the firel air ratio. On an increase in demand. the low select relay, On a through the low select in arr flow is rhe !low_

the set point for the fuel through


J

the fuei decreases

and the air set point is modified vane or damper drive j" characterized

"'1ot~ the air flow curve, When as

opens, the initial change to lineanze

ch"

opening

increases.The

100

_'

______l____

Figure 6·11 Oharacterjzafion


AIR (8)

curve,

~
"...J

a:
~

AIR 50

;;:

is continued until the Dring rate of the boiler is complete. If the procedure is out accurately, the fuel air ratio will be at the desired o)"')'gen level over the full fir-ing 1:3tC" or- the boiler. Figure 6-12 shows mat the first 50 percent of the boiler load rvpicallv will have high excess air, This is because the minimum air flow is typically 2S percent and, in gem:ral, all boilers require more excess air for complece combustion at lower IOJds_ See Tab!e 6-1 for a comparison of excess air [0 oxygen. Tim procedure carried
FUEL

...J

Ul

:.>
u,

IAJ

Excess air percent

1$

controlled

by measuring ru..:W'''
point is reached at higher

whicil i>. in direct correlation

to it, \';"h= reducing

excess air, the optimum oxygen) flue gas tcmperarure

when an mcremenr

of excess air reducuon reduction

(e.g .. 0.1
Since the in percent

is equal to rhe loss from the increase in ppm of carbon monixide,


is higher loads, the gain for 0.1 percent

oxygen is greater than at lower loads.

50 CONTROL RANGE

100

EXCESSA'F! 1% 0,)

A.a - 8ASIC FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF CONTROLLED DEVICES C.D - CHARACTERISTICS AFTER UNEAi'lIZATION MID AUGNMENT

·1-1

--------.-I------.----~------,

Fig,ure 6·1,0 Output from flow lTansmitters.


Figure 6-11 is an example of me characrerizanon a WI"': 'ITI!_JOrt:ltlf irnportanc fuel
IS IS

curve. This CUrve is developed

during boiler bur


I( IS

startup or at my rime the fuel air ratio must be verified. The characterizanon funcrion
in

of we air flow is is achiev-ed by manwhen the O2

a boiler

controlscheme

[t ClII be n~r:o' rune consunung,

:I

ior safe and efficieur operation

of a boiler.This

characterization

ually r,ring the boiler and increasing


at the desired

the air at various firing rates. After the air is increased, the Change

slowly increased unci.l a good Bame is eseablished.A level wizh


110

combustibles.

me

good flame is achieved air flow output 60 percent


to

\ "-JI
I I
'00

rnatch

me

fuel ilow:
OUrplil

The chart shows th:t[ with the ruel flow at 50 percent, from the characterizer izer output must be changed must he changed from 45 percent

the air flow is 37_5 percent.The

to 50 percent.Ar

fUel flow, rhe character-

co 60 percent.

Figure 6-12 Excess a'ir vs. boiler load.

68

Boiler Conrrol

Systems Engineering

Fuel and AiT Control

69

E.x;cess Air to Oxygen


\Vhen supplied de-ices flue gas or other men: gases are introduced to burners, used provide a testing uniform method must distribution
to the secondary

air or combusnon content

air being and

Multiple

Fuel Control
in Figure 6-13 is used when and started the fuels are not fired simulmust be shut down up on the aleernative does not sum
IS

be used to demonstrate
[0

that the methods

The dual fuel cross Limiting control taneously. The boiler lCheme is burning

and mixing, The oxygen

of the mixture

being supplied

go below the limit specified by the burner manufacturer, or as proven by teses to provide stable combustion. Means rnusr be provided to monitor either t!':e rano of flu", gas to air or the m .. y,;"n content of the mixture,
ro the burners of excess air to oxygen.

is nor perrruued

requires a Btu of fuels bemg fired. Too configuranon

me

fuel. NFPA

85

tWO

fiiels.This

control

gas

or oil, not both. A selector switch

required.

Table 6-1 below gives the relationship

Table 6-1 Relationship


Gas Excess AJr

of excess

air to oxygen.

GAS FLOW

OIL FLOW

STEAl-. HEADER PRESSURE

AIR FLOW

9.5
2

15 I

28.3

36 2
6

£S.O 55.6

6-.8

AIRFLOW CHARACTEfllZER

I'
47.1 58.0 70.7

No..6 Oi; Excess Air Oxygen

I
I

I I

4.7 1

9.9
2

157

22.2
4

29.5 5

377 6

AIR

CONTROL

Coal Excess Air 0 4.9


I

Oxygen

10.2 2

16.2

22.9

304 5

38.8

48.5
7

"I

59.5

72.9

,
!

I
8

19

~
GAS VALVE
OIL VALVE AlA DAMPER

A simple method

for calculating

excess air is:

Excess .ur % =

x(

21 \ 21 - % oxvgen

-1)

x 100 Figure 6,-13 Dual fuel cross


Figure 6-13 are burned
\5

limi'ting control. is used when fuels

The K dues

are K= 0.9 gas: 0.9-1- oil; and 0.9- coal

also

l muluple

fuel control system. This control configuranon

simultaneously,

or for running

fiiel

changes. a company for has a gas curtailmenc con[0 an

Some companies tract, occurs alremare To change

me utility
in
\'Cry

have gas curtailmenr company cold can limit

me gas supply

contracts. When

if me demand

gas is high, Tills


l5

normally

'e.l.ther_ In the event Ot gas cur.;rii··,ent, the boiler. TypicaJ.l}~ system is started

tuel and not shut down

me alternate

the company tuel

must switch oil.


IS

fuels, the oil recirculanon

to establish flow. [( the oil of a control

heavy such for mul-

as #6 oil, it must be heated. Figure 6-14 is an example tiple fuel burning and running fuel changes.

system designed

V:u<::"

-,}\ch..:p:e

n..,,'

are burned simulcaneously . a Em


In

rnmer is required

ill

co itrol cl:e air


15

based on toeal Btu \ alues of rhe fuel. In Figure 6-1"T, the

Btu

summer

output

the coral Btu

value of the fuels burned

the boiler.

70

Boiler Control Systems

Engineering

Fuel and Air Control

71

The Btu value of the gas and oil flow's are not the same (see figure 6-14); therefore, of me fuels will be required [or oil is 95,000 K Btu's.The or 0.961. The diff"=r in

me Btu

me scaling

summer

for me two fuels. If the Btu for gas is 1, 100

scfh, for 90,000 scf the Btu for gas is 99,000

K value for gas is 1 and the K value for oil is 0.96 (95/99""

K. If me Btu for #6 oil is 19,000 Btu/lb, the Btu 0.959

1--'
OOU,.

air now required for oil em be ~djlbcedby the operator sening a nco on zhe lir coruroiler, In addition, the rano may be adjusted with a Ieedforward forward signal from the oil flow to the summer on me output from me air characterizer.The summer has three inputs, The input from rhe charactenzer will have 3 K value of one. and the input from the oil will have a K value based on the air ratio difference of the oil versus gus (approximately 0.9),

h-T
wo

=-

"#-

(!:. f1)

a CfI= I-Z
::;;
",0 00

_J

0'"
II:

-' 0::

ill

/\ felel controller
demand ciency analyzer reference
IS

controls

me firing of the fuel. TJ'pic.illy, the primary fuel control> me boiler

iz
a
5
_J l!.

and the alrernate

demand irom
a feedlorward

me

fud IS base-loaded .. '\ feedforward signal is also sent to the air flow secondary rud in order [0 bias air dow for me secondary fuel BO;]IT dli-

Improved signal

by
[Q

measuring the air

oxygen

and using the outpUt from the oxygen a hazardous analyzers alarm. condition Combustible

controller

J5

~ ~
< a
z:

.i:'

110\V

controller. To prevent

if the oxygen

fails, a limit on the Olltp1.lt is required, of percent combustibles output

are ofien installed d' a

with a high combustibles is anomer

The O2 [tim oonnoller limit


01-

input to the air flow summer. This can have a value


L

of !. if the ou'll u 1: of the controller the trim can beset

is limire d. If .te outpu

of the controller

lS

not limited. th e

I
I-

!I:

<-

'" 0 li
~,

...

;;
-0
:::I

~
en
a: e "i
...J

by

the K value of me summer.

If me K value ,~ 0.1, me limn is

10 percent. A low O2 condicion must be alarmed.


One method cent at primarv
J

Orr: <>::J
WU) :e<fJ :2W

W"!:.!J

J:
:::I ....

I'l

for transferring

fLI els

is to place the secondary The secondary

fuel in manual and bias the air to fuel is slowly increased controller a few perdecreases the

-c 0:: w a.
<fJ

prevent a fuel rich mixture time. The header

from developing. pressure

II: I-

increases and rhe header pressure

fuel This procedure is continued unril the fuel eransfer is complete, men the secondary fue~ controller is placed in automatic cascade comrol and the ?r~-n<II1 r.;ei is placed W IT".muJ conuol, The ;..iFPA 85 Code describes transferring of fuels in more detail.

:z o

> -' >


<>:

C .;:

CIl

a:
'r

::I

"f

me

g~
l.!...g -'0 ou;>

5-

tD

~
~"' :::J:

On unliry boilers, the boiler demand firing rate master looks at the Btu/hr meet the coral heat input demand as ditiere nt for different

from the from end sets a demand

me base-loaded

flows

or the

for fuel Btu/hr.

The are

different

fuels and adjusts the swing fuel to

u:
_J

en

fuel changes. Because air requirements

fUek, me air may also need to be adj usred.

,_
:z
..:
(!J

rr:

'.U

:> :>

Oxygen

(02JTrim Control
deIT\O~ 111

0 u
;IW..I Figure

<:

O2 trim control is

Figure 6-14

6-8.The

O2 trrrn con 0"01IS used

[0

rnm

the fuel air ratio due to a change

in conditions

such air density

or fuel variations. The various

fuel Bill values are shown in Table 6-2.

5"0° _J<fJ
lL In

:r:
0 0 0

>-

<fJ

m
(!J

t;:

«. 0 (!J
q>
0

72

Boiler

Control

Systems

Engineering

CHAPTER 7

Table 6·2 Fuel Btu values per pound by state.


Gas
Pennsylvania South Carolina Ohio Louisiana Oklahoma

Stu/lb
23.170

Coal
Alabama Illinois Indiana

Btu/lb
13,350 11,200 11,300 10,950 12,100 12,550 13,850 9,650 6,940

I
I

Oil
No. 2011

Btu/lb
19.170 19,750

Steam Temperature

22.904

I
I

22,077 21,824 20,160

No. 5 Oil

17.410 18,990

Kansas Kentucky Ohio

Pen nsylvan ia Colorado

The fourth element of a control system i:; steam temperature control. (For a brief tutorial on steam remperature control, see Appendix B. Steam Temperature Control, taken from ANSI/ISA-77A4.02-2001, Fossil HIe! Power Plant Steam Temperature Conuol System - Once-

I
MUltiple Boilers

North Dakota

Through Type.)

INPUT

BOILER

OUTPUT

Some plants have multiple boilers supplying steam to a common header. The NFPA 85 Code requires that each boiler with tile same fuel supply have a manual isolation valve to isolate the fuel supply.The Code also requires that each boiler has dedicated safety shutoff valving with related alarm interlocks and control instrumentation. Figure 6-14 depicts a conrrol system for a single boiler with a sub-master to provide a means of adjusting the firing rate demand for the boiler. The ratio of the steam to a common header may be designed so that the waste fuel firinc rate is steady and not an off and on upply. Some boilers burn waste fuels to dispose of fuels derived from plant production. Other boilers bring in waste fuels to reduce fuel costs. Plants have been able co obtain fuels such as scrap wood that bas been ground into chips, at little or no COSt, redUCing the overall cost of steam generation. Each boiler should have drum pressure, steam ([ow;and header pressure transmitters for monitoring operation of the boiler. It is 11.10 important to track boiler efficiency, especially if a plant has more than one boiler. If one of the boilers is less efficient than another, boiler load may be transferred to improve overall efficiency. A computerized system that calculates boiler efficiency enables rhe operator to monitor the efficiencies of each boiler and make manual adjustrnerirs, or have the computer make load corrections, for the most efficient operation.

Figure 7-1 Block diagram of boiler control - steam temperature

control.

The function of [he superheat temperature control system is to maintain superheat steam t~mperature within the boiler manufacturer's specified limits. Ccnerallw the goal is to obtain a specified final superheat steam temperature over the specified boiler-load range. The control strategy must be based on the particular control mechanisms used and the boiler manufacturer's philosophy for controlling steam temperature. The strategies consist of spray water attemperacion, gas bypass, gas recirculation, burner tilt, or a combination of these processes. Although the control strategies described here use conventional PID control techniques, [he U5eof advanced control strategies is not excluded. The primary benefit of constant steam temperature 15 improving the economy of conve~io!l5 to mechanical energy and reducing the amount of moisture in the steam. Excessive steam moisture will result in damage to the turbines. Constant temperature control allows for smaller colerances of die mechanical equipmem. Steam Temperature 73

74

Bailer Control Systems E~gineering

Steam Temperature moisture from me steam. The steam is controlled to as of the steam by spraying water into tempe.ramre. De-superheating

75
with

Superheat

tubes heal the steam and remove by cooling De-superheating

A two element slow to moderate

steam temperature control load changes

strategy should

only be used in applications

to the desired temperature de-superheating. the steam line to reduce can be accomplished Single element applications temperature

the steam with spray water. This process is referred steam to the desired

or with a steady spray water pressure

supply and fixed steam

controls the temperature

pressure applications.

[he superheated

by one, IVm, or three element control

control,
control strategy should required to regusteam
FINAL STEAM TEMPERATURE

steam temperature

is me minimum

late the steam temperature

leaving the boiler. Single element such as building the steam demand heating

control

only be used in
constant

with slow load changes is not critical, or when

systems, where

IT

has very little variation.

FINAL STEAM TEMPERATURE

TT

TRANSIENT CORRECTION SIGNAL(S) LOAD INDEX(ES)

----~l
FEEDFORWARD CALCULATION

* 1
relationship

MIA CONTROL STATION

:;~~YLOCK

~
SPRAY iNTERLOCK
L-- __
_J

g
SPRAY CONTROL VALVE

I
control

H.___A___..
100%

0---C2.:J 1
0%

@
SPRAY CONTROL VALVE SPRAY BLOCK VALVE

SPRAY BLOCK VALVE

Figure 7-3 Typical two element superheat contro·l. Figure 7-3 is a typical feedforward plus feedback control system with a secondary variable and

Figure 7-2 Typical single element superheat Figure 7-2 is a typical simple feedback temperature qL1a[e. Two element steam temperature control. control is measured and compared water flow. The spray interlock

control.
system. The final steam the spray is not ade-

a load index that has a predictable final steam temperature is measured calculation,

with the manipulated the spray water flow.

variable spray water. The by the feedforward

and compared

to a set point, modified

control, single element

and the result is used to regulate

to a set poim; che result is used to regulate

prevents the water injection

jf the steam temperature

Three adds a feedforward signal should signal and a transient recognize within correction on

Element

Level

Control control strategy should be used in applications arrangement control to the when there
[:''10

l\ three element steam temperature


are rapidly changing element control loads, variable control steam temperature strategy for control

signal to [he single element steam temperature, including

As a minimum,

the feedforward

signal is derived fiorn variall major influences the boiler.

steam pressures or variations add, a cascade control

in spray water pressure. Three element strategy acts as the set

ations in steam load demand. This feedforward adjustments

to hear distribution

of the spray valve. The two element

point development

for the inner comrolloop

of the cascade control

arrangement.

76

Boiler Control Systems Engineerillg headers between the two superheater location

Steam Temperature

77

FINAL STEAM TEMPERATURE

?
L\

TRANSMITTER FEEDBACK(NOTE,)

sections or occasionally

at the superheater

outlet. Note

that a single attemperation

does not necessarily

refer to a single set of spray equipment.

TTl FT
w O~
Z ill

TRANSIENT CORRECTION SIGNAL(S)

--------,1
FEEDFORWARD CALCULATION

a:

r-r-

LOAD INOEX(E3)

.0: I-

ow
ZJ:
(.lW
w(L

>-w ...:...:

IT

00:
(I)~ (J)

SPRAY INTERLOCK.

9-T
:. .. T . 0%

MIA CONTROL STATION

A
0:

NOTE1' ATTEMPERATOR OUTLET TEMPERATURE OR SPRAY =tow

@
SPRAY CONTROL VALVE SPRAY BLOCK VALVE

o
w w
(L

~ 0:'

::;:

Figure

7-4 Typical three element controller

su,perheat contro!' for the inner after flow also may This feedforadjustments si;;ma\ must of steam on

Figure 7-4 is a feedforward

with cascade control. The process variable steam temperature

, f

conuol be used.

loop is a monitor At a minimum, within

of the spray action. Alrhough

immediately

the auernperarion

(de-superheating)

is the preferred

process voriable,

spray water
including properties

the feedforward

signal is derived

from load variations.

ward signal should recognize to heat distribution be provided

all major influences of changes

on steam ternperarure, in the thermodynamic

the boiler. For variable pressures, a suitable feedforward

to reflect the influence

the final steam temperature. Figure 7-5 outlines the control scheme for superheat steam temperature control.
[Q

The SpL-ay steam


IT W

::;:

water is measured t.emperJ.ture Single-stage

and based on the steam temperature.

The water is adjusted

control

~ 0:
o

to the turbine. atternperation refers to the boiler design that provides application sections a single location for intro-

~ ~ 0:
(L

ducing spray water to regulate steam temperature.This a single superheat and secondary section or two superheater It is normal superheaters.

is typical of boilers with only called the primary take place in the

(I)

in series. commonly

to have the spray attemperation

78

Boiler Control Systems

Engineering An attemperator perator spray water mass flow signal provides as the secondary an alternative

Steam Temperature

79

In Figure 7-6, the temperature control measured strategy. A pressure

measurement measurement following

is taken at the outlet of the intermediate


is required in a two-stage is required in a two-stage attemperator

supercontrol

to the use of the atterncontrol content. expenses. and for of the strategy. Mois-

hearer section before the second state artemperator.This strategy to prevent saturation first-stage

actemperacor

outlet steam temperature steam improves

variable in a three element its energy

spray auemperation.Typically, this pressure is however, drum pressure may be used also.

Superheating ture content resulting How

the quality of the steam by increasing the efficiency loss as well as turbine instruments rebuilding

at the inlet of the intermediate

superheater;

in steam can reduce

and may cause severe damage and repairing

to a turbine,

in power generation

ui

z
Cil
1-1-

far to go in providing engineer.

for indicating equipment with moderate

and recording

temperature

a: o='

:: .s ...
~ 41 ~

alarms depends designer fOJ: indicating

on· the steam generating In a small installation where deviation final steam temperarure instrumentation

furnished

and on the judgment

steam temperature,

a simple instrument

.. ...
41
'.II <11

may be all that is necessary. For a large unit with high from design conditions for all necessary may cause serious loss in efficiency functions should be provided. the need for, and the is the final steam the boiler, as well as is also needed

steam temperature,

Or failure of equipment, The arrangement functions protection for actuating temperature. shown

..
41
Q.

in Figure 7-7 serves as a basis for illustrating The most important operation depend and safety of equipment on steam temperature. beyond

of, a typical set of instruments. since satisfactory of the superheater,

consideration This measurement

wa: G'O

~~ wet
OW

0[;5

zo..

:s
II)

...
II! I'll

:I '.II

the automatic control

system.

~~

-....41

.E

.. ...
E
0 41 0

UJ

I-

... ~ ... ....


I'll I:

:I

...:

;: II!

<II <II

..
E E
<II
I'll

FEEDWATER CONTROL VALVE

:I III

.. .. ..
:I

~ <II

<II

II: w

5: >W

~
:;;;
:::J

E ~

Q.

'"
Q_

10

II

a:
0

..
<II

u::

CIl

:I

Figure .7- 7 Three-element control for spray attemperator.

Steam Temperature 80 Boiler Control Systems Engineerirlg

81

A high temperarure alarm is recommended as an additional safelY feature, even though the careful attention given to final steam temperature by born boiler and turbine operators is usually considered sufficient protection. Measurement of steam temperature with a low temperature alum at the spray attemperator outlet protects the second-srage superheater from the thermal shock of quenching by preventing over-atternperation and the consequent discharge of saturated steam and water into the hot superheater elernenrs . Alternately, measurement of steam temperature with ;l high temperarure alarm at the fus,-stJge superheater outlet protects chis stage from overheating should slagging or other upset conditions alter the distribution of hear absorption between first and second-stage superhearers to such an extentthat the primary sream temperature becomes
excessive,

I )

recireulation to . .. .th multi Ie use level burners use flue gas . Combustion engineenng boil.ers ~.m . . P fu 1 fired i the upper row ofbw:ne.s to that ill . th ratio of the e Ul" l.D., ..L cancrol superheat. B.y varying . e.. . b.' be modified cherebv changing me th furnace heat a. sorpaou can ,. " . the lo~ver row or bllIll, ers, e . h Th flow scream of me flue gas pa.>SlDg t .ng the super eater, ne t fl ue gases en en cemperature of 'f' tI, =< in contact with the supetheater to .' f: . li Thi 5. allow> the mass 0 ue d"'_. me supe:rhea.rer can be spur. A flue =< recirculanng:l.fl 15 __ d II theater bypassamper. .,be varied by a lnechauislll caue a supe, fl th· e srrearn in conract with the super. . HI £as mass ow to· ~~.' . also used to add a variable amount 0 ue '" .' . d ereasing0 the percentage of . ... . .' d ' th d is War of m.creasmg or e heacer. An additlonal firesi e me 0 .. Tbi . method tends to improve the overill heal excess air in order to control steam temperature. _'- 5_,. _, ffi"";~n~ of the boiler itself Ill:ly . ' alrh ugh we werUliU e ~ rate of power generaoon eqlllprnem, 0
r

me

v}

be lowered,

A steam-sampling connection should be installed in rIle steam line between the steam dn1U1 and the arternperator to check the purity of steam leaving the drum.. It is also desirable to install ~ steam sampling connection in die steam fine, after the arremperaror.This connection checks for leakage of boiler water into iine in the case of a submerged auernperator or for excessive solids carried over in rile spray water of a spray-type atternperaror,

me

1
1

Burner tile is also used eo control superheat. Combustion engineering uses the burrier tilt control suategy. Powerful control drives ate used to rile the burners at angles approximately plus or min us 30 degrees. Potentially, this is a toral angle of 60 degrees, rhough it is often restric ted when the boiler is initially tested. It is important to have the tilt angle the same at all four corners to avoid distorting die fireball and compromising the controllability

.\

The burner flame is aimed ata tangent to an imaginary circle in the center of the furnace and the burners in the four corners of the furnace are' tilted at me same angle. This resulrs in a fireball in the center of the furnace which rotates and can be raised or lowered in the furnace by changing the tilt of the burners. Low-ering the fireball increases furnace heat absorption, which lowers the flue gas temperature as it enters me superheater. Raising the fireball decreases the furnace heat absorption and rhus raises rile temperature of the flue gases enrering the superheater. For a boiler rhar includes a reheacer, the burner rile control is used 1:0 control reheat temperature. If this can be done succ~fully, mere is, ill normal operation, no water spray to the rehear section, and unit rhermal performance is not affected. This also means chat water spray is needed for superheat temperature connoi, and a water SPNji'sy.;tem is needed as a rehear remperature override. The abnormal operating condition oflow feedwater temperature from loss of the high pressure hearer is one case ill which reheat spray may be required.

me

A position transmitter sends a tilt position signal ro the superheat remperacureconnol system. If the superheat temperamre is controlled with spray water, this signal is used as a feedforward to automatically change me superheat spray as che burner tilt position is changed. This prevents rhe burner tiI't change, necessitated by the reheat temperature control, from causing a change iII rile superheat temperature.

CHAPTER 8

Burner M'anagement Systems

Bu'rner Manageme.nt System (BMS) Control


management system (B;vlS)- However, it as ;1 combustion safeguard, bumer/boiler ~afery system, burner control system, Harne safeguard system, saft:t;t shutdown system, furnace $:lfeguard supervisory system, emergency shutdown system or a 5.llCry instrumented system (SIS). The general term used for a safety system is burner
to

may also be referred

The Bi\1S operation

is

the S}'St e m rhac monitors in a concise


to

me' fuel

burmng

eqUlprr:em initiates

during

startup, shucdown, eqUipor condition

and transient conditions,

It is designed

to present me status of all fuel burning a safe operating

the operator shutdown procedure


to

ment

format. The EMS from mjury


to

prevent an explosion
and people

if an unsafe

condition
to

exists, thus protecting


system

equipmenr 'BPes} management

from damage

modulates

fue! and air input

me: boiler

or dearh, The basic process control in response sysrem mac pertnirs

load variations. The burner firing of a boiler at =y shuts off

system esseruially is an onl off control

load when safe conditions fuel or causes

me boiler

exist. If an unsafe condition ro go to a safe state,

occurs, the BMS automatically

NFPA 85 Code
The comments bustion provides and information in this section are based
011

rhe NFPA

85 Boilerand

Com-

Systems H3ZJ.Ids Code 2004 Edition. This section does not cover me entire Code, but information on some of [he most frequent questions chat have arisen in my experi-

ences in the 6 eld, The NFPA phcric 85 Code applies to single burner boilers with a fuel input boilers: multiple burner boilers; stokers:
reCOVI:r a0110S-

fluidized-bed turbines

rating of 3.7 MW HRSG_ and to prevent of boilers.

(12.5 million

Bru/hr)

or

greater.pulveriaed combusrion The purpose design,

fuel systems; and fired or unfired steam gener.nors


,heat recovery steam generators,

used to

hear from

of the Code is to ensure safe operation in equipment. rraimog, The Code operation.

uncontrolled pulverized

tires, explofor the fuel systems,

sions, and implosions installation

establishes

minimum

requirements

and maintenance

Burner Management

System

83

84

Boiler Control Systems Engineering

Burner Management

Systems

85

HRSGs. Code

and their systems for fuel burning, of operating contributor

air supply, and combusnon to boiler explosions

products error.

removal. The

Requirement for Independence


The burner management and oumur systems, and independent

ofConlro:ICHardwa.re/Softwa.re)
with independent must also logic, independent
3 functionally

requires the coordination

procedures, control sysrCIIl5, interlocks, and srrucis human

rural design. The most comrnon

system must be provided

input

It is
more

importanr

that the Code is not used as a design handbook.A


and rigorous of such designs. la such
Q.I.eS.

complete.

designer capable. of applying analysis to special or unusual problems has the latitude in the
the designer is responsible for dernonstraring and design.

development

documcn ring the val idicy of the proposed

pov.-er supplies.It

be

and physisystem.

cally separare device from other logic systems, such as the boiler OT HRSG For single burner management ment boilers, boiler control

conrroi

syscems are perrrurred co be combined


externally to. purge positioning-rype

with th.e burner manage-

system only if the fuel air ratio is controlled fuel air ratio wnh mechanical must include. but not be limited

from the boiler control system), Burner interlocks and riming,

system (e.g., locked

safety functions

Purge Control
Purging

IS required before i;;n.ition of rhe firsr burner


in the boiler and components.This
\"3......

[Q

clear allY combustibles

rhac may ban!

accumulated

is a crincal time before me lighting of die bm

berner, Purge requirements


The mukiple .;.0 percent butner

Y with each boiler.


and nor greater dun

boiler purge rate OllIS! nor be less rhan 2S pacem burner boiler unit purge must be completed
<1

I
I

mandatorv safery shutdowns, trial timing for ignition, to be limiced to one steam generator. Tile same

and flame monitoring.

A logic system is

hardware

type used for burner

management

systems is permitted the burner master fucllrips

to be used for other system and rnusr be direct wired. conditions, and also

logic svsrems, Data highway other systems is permitted. Alarms referred

communications

between

management

Signals that initiate mandatory to indicate equipment

of design full load mJSS air flow for coal-fired

units. The requirements period

starr are as follows. Multiple minutes


to

lor a cold by maintaining this


is longer. Prior source:'! or five

are to be generated

malfunctiou,

hazardous

rnisoperation.

The logic system designer

must evaluate the failun: modes

of componentS,

purge rae, "um the forced drafr fFD\ fun rhrough


or not less than five volume energy must be purged being placed in operation, changes components

we stack, for

of not Jess rhan five containing

changes of the boiler enclosure. (e.g .. precipitators, for Eimer a. period whichever

whichever

fired reheaters)

of rgmnon volume indicated,

of not less than five minutes

of that component,

is longer. Completion

of the purge must be

Single burrier at rnaxmium permined


to

boiler purge air flow must reach no less than 70 percell[ of continuous the period of opening the damper and rerurrnng

me air

flow required

to as a nsk analysis, and at a minimum, the following fuil~ :!...~ {O be evaluated and addressed: 1. Interruptions, excursions, dips. recoveries, transients. and partial losses of power 2. Memory corruption and losses J. Information transfer corruption and 10= 4. lnpurs and outpUts (fail-on, fuil-ofl) 5. Signals that ore unreadable or not being read 6. Failure to address errors 7. 8. 9. Processor faults failure (ful-on,
1[<11

capacity of the unit. The purge must be for at IC3~reighr air changes. it ro the light off position

Air flow during

is

Relay coil failure Relay contacr fiUI-oiiJ


45)'f:l'm>,

be i. eluded in computing n

the time tor eIght air changes. of the air flow required must be driven
to

Fire rube boiler purge JU flow must reach no less than 70 percent maximum conrmuous be for at least four air changes. During open position. AiT now during is permitted
[0

ar

10. Timer failure Not«; ScmI' ilCn$ do

apply

10

<Ill rypes

e.g

rd.l)'.I}'SlmtS.

capacity of the unit. The purge of the furnace and boiler gas passes must
the purge, the air damper the fuD rhe rime to open the damper and return it to lighl:-off posicion The design of the logic system for burner followmg requirements: management must include and accommodate the

be included

in computing enclosure must

the rime for four air changes.

1.
flUIdize::! bee! and boiler changes be purged with no less than five volumetric air 2.

Diagnostics

must he included

in me design to monitor proper operator

processor logic functions.


intervention.A method

A logic system failure rnust nor preclude

period of no 1<'5.1han five minutes under the folc lowing condinons, A freeport purge withour air passmg through me bed material must be deemed as not meeting purge criteria. The purge muse include rhe air and flue gas ducts, air heater/s), warm up burnerrs), windboxtes), and bed(s). The purge is not ro be less than 25 percent of design full load 1T'.<1.SS air flow Ioral au flo'v must not be reduced below me purge rare.
HRSG enclosure purge rare must provide the required velocirv in the connecting g<t>esprior duct and the HRSG

but, in any event, for a continuous

must be provided to shut down. the boiler or go to a safe state in the event of a logic sysrem failure, 3. 4. S. 6.

The logic must be protected


changed while the associated The system response on we application. Prosection from

from unauthorized eqwpmenc

changes. Logic is nor to be


to

is in operation, must be short prevent negative effects

time (throughput) of noise


II111~

me enects

PI"CV""Ilr false ope-arion, a mandatory

to ensure dilution

and removal

of combusuble

to carbine light off.

No single component master fuel trip.

failure within

the logic system is to prevent

86

Boiler Control Systems Engineering The operaror must be provided with a dedicated manual S\yitch(es) that will actuate the master fuel trip relay independently and direcdy. 8. At least one manual switch must be identified and located remotely where it can be reached in case ofemergency ~~o[e: Scme items do 1101 apply w all .~ oj S)'l"toIlS, e.g., reID}' systems 7_

Bumer Management Systems

87

must be supervised individually, and upon derecrion of loss of a burner flame, thsr individual burner safety shut off valve must be automatically closed.

Class 1 Igniter
Class 1 ignirers are provided. the main burner flame must be proven either by the flame detector or by the igmrer being proven.Ar 1= one ihme dereccor must be provided for each burner to detect the burner flame or igniter flame. Where

Flame Detection
The NFPA 85 Code requires flame detection on ~ll flames, The flame sensing detector> must be sell" checking, elmer mechanically or electronically if me detector can fail in the ilame proven mode.The failure of any single component cannot result in a false indication of flame. The scanner configuration depends on the class of igniters. Visible light, infrared OR), and ultravioler (UV) are the primary technologies used co detect with IR and UV UV flame detection is primarily for g;.s service. IR flame detection m:J.Y be used on fuels such as oil. coal, and black liquor, as well as gas. In Figure B-1 in me flame configuration, infrared and visible h ghc is 90 percenc of the fume and ultI<l\ iolet is berween 1 to 10 perc enr of eh e flame. Whe n sighting the flume, flame detector muse point down, or horizontal, at the flame.
i;4.lne in lome applications. flame flicker is used in combination

Class 2 I,goiter
with CL1ss 2 igrurers must have at Iensc two flame detectors, One derecror must be positioned to detect the main burner tlame and musr nor derect rhe ignirer name_The second detector muse be positioned co detect the Ignirer flame during prescribed lighr-off conditions.
Burners

Class 3 Igniter
Burners with Class 3 l£;'liters must have at least one fume detector, The detector muse be positioned co detect the igniter fume and detect the main burner flame after the igniter is removed from service at the completion of the main burner mal for ignition. upon detection of loss of all flame in the furnace or hazardous condinons develop, a master fuel trip I1lUSt of the number or pattern of fl~me 1055 indications used an operating burner or "flame envelope" must ininare potential hazard. partial loss of flame to the extent that be auromatically initiated, Regardless for tripping, Joss of fume mdicanon on an alarm that 'v;u-TIS operator of a

me

me

lNFRARro 190')

Ul T F\A\flOLET (' TO 10'4)

I
all

Flame Triipping Validation


The flame mpping concept used on [he unit mUST have been validated by the bolla manufacturer lor me specific furnace configuration being used. This validation rnusr not be used to replace unit acceptance rests relating to proof of design. function, and components, On loss of an individual burner llime, bum","! safety shur off valve must be automatically dosed. The burner register is to be closed if it interferes with the air/fuel ratio supplied to any other individual burner flame. On lOIS of an individual burner flame on coal fired boilers. me flow of fuel must be stopped unless furnace configuration and tests have determined rhar one of rhree automatic tripping philosophies is applicable.They are:
t_

me

Figure 8-1 Flame detectors.

Flame Monit'oring and Tripping System (Multiple Burner Boilersl


Dunng initial startup, if flame on the lint igniter(s) is not established within 10 seconds after me initiation of the spark or other source of ignition, the individual igruter safety shut off valvejs) D1USt be dosed, and the cause of failure to ignite is to be determined and corrected .. With air mamcamed ar purge rate, reputge is not required bur J, least one nunute muse lapse before a retrial of this or any other igniter is auempeed, Repeated retrials of ignirers without investigating and correcting the cause of the malfunction is prohibited. Each burner

2. 3.

urn...

Detectors are locared and adjusted to monitor specific zones in me fiimace. Under ill reasonable operating conditions, main fuel combustion in one zone provides suscuning elll:rgy to adjacent zones if each zone is nor self-sustaining, Under circumstances of operanon where support between tones receiving fuel does nor exist, ignition support is provided. or, upon Joss of flame in a zone or in the entire furnace, rhe master fuel crip is aueomeacally iniriaeed,

88

Boiler Control Systems 'Engineerlng

Burner Management

Systems

89

Figure 8-2 is a multiple burner boiler interlock system diagram.

Table 8-1 detines the blocks in Figure 8-2.

I Table 8·1 NFPA

Table of shutdow.nrequiremenb;.

@l11g>,.,.'uoI""", .......

®~~~~~
,a-"..:I'q.
0

""'oi_le_~~

--".....
CIoOo9"*_
.<al"'y"'"'""""~.)

Block 1

Loss of an individual i9Mer IIame must cause the following actions: 2.. Open the venl valve (gas ignition only) 3. $i nal the main Aame rotecron tern that the . nIter flame has been lost -- ---I. Close the incfMdual igniter safety shut off valve(s) and de-energize the sparkls)

.....,.,.._~-

.~

Boock 2a I

o o :[,0"''''°''"1 0~cn.;;irfb,.tbw o :1OgII!<.-mo<e-= o


1 0l.o$!i_cc .. ft.;.me

The htgh or lOw igniter fuel gas header pressu r;; must be interlocked to ,nitiate the tri pping of the igniter header and Individual igniler S<l./ety shut off valves. de-energ lze spa rks, and ope n vem valve s,

Where 0,1 is used For ig nition fuel with a<r 0 r steam a rormzauon, atomi<:ing or steam pres sure OIlt of range must trip the 'Ilc-;:er ano 'ncliv1dual ig1<ter S<l~ty s.L,~1oF. valves and de-energi:ze sparks. Where direct electric igniters are used, blocks 1 and 2 must not apply. H"""INer. the -nastsr top system must da-enargl~e sparks and prevent ~izj"9 until all coodeons for I· ht-off have been re-estebnsbed,

an-.

roe!

I I

0!AO ....'~_"'i
G~'71)~_ G

'~Iaa~~~r-~

BloCks 3·12

I
!-I---...

Ilg>rerIw'w,(ClaSSI ~I

These blocks represent conditions that .nitia te the trippi"9 0 f ail main and ignotion fuel supplies through a master fuel ~ rnIay(sl The mas ter fuej trip relay(s} must be of the type that stays tripped un hi the Unit purge system intenock perrrnrs ,t to be I1!Sel. Whenever the master fuel trip re!aylSl IS operated. it rnus t Il"1p II II fu eI S<lfety shut off valves and de-e<lergize sparks and all ignition devices within the unit and flue gas path

I
I

I
I-_--'--:'Ieoo.. ""'" -1l"" 0i!9Iy --;-~-+j~I:::!.,~

@
Q

Lo:ir ~

01 ~

grMSU[.

® I~"__'--=-1"'_. ~_,.-._",,,..,,,.cl v.::;


,..-ccmmon
eoti-f"mnQ ~ ~

!---'---'-...;._-------'--+1-

,'' ' ' ,,-...........

CklMRIaIt'O!iSjlt8ty

~""""'....... J-

I I

The master fuel trip relay(sl must also tnp me oil syst ern C'fC<J1a1ing and re=:ui<ltlng valves. If the d8Slgn 01 the oil supply system ~ such that backflow of oil through the recircula~ng \laWs is inherently impossible or pos1tively prevented. this va!ve must be , pemntled to be manually opemled and must oot be required to be interlocked to close automatically on a master fu el Inp. I The maste r fuel tnp relay(sl must also trtp e coal bum er Iine shut off valves or take equivalen t n.r>etional action to s top coo delivery to burners. prima ry air fans or exhausters. an d coal feeders. The loss of all induced draft funs must ecnvate the master fuel uip retay~

In

I
B1ock3 lBIock4

:
I

The loss of all folt:ed dr-ail: mns must activate the master fuel tno relay.

I Block
I

Block 5 6

low oorrb.Jstion air !low bebw tl1e pemilL9:l Irnits must activate the master fuel ~

rOOv~

High fan pressure. such as thai resulting from a tube ruprure or damper IaJlul<'. must activate the master fuel trip rei",!.

Block 7

I Block

loss of all IIeme in the furnace must activate ~e master fuel trD retay
r A parttal loss of Rame that results in a hazardous oonditiOl1 must activate the master fuel trip relay. When at! fuel inputs to 1M fu mace are srtut off foIlm,"~ a sh"ttia.vn any reason. the master fuej triP relay m us! be activated ~ of the bctle r fer

Block 9

Figure 8-2 l:nter'lock system

for rnultip:le

burner boi.ler.,
I

SloeklO

I
I

A manual swrtch that actus tes the master fuel tr p relay diree Uy mu st oe provid ed for use by the operator in an emergenc'j.

I Block
"lock

l'

The igniter fuel Il"1pmust activate the master fuel trip relay in ao:ordance to NF?A code requirements. ff 19niter fuel IS the only fuel ,n service. or rf it IS bemg used to stabli:re a ITlBln fuel.
When the gas bu mer header fue I pressure s aoove ihe maxi mum or btdO>1f th.a lTUnimum for a stable Rame. ti'.at ft.e must be trppsd~ If gas s the only fu;c '" Se<v1Ce the master fuel trip relay must be actuated.

12a

90

Boiler

Control

SYSlems

Engineering

Burner Managemeni Systems

91

Table 8·1 NFPA iabie or Shutdown


Block Number

:Requirements.

(cont.d )

Tab.le 8·2

CQmmunicating single burneJ'S.

startup

.pe""'ssives,

shutdown,
Master Fuel Trip

alarms,

and status

for

Bk:>ck 12b

I
I

Action
When the ad burner header fuel pressure is beiaw the minImum for a st3ble Harne. that fuel must be llipoed_ If oil is ::he only fuel "sarvicE !he fl'lGSler fuel tr'.p rei'ay most be ectua ted_ This bioc:x reprasents opera ticJIl of the Oil fuei trip to prevent operaTIOn WI1M atomizing air or steam pressure ;s out of range If oil is the only fuel in service. the master fuel tnp relaymus t be actuated. This block represe n Is the t rip ping/ sh u Idown of coo l-ftn ng equ ipment that will cause a coal fuel IIi p. If coal is the 0 nIy fu el in service. the masts r fuel trip relay must
ar'I

Tag. Name

Block 12c

I
I

'ss
FSL

IBE

I
I
I I

Single BumorBoiler Description/Common

Loss or failure to estabhh Loss of comlIoJsl>on air

iIame I

Yes Yes

1
I j
_I

P'er,miS'sive
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Alarm
Yes

Yes
Yes Yes Yes Yes. Yes

Combustion .,... flow


All fu e I valves closed Master fuel hip Pow-er failure

Yes
Yes Yes

Block 12d

ZS
HS

be actuated,

8iock 13a

indMdtreI cas or ci! bl.!"~r" ttl one 01' "'>Oo"E adOruona. burners c:JIJe(ating WIth stable flames dlat does not mtroduce a SSfIOOS enough OOI'.dIt>on !O warrar" 11 master fuel tnp as called for in Bloc,. 8. most close the lflOMdual burner
safety s hut off ""Ive(s) and assoc iated igniter sa !ety shut of! valve(s) and de-energize the associated ign tter spark.

Loss of flame at

L5L

Low •.",lar~
Excessive wale<' t~! ... e r eIther/or Excess;..,,; steam pressure Gas

Ves
Yes

810ck 13b

On

less of main coal burner Harne. the Irtpping strateqies

must be followed.

Gas l'rip

ZS
PSI--

I
I

Yes

,
.... e

Yes

Permissi Ves Yes Yes Yes Ves Yes

I
I

Alarm
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

All fuel valves closed HlQh .gnltel' gas pressure Yes Yes

Tables :'1-2 and !!-3 shutdown, Code

.tIC

examples

of dccumeruanon

for com.t-nucic;.,ting

start up permissives,

alarms and

>o.CW

for operacors.Table

8-2 is based on the requirernems

o[~TIA

85

F'SL 'PSH,
PSL

Low gnf::",- gas ~


Burner header fuel ~.-essure high Bume r header fuel pressure low Row control velve minimum fire Mas ter fuel trip gas

(or alarms and shutdowns of single burner boilers. This is nor an all-inclusive lise bur it is a possible format for design definition. The tag names are identification letters from ISA and SAMA identification tables which can be found in the Reference section. Also, see Figures 83 through 8-7 at the end of chis chapter for information on interlock,

ZS
HS

Yes Oil

Yes

Oil

Trip

Permissive

tiple burner definition.

Table 8 3 is based or, die reqillrements oi S Code boilers. This is not an all-inclusive lise but
The tag names ate identification

"rPA

tor tt

alarms ami shurdowns of mulis a possible foI'T1l3[ for design


tables 8-7 at the end of

lerrers from [SA and SA.J\tlA identification

which em be found in the Reference section. Also, see Figures 8-3 through this chapter for informacion on interlock, The fiiel trip charts mclude some functions of the BMS_

zs PSh F'SL PSH PSL


BE

j
Igruter

Alarm
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

ruer

pressure high

Yes Yes Yes Yes

Igniter f1Jel pres SuR low Hig h oil pressu re Low 01I pressu re Flame delectiOll

Ooss of burner)
Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes I


I

ZS PSLfDPS PSL I DPS ZS

Flow

COfl.iJd

varveflllROI1'U'T1fire
pmssu re low

Yes

Loss of atomIZing medium


Ignrter atomizing

Yes
Yes Yes Yes

011 gun in posttion'

HS
TSl

Master fuel t np oil

Yes Yes

low o~ temperature

Yes Yes

Yes

92

BOller Control Systems

Engineermg

Table 6-3
I Tag Na.me

Communicating startuppermissive.s, I mu.lti pe b u:rn8:rn l.MultipleBumer


) DescriptionlCommon Loss of ig nite r flame (slaftup)

shutdown,

alarms,

and statusfer Not Req'd

I
f

Bumer

Management

Systems

93

The following figures are PID

. . rep""",m.1.tlons of Figure 8-2 and TJble 8-1 mrollgh 8-3.

BE
SS

10 fan '1Jnning

I Fuel Trip

Master

Perm',ssi've
Ves IVes Ves

AI'am.
Ves I Ves Ves Ves Yes Ves Ves IVes

Statu.s Ves Ves Yes I Ves Ves·

I
1

rVes rVes 25%) IVes IVes IVes

55

FD Fan '1Jnning
Combustion air flow k High furnace pressure

FSL
PSH

Ives
Ves Ves Ves Ves Yes rYes

r I

PSL
BE

low

fumecs pressure

Ral'rnl detector (loss of aD i Partial loss of flame


All fuel valves dosed nrei tnp faifure

flamellves
IVes

Yes
Ves Yes

BE

ZS
H5

I Master
I Power

I Ves
Yes

IYes
IVes

'LSL
ZS
PSH PSL PSH PSL

I Gas

I Low water

IYes
IVes

I Yes
IVes

Ves

GAS

SUPPLY
C" CLOSE 0= OPEN ~::::-::. H---

level
I Gas Trl,p

IAll fuel valve s do sed


high
low high header fuel pressure heaoer fuel pressure oelection

Permissive
IVes Yes Ves Ves Ves

Alarm
IVes Ves Yes Yes Ves

I
IVes IVes

I Status I

.~J
....

INSTALLED

OTHER IGNlTo:RS

IVes
rVes jVes

ANSWER

KEY:

I Igniter fuel pressure -I Igniter fuel pressure

1 Burner 1 Burner
i Rame
[on

IVes
I

low I Ves

I Ves
Ves Ves Ves Status Ves

Ves

BE
i2S
HS

1 CQrltrol valve Ro.'1

Closs of bl..merl minimum fue

Yes
Ves IVes

Yes
Ves I Ailarm

I
lVes

I I
-r
I

zsc = "OS1'TlOIIi
2SO • POSITION PI ~ PRESSURE

s,'1ITCI-I
SWITCH INDICATOR

ctos<;o
OPEN

PAO\IE<;

\lALVE

CLOSED

PROVES

VALVE OPEN

i'SL = PRESSURE S,'IITCH ~OW PSH .. PRESSURE


SWITCH J-iJGP.

I Master fueJ llip g6S

[on
hOJ"

ZS
PSH

fAll fuej varves closed I kJniter fuei pressure

Trip

I Permissive

Ves
Yes Ves Ves Ves Yes Ves Ves

I
I

Figure

6-3 Example

gas

Ives [Yes high I Yes 10'.... Ves

PSL
PSi" PSL

1 mer head er fuel pres sure Su


I Burner header

llgniler fueJ pressure low

i Yes

Ves

Ves Yes Ves Yes , Yes Ves I Yes Ves

Note; Some comp"m(!> a/so prefer

igniter, fa show when

IIIllvcs

are open.

Ves Ves Ves jVes Ves Ves Ves Yes IVes Ves

ruej pres sure

fl;jme cetec:;oo (loss of burN;r) I BE 1 Flow CQIlttol va/ve minJrnum fire [ ZS jYes PSL/OPS I Atomizing pressure low PSL lOPS Ilgniler atomiZing pressure low Yes l [zs Oil gun In position

lves
Ves Ves Ves iVes IVes Ves Yes IVes Ves

IHS
TSL OS/SS

: Masl€r fuej trip oil

IVes

I Low

IYes
Ves Ves , Ves , Ves I Yes I Ves Yes
I

Ves

NR"

oil temperature stopped or igniter)

I Coal firing equipment

zs
aE
ITSH

BE

Iflame

,
J
I

IVes

detectJon

Ooss

I Ves
Ves IVes , Ves Yes

I All fuel valves closed

ICoal

lF1ame detection

(loss of burner)

I
j IVes I

'I
J

duct temperature

IHS

I Mas ter fuel trip

94

Boiler Control Systems Engineering

Burner Management Systems

95

SCAVENG!NG MEDIUM

6
·iii
1:'

E 0
(C

..
'1.1
(C

"i
C
U

J:

~
E E G)
"'Cil
C

ZSC ~ POSITION SWITCH CLOSED PRovES

VALVE CLOSED

ZSO ~ POSITION SWITCH OPEN PROVES VALVE OPEN PI ~ PRESSURE INDICATOR pas ~ PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL SWITCH PSL ~ PRESSURE SWITCH LOW

!GN!TERS (PE'RMANENTL Y INSTALLED)

'

..
,01)

<II

>-

:I .J:I
0
I!J

..
e

'"
:Figure 8,4 Example steam or air ato,mi:dn9 system light oil.
oJ

0z 0w

'0 "i

::;

"0

§
a:
0:

'" '" ~ 0w
;>

::; '"
0
[![

e
G)

Q.

§
l-

_,'I-

z ia::: , :.
oJ

~ c,
0

"'z o~ .:.JQ_
00 00

!C

"

":;,

~a ~ ... :z ~ ~ '" ~ ~ m i5 !:( '" ~ ~ :I :z z w Qa ~ E :. ox :. ~ gJ "iii w ... 0 '" 0 '" m :. a. w ...... "- ~ '" '" "0 fOJ UJ II:
I-

[![ :z w w "I;; 0 0 a: :x: 0 i: :x: ,:I; 0

"-

~ 0

I'll

~~

cO ~ :::I
G)

In

0
N

'"

• "- • _, '" , '" 0: ... "- Ii: '"


0
N
(J) <J)

..•

II:

it

!J>

UJ

LL

OJ Q

~ o o
MAIN llURNER (TVPICAL)

a
~.

'<

(j)

'" ill '" m


5'
III III
::l, :l

:> <0

<0

ZSC .. POSITION SWITCII CLOSED PROVES VALVE CLOSED ZSO


, 1'1

POSITION SWITCII OPEN PHOVE$ VAlVE OPEN

= PI~ESSURE INDICATOR
PRESSURE SWITCH HIGH

, 1'511 ~

PSL ~ PRESSURE SWITCH LOW rr = FUEL FLOW IRIlNSMITIEn

Flgu ..e 0-6 Exampl'e mn;,o gas burnor Note: All


$/1111(1]'1'<11=

system.
rltlSlII'(".

II1IIM /WIIl' lW,'Ic/Wl

In p'~Uf

OIL RETURN

ZSC ~ POSITION SWITCH CLOSED PROVES VALVE CLOSED ZSO .. POSITION SWITCH OPEN PROVES VALVE OPEN 1"1- PR!:SSURE INDICATOA

TSl .. 1 EMPERATlJRE SWITCH LOW


PSL", PRESSURE SWITCI1 LOW

ATOMIZING STEAM SUPPLY

FT

FUEL FLOW TRAN$MITIER

Figure 0-7 Example of an oil burner

steam atomizing
I<>

system.

Note: /1/1

sIW/l?n'I'I1II~'s "'''II

/i,lI'e switcues

p"lI~' c/C>511Il',

CHAPTER 9

En.vironmen.t
NOx and ,NOx Contro.1
Nitrogen than which oxides (NO,) require create special problems cr...:!t new inscillatiuns procedures. reduce in the operation of boilers.Air pollution conno! regulaeicns meet l"Ox emission limits. These limits are lower ln addinon, air qualiry reguhliom in some

rh ~ emissi ons from man}' of the presen cl} installed firing systems and furnac·e designs, are U5lllg older opc:raaog existing boilers
[0

toea!

areas require High

rheir 010" emissions,


x

rernperarure

IS me primary

cause of NO reductions,

formation,

with the critical temperature


of methods excess air) is one method

at

about 3000° F. To achieve emission for reducing combustion ichiometric a pornon rnethods Generally, rurbulenr Low NOx NO,. Anomer method

there are a number

being used. Low of

excess air firing (i.e., less dun the "normal"

10 percent

to 25 percent

is multi-stage

air admission, involving the inrroduction


through special furnace porn

air in two or more stages partly at the fuel nozzle - which air - and partly by independent of the secondary used. Equipment flames, which admission

could be less than stoand a

second Stage of air admission

within the same burner housing. Flue gas recirculation into all or air, reduced secondary air remperarure, and fuel gagmg are aha
manufacturers
In lowe

are introducing produces

new burner

and furnace

designs.

the eriect 01 all these methods results

lower flame temperatures

and longer, less

r ."lOx' those related


[0

firing

methods

create hazards including unacceptable

furnace

ciety, particularly are not taken.

for existing units, and could introduce


NO" emissions can also be reduced

risks jf proper precautions

by removing
is added
to

them from the exhaust gases that are released co the flue gas prior with

from burners, molecular

In one process, ammonia

catalyst. The catalyst enables the ammonia nrtrogen

react chemically

me NO

to

the gas passing over a


x'

converting

it to

and water. This system promises

as high as 90 percent

removal

oi nitrogen

oxides &om the flue gases. The control diagram in Figure 9-1 is a method forcontrolling ammonia
flow feedforward adiusrs the ammorna addition making changes. The problem

irjeccon, The sream


rare

a !low COrn:CDOU as ilie steam

is mat NOx is not a part of this control scheme. There is technology available to measure NOx connnuously; however, the time delay of the NO" measurement is
an issue in closing the loop with the NOx measurement.

In a second process,

bow

moved across ~ bed of copper oxide t.J..~r~e~=c '.v:t~ ~.e

NOx and sulfur oxide (SOx) are removed. The combustion

sex to

gases are
copper

fOIlJi

copper sulfare.The

EnVIronment

99

100 Boiler Control Systems Engineering


sulfare am as a caral}~t fur reducing NO" [0 ammonia. Approximarely and SO, can be removed from the Bue gases through this procc:s.s_ One of the methods of reducing
It

Environment

101

90 perrem

of the ::-.:0x AMMONIA PRESSURE LEVEL PRESSURE

STEAM FLOW TEMPERATURE

::--lOx emissions

from oil-fired

water with me oil before A significant advantage

is sprayed into the burner.Water

arure and can reduce NO. emissions from burning in using these emulsions

combustion systems is to nux decreases the combustion temperlight weight oils by as much as 15 percent. of particulate

is that they reduce the emission

matter. \"t'hen water i5 mixed in the oil. each oil droplet sprayed into the 5n:OO'l: has se- era! nny

water droplets inside. The heat existing in [he firebox makes these water drop lets ibill into
S[~11l

and explode

the oil droplet. Increasing :\ reduction

the surface area of me oil enables it to bum faster emissions


C3.Il

and more

cornplerelv

in particulate

be achieved

regardless

of

whether hghc or heavy oils are being burnedFuel-firing systems designed


IS

PRESSURE COI.iPEJ SATiO,

[0 reduce

NO"

emissions

tend to reduce

me

margins

created to upsets the

prevent or minimize or flameouts. Thus, it

accumulations important

of unburned
[0

fuel in the furnace during combustion

trip fuel on los.. of tlarne, These methods ~

can narrow

limits of stable flames that are produced by the burner system. When flue gas recirculation is used. equipment should be provided to ensure proper mixing and uniform disrribution of recirculated gas and the combuscion air. Equipment should be provided ro moruror either the ratio offlue gas to air or the oxygen content of the mixture when flue gas recirculation IS inrroduced into me total combustion air stream. \Vhen flue gas recirculation L> introduced so that oniv air and not the mixture is inrroduced at the burner, proper provisions should be made to
ensure rhe prescribed distribution of air and the recirculating tlue gas-air mixrure,
COlTI-

MIA CONTROL STATIO

.4Jl of these methods


bumbles change both, chroughour recommendations

tend to increase the possibility the unit and ducts.There be followed,


to reduce

of an unstable flame and unburned

'ore_ boiler, burner, and instrument emissions can also require

manufacturer either, or ~ FINAL CONTROL DEVICE

should and location

or tests conducted, to veri!) NOx on e."ldscing units.

operating margins. Any


changing

me type

in flame characteristics

of flame derectors

Figul"'e 9-1 Controlling

ammonia

injection.

Excess Air to Oxygen The control of excess air is critical to improper 0" fuel and to maintaining
air

the correct

fuel air ratio. The

excess fuel, and the resulting When supplied mined flue gas or other
[0

rano, is the pnrrury


to the secondary

cause of boiler explosions. or combustion air being uniform


I~

inert gases are inrroduced

burners.

the methods

and devices being used must be tested to confirm of me mixture supplied ro the burners

distriburioo

and mixing. The oxygen content

not per-

me limit specified by t.!.:e burner manufacturer or as PIO\-e:"l by rests to provide stable combustion. Either ratio of flue gas to air or the oxygen content of the mix-

to go below

me

ture should

be monitored,

1,02

So er Control Systems Engineenng


table gives the relationship of excess air

CHAPTER 10
to

The following

2,

Cont:rol Valve Sizi,ng


Valve Characteristics
The characteristics of tile concrol valve or damper are an important consideration. in Figure It is impor10-1 illustrates tanr to select the flow characteristics Co31 I Excess Air IOll-ygen 0 0
4,9
I I

for the process. The diagram

I
16,2

IIC.2

22.9 4

30.4

12

15

1:.

I
8
1

48

,5

59 5 .

72.9 9

cypical characteristics,
The dow characreriseic acteristic insralled of
J

control

valve

IS

the rel ..tionship

berc...:eCIl -

me tlow

rate ilirough

me

7~

valve and the valve navel, as the travel is varied from 0 to 100 percent.The refers to the characteristic flo\." characteristic refers
to

inherent

flow char-

a bserve d wi th a constant pressure drop across the valve. The

A simple method

for calculating 21

excess air is: -1) x 100

the charaererisric 0brained in service wh en drop varies wuh dow, and ozher changes. in the S}''>ceill. The purpose of characterizing the expected
to

me

pr=uTe

Excess air % '" K (

control range of

valves is to provide relatively uniform system operating conditions. To

control establish

loop stathe flow

21 - % oxygen

biliry

over

charactensric The K values are K'" 0.9 Gas, 0.94 Oil and 0.9, Coal Analvses of provides

me

needed

"march" a given system requires a dynamic analysis of the conrrol loop. mote common processes ha...e been performed; however, some useful guidefor

lines can be established

me

selecnon

of the proper

flow characteristic.

The

chan: below

SOUle of the flow characteristics

in use today.

Guidelines for Choosing Valve Characteristics


Process Pressure

IApplication

I
I

IBest

Inherent Charncteristics

liquid

Press ure Sma~ Volume

I
I

Gas Pressure,

Equal Percent Equal Percent


>..-..

I
I
Temperoture'
Flow

Gas Pressure. Large Volume IvIa>< AP Less than SX Min o.P

I L.neat

I Gas

Pressure Large Volume Max LIP Greater then 5X Min 1'..1"

I Equal Percen t

Most Apphceoons
_Dad

IEqual Percent

Changos

Set Point Changes Liquid Level Max ~P Less than 5X Min LIP

I Unear

Equa Dereent

linear

I Max
gacic.

j,P

Great;r than 5X MII1 ~

Equal Pen:en

I I
t

rress u:re

IConstan!~

I unear
Control Valve Sizing 103

l'04

BOiler Control Systems

Engineering

Control

Vaive Sizing 1 05

Valve Characteristic

Graph
valve flow characteristics.

Valve Sizing for Diff,erent Control Media


For good control. it is very important to select the correct size valve as well as the valve char-, and programs for sizing a control examples for calculating differential the relative flow capacity in valves. are that can be used to size control valves.The

Figure 10-1 shows the different


".

acteristic, Each valve manufacturer


valve. There
100 QUICK OPENING

supplies sizing informacion

are some basic equations

~ 0 -'" .¥ 6 ~
t

s o
rr
:;;
:J

80

f',...._

~ x
L.L

60

/
/
J
I

V
/

V
/

.....

v~
,/

r;?]

based on the basic equations. The term C" is generally The C" is numerically used in industry the pressure

.IV

LINEAR----.I

/'

/
I

equal to the number

of US gallons of water It 60° F that flows through across the valve is one pound per square flow rate and 25 percent flow rate

a valve in one minute when inch. In the equation.examples, because a typical


CUrD

« :;;
0
fZ l!J U 0:

"-0

w o.

20

'f(J

"--

/V
V
20

/
~

/: '" -" I----- PERCENTAGE


EQUAL

V /

,/

sizing is for 100 percent

down for control valves is four or five to one.

Control Val,ve Sizing Calculations Water Valve Sizing


This is an example consideration, of valve sizing for 600,000 pounds per hour water £low with no density drop across the A rule of thumb for pressure drop is one third of the pressure

system for tile pressure drop across the valve.


100

40

60

80

Q == gpm
SG == specific graviry il.P == pressure drop across valve

PER CENT OF RATED TRAVEL

Figure 10"1 Typical flow characteristic

curves.

The conversion ,Recommended Liquids: Velocities operating condition values: If [he pump Clean fluids - Maximum

of pounds

per hour is 600,000 -'--(8,34 x 60) == 1200 GPM is 20()O psig and the drum pressure is 1400 psig, the differential

discharge

pressure

< 10 rn/s < 33 ft/s Air: < 113 /l,1A (Mach) == 113 x (330 m/s) < 110 m/s -; 360 fi/s
Gases and Steam (dry):

pressure is 600 -'--3 == 200 psig,

C" == GPM ~(SG -'--6P)

C, == 1200 x ,.;( 1 -'--200) == 84_84

C: =

300 x";(:[

-'- 200) ==

1414

<110 m/s < 360 fils


Flashing Liquids:

Assume a lower pressure drop of 150 psi for a lower flow rate.

C" < 60 rn/s < 196 ftis

300 x ~( 1 -'--150) == 245


is 450°F, then the change in specific gravity must be considered.
Q

If the water temperature

The

specific gravity of water at 4S0 F is 0,827,

C:

== 1200 x ~(0,827

-'--200) == 77.16

C; == 300 x

.J(

0.827 -'- 200) == 12_86

106 Boiler Control Systems Engineering


Assume a lower pressure drop of 150 psi for a lower flow rate. One fourch C, == 300 x,f( 0.827 -'.. 150) == 9.65 If you look at the C" sizing chan, a three or four inch valve can be used. If a three inch valve
is selected, it is almost 100 percent open. A four inch valve should be selected and would have

Control Valve Sizing 107 C, == 100,000 x 0.6 x 23.02


-7-

1360 x 17.32

c., = 100,000
the lowest flow and

x 13.8 -'. 23555.2 = 5S.59

A three inch valve can be used. EqL1~l Percentage


Valve Size 3 inch
-~ i

less line pressure drop. For best control, the C, should be at 20 percent 80 percent at the highest flow race. At 60 P water temperature,
0

at

me C"

is 84.84 and at 450cF, the C; is 77.16.

Percent
Heted C,
95 190 420 420 735 10 4.45 8.9 19.7 19.7 34.4 20 6.25 12.5 27.6 27.6

30
8.78 17.6 38.8

40

50 17.3

60 24.4 487 108 108 189

70 34.2 68.5

80 48.1 96.2 213 213 372

90 67.6 135 299 299 546

100 95 190 420 420

12.3
24.7 54.6 54.6

Steam Valve
The calculations for 300,000 pounds peI hour steam flow at 1000 psi and SOO°Fwould be: The equation is C, == pph / 63 x "(LiP -;-V) pph == pounds per hour V == specific volume LiP == differential pressure across the valve If we assume a 400 psi system pressure drop and one third across Ole valve, the valve pressme drop would be 133 psi. The specific volume for steam at SOocF superheated steam at 1000 psi is 0.6875. C" == 300,000 / 63 x ,f(133 -;. 0.6875)
";133 "'" 0.6875 = 13.9

4 inch 8 inch 10 inch' 10 inch

34.7
76.7

151
151 265

48.4

38.8 68

76.7
134

*10 inch valve with reduced trim note the C, is the same as the eight inch valve, For more information,
refer

95.5

735

to A_ 'SIII5A-75.0LOl-2002

(IEC 60534-2-1 Mod).

C" = 300000 -'- (63xI3.9) == 300000 -'- 876 = 684 One fourth C" =
342

Looking at the chart below, either an eight inch valve can be used or a ten inch valve with reduced trim.

Gas Valve SiziilQ


This example for gas valve sizing is based on 100,000 SCFH.The

460 is degrees Rankine.

C, = SCFH x ,f(460 + PO) SG -'- 1360 x "'!(Pl x ~P) C, == 100,000 (0.6) ,f(460 + 70° F) Cv
= -7-

1360 x ,f(30 x 10)

100,000 (0.6) "530 -'- 1360 x ,f300

Acronyms

3Ts

time, temperature,

and turbulence

FD

forced draft

AB.MA American
cion

Boiler Makers Associa-

HJlSG heat recovery steam generator I the integral or reset


induced Institute Electronic draft of Electrical and

Al'l"SI

American rure

National

Standards

Insti-

ID
IEEE

ASCE

American Society of Civil Engineers

E,nginee($

ASME American
Engineers

Society of Mechanical

1/0
IR

in/out
infrared

BMS BPCS
Btu

burner

management

system

ISA
basic process control British

The Instrumentation, Systems, and


Automation Society

system I&C Kc NFFA

thermal units
design design and drafting

instrumentation and control


gain, proportional National tion band Associa-

CAD

computer-aided

CADD computer-aided CFR CS


Code

Fire Protection

of Federal Regulations

PPM
The Canadian tion Standards Associa-

parts per million proportional band system diagra..-n

PB PCS P&ID PID

DCL DCN DCS DOE

design check list drawing distributed Department change notices comrol system

proce&s control piping

and instrument

proportional

or gain-plus-imegral

(resetj-plus-derivative (me)
of Energy

Acronyms

109

110
PI

BOiler Control Systems Engineering

APPENDIX A

proportional

Of

gaill~plus-integral

(rem) PSI PSIG Pu


PV SAl\1A pounds pounds ultimate per sglla,e inch per square inch gage period

General Tutorial

Purpose
process variable or pressure valve Scientific Appautus Association Makers The purpose of this appendix is to provide tutorial information on the philosophy combustion underlying srrateA.NSI/ISA-77.41.01-2005 and to assist in specifying of the user, and applying control

gies thar will best serve the requirements

SF
Sn

set point ultimate sensiriviry or ultimate gain

l ntroductlon
The purpose boiler output process imide of any combustion without control system is to safely and efficiently maintain operator while attention. Therefore, changes the boiler output is to meet achieving
1Il

the desired response co and

the need for constant

the combustion

Td Ti ,
I time integral, reset integral ultraviolet

the furnace must be controlled the quantities

load demands. The basic principle menrs by regulating maintaining safe conditions

of combustion

control

the boiler load requirecombustion .

of fuel and air while and equipment.

optimum

uv

for operators

<.-1

Combustion As the combustion


chemically contains enough

Process
process takes place in the furnace. oxygen to combine oxygen in the combustion matter air combines of air that in the fiiel to produce heat. The amount

with the carbon and hydrogen ... alue or theoretical lor every molecule air.

w-ith all the combustible

in the fuel is called the

"stoichiomerric'". It is improbable

of fiiel that enters [he furnace to combine

chemically

with

oxygen. For this reason, it is necessary to provide more air than the stoichiometric For most boilers it is customary requirement excess air. If insufficient The unburned oxygen is introduced into the furnace, incomplete combustion conditions to ensure complete to provide combustion.

requirement.

EO

20 perrent
would

more air than the stoichiometric air is called" exce-ss air," A boiler be said to be firi.ng at 20 percent

This additional

firing at 1.2 times the stoichiometric

air requirement

of the fuel will in the boiler, combustion,

occur. This wastes fuel, causes air pollution, causing a dangerous Providing too much explosion. combustion air reduces

and results in hazardous

fuel may ignite in the boiler or breeching

and result in secondary

the explosion

danger bur also reduces

efficiencythe excess

The largest energy loss in the boiler is the heat that escapes as hot flue gas_Increasing

Appendix

A111

112 Boiler

Control Systems Engineering

AppendiX A 113 due


TOTAL FUEL MEASUREMENT Energy Demand 0, LEVEL TOTAL AIRfLOW AIR TEMP

air increases this energy loss, High excess air can abo result in unstable burner conditions to the lean fuel! air mixture.

In practice. a large number of items that affect boiJer efficiency are related to excess air. The proper value of excess air is a fi.tnction of boiler load, fuel quantity, air leakage through idle burners, steam temperature, flame stability, and energy losses.

Basic Combustion Control Strategies Various combustion control strategies that are based on requirements for safe, efficient, and responsive control of boilers have evolved. More sophisticated controls were developed as instrumentation became more reliable and accurate. The control strategies can be divided into two major categories: positioning systems and metering systems.
Tn positioning systems the fuel and air control devices are sirnuhaneously positioned, based on energy demand. Each position of the fuel control device assumes a corresponding position for the airflow control device. A control station is normally available fOJ; the operator to trim the fuel/air ratio.

The positioning system is SImple and fast responding, but it cannot compensate for varying fuel characteristics, atmospheric conditions, dynamic characteristics of the fuel delivery equipment, or the imbalance of the fuel-to-air ratio during rapid load changes.
Mlnlmum

Airflow

!v1etering systems measure the actual fuel and air delivered to the boiler. TIle measured flows are used in feedback control schemes to precisely regulate the fuel-to-air ratio. Air flows can be measured without too much difficulty.The fuel flow in a gas or oil boiler can also be readily measured. Fuel flow in a coal-fired boiler cannot be directly measured, and various schemes have been developed to infer the fuel delivery rate based on other variables. In addition, the heavy equipment necessary to transport the coal and prepare it for burning presen.t dynamic operational and control problems, A typical combustion control function diagram is shown in Figure A-l.
Fuel Final Control Davicais)

Fe cctorward to Furnace Pressure control (Fig"" A-2)

Air Control Sta!iOn

Ainlaw Final COl"!bO! Devi-ce(s)

Figure A-1 Typical combustion control functional diagram.

:.

114
t:

Boi ler Control Systems

Engineering

Appendix A

115
diathe

Air Flow Requirements Concepts


Air flow measurements can be established or the flue-gas side of the unit. A suitable place to measure by primary elements located on either the air side

requires position output there is potenmay be the air

the induced

draft fanes) to be used. A typical furnace a feedforward device(s). In a properly

pressure

control

functional
to represent

gram is shown

in Figure A-2. It utilizes

signal characterized designed

of rhe forced draft control

and calibrated

system, the

of the furnace pressure controller

will remain near its midrange

for all air flows.

air £low is the entry of the forced draft fan. When a preferred location downstream

tial leakage between


duct between An alternate,

the forced drafi: fan and the furnace,

the forced draft fan and the burners but less preferred, location

of the air heater. is on the flue-gas side of the across a sec cion of rhe should be located
(0

Furnace Pressure (Drait) Transm itters

for air flow measurement pressure transmitter

boiler. Connections

for a differential

are located

boiler, and the pressure drop of the flue gas is measured. The connections avoid the pressure drop across the air heater. Potential rosive effects of the flue gas and leakage. problems

with this method

are the cor-

Excess Air Requirements Conc,epts


The combustion air needed because in an actual boiler of excess air required design. To minimize excess ai, is needed boiler's burner be thoroughly turbulence some of the combustion

will be in excess of the theoretical air. This air supplied to the boiler will not react
is dependent upon the for excess air, the fuel must combustion air must impart res-

Set Point

;,~::~,: 1.
L:;

A,l'I~--0

with the fuel. The amount and furnace atomized

for good combustion (he requirement air.The

PID Feedforward From Air Flow Control Demand

and mixed with the combustion to the flame and the furnace of combustion. analyzer

and momentum

must be sized to allow adequate

idence time to insure completion Typically, a zirconium measurement bustion

-~

oxide based oxygen

is a direct measurement

of oxygen

and,

based on a given fuel, a direct measurement is taken before the air preheater air. The excess air requirement

of the excess air in the. combustion to receive a representative as a firnction be included A controller sample

process, The
of the comerror and windup

" IlL I HI I
,

0<$0 ... •

i
1

is non-linear
should

of load. Thus, a load index controller

signal is used to program under minimum Adjusunent

the excess air setpoint, provisions

acts on the resulting co prevent

adjusts the RIel! air ratio. Suitable

l..__ "_'·~I> ·_~;~~~·


Decrease I

airflow limit conditions.


ratio can be accomplished by either adjusting inherently the airflow demand the airflow setdemand because include curve, airflow more or [rim

Load Demand

of the fuel/air

or airflow feedback. Placing the trim on the demand for users to understand point to increase minimum represents complicated feedback) and commission. airflow By adjusting mass airflow the demand,

makes more sense and is easier then, increase of airflow drawbacks

If more air is required

the calibration However,

airflow setpoint, the correct

airflow trips and purge rate are easily established rate into the. fiirnace, properly

fuel cross limit design, and [rend pens do not overlay each other in term of perdesigned and calibrated either method (e.g., trim demand can provide safe and reliable excess air trim control.The trim on demand is preferred.

cent lYtCR.W'hen

@
Induced 0 raft Fan Final Control Device(s)

~MFT

Furnace

pressure

(draft) control

is required

on balanced

draft boilers. W'hile either the furnace

the forced 85

Figure A-2 Typical furnace pressure control functional diagram.

draft fanes} or me induced

draft fanes) could be used to control

pressure, NFPA

116

Boiler Control

Systems

Er1gir1eering

Appendix A

11 7

Control of Gas- and Oil-fired


be made co assure that the fuel-to-au the boiler. This can be accomplished basis. The output ratio. Limiting of the summer should circuitry

Boilers gas and oil separately or together. Provisions must


as multiple fuels are introduced into the individual fuel flows on a Btu (kJ) value of the fuel-eo-air ratio. ratio is maintained

Gas- and oil-fired boilers often allow burning

The usual control of the feeder is based 011 pulverizer coal level with a slight feedforvv:trd or derivative from boiler energy demand or D._]eJ demand,

by summing
to

Non-Bal! Tube Mil!s


Pulverized correct coal-fired boilers normally use a sophisticated burners. combustion control system having
to maintain

becomes be provided

the' 'total fuel" in the calculation ensure a safe fuel-to-air

several pulverizers, fuel-to-air should be properly The fuel demand

each supplying proportioned is compared

multiple

It

is not only important

"he

ratio at all times, bur the fuel fiorn each pulverizer and distributed

to its associated

burner

tile! demand limit to prevent fuel from being reduced below die level requited to support stable flame conditions in the furnace.

'iIlhen the fuel control is in automatic, there shall be a minimum

fOJ;stable and efficient boiler operation. fuel flow (summation of all feeders in signal

to the total measured

Cont101

of

P~lverjzed Coal-Fir"ed Boilers


in the development are compensation of a me cering-type for pulverizer dynamics control suate:gy for a pulof an for the number boiler and the selection

service delivering coal) to develop the demand to the fuel controller. The fuel demand is then applied in parallel to all operating pulverizers. Should

Two major considerations verized coal-fired

an upset in available air occur so that air is limited, an error signal from air flow conreduce fuel/air

trol should acceptable compared

inferred coal flow signal. In addition, of pulverizers in service.

the fuel demand signal must be corrected

the o(ing rate demand to the fuel controller to maintain a minimum ratio, Limiting circuitry shall be provided to ensure that air £low is always
hence, a safe combustion mixture is always present. This demand there be a difference the speed of the is signal. Should

above demanded fuel demand limit to prevent

fuelllow;

with total feeder speeds or the heat absorbed

When the fuel control is in automatic, there shall be a minimum from being reduced below the level required
to

fuel

suppon

stable flame conditions

in the furnace,

between the fuel demand and total fuel flow, tile fuel controller will readjust feeders in service to the extent necessary to eliminate [he error. Since there may be some delay between

Pulverizer Dynamics
Pulverizers ducrion induce time lags into the control process. There is a finite time between to transport the coal/air the introand to mixture of coal into the pulverizer both contribute and the delivery of fue! to the furnace the volume The grinding

a change in feeder SPeed and the actual change inca the speed feedback, conditions

in coal of a

to a furnace, a lag (mill model) is incorporated mill overload, the feeder speed demand is resolved.

so that the air flow and condition

file! flow control are kept in step with the actual coal to the furnace. During
signal should be reduced

drying of the coal in the pulverizer the burners

and [he time required increases.

until the overload

to time lags. In addition,

of coal in the pulverizer

increases as the load on the pulverizer

Pulverizer Coal-Air Control System Ball Tube Pulverizers


The ball tube or Harding rorating common drum
[0

The primary e-type pulverizers pulverizers to produce utilize small diameter controlled coal. These

control

for a pulverizer the amount

is the coal flow demand temperature. The of surface moisture drying

to the primary coal-air

air fans. The seccontrol is

grind

(two inch) steel balls in a exhibit large coal storage characteristics. I[ is


coal flow for 10
to

ondary important

control

is the coal-air

mixture

temperature

for it regulates

remaining

in the fines going to the and the combuscoal for cemperSelecting for preparing

for this type .of pulverizer

15 minutes

after as

burner. The surface moisture burning. regulate By measuring the amounts setpoint

adversely In-mill

affects .both pulverizer is the accepted

performance method

the coal feeder is stopped. The coal feeder signal is, therefore, a fuel flow signal. An implied air !low, linearized inlet damper apparem position. fuel flow signal can be derived primary classifier differential, characterized

useless in the control air damper

scheme

[ion process by up to 50 percent.

from boiler heat release, primary position, or exhauster an of heat release, can produce by logic signals monitoring

the temp era cure in the pulverizer of hot and tempering is usually ranged between

outlet pipes, the controls are able to drying. The outlet on what eype of fuel

air to provide adequate

Since these signals, "With the exception

ature controller.

140-170" f depending because output

coal flow in an empty

mill, tile signals must be verified

is burned.A

single setpoint too iowa

controls both the hot and tempering condition serpoint,

air damper actuators.

the mill level and feeder status. In a ball tube pulverizer, demand or firel demand Pulverizer • Pulverizer Pulverizer on the following: level (differential measurement) dB (sound measurement) measurement) the coal feeder normally operates independently of the boiler energy may be based

too high a setpoint volatile. Selecting

could create a hazardous

the coal is too drv and very

the coal will not flow as cleanly in the coal pipes, therea pulverizer's

signals. The coal feeder control for ball tube pulverizers

fore causing coal pipe plugging.Therefore, and not its grinding ability.

is limited by irs drying capacity

Pulv-erizer kW (power

The pulverizer manufacturer control strategies.

Reference for Pulverizer Control is the prime

source

for information

concerning

recommended

kW and dB

118 Boiler Control Systems Engineering Dual Fuel Firing


A metering-type account basis is
to

Appendix A 119

control

srrategy for a.boiler heat input

capable of dual fuel firing simultaneously fuel! air ratios. The basic strategy

has to of the

for the total furnace

and different

boiler energy demand establishing the total file] demand to the boiler and fuel to air ratio on a boiler be satisfied. Duel firing may include one or more of the following operating modes: One file! in manual with second demand. One fuel in automatic following Both fuels aucomacically If both fuels are following determines energy' demand, with operato, following flow setpoint with second fiiel automatically boiler energy demand. boiler energy demand. then. an operator adjustable fuel ratio setter fuel automatically following boiler energy

a boiler energy demand

the ratio of fuel being fired. Unless both fuels are automated the fuel ratio setter will track the actual fuel flow ratio. by the total fuel flow inputted is to be characterized ratio. the oxygen setpoint is computed

to follow the boiler

Airflow is to be cross-limited fuels simultaneously, fired When


1:0

into the furnace.\Vhcn

firing duel

the airflow demand

based on the ratio of fuels being

establish the correct fuel-to-air

.. .. ..
Cl 011 I'C

>.

firing duel fuels simultaneously,

based on the ratio of

0 Cl
C

both fuels. Figure A-3 represents

a rypical duel firing diagram.

::I

';: ; Qj

Qj

::I 't\

'" ~~ u:~
",0

iii u 'ii

~o

.=M

t!:§

o:l:
011

..
:::I

Cl

APPENDIX B

Steam Temperature Control

Purpose
TIns appendix is an excerpt from ANST/ISA-77 .44.02-2001 and provides tutorial information to assist the user in specifying and applying steam temperature control schemes.

Introduction
Suhcritical vs, Supercritical in Once Through Boiler Design A boiler. is either. subcritical or supercritical depending on whether it is designed to be operated below or above the critical pressure, respectively (critical pressure is 3206.2 psia).At critical pressure and above, boiling, as it is known within the saturation region, does not take place. The transition from w-ater to steam is abrupt, and the temperature steadily increases rather than flattening completely. At critical pressure, the density differential between water and steam becomes zero, thus making natural circulation impossible. Operation at subcritical pressures creates certain problems for the boiler designer, Probably the most important problem is the handling of warer-steam mixtures. Ac subcritical pressures, (he water-steam mixtures can separate into all water in one rube and all steam in an adjacent tube. Thus, the boiler design must achieve good mixing of the water-steam mixture and limit the amount of heat absorbed by a furnace panel to a value that will not cause damaging thermal stresses in the membrane walls.As examples, variable orifices are installed in each furnace panel to balance the flows, and furnace-mixing headers are used at particular Iocations to limit the heat absorption, Operation at supercritical pressures eliminates concern over the separation of water-steam mixtures because tins phenomenon does not occur. However, furnace-mixing headers redistribute the fluid where adjacent tubes are in different fluid passes. In supercrirical operation, it is importam to avoid subcritical pressures because of the possibility of steam to water separation where the boiler design does not consider this. There are many similarities between subcritical and supercritical boilers. The gas side arrangement is practically identical, although some furnace panel surfaces may be located differently The fluid side is also quite similar, particularly in the furnace circuitry.The boiler responses are quite similar, with supercritical boilers being slightly faster.

i
",'

I'

Appendix B

121

1 22 Boiler Control SystemsEngineering Steam Temperature Control by Ratio Adjustment


In a once-through temperature. demand The boiler, final steam temperature changing master boiler demand is affected by the ratio of firing rate to feedflow; or both, can affect control controller output of steam rate as a sent in parallel to the firing is then configured water flow Therefore, firing rate, feedwater

Appendix

123

Load Index Development


The load index index signal. The steam temperature feedforward load index controller, may be steam flow, airflow, or other measures excess combustion air requirements fecdforward signal is summed of boiler load.Airas a part of the load signal from. the flow offers the advantage of including

signal is typically

and the feedwater

demand. The temperature to the firing rate, teedwater

with the output

ratio setting and applied

flow, or both. timer than

The boiler master is tuned for pressure and load response, that is, orders of magnitude the temperature loop. Therefore, or both subsystems. Recognizing demand
to

Transient Correction Signal Development 1'1. steam temperature transient correction is a signal that is applied to the normal steam temperature transient control strategy to counter are considered the impact of a transient process change. An example be overfiring or underfiring. to maintain they are not required of a process change, and the most typical, would transients because Overfiring a steadyof a transient

changes to ratio setting have been applied with success in either to modify the firing race demand.

Generally, though, it is simplified output is proportional,

and underfiring the input firing rate and feedwater flow must storage of fluid; it is logical to send boiler firing rate for final steam temperaand controlling between load. Adjusting ternperupon Probably

that megawatts

equal the flow leaving the boiler to maintain the firing rate and feedwater between ture results in a compromise ature and controlling

constant

state condition" A steam temperature transient correction on the final steam temperature and attempts to minimize the best W2y to describe this action is to consider

recognizes the impact this impact. an example. Assuming

together. Adjusting controlling

temperature

that a load filing

feed\ov'dter flow' for final steam temperature pressure. Furthermore, the specific boiler design, boiler/process Once-through from overheating. temperature can participate When perature to shorter Boilers introducing feedwater

results in a compromise constraints,

controlling

increase is occurring, is referred

the firing rate will increase to meet the new load setting and will increase the new energy storage level in the unit. This additional it is considered load setting a transient condition. feedforward the spray: Assuming and once the unit's energy level is satisfied, it will be removed. Since chat no tranto the steam would overfiring the new normally will require an adjustment

firing rate and feedwater flow are conditioned and process variable responses. feed ... vater rate to protect flow At which the furnace

even more to assist in achieving to as overfiring, is made, which the overfiring is only temporary; control,

boiler designs require a minimum This boiler constraint until load exceeds in controlling the minimum

tubes steam flow

sient would

correction

requires that the firing rate be adjusted to control feedwater time, feedwater

temperature

is satisfied through by increasing

action. The

cause the steam temperature the temperature

to increase, and the steam temperature

controller

final steam temperature. delay exists before final steam temflow due delays by
COD-

react co counter

excursion

flow or firing rate changes, a temperature delay and provides better transient
to shorten

\Alhen the overfiring

is removed, the steam temperature

would drop because excess sprJ.y exists. controller when


to reduce

changes. The temperature transport with spray attemperation excursions,

delay time for firing rate is shorter than feedwarer correction fe~dwater for steam have means flow transport

The excess spray would then cause the steam temperature The end results are a longer time period tion versus rime . .A.. transient [he controls to increase the temperature controller correction would recognize a temperature

the spray flow. and bias

temperature.

to reach steady-state

conditions overfiring

and a greater deviais occurring and to prevent

spray water before the superheatertsj.While steady state temperature

spray attemperation is achieved when

may initially total feedwater

the spray to help minimize from integrating

the temperature more

excursion

trol temperature

flow

error over time. Ideally, no temperquickly; and the temperature

(boiler inlet water flow and spray attemperation The controls will overfire or undertire condition opposite other. creates an incorrect temperature direction errors. Using controls

flow) is in correct ratio with firing rate. to load changes. This transient and pressure demand in the

acme transient would occur; thus sready state is achieved deviation versus time will be reduced. The actual transient strategy rection. Throttle correction for overfiring or underfiring pressure

the firing rate to respond firing

steady state fuel demand to modify

that causes temperamre and feedwater

is a function

of the overall control corsignals.

rate demand

One approach

is to use the throttle

error as the source for the transient with other feedforward

helps the overall system stability because

one process effect counteracts

pressure error is scaled and summed

Use of Cascade Spray Valve Control !Principles and Methods of Transient Superheat Steam Temperature Control Steam Temperature Feedback Control
A typical boiler arrangement mary and secondary between the introduction is one where the spray atternperation With this arrangement, of spray water and the detection is used as the feedback takes place between the prilag exists superheaters. a large proce_~s time and stabilization measurement for control. In a cascade control point of another, setpoint, strategy, when the output input, only the primary controller of on.e controller controller is used to manipulate each controller the setwill have the two controllers are said to be cascaded. Although

its own measurement

(outer loop) can have an independent

and only the secondary control

(inner loop) has an OLlCput to the process. relationship between the spray water of the tern-

of exit steam tem-

Steam temperature control

strategies assume a predictable

perature. A final steam temperature

valve position

and the spray water flow. If this is not the case, a cascade spray water flow the cascade control strategy, the output

control scrategy should be considered.With

124

Boiler Control

Systems

Engineering

Appendix B spray flow setpoint the temperature controller.

125

perature

controller

establishes

(he required arrangement,

for the spray water flow conis the primary controller,

(0% closed or 100% open), the integral (reset) action or the entire controller
simple control loop, the integral limits on the final control element low limits on the controller when the controller output output.
1\105t controllers

is disabled. For a to the high and prevention correctly, the reset

troller. In the cascade control and the spray flow controller

controller

correspond

is the secondary

have automatic everything

reset windup

NOx Control
The nitrogen the combustion chiometric to decrease and oxygen conditions, in the combustion air and fuel form oxides of nitrogen is dependent time, and the amount conditions
0< both

reaches a limit. Provided

is calibrated

windup prevention
(NOxl during stoiFor a three-element complicated. viously.The control Now primary inner or secondary elements process. The rate of NOx formation resident. combustion of NO x' the combustion on high temperature, of nitrogen

will begin

when the final control element reaches a travel limit.


prevention becomes controller slightly more The predescribed

or cascade control loop, reset windup two controllers controller controller operates

in the fuel. To

must both stop integrating

to prevent

reset windup.

suppress the formation gas temperature

and control strategy must be altered and to decrease combustion of combustion

the same as a single-element of the primary controller

O2 level at the flame zone, stage combustion, in the furnace

must also have its integral or reset action disabled when the final is not always at the same must be used to controllers, elements reach a limit, so a different prevention scheme mechanism

and, hence, the time of eXp05L1re of the products

reach a limit. The output prevention.

to high temperature, Air that bypasses [he burner O2 level and temperature combustion can suppress the formation combustion or overfire burners of NOx by reducing
(0

value when the final control implement the the at the primary zone. This option is possible if the boiler achieve means the windup be practical to implement controller prevents Inay be adaptively the primary

On pneumatic

and analog electronic

it may not
in this situag-ain of the

a reset windup tuned

such as is required

tion. On a digital system, however, of the controller may be adjusted controller element

there are several 'ivays to do this. The integral eo zero when the limit is reached, output up the setpoint

design allows (he use of burner second stage of combustion. of introducing used for steam temperature Flue gas recirculation staged combustion

out-or-service, air downstream

air ports, or both combustion combustion

or the high or low limit controller

The out-of-service control

and overfire air ports provide zone.

to the controller from winding is at a limit.

value when the limit is reached. This for the secondary

of the furnace

zone. Excess air

also must bypass the burner of NO


x

when the final control tempera-

can suppress the formation of flue

by reducing

the combustion

ture if the boiler design allows introduction Flue gas recirculation steam temperatures both the secondary distribution damper

gas

recirculation

into the secondary air scream. of NO x and controlling of flue gas recirculation reheat into

Advanced Steam

Steam Temperature control

Control difficult control loops in the boiler control

temperature

is one of the most

can be used for suppressing if the boiler for regulating air stream and the furnace

the formation hopper. These

system. There

are several factors that nuke

the control

difficult. is generally very slow and has a Slow response control

design allows the introduction the gas recirculation flow path.

boilers have a gas recirculation

• The time response considerable and deadtime strategIcs.

of the final steam temperatures

deadtime responses

respome. This is due to the large mass of metal in the supeu is slow to change temperature. are both cough to handle well with conventional

heater sections of the boiler, which

Redundam:y
Redundancy is employed should when system reliability on-line

will be seriously
Deviation maximize

affected by a component For maximum and automatic availfailure Steam temperature upsets continually temperature can be upset by almost any disturbance challenge the control make good control in the boiler. These with the slow system and when combined

failure. Redundancy ability, redundancy detection/transfer of redundancy.

also permits

maintenance in order
to

of components. alarms

always be considered.

should be considered

the usefulness of the application

response

tough. Some of the more common

upsets aft' load changes, fuel variations, upsets, and sootblowing. • Spray val ves that are usually the primary

boiler slag, pressure changes, pulverizer

control

means for final steam temperature

Any control to prevent

loop in which reset windup,

the controller

has integral routine controls

action frequently

and the final control should

element

is

control

sometimes

go closed during

certain load ranges or transients. Any time a such as fully closed or fully open, it loop. Conventional control strate-

likely to be -fully open

or fully closed during Steam temperature

plant operation

have a provision the load oper-

final control introduces

element

goes into saturation

fall into this category because


throughout during normal

a large nonlinearity

inca the control

boiler designers usually try to minimize range. This frequently ation and, therefore, For conventional implement.

the amount

of spray £low required

gies do not cope with such nonlinear There are usually rwo methods or

responses well. reheat temperature, heat distribution to the control One is a spray such as burner variables strategy.

leads to times when

the spray valve is fully dosed prevention,

to the need to reset windup

of controlling

valve and the other is some method


is relatively simple to of travel tilts, pass dampers,

of controlling

single-element as the

control loops, reset 'Windup prevention final control element reaches one

gas

recirculation.

The action of these two control

"'Vi soon

of its endpoints

must be coordinated,

and this adds some complexity

--------------------~----------~--------------~----------------~==========~--~.~_~"-~ ~
126 Boiler Control Systems Engineering
With all of these factors making which steam temperature control control difficult, it is easy to understand are a variety of advanced simple modifications multivariable optimal complexity conconsuch as control, why it is a frequent trol techniques better feedforward but they generally the control Although target of advanced signals
Q(

techniques.There

can be used, They deadtirne

range from relatively to full-blown

compensation

Bibliography

trol systems. Many of the advanced system can require

control techniques

can improve steam temperature system. The added

involve added complexity

in the control

in

a higher level of support describes

by the plant staff


requirements for steam temperABM.A-Boiler 307. Combustion ConirolJor Single Burner Piretube and t-r0iertube Industrial! Commercial Institutional Boilers. American Boiler Manufacturers Association, 2003.

ANSIIISA-77.44.02-2001 control performance.

the minimum techniques

ature control, be aware that more advanced provide better

control

are available and can frequently

ANSI/ISA-77.41.01-2005
Al""fSIIISA-77.42.01-1999

- FossilFuel Power Plant Boiler Comlmstion Controls. ISA, 2005.


(R2005) - Fossil Puel Power PIIIIlt Feedusuer CQniroi System-

Drum-Type.

ISA, 2005. (R.2005) - Fossil Fuel Plan! Steam Temperature Control System

A..NSIIISA-77.44.01-2000

(Dmm-Type). ISA, 2005.


_ANSflISA-77.44.02-2001 - Fossil Fuel Power Plant Steam Temperature Control System -

Ol1ce- ThrOL!gh Type. ISA, 2001.


Babcock Dukelow;
& Wilcox.

Steam. 40th edition. The Babcock

& Wilcox Company, ISA, 1991.

1992.

Sam G. '['he Contro!

0/ Boilers. Second

edition.

Fisher Controls. Hughes, Thomas 1SA-5.1-1984 Klochek,

Control valve Handbooe. Second edition. Fisher Controls International,


A. Measurement and Control Basics. Third edition. ISA, 2002.

Inc., 1977 _

(R1992) - Instrumentation Symbols and identifiauio«. ISA, 1.992.


CAlA Engineering Services, 2002.

Len. Wir! Boiler Sim. (CD-ROM) ISA)

(Sold through NFPA 85 -

Boiler and Combu.\tion Systems Hazards Code. National Fire Protection


2004. Release 3 - Process Control Loop Simulation Pmgralll. Wade Associates. ISA_)

Association,

PC-ControLAB (CD-ROM)

"'IXZ1de Associates, Inc., 2002. (sold through

Bibliography

127

128

Boiler Control

Systems Engineering

PMC 22.1 - Funaiona! Diagrammiug of Instrumeni and COlltrol SrS~I1I.1. Scientific Apparatus Manufacturers Associacion, 1981_ SAM-A Standard

Reference

SEll ASCE 7-02 - Minimum Design Loads fM Buildl:ngs and Other SlTIIdllO'Oof Civil Engineer::;, 2003.

American

Society

Identification Letters
First.Letter Measured
Initia.ting A
I

(4) Modifie ..

Succeeding-Lett.ers

(3)
",unction'l

OJ"" Variable

Readout

'Passive

Or Fundion

Output

Modifier

A"~alySs Burner; Combustion User's Choice User's Choice VoIlEge Ratio (fraction) Dtffaential

I
I

Alarm
Users Choice

B
C

I
I

0
E

! I I

User's Ch oice User's Choice Control

Sef1SO(

Bement)

(Pr'.ma'Y

F G
H

Fb.-" Rate
User's Choice Hand

Glass. Viewing

Device

I
Indicate
Sean

I I
High Control Lovv Middle. Intermediate SIzIion

I J
K

Current (EleclricaD Power


limE'. Time Schedule level User's Choice User's Choice Momentary

I
I

TIme Rate
Change

l M

Light

User's Choice User's Choice

I
I

User's Choice

0
p

User's Chcioe

I
I lnteqrate Totalize

OrIfice
ReslJielion

!
1

Press\..'fE.
Vacuum Quarrtity Aadja~on

Q
R
S

I I
I

Pein! ITestJ

Conneciion

I
Record

Speed.

Safety

I I

Switch

Reference

129

130 Boiler Control Systems Engineering

Reference 131

Identification Letters (cont'dJ


First-Letter (4)
Measured or Initiating Variable Modifier

ISA General Instrument


(3)
PRIMARY LOCATION NORMALLY ACCESSIBLE TO OPERATION

or Functional Symbols

Succeeding-Letters
Readout or Passive Function

Output Function! Modifier Transmit

T U
V W X

Temperature Multivsriable Vibration, Mechanical Weight, Force X Axis Well Unclassified Multifunction

FIELD MOUNTED

Multifunction! Multi fu ncnon Valve, Damper, louver DISCRETE INSTRUMENTS

AUXILIARY LOCATION NORMALLY ACCESSIBLE TO OPERATOR

8
4 5

0
6

Unclassified

U ncles sifiedl Unclassified Relay, Compute, Convert Driver, Actuator, U I1C less ified Finai Control Element

y Z

Event, Stste or Presence Position Dimension

Y.Axis Z Axis

SHARED DISPLAY, ' SHi\,RED CONTROL

B
7

0
8 9

8
§
12

COMPUTER FUNCTION

e
~

0
11

10
PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROL

tJ

fSZl

IZSJ

- j.

132 Boiler Control Systems Engineering


Reference 133

SAMA Symbols (Scientific Apparatus Makers Association)

SAM A Symbols
SIGNAl PROCESSING SYMBOL

ENCLOSURE FUNCTION MEASURING OR READOUT

SYMBOLS SYMBOL

MANUAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

AUTOMATIC SIGNAL PROCESSING

o
o

FU

cno

SUMMING AVERAGI G

FUNCno
INTEGRATE OR TOTALIZE

SIGNAL PROCESSING SYMBOL

1:or+

LIn
~or-

. HIGH SEl.EC

OIFFE"IENCE PROPORTIONAL INTEGRAL DERIVATIVE MULTIPLYiNG DIVIDING ROOT EXTRACTION EXPo.'lJENTlAl ON-UNEAR FUNCTION TRI-ST,o,TE SIGNAL (RAISE, HOLD, LOWE.R)

LOW SELECTING HIGH LIMITING lOWUMITING REVERSE PROFORTIONAL VELOCITY LIMITING BIAS TIME FUNCTION VARIJ!I.8LESIG IAL GENERATION TRANSFER SIGNAL MONITOR

> <
P
<t
-K or-P

K or P

J or I
d/dl or 0

X
+

V:t>

FINAL CONTROLLING

xn
f(x)

-v

±
f(t)

A T
HI,
H/L, /L

Note: SA}vL'! and ISA Symbols are the same.

134

Boiler Control Systems

Engineering

Reference

135

i.

CONTROLLER

This diagram is of a Kraft pulping process. It is critical to the cost of operation of the Kraft process to recover the chemicals used, If the chemicals are not recovered, the process is cost prohibitive. The chemical is referred to as white liquor,
RESET MANUAL SIGNAL GENERATOR

SET POINT GENERATOR

.1

AUTO/MAN. TRANSFER SWITCH

2. AUTO MANUAL + BIAS STATION

BIAS ADJUSTMENT AUTO.fMAN, TRANSFER SWITCH

MANUAL SIGNAL GENERATOR

The logs are fed into a barking drum that removes the bark (1) and then into a chipper (2). The chips 'He fed into the digester where the chips are cooked at a high temperature and pressure. The cooking process breaks down the chips into wood fibers. The fibers go to a brown stock washer (4), are separated, and go to the paper machine process.The weak black liquor has 15 CO 18% dissolved solids.The weak black liquor goes to the recovery process (6), (7), and (8). The multiple effect evaporator removes moisture producing strong black liquor. It then goes to a direct contact evaporator before it is sprayed into the recovery boiler forming a liquid bed in the boiler and forming a coating on the water tubes. The dissolved solids are about 80%.The dissolved solids are burned and the chemical is recovered. The liquor flows out of the furnace into a dissolving tank (9),This is referred to as green liquor.The green liquor chen goes to causticizing where lime is melted in a lime kiln, and the lime is added co the green liquor to produce reusable white liquor (10). The recovery· proce:;s can be a hazardous process, If a water tube develops a leak the water mixing with the liquor bed may cause an explosion, The recovery boiler has a rapid drain system that can be energized if a leak is detected to drain the water from the boiler.

.I
"

--:'i "

'r

l ,

o
Q

o
o
OJ
~ ~

MEASURING OR READOUT AUTOMATIC SIGNAL PROCESSING MANUAL SiGNAL PROCESSING FINAL CONTROLLING SIGNAL REPEATER SUMMING DIFFERENCE PROPORTIONAL. MULTIPLYING ~Ih AVERAGING dldt DERIVATIVE

.
t
,

INTEGRAL REVERSE PROPORTIONAL

K.-K
X f(x) f(t) >

~ DIVIDI~JG

-r: ROOT

EXTRACTING

NON LINEAR OR UNSPECIFIED TIME FUNCTION HIGH SELECTING HIGH LIMITING

FUNCTION

~ .

< LOW SELECTING

:J.
'1 " +,-,±

'f LOW LIMITING

SALT·UKE
MIX TftiNK

VELOCITY OR RATE UMITER BIAS TRANSFER ANALOG SIGNAL GENERATOR

T A

CONOENSAre.

I --0

Glossary of Common Boiler Terms


Air - the mixture
other gases, which, water earth. mpor, forms of oxygen, nitrogen, with varying amounts the atmosphere and of the furnace pressure at a fixed value (typically slightly below atmospheric). Blowdown periodically - a heat exchanger for transair, elms bottom during - in a steam boiler, the practice of opening valves attached and water
[0

of the the

Air pre-heater
ferring

of steam

drums

drums,

some of the waste heat in flue gases

boiler operation, to drain off accumu-

from a boiler or furnace to incoming


increasing the efficiency of combustion.

lation> of sediment. Boiler - rhe entire vessel i.n which steam or for LIse external to the fumace, consisting of the

Air purge boiler

- a flow of air through

the furnace, flues and any gaseous with air,

other vapor is g,:nerated itself, including following: including vection

gas passages, and associated and replace them

ducts that will effectively remove combustibles


--

water wall tubes; the firebox area,


burners and dampers; and the conarea, consisting of any superheater, sections, as well

L
_ I'

Purging may also be accomplished

by an inert

i J

medium.
Alarm - an indication used to alert an opercondition. device used

reheater, and! or economizer as drums and headers.

ator about an abnormal

Boiler control energy

follow where demand

mode the

- a mode boiler responds and

of boiler to an controls

Atternperator for maintaining

- a mechanical and comrolling steam,

requirement

the tempera-

boiler pressure by regulating Boiler follow system

boiler inputs.

I
1-.

ture of superheated Attemperator mechanical cooling medium

I
i
I

- a type of boiler the boiler inputs are

(direct

contact

device in which

rue steam

type)

-a

control

system in whim

and the

adj usred to control the boiler, Cascade in which troller normally control

the steam pressure out of

(water) are mixed,

I
I

Automatic tracking - the action of a control


system to automatically process variable without mechanisms, Balanced draft - a system of furnace
to

system - a control system of one controller (the conis

crack a serpoint or the any other corrective

the output

outer loop) is the setpoint


(the inner a slow responding loop.

for another
outer

loop). The

loop

pres-

pared to

rue inner

process as com-

sure control in which the inlet air flow or the

outlet flue gas flow is controlled

maintain

Glossary

137

·J

!"

138 BOiler Control Systems Engineering


Combustion - the rapid chemical combinaelements of hear. Cyclone-fired Combustible boiler typically - a smaller ancillary attaches horizontally furnace. The confurnace near number Condenser multiple generate the kinetic that regulate the turbine load and the boiler outpm pressure. Economizers used to recover heat exchangers that are

Glossary 139

tion of oxygen with the combustible of a fuel, resulting in the production

excess thermal

energy

fiom

Feedwater process drum

flow control

systen~ - a Control of regulating feed_

system that uses input signals derived from the for the purpose level according water flo"" to the boiler to maintain
to the

I
--I

process screams. Economizers heating feed and as column

are used for prereboilers. In some

adequace

the heat producing

stituent of a fuel, flue gas, or fly ash.

the bottom of cyclone

of the main

systems, the reb oiler for one column condenser for another,

is the

manufacturers

re comrnen dati oris. co the Final control control element - a component of a

furnaces depends on the

backpressure elements - a
breakdown diffuser, normally neck, used to of the to reduce exhaust,

rota! capacity Damper resistance volumetric - a device for introducing for the purpose flow of 6,,5 or air.

I
! i

Efficiency

- the ratio of energy output

energy input. The efficiency of a boiler is the ratio of heat absorbed the heat equivalent Error

system (such as a control valve) that

installed in the steam condenser condenser energy vacuum of steam and

a variable
the

a positive back pressure upstream from

of regulating

-j

by

WJteI

and steam to

directly regulates the flow of energy or material to or from the process" Final control device - a device that exerts a

of the file! fired.

an external

- see deviation. air - air supplied for combustion combustion air.


[Q

source other than the turbine

Desuperheater
contact ty-pe) ,

- see attemperator

(direct

-::.-

I
i

direct influence Excess in Fireside of the excess of theoretical

on the process. boiler - see fuel-air-flue

Control

damper

- a single or multiple
Deviation - the difference between me loop blades tends setp oint and the pmcess variable. Differential pressure element flow element -a

bladed device that opens and closes to control

~~ R: ~
• p..

air flow, A system with multiple


to be more linear,

i -!
I

gas system.
Fail safe - the capability to go mined malfunction. Fault tolerant built-in continued, capability correct of a execua predererFiring a boiler. First-stage steam turbine pressure - the pressure within where a rate - the rate of firel combustion in safe state in the event of a specific

Control a control manipulated Controller or system

loop

a combination arranged

of field so that of a

measuring

that is inserted in a process to the square of the rate of

devices and control functions variable is compared variable. and returns

flow pam and used to create a pressure drop that is proportional flow. Differential pressure transmitter - any of the to

to a setpoint

to the process in the form

system to provide a hardware Feedback a controlled element, Feedback

at the point

the steam to the

tion of its assigned iilnction in the and! or software faulr. - a signal produced

presence of

exits the first row of turbine flow' rate of steam through

blades. The presthe turbine. Firstto as impulse

sure at this point is closely proportional stage pressure is also referred pressure. Flame tripping validation

- any manual or automatic of devices


to

device of

several transducers pressure difference

designed between

to measure

by a measuring of of a control

for the regulation

two points in a

device that is proportional

to the magnitude

boiler systems motivated

keep the boiler

at normal pres-

process and to transmit a signal proportional this difference, without pressure a, either point.

variable or position

operation. If automatic, by variations

the device or system is in temperature,

regard to the absolute

- the £lame tripfor the

ping concept used on the unit must have been control - an error-driven the control to the control difference Flue gas - the gaseous products tion in the flue to the stack. Forced draft pressure (FD) of combusvalidated by the boiler manufacturer specific furnace configuration - a measuring elesystem actuators between in which system to the being used.

sure, water level, time, flow, or other influences. Differential Convection circulation Convection Coordinated boiler/turbine - the transmission of heat by the of a liquid or a gas such as air, may be natural or forced. control control rnode - a mode of Draft - [he difference between atmospheric existing in producer ment that is inserted in a process flow pam and used to create a pressure drop that is proportional rate, for the while to the square of the volumetric flow

is proportional a command

signal and a feedback signal from the process

signal and a feedback

variable being controlled, fan - a fan supplying air Feeder weighing quantity - a closed vessel designed to pressure. through A the device for separating steam/water a device such as a gravimetric device such the Frequency that
all

that provides to demand balance. system

under ment

to the fuel-bmning

equip-

parallel operation maintaining Coordinated boiler both

of rhe boiler and the turbine

pressure and some lower pressure the furnace ating unit. Drum withstand collecting mixture (steam) and circulated

system or a volumetric of a solid fuel to a boiler.

as a unit co match generation boiler/turbine control

or gas passages of a steam-genet-

as a screwdriver

that is used CO measure

- an electrical electrical current

measurement oscillates"

of

the number of cycles in a given period - a type of in which Feedforward to compensate disturbance. - a control action that is taken for the effect of a sensed input and turbine control system internal United

of time In the

States, the electrical system operates at of sixty Hertz (cycles/sec),

the turbine" inlet valves and the boiler to simultaneously

a frequency

inputs are adjusted together

the boiler.

"T
140 Boiler
Fuel Control Systems Engineering

Glossary

141

- a substance

containing

combustible

material used for generating


Fuel-an-flue

heat.

used in combination with proportional it previously \V"dS called reset action.


Integral continuous

action,

Logic
equipment

system

decision-making

logic

by reducing the furnace temperature. Piping and Instrument Diagrams (P&IDs) - (1.) Drawings that show the imerconnecnon of process equipment and the instrumentation used to control the process, The process industry a standard set of symbols is used to prepare th e drawings of processes, generally based on !SA 3. L (2 ..) The primary schematic drawing that is used for laying out a process control insra& ti OD. Primary ail: (transport air, pulverizer air) - the air 0 r fI tie gas inrrodu ced into the pulverizer [Q dry the fuel and convey me puJ--. v-erized fuel to the bu rners, Primary
heater [convection or surface

air from
tion

air to

me atmosphere

gas system - the fuelaiE is

me

va hardware,
of a Mass

wirh Us associated power supplies, and sensing devices. .!low rate delivered - the mass flow
to

that supplies combus-

windup

~ the saturation of the intein the presence feedwarer the boiler; it is derived either from direct process measurements and! or calculations from oilier parameters. When volumetric temperature feedwater at flow rate and rare of all water

the burners. On most boilers the air

gral conrroiler
able response serpoinr within

output

is mechanically supplied by an FD fan or fans, The tlue gases are the gases leaving the boiler furnace combustion chamber that go [0 the
stack. Some boilers have a mechanical

error, which may cause unaccepcin rernnling the process to it'; accep table limits of rime and

overshoor,
Interlock - a device or software) off-limit or of events, and
Or group

10 fun rhar pulls gases from the furnace. The due gas system may have equipment such
as precipitators pollution. and scrubbers
[0

me

so urce of devices
to

measurernenr techniques
the feedwarer
l

ace employed

(hardware
limit or sequence offending

=nged
or to shut

sense

uring element varies


measured sated for determine (Indicated) flo\\oing

minimize

lOO"F (37 .8"q. the


density to

me f1ow-me.as-

condition,

improper down the or to

flow shall be com penfeedwacer flow tare.

Fuel trip - the automatic

shutoff of a specific

related

piece of equipment, in an improper

the true mass feedwarer

fuel as the result of an inrerl ock or operator action. Furnace - an enclosed space provided combustion of fuel. for (he

prevent proceeding

sequence

in order to avoid an undesirable co ndiri on. Intermediate mary (platen) superheater


berween

Mass steam Ilow rate - the mass flow rate


of steam from

me

boiler, derived eirher fromand/or

initial) superreceiving steam

-a the

direct process measuremenrs tions steam from other parameters. measuring flow-rare

calculaare

- a bearing

heating surface receiving

sream from the prisuperheater, tuning

If volumetric techniques

from the drum.

superheater

located

F urnac e press me - rhe pressure of gases in me furnace (see also drafi). Gas pass
- an arrangement in which the

primary- and secondary lambda method

employed, determine

me measured

be compensated

(indicated) llm .... shall for flowing steam density to

tuning
originated

a controller in the synehess

the true mass steam flow rate,

design
Master fuel trip (MFT) - an event resulting in the rapid shutoff of <ill fuel. (See also fuel trip.) megawatt - A unit of power measurement

Pri:t:nary / secondaryconttol loop controller - the controller rhar adjUSts setpoint fer the secondary control loop COI1troMel" in cascade control action scheme.

me

me

convection banks of a boiler are separated by gas-tight baHJ.es in to rwo or more pdel gas parhs isolating portions ofrhe superheater and reheacer surfaces. The proportion of total gas flow through. each gas ~ss may be varied by regulating dampers.

method whereby me controller out" me process dynamics. Linearity


prescribed

must "cancel

Protective designed

logic to prevent

- the nearness with which linear scale approximaresa

me plot
str.Ught

circuits - logic circuits damage [0 equipment by


malfunctions,

related
equal [0 one millionwans.Turbine/generator capability is usually

sy-stem

equipment

of a signal or other variable plotted against a

failure, or operator errors. Pump

line.
Load - a device that receives power or

expressed

in megawatts. Equal

drive control
demand

~ a control that translates an or mechanical

component a control electronic, signal

Gas recirculation - a method by which gas from the boiler, economizer, or air hea ter oudet is reintroduced to the furnace by means of <I &n(s), duct{s), or both.
Igniter ~ a device for iniriacing an explosion

of the final device

that

Mho
to

- a unit of electrical conductance,

system

~igna! into

power which is delivered to such a device, as in the rare of output, lb/hr (kgIs) of stem} or megawatts (kilowans) of electrical generations. Load dispatch - a remotely transmirred control developed signal

me reciprocal of ohm. (submode) - a particular


operating

hydraulic, pneumatic,

that

a£fem pump spee d.


Mode condition automatic, of a conrrol syseem, such as manual, remere, or coordinated.

or combustion in a fuel-air -mixture. Induced draft (ID) fan - a fun exha.usring flue g:J5eS from furnace.

me

to an electric: generating units system for the development of that units net generation requirement,

Mud drum ~ a lower drum in a boiler where


chemical on

Ratio controller - a controller rhat mainrains a predetermined ratio between ""-0 or more variables or ilia .. maintains me magnitude of a controlled variable at a fixed ratio to
anomer variable. or

me bottom

sludge collects. A blow down

valve

of the mud drum is open peri-

Load index - signal representative


Integral which
[0 the time

of desired

odically to remove the chemical sludge.

control the controllers

action output

an action is proportional

in

output

energy flow rate

Redundant (redundancy) - duplication repeticion of elements in electronic


mechanical functional primary equipment channels device. to provide

or

integcl ofthe

error input. When

Overfire air - a second source of combustion air to the furnace. The air is injected in the furnace
to

in case of

wure

alternative of the

enhance combustion

and reduce NO"

142

Boiler Control Systems

Engineering

Glossary

143
energy

Regenerative

- a quality of signal that feeds

the word "'SHOULD" DATION; ommended. and the

as a RECOJ'vL'\.1ENword

Swell a

- an increase (swell) in drum level due is due to an increase in load (steam a resulting an increase decrease in in drum input. as and heat

Turbine

- a machine

that converts

back on itself causing control system insrabiliry

".MAY"

as

to an increase in steam bubble volume. This


condition flow), pressure with

from a moving turbine converts

fluid into rotating energy in the

mechanical steam into

PERMISSIVE, neither Rehearer - a heating surface receiving steam


returning turbine to the boiler from the high-pressure exit,

mandatory

nor rec-

energy that drives a load. In a pov;-er plant, a mechanical energy co drive an electric gener-

Shrinkage - a decrease (shrinkage) in drum


level due
to

Swelling also occurs during the specific volume Tertiary of burners

a cold start-up

ator (the mechanical load),


Turbine governor valves turbine - the primary the flow of normal during

a decrease

in

steam-bubble
[0

of the water increases.


control steam operation. combusof of a nun-down imum urable control a Two-element trol system (steam flow
to

Runback - an action by the boiler control


system initiated by the loss of my auxiliary runequipment back

volume. This condition

is due

a decrease in

load (steam flow), with a resulting increase in drum pressure and a decrease in heat input. Single-element trol system feedwater whereby one control process - a convariable,

air - the air supplied to certain types


for cooling the burner metal or to process.

valves used to regulate

that limits the capabilities of the


the boiler demand signal is

through

the

unit to sustain the existing load. Upon initiation, reduced remaining Rundown condition (runup) reduced

improve the combustion Theoretical tion air required given quantity

at a preset rate co the capability of the


auxiliaries. (runup) - an action by the boiler

(stoichiometric) for complete

ratio to providing

- the ratio minimum a controllable

&om

max-

.drum level, is used as the mput to the control loop that regulates feed"'ater to maintain Steady-state flow to the drum the drum level at setpoint, 3

air - the chemically

correct amount combustion

operating span. The

operating or measover

conditions, this range.

of a specific fuel. feed-water

device must perform

control system initiated by an unsafe operating

i.e., fuel air limit (crosslirniting),


limits, etc. Upon rundown signal is is
to the load

characteristic

of

condition,

Threc-elcrnent

tempera cure

such as value, rate, periodicity,

or amplitude,

control system whereby

three process v-ariables

feedwater whereby and


1:\'1'0

control process level)

- a convariables as

initiation,

the boiler demand manner

exhibiting only negligible


(arbitrarily acteristics chosen) period may describe a condition

change over a long of time. Note - It in which some char-

.'

(steam flow, feedwater flow; and drum level) are used as inputs to the control loop that reg-

in a controlled

point where the unsafe operating eliminated.


I

condition

~I
] i
I
I

drum

are used

ulates feedwater flow

to the drum to maintain


t.

inputs to the control loop that regulates feedwater flow the drum to maintain The feedforward control the drum input level at setpoint. controller

are static, others dynamic. - a pipe in which steam and

the drum level at setpoin

This is a cascaded

Secondary

air

- the air supplied

by the

Stearn header
OUtpLIC

forced draft fan to the burners for combustion. Secondary the furnace. combustion. - combustion that

from

multiple

boilers is collected

-1
,j

feedforward loop with drum level as die pri11'~"1..'"Y variable, steam flow as the feedforward input, and feedwater flow (feedback) as the
secondary Tracking variable.

is

steam flow, with the ompm as the primary

of the drum level signal.

then distributed occurs as a result of ignition at 11 point beyond Steam quality

to various steam loads. - the ratio of the vapor's 111a5S mass. means under away for feeding into a furcontrolled the solid

Two-out-of-three
- forcing

logic

circuit

(2/3
of the
tv,.. o

an

inactive control funcfunction so

logic logic

circuit) circuit

- a logic circuit that employs inputs. The output is the same state as any

to the mixture's or final) superheater superheater. of automatically constants based Surnrner valve, service, output Stoker nace,

tion to follow the active control that llpon a mode


. -i
-.

three independent matching

transfer, no process upset

Secondary (radiant
a heating the primary Self-tuning modifying

- a mechanized burning and them carrying

surface receiving or intermediate - the technique control algorithm

stem]. from either

coal or other conditions, combustion

solid combustibles

occurs. Transient - the behavior variable during the

input states. - a sec of movable vanes in the of regulating air

.j

Vane

control

transition between Transient

two steady States. a control action

inlet of a fan for the purpose

products. correction applied e. g.,


to

flow.
occurs when tWO or and (he

upon proces.~ conditions. Severe duty valve - a mission-critical high-pressure designed, drop

- a summer

more values come into an equation

equals (he sum of the inputs in percent

typically

seeing

based on the K values. Superheater tubes contained a bank within

"i,_
.1

1
I

specifically error change; applied

to minimize

any process process action or

WateI:"side system. Wmdbox surrounding under the fuel.

of the boiler

- see steam-water

resulting

from

a temporary control the

temperature

counter during

effects of over-

- a chamber a burner,

below through

the grate which

or air of

which may see cavitating or flashing fluid" or if nor properly may see early trim

under-firing Trip

load changes . removal from operation or the automatic dis-

of heating

surface

pressure is supplied for combustion

erosion, vibration, Shall, should,

or excess noise.

a boiler, and to which

- the automatic equipment

heat is applied to elevate the srearn temperaand may - the word "SHi\.LL" as a REQUlRElv1ENT; ture to a desired value above saturation, is to be understood

of specific continuance

of a process action or condition Or operator action.

as the result of all interlock

144 Boiler Control Systems Engineering Ziegler-Nichols method - a method for determining optimum controller settings when tuning a process control loop (also called the "ultimate cycle method"), It is based on finding the proportional gain that causes instability ill a dosed loop. This method is sometimes called the "Ziegler-Nichols dosedloop merhod" to distinguish it from another tuning approach devised by Ziegler and Nichols in which settings are derived from open-loop parameters.

'.

'.:.:~-..:..:.--'.-:-

T ,.

j.

i'.

~, ".t.