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;kek BBekDk ;kfjp

(;'Xe L so;/w f;zx u/now?B Xow gOuko ew/Nh, fdZH f;ZH r[H gOH ew/Nh)

nkw iBsk i' f;Zy fJfsjk; s'I e'oh j?, eJh tko f;Zy p}[orK tZb'I gkJ/ g{ofBnK g[o fezs{ eo fdzdh
j?. T[jBK tk;s/ T[pbd/ gkDh ftZu gOkD d/D, ozphnK Bkb y'goh T[sotkT[Dh, BhjK ftZu fuD/ ikDk, pzd pzd
eNtk b?Dk, nko/ Bkb fizd/ fuo ikDk n;zGt fijk ezw j?. fJj e/tb j[D dh jkbs BjhI, nZi s'I 88 ;kb
gfjbK th nkw b'ekJh fJzM jh ;'udh ;h. T[; t/b/ fJZe n?;k ;kek j'fJnk fi; B/ fgSb/ fJfsjk; ~ d[jok
jh BjhI fdZsk, pbfe d[BhnK ~ M{D e/ oZy fdZsk. nkT[, T[; s/ nZi ftuko eohJ/ L

BBekDk ;kfjp ;fsr[o{ r[o{ BkBe d/t ih dk gOekF n;EkB j?, fJ; bJh r[od[nkfonK ftZu fJ; dh
FO'wDh EK j?. BBekDk ;kfjp dk ;kek i' fJ; ;dh d/ nkozG ftZu j'fJnk, T[; B/ g[oksB f;Zy fJfsjk; dh
:kd sk}k eo fdZsh. BBekDk ;kfjp fty/ r[od[nkok iBw n;EkB s/ j'J/ fJ; ;ke/ ~ ;wMD bJh, ;k~
r[od[nkok ;[Xko bfjo iK nekbh bfjo ns/ T[; s'I th gfjb/ jkbks s/ fJZe w'Nh fijh B}o wkoBh }o{oh
Gk;dh j?.

;Oh r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih s'I fgZS'I ;Zm ;Zso ;kb dk ;wK ykb;/ bJh vkY/ eoV/ fJwfsjkB dk ;wK ;h.
je{ws ykb;/ dk y[ok y'i fwNk d/D s/ s[bh j'Jh ;h, Fkjh j[ew fJBQK FpdK ftZu ikoh ehs/ ikd/ ;B L

BkBe goZ;sK ok jo ik fe pkfJzd/ pk esb o;kB/d

Gkt L BkBe Bkw b/tk fiE/ Gh j'D esb eo fdZs/ ikD. f;zxK d/ f;o dk w[Zb fwbdk ;h. f;zx xo
xkN SZv izrbK p/fbnK ns/ EbK ftZu ik S[g/ ;B, i' pkjo oj/, wko/ rJ/. nfijh jkbs ftZu r[o n;EkBK dh
;zGkb eoBh f;zxK bJh ;zGt jh BjhI ;h. n?;/ ;w/I ftZu i/eo fJj n;EkB ekfJw ofj ;e/ sK fJj T[dk;h
;zgodk d/ e/; ofjs ;zsK d/ ;de/ jh ;h. T[; ;w/I fJBQK ;zsK dh fJj tZvh ;/tk ;h fe fJBQK B/ r[o n;EkBK ~
;zGkb oZfynk. gOzs{ T[BQK d/ fBih ftFtk; ns/ gOubs fjzd{ gOGkt Eb/ r[o n;EkB pOfjwDh ozrs cVd/ rJ/.
fJBQK ftZu d/th d/tfsnK s'I fJbktk wB'ebfgs r[o{ w{osK s/ r[o{ ;kfjpkB d/ p[Zs oZy/ ikD/ nkozG j' rJ/ ns/
r[od[nkfonK dh wfo:kdk fjzd{ mke[o-d[nkfonK tkbh j' rJh. fco f;Zy fw;bK ns/ wjkokik oDihs f;zx dk
;wK nkfJnk. f;Zy oki d/ ;w/I Gkt/I r[od[nkfonK dhnK ikfJdkdK s/ fJwkosK pDkT[D tZb e[ZM fXnkB fdZsk
frnk. gOzs{ fJBQK dh nzdobh wfo:kdk T[dk;h ;zsK d/ jZE jh ojh. ;zB 1849 ftZu gzikp nzdo nzro/} oki j'
ikD fgZS'I brGr ;Zso ;kb fJ; fdFk ftZu e'Jh coe Bk g? ;fenk, pbfe nzro/} sK r[od[nkfonK dh
wjZssk ~ xNk e/ okih ;h, fi; bJh ;Oh jfowzdo ;kfjp, nzfwOs;o s/ soBskoB nkfd r[od[nko/ sK f;ZX/
;oeko'I Ekg/ ;opokj d/ jZE ;T[Ig/ rJ/. j'o r[od[nkfonK bJh ;pzfXs wjzs ns/ g[okoh ;oeko d/ jZE m'e/
pDkJ/ rJ/. fJ; gOeko ;oeko tZb'I Ffj fwbD s/ fJBQK ftu'I eJhnK B/ wBwkBhnK eoBhnK F[o{ eo fdZshnK.

fJ; ;w/I jh ;zB 1873 ftZu f;zx ;Gk bfjo dk nkozG j'fJnk fJ; bfjo dh e"w ~ ;ZG s'I tZvh d/D
ftfdnk gOuko d/ Bkb-Bkb f;Zy Xow s/ ofjs wfo:kdk ~ mhe noEK ftZu f;Zyh ozrs d/Dk ;h. f;zx ;Gk
bfjo B/ gOuko d/ tZyo/ e/Ido ekfJw ehs/, fiBQK ~ f;zx ;GktK fejk iKdk j?. nZi eb fJj d/yD ftu nk
fojk j? fe tX/o/ f;zx ;GktK w[V pqkjwDh gqGkt dk fFeko j' rJhnK jB ns/ s/}h Bkb ;"Vh okiBhsh dk
e/Ido pD ojhnK jB. gOzs{ T[; ;w/I fJfsjk;e r[od[nkfonK ftZu'I wjzsK s/ g[ikohnK B/, i' pOkjwDh gOGkt EZb/
j'D s'I fJbktk ;oeko d/ fJFko/ s/ Bud/ ;B, f;zx ;Gk bfjo d/ n;o ~ Bk ep{fbnk. fJ; dh fJZe fw;kb
fJ; gOeko j? L

ejhnK iKdhnK nS{s ikshnK ftZu'I fJZe gOkDh B/ e/; oZy e/ yzv/ pkN/ dk nzfwOs Sfenk s/ nkgd/ ;ko/
gfotko ~ f;zx ;ikfJnk. fJj BtK ;fink f;zx gotko eVkj gO;kfd dk Ekb f;o s/ T[mkJ/ pV/ ;fseko
Bkb ;Oh jfowzdo ;kfjp nzfwOs;o doFBK ~ frnk. g[ikohnK B/ Bk e/tb fJ;dk fbnKdk gOFkfd jh w'V fdZsk
pbfe T[; ~ XZe/ wko e/ pkjo eZY fdZsk. pkjo ike/ fJj s/ fJ; d/ gfotko B/ Jh;kJh gkdoh gk;'I
pgfs;wk b? e/ Jh;kJh ws XkoB eo fbnk. e/; eNk e/ j?N gfjB fbnk. ;w[Zuh ofjDh Jh;kJhnK tkbh pDk
bJh nEtk NkJh, g?IN, e'N ;ik bJ/. e[ZM ;wK gke/ fJj' @Jh;kJh ;kfjp# o'np Bkb ;Oh jfowzdo ;kfjp
g[Zik, fiE/ pV/ ;fseko Bkb fJ; ~ doFB eokJ/ rJ/ s/ f;o'gk th fdZsk frnk.

nfijhnK jh jkbsK ftZu r[od[nkok ;[Xko bfjo gfjbh ftFt izr d/ yksw/ d/ E'Vk fuo jh fgZS'I F[o{
j'Jh ns/ 6-7 ;kb fJ; B/ skesto nzro/} oki ~ jcVk dcVh gkJh oZyh ;h. fJBQK ;ko/ jkbksK ~ ;wMD
bJh fJ;d/ ekoBK s/ ftuko eoBh }o{oh Gk;dh j?.

nzro/} ;kwoki dh oD-Bhsh ftZu gzikp ~ ftF/F EK gOkgs ;h. fJZE'I d/ w[;bwkBK s/ f;ZyK ~ Gosh
t/b/ gfjb fwbdh ;h ns/ f;ZyK ~ f}nkdk g;zd ehsk iKdk ;h. T[vtkfJo dhnK B}oK ftZu `fjzd[;skB ftZu
c"ih ;fEsh dh e[zih gzikp ;h ns/ fjzd[;skBh c"i bJh fJj w[Zy Gosh
y/so ;h. ftFt izr d/ ujz[ ;kbK ftZu f;ZyK B/ nkgDh e[Zb 25 bZy dh nkpkdh ftZu'I (pfofNF fJzvhnk dk fJZe
ch;dh Bkb'I th xN) 90 j}ko Bkb'I fe;/ soQK th xZN bVke{ itkB w[jZJhnk BjhI ;B ehs/.& (India as I
know it-by M.O. Dioyer) fJ; bJh gzikp ftZu e'Jh nfijh Xkofwe iK oki;h bfjo BjhI T[mD fdZsh
iKdh ;h, fijVh \"ih Gosh ftZu ftxB gke/ Bt/I ozro{NK T[s/ p[ok n;o gkt/ ns/ r'ofwzN ~ go/FkB eo/.#
fJ;/ ekoB bkfJbg[o dh 1906-7 dh ns/ rdo sfjohe ~ pVh p/-ofjwh Bkb e[ub fdZsk frnk ;h.

1857 JhH d/ rdo s'I pknd 1858 JhH ftZu wjkokDh fteN'ohnk B/ n?bkB ehsk ;h fe T[; dh
;oeko fjzd[;skBh b'eK d/ Xkofwe wkwfbnK ftZu e'Jh dyb BjhI d/t/rh. fiE'I sZe f;Zy Xow s/ T[jBK d/
r[od[nkfonK dk ;pzX ;h, nzro/} jkewK dh gkfb;h fJ; n?bkB d/ T[bN ;h fe f;Zy Xow ns/ r[od[nkok
gOpzX ftZu dyb fdZsk ikJ/ ns/ f;ZyK ~ nkgD/ nXhB iK xZN'-xN n;o EZb/ oZfynk ikt/ ns/ nkgD/ oki dh
w}p{sh bJh tofsnk ikJ/.

T[IM th nzro/} jkew J/j' fij/ n?bkB nwb eoB bJh BjhI ;B eod/, b'eK dh nZyhI xZNk gk e/, fSe/
T[^s/ Nzr SZvD bJh eod/ ;B. fJ;/ e[Nb Bhsh nB[;ko f;Zy oki dh jko d/ e[ZM ;kb fgZS'I jh nzro/}K B/
dopko ;kfjp nzfwOs;o #s/ T[; Bkb ;pzfXs r[od[nkfonK ~ nkgD/ nXhB eo fbnk ns/ f;Zy f;XksK ~
s'VBk wo'VBk ns/ dopko ;kfjp s/ j'o r[od[nkfonK ~ nkgD/ oki dh w}p{sh bJh tosDk F[o{ eo fdZsk.
1881 JhH ftZu gzikp d/ b?cNhB?IN rtoBo fJioNB B/ bkov fogB ~ fuZmh fbyh fi; ftZu T[; B/
nkfynk,`f;Zy r[od[nkfonK d/ gOpzX ~ fe;/ nfijh ew/Nh d/ jZEK ftZu ikD d/D dh nkfrnk d/Dk, fijVh
r'ofwzN ezNo'b s'I nk}kd j' u[Zeh j't/, oki;h s"o s/ ysoBke j't/rk.&

nzro/}K B/ f;Zy Xow ~ nkgD/ oki;h ;[nkoEK bJh Ykb fbnk ;h sK i' T[j f;ZyK ~ bVB tkbh
wFhB d/ s"o s/ nkgD/ oki dh oZfynk s/ g;ko bJh tos ;eD. uhc ykb;k dhtkB, n?i{e/FBb ekBcoz;
tr?ok dh tckdkoh B/ f;ZyK dh ;'u Fesh ~ skb/ bk fdZs/ ;B. T[jBK d/ fdwkr ftZu e[ZN-eZ[N e/ Go fdZsk
frnk ;h fe nzro/} sK nkJ/ jh r[o{ s/r pjkdo ih dh gFhBr'Jh d/ w[skpe jB. w?ekfbc B/ fJ; ;pzXh
fJFkok eofdnK fbfynk ;h fe @f;Zy gftZso rOzE ftZu fpOfNF b'eK dh tckdkoh d/ j[ew w[ysfbc
g/FhBr'JhnK okjhI fdZs/ rJ/ jB. T[;d/ ftuko ftZu fJj fJj' fijhnK g/FhBr"JhnK jh jB, fiBQK B/ f;ZyK ~
fpOfNF oki dk nfsnzs tckdko, FoXkb{ s/ pjkdo fonkfJnk pDkfJnk j?.& (Memo-the polittcs of
Sikh Community, Singh Sabhas and the chief Khalsa Diwan, by D. Petrie.). w[Zedh rZb
fJj j? fe nzro/}K bJh f;ZyK dh tckdkoh dh Fos fJj ;h fe f;Zy Xow dk gOuko T[j j't/ fijVk T[jBK ~
wB}{o j't/. f;ZyK d/ ftfdnk jk;b eoB s/ fby-gVQ ikD s'I nzrq/}K ~ vo bZrdk ;h ns/ ykb;k ekbi
nzfwOs;o ~ th nkgD/ j/m jh oZyDk ukjz[d/ ;B. r'ofwzN ~ fJj ysok th ;h i/ edh sZs ykb;k gkoNh (f;zx
;GhnK) B/ dopko ;kfjp s/ ep}k eo fbnk ns/ Xkofwe wkwfbnK ftZu bhvofFg jk;b eoB dh g[}hFB
ftZu j' rJh sK f;ZN/ pj[s rzGho fBeb ;ed/ jB. fJ; bJh nzro/} jkewK B/ nkgD/ ;opokjK s/ j'o fgm{nK
okjhI g[ikohnK ~ gfjb'I jh fsnko eo Sfvnk j"fJnk ;h fe T[j @f;zx ;GhnK# s'I ypodko ofjD feT[Ife
T[j okwdk;hnK, u{fVnK s/ ewhDK ~ nkgD/ ftZu Fkwb eo oj/ jB. fJ; bJh T[jBK ~ i/ T[j dopko ;kfjp
nkT[D, sK w{zj BjhI bkT[Dk. nzro/} oki d/ n;o EZb/ g[ikoh f;Zy Xow d/ n;{b fsnkr u[Ze/ ;B ns/
pfofNF r"ofwzN d/ YKu/ dk nzr pD u[Ze/ ;B. r"ofwzN dh gkb;h ;h fJBQK f;ZyK ~ r[bkw pDkJh oZy/ ns/
d{ihnK e'wK ~ r[bkw pBkD bJh tos'.

r"ofwzN nkgD/ jZEK ftZu'I r[od[nko/ BjhI ;h SZvDk ukj[zdh feT[Ife fJfsjk;e r[od[nkfonK Bkb pVh
Xkofwe skes s/ d"bs i[Vh j'Jh ;h. ;' r"ofwzN B/ brksko fJ; d"bs s/ skes ~ nkgD/ oki s/ oki;h
we;dK bJh tofsnk.

1919 JhH dh ft;kyh ~ nzfwOs;o ftZu ifbnK tkb/ pkr d/ ;EkB #s/ g[onwB FfjohnK #s/ nzB/tkj
1600 r'bhnK ubkJhnK rJhnK ns/ ;?IeV/ nkdwh wko/ rJ/. fJ; s'I pknd gzikp ftZu e[ZM j'o c;kd j'J/.
fi;d/ cb;o{g r"ofwzN B/ eJh soQK dhnK ;yshnK ehshnK, fit/I fe wkoFb bkn bkT[Dk, toeoK s/ nkr{nK
~ bzwhnK-bzwhnK e?dK s/ w"s dhnK ;}ktK, e;{o ftZu ;yshnK, r[ioKtkb/ ftZu jtkJh ijkiK okjhI pzpK dh
toyk, nzfwOs;o ftZu b'eK ~ fYZvK Gko ubD bJh w}p{o eoBk, p?Is wkoB dhnK ;iktK, n"osK dh p/gsh
ns/ j'o nDfrDs }[bw.

fJj ;B nzfwOs;o s/ gzikp d/ dodBke jkbks ngO?b 1919 ftZu fJ;/ nzfwOs;o B/ nrb/ 6 ;kbK
ftZu nekbh bfjo dk rVQ pDBk ;h ns/ f;ZyK ~ iE/pzd eoe/ nzro/} oki Bkb vNe/ b'jk b?Dk ;h.
fJ; s'I fJbktk e[ZM j'o th ekoB ;B fiBQK B/ jkbks ~ T[Gko fdZsk. y[d f;ZyK d/ Xkofwe i}fpnK ~
r"ofwzN eJh ;kbK s'I bskVdh ubh nk ojh ;h, fit/I feOgkB gfjBD tkfbnk ~ cVBk. r[od[nkok oekp rzi
dh ezX YkDk, dopko ;kfjp dk gkDh pzd eoBk nkfd. fJBQK w;fbnK B/ f;ZyK ~ pVk d[Zyh ehsk j'fJnk ;h
ns/ T[BQK d/ fdb e[ZM eoB bJh T[pb oj/ ;B.

jkbs J/E'I sZe fBxo u[Zeh ;h fe fijV/ f;Zy r[od[nkfonK ftZu ;[Xko eoB dh B}o Bkb t/yd/ ;B
iK T[j d/F ;/teK ~ i' nzro/} ;kwoki s'I pkrh ;B, g[ikoh b'e T[jBK ;kfonK ~ f;Zyh s'I gfss j'D d/ cst/
d/Id/ ;B ns/ ny"sh nS{sK s'I f;zx ;i ikD tkfbnk d/ nodk;/ BjhI ;B eod/. d{i/ gk;/ i/ nzro/} iK
n?Irb'-fJzvhnB jkew r[od[nko/ ftZu nk iKd/ sK fJj T[jBK d/ nZr/-fgZS/ GZi/ fcod/ ;B. T[jBK ~ f;o'gkT[
d/Id/ ;B ns/ T[BQK T[^s/ nzro/} oki d/ g{o/ tckdko ns/ skfpnkdko j'D dk gOGkt SZvd/ ;B. g{ik dk XkB yk-
yk e/ fJBQK dh f;Zyh r?os s/ nDy wo u[Zeh ;h ns/ fJj nzro/} jkewK d/ g{oB r[bkw pD u[Ze/ ;B. id
eknp/ ftZu'I jh e[co T[mD bZr/ sK fJ;bkw B/ feE/ ofjDk j'fJnk<

fJj w;zd, iBob vkfJo fij/ y{zyko dfozd/ ~ f;Zy pDkT[D dk jk;'jhDk BkNe oud/ ;B ns/ T[; ~
tXkJhnK d/Id/ ;B fe T[; B/ ifbnK tkb/ pkr ftZu nzB/Qtkj r'bhnK ubk e/ fBjZE/ s/ FKs p?m/ gzikphnK d/
nkj{ bkj e/ p[okJh ~ c?bD s'I gfjbK e[ub fdZsk j?. fJ; eoe/ f;ZyK dk Go';k, fgnko s/ nfj;kB fiZs
fbnk j?. fJ; ;h fJybkeh s/ Xkofwe froktN dh jZd! nzro/} ;kwoki ~ fJZE/ ekfJw oZyD bJh fJj
ny"sh f;Zy nkr{ s/ g[ioh f;Zy r[od[nkfonK s/ f;Zy ws ~ nkgD/ fBih fjZsK bJh fit/I ukj[D tos ;ed/ ;B
ns/ T[jBQK B/ d'jK ~ oZi e/ tofsnk.

T[; tes r[od[nkfonK dhnK ikfJdkdK, FoXkb{nK B/ r[od[nkfonK dh ;zGkb bJh s/ bzro ubkT[D
bJh fdZshnk j'JhnK ;B. nzro/} ;oeko B/ nkgD/ M'bh u[Ze wjzsK ~ r[od[nkfonK ns/ j'o ikfJdkdK d/
wkbe pDk fdZsk. fJBQK dh nkwdB B/ ;kXK (wjzsK) ~ n?F gO;s pDk fdZsk. T[BQK B/ Xow;kbktK
(r[od[nkfonK) d/ dotk}/ pzd eo fdZs/ ns/ T[BQK ~ nkgD/ nkokwdkfJe xo pDk e/ }whB d/ wkbe pD p?m/.
fJj ;h S'N/ r[od[nkfonK dh jkbs.

fiZE'I sZe tZv/ r[od[nkfonK d/ ep}/ dk fJfsjk; j?, T[BQK T[^s/ ekp} wjzs nzro/}K d/ nkT[D s'I f;Zy
;zrsK d/ ezNe'b s'I nk}kd j' rJ/. ;zrs d/ wjzs ~ u[DB dk jZe s/ nfXeko n?r}?efNt s/ wkbhnk nc;oK
(Revenue officers) B/ y'j bJ/ s/ nc;oK dh fJwdkd Bkb wjzs }whBK #s/ ekp} j' rJ/ ns/
r[od[nkfonK ~ nkgDh fBih ifJdkd ;wMD bZr gJ/. fJj fpOfNF ;oeko jh ;h fi; B/ nkgD/ nc;oK d/
f;ZX/ iK nf;ZX/ n;o okjhI d[okukoh wjzsK ~ r[od[nkfonK d/ wkbe pDB dh nkfrnk fdZsh. fJ; pko/
fgOz;hgb BfoziB f;zx ih fbyd/ jB L

`nzro/}K B/ gzikp ~ 1849 JhH ftZu nkgDh ;bsBs ftZu Fkwb ehsk ns/ id' spdhbh dk d"o ;h
sK nzfwOs;o dopko ;kfjp fijVk fe f;Zy wZs dk e/Ido j?, d/ wkwb/ rVpV ftZu gkJ/ j'J/ ;B. T[; t/b/
nzfwOsXkoh f;ZyK dh No;Nh d/ s"o s/ fJZe ew/Nh pDkJh rJh ;h. fi; dk ;opokj ;oeko tZb'I fB:[es ehsk
iKdk ;h.&
`nzro/} ;oeko dh r[o{-n;EkBK d/ gOpzX ftZu nfijh dybnzdk}h ;fji/ jh ;wMh ik ;edh j? fe
fJZe tkoh fpOfNF n;?Ipbh ftZu fJZe gOFB d/ T[^so ftZu dZf;nk fe Gkos nzdo nzro/}h oki ~ nro fe;/
d/;h skes s'I G? j' ;edk j? sK T[j f;ZyK s'I j?. f;Zy dh ;{ophosk s/ db/oh dk ;kok G/d fJ; d/ T[; Go';/ s/
f;de ftZu j? i' fJ; ~ nkgD/ r[o{ ns/ r[o{ Bkb ;pzfXs uh}K sEk n;EkBK #s/ j?. i/eo f;ZyK dk f;de r[o{
rOzE ;kfjp T[^s'I v'b ikJ/, i/eo f;Zy nkgD/ r[od[nkfonK dh wjZssk ~ Gbk d/t/ ns/ i/eo r[o{nK no f;Zy
FjhdK dk fJfsjk; s/ :kdK f;Zy s'I y'j bJhnK ikD sK f;Zy ;fji/ jh ysw j' ;edk j?.

jkbks fJT[I pdb/ fe 1881 JhH ftZu fJj ew/Nh (u[gukg) jNk fdZsh rJh ns/ ;opokj d/ jZE ftZu
e[Zb skes nk rJh. f;Zy ;zrs d/ ezNo'b dh nDj'Id B/ r?o-fizw/Itkoh s/ fGOFNkuko ~ j'Id ftZu b? nKdk.
dopko ;kfjp ftZu fjzd{ d/th-d/tfsnK dhnK w{oshnK ekch ;w/I (;zB 1922) sZe gJhnK ;B. fJj ;h
nzro/} gkfb;h fe ;fji/ ;fji/ f;Zyh dhnK iVK ftZu s/b d/Dk ikoh oZfynk ikt/.

1919 sZe @uhc ykb;k dhtkB# f;ZyK dh bZrGr fJZe' fJZe e/Idoh iE/pzdh ;h ns/ ;odko ;z[do f;zx
wihmhnk T[; t/b/ f;Zy e"w d/ tkfjd bhvo frD/ iKd/ ;B. fJ; e/Idoh iE/pzdh s/ ykBdkBh ;odkoK ns/ XBkY
f;ZyK dk ep}k ;h ns/ fJBQK ~ nzro/} ;oeko B/ @e[dosh nkr{# wzfBnk j'fJnk ;h. uhc ykb;k dhtkB Gkt/I
f;Zy Xow d/ gOuko dk ezw eodk ;h, go ;oeko Bkb jo soQK fwbtosB eoB ns/ nkgD/ bJh s/ f;ZyK bJh
e[ZM nj[d/ b?Dk s/ ckfJd/ T[mkDk J/j' jh uhc ykb;k dhtkB dk tZvk wB'oE ;h.&

(fgzO;hgb fBoziB f;zx-nekbh bfjo dhnK e[ZM :kdK L iE/dko 13-8-1967)

;G s'I gfjbK bkfJbg[o d/ f;ZyK B/, ;odko jouzd f;zx dh nrtkJh ftZu fJZe d' tko :sB ehs/ ns/
T[od{ d/ @ykb;k# nypko ftZu uhc ykb;k dhtkB dh nzro/} ;oeko gOsh nzBQh Grsh d/ fybkc nktk}
T[mkJh, fi; dk e'Jh n;o Bk ep{fbnk frnk. 10-12 ngO?b 1914 ~ ibzXo ftZu f;Zy n?i{e/FBb ew/Nh dh
;bkBk ekBcoz; ftZu ;OH jouzd f;zx ~ r[od[nkok oekp rzi ;kfjp dh dhtko d/ w;b/ s/ wsk g/F Bk eoB
fdZsk frnk.

r[od[nkok ;[Xko d/ w;b/ s/ eJh tkoh f;ZyK B/ nzro/} ;oeko ~ ws/ gk; eoe/ G/i/ go e'Jh ;[DtkJh
Bk j'Jh ns/ Nkb wN'b jh jz[dh ojh. d{i/ gk;/ f;Zy dopko ;kfjp dk gOpzX nkgD/ ep}/ ftZu fbnkT[D bJh
ekjb/ ;B.

Btzpo 1918 ~ gfjbh irs izr (1st world war) ysw j'Jh, izr s'I pknd r"ofwzN B/ nkgDk
piN xN eoB tk;s/ eJh c"ihnK ~ B"eohnK s'I eZY fdsk ns/ ekbi dh vpb ezgBh ~ th s'V fdZsk. fJj
c"ih id tkg; nkJ/ sK T[jBQK B/ fpOfN; ;kwoki dhnK e[Nb BhshnK s'I ;G ~ ikD{ eotkfJnk.

bkfJbg[o ro[g B/ r[gs whfNzrK eo e/ fJj fBoBk ehsk fe fJZe gzikph nypko eZfYnk ikt/, i' 21
wJh 1920 ~ @nekbh# d/ BK j/m F[o{ ehsk frnk. fJj o'}kBk nekbh nypko jh ;h fijVk r[od[nkok
nk}kdh dh bfjo s/ e"wh nk}kdh dh sfjohe ftZu b'eK dh }pkB pD frnk. fJ; nypko d/ gOpzXeK B/ th
jo e[opkBh eoB bJh gZek fJokdk Xkfonk j'fJnk ;h. fi; fdqVQsk s/ w}p{sh Bkb T[jBK B/ i/bQK dhnK
;yshnK, }wkBsK dhnK }pshnK ns/ iksh }[owkfBnK ns/ e[oehnK dk Nkeok ehsk T[; B/ Xow dh nk}kdh
bJh e[opkBh s/ fsnkr dh BthI p[fBnkd oZy fdZsh. fgZS'I j\sktko nypko @ppo F/o# s/ @feOgkB pjkdo# B/
th gZsoekoh dk J/j' okj ngDkfJnk.

wk;No ;z[do f;zx ih bkfJbg[oh, nekbh nypko dh fizd ;B. fJBQK d/ Bkb ;OH wzrb f;zx s/ frnkBh
jhok f;zx dod ;zgkdeK d/ ro[Zg ftZu ;B. wk;No ;z[do f;zx ih B/ jh 1909 JhH ftZu fJZe g?Icb?N @eh
ykb;k ekbi f;ZyK dk j?# fby e/ nzro/} jkewK ~ uZeo ftZu gk fdZsk ;h. wk;No ;z[do f;zx s/ frnkBh
jhok f;zx j'oK fejk fe @f;Zy nkr{nK, r[od[nkfonK d/ wjzsK s/ okfinK B/ nzro/}h oki dh tckdkoh eoe/
oki Grsh ~ Xow pDk e/ f;Zy e"w ~ d[BhnK ftZu pdBkw eoe/ oZy fdZsk j?. j[D ;k~ w?dkB ftZu fBso e/
e[ZM eoBk jh gJ/rk.#

1920 ftZu nekbh nypko d/ fBebd/ ;ko jh jtk dk o[Zy pdbBk F[o{ j' frnk. f;ZyK ftZu BthI
;fgoN g?dk j'D bZrh. fJ; t/b/ sZe r[od[nkfonK dh nk}kdh pjkb eoB bJh e/Idoh iE/pzdh BjhI ;h pDh.
@nekbh# nypko d/ XVQb/dko gOuko dk n;o fJj j'fJnk fe fgzvK s/ FfjoK ftZu nkgD/ nkg EK-EK nekbh
iE/ pDB bZr gJ/.

nekbhnK d/ j"I;b/ dh F[o{nks r[H oekp rzi ;kfjp dh dhtko d/ w'ou/ s'I j[zdh j?. id ;OH ;od{b
f;zx ethFo B/ @nekbh# ftZu fJZe b/y Skg e/ 100 f;zxK dh Fjhdh iZEk fsnko eoB dh nghb ehsh sK ;OH
dkB f;zx ftS'nk ns/ MpkbhJ/ GoktK-;OH nwo f;zx s/ ;OH i;tzs f;zx B/ Bkw fbyD/ F[o{ eo fdZs/. T[d'I
FO'wDh nekbh db ni/ ;Ekfgs BjhI j'fJnk ;h, go Nkt/I-Nkt/I iE/, ;?INob wkMk dhtkB, pho ykb;k dhtkB,
nekbh db yok ;"dk pko pD u[Ze/ ;B. ;' fJBQK iZfEnK d/ T[dw Bkb r[od[nkfonK T[^s/ ep}/ j'D/ nkozG j'J/.

nes{po 1920 ftZu f;Zy bhr dk fJibk; bkj"o ftZu ;OH yVe f;zx dh gOXkBrh j/m j'fJnk ns/
Fjhdh iE/ dh whfNzr j'Jh. fi; ftZu sfj j'fJnk fe gfjbh d;zpo 1920 ~ iEk fdZbh gjz[u/rk ns/ ;oeko
d[nkok r[od[nkok oekp rzi ;kfjp dh uko dhtkoh dh ezX ~ Ykj/ ikD d/ fto[ZX o'; tZi'I fdZbh g[Zi e/
tkfJ;okJ/ dh e'mh ;kjwD/ w'ouk brkJ/rk. T[Xo ;oeko dh j'F th fNekD/ nkJh ns/ wjkokik BkGk B/ dyb
d/ e/ ezX pDtk fdZsh. fJj f;Zy e"w dh fJZe pj[s tZvh fiZs ;h, fi; B/ nekbhnK dk T[sFkj, i'F s/ j"I;b/
tXk fdZs/.

je{ws fJj BjhI ;h ukj[zdh fe r[od[nko/ ns/ T[jBK dhnK ikfJdkdK f;Zy gzE d/ jZEK ftZu ubhnK
ikD feT[Ife r[od[nkfonK dh nk}kdh ns/ fJBQK dhnK ikfJdkdK eZb ~ ;oeko d/ fjZsK bJh ysoBke ;kps
j' ;edhnK ;B. fJ; bJh wjzsK ~ f;ZyK s'I ;oeko B/ pkrh eokfJnk. ;oeko ftukb/ Bk j[zdh sK wjzsK B/
u[guko ;wM"s/ eoe/ r[od[nko/ f;Zy gzE d/ jtkb/ eo d/D/ ;B iK ukb ubB ;[Xko e/ wjzs pD/ ofjDk ;h iK
fco ihtB Go bJh t}hc/ b? e/ nZv j' ikDk ;h go ;oeko f;ZyK ns/ wjzsK d/ ;wM"s/ d/ fto[ZX ;h. fJ; bJh
T[; B/ e[ZM wjzsK ~ nkgD/ jZEK ftZu b? e/ j' oj/ ;wM"s/ th f;o/ BjhI ;B uVQB fdZs/.
;oeko dh gkfb;h ;h fe ykb;k ekbi ~ nkgDh tckdkoh dk e/Ido pDk e/ oZfynk ikt/ ns// dopko
;kfjp dk gOpzX nzro/} oki dh w}p{sh s/ fjZsK ftZu nkgD/ jZEhI u[D/ wB-g;zs f;Zy ;opokjK okjhI ehsk
ikt/. j'o sK j'o, fJ; ~ uhc ykb;k dhtkB fijh nzro/} Grs iwks d/ jZEK ftZu th Bk ikD fdZsk ikt/.

T[go'es gkfb;h nB[;ko ;oeko B/ pkp/ dh p/o (f;nkbe'N) d/ r[od[nko/ dk ;opokj f;ZyK dh
}'odko fto'Xsk d/ pkti{d fJZe r?o-f;Zy rzvk f;jz[ ~ pDk fdZsk. J/;/ r[od[nko/ dk wjzs joBkw f;zx Fokp
ghIdk ;h ns/ r[od[nko/ dh ikfJdkd popkd eodk ;h. fJ; B/ r[od[nko/ ftZu r[zv/ oZye/ FoXkb{nK ~ e[ZNDk
F[o{ eo fdZsk. fJ;d/ cb;o{g ;zrsK B/ fJ; wjzs s'I r[od[nkok nk}kd eokT[D bJh bfjo ubk fdZsh. fJ;
sfjohe d/ nkr{ ;OH itkjo f;zx ~ th fJeZfbnK x/o e/ r[od[nko/ ftZu pj[s wkfonk frnk. fJ; s'I pknd
MpkbhJ/ Gok ;OH nwo f;zx s/ ;OH i;tzs f;zx gj[zu rJ/ ns/ fco ;OH yVe f;zx ih B/ ;zrokw ~ j'o rowk
fdZsk s/ B"ps w[eZdw/ sZe gj[zu rJh. nzs ;oeko ~ nkr{nK d/ fybkc w[eZdw/ tkg; b?D/ gJ/ ns/ 5 nes{po
1920 ~ 13 w?IpoK dh ew/Nh pDkJh rJh, fi; B/ r[od[nko/ d/ ezNo'b ~ nkgD/ jZE ftZu b? fbnk. rzvk f;zj[
~ w?B/io dh g';N s'I jNk fdZsk frnk. fJ; fiZs B/ r[od[nkok bfjo ~ j'o uwekfJnk.

go ;ZG Bkb'I wjZstg{oB ;Oh dopko ;kfjp dk ezNo'b ;h, fi; s'I fpBQK pkeh r[od[nkfonK dk ezNo'b
w[Ffeb ;h. fJ; bJh f;ZyK dk fXnkB dopko ;kfjp d/ wjzsK ~ jNkT[D tZb fyfunk frnk. ;Oh dopko
;kfjp Bkb wjkokik oDihs f;zx B/ ekch ikrho brkJh j'Jh ;h ns/ f;Zy oki d/ ysw j'D s/ fJj irho
nzro/}K d/ ezNo'b ftZu nk rJh. nekbh sfjohe d/ nkozG t/b/ nzro/}K B/ fJ; dk gOpzX nkgD/ fJZe ih
j}{ohJ/, nkBo/oh w?fi;No/N no{V f;zx B'Ffjok Bzrbh ~ Ekfgnk ;h. Xow s/ fJybke dh fvZm s'I fJ;
FO'wDh r[od[nko/ dh dFk pj[s fBxo rJh ;h. dopko ;kfjp soBskoB dh jkbs sK j'o th G?Vh ;h.

r[od[nkok nzfwOs;o s/ soBskoB d't/I ;opokj no{VQ f;zx d/ nXhB ;B. f;zx ;Gk soBskoB dh
fog'oN ftZu, soBskoB dhnK gOeowK ftZu j' oj/ d[okuko pko/ fJzM doi j? L

`HHHHHwZf;nk dk fJj w/bk gzikp ftZu gfjb/ doi/ d/ rzd/ w/fbnK ftZu frfDnk iKdk ;h. pkjo s'I
nkJ/ b'e Fokp gh e/ gOeowK ftZu nkT[Id/, r[zfvnK s/ pdwkFK dhnK N'bhnK gOeowK ftZu d'jV/ bkT[dhnK s/
rzd pedhnK fcodhnK, BkfunK d/ Bku jz[d/, p/oK s/ bv{nK dhnK M'bhnK phphnK s/ ykbh jz[dhnK. wSo/ j'J/
rGo{ vkrK w'fYnK #s/ oZyh peo/ pbkT[Id/ s/ S/VykBhnK eod/ fcod/, XZe/ g?Id/, bVkJhnK j' g?IdhnK s/ eJhnK
d/ f;o y[bQ iKd/. phphnK dh p/gsh jz[dh, u'ohnK jz[dhnK. doFBh fvT[VQh d/ nZr/ eziohnK d/ w[io/ s/ ok;K
g?IdhnKHHHHH.&
(ihtB GkJh w'jB f;zx t?d, gzBk 120)

brGr fJj' fij/ jh p[o/ jbks dopko ;kfjp ;Oh nzfwOs;o ftZu ;B. wZf;nk s/ dhtkbh d/ fdjkfVnK
#s/ GKs-GKs d/ fGOFNkuko s/ d[okuko j[zd/ ;B. FoXkb{ f;Zy pV/ d[Zyh ;B.

@nekbh# nypko d/ b/yK B/ nkw f;ZyK ~ nekbh iE/ ekfJw eoB ftZu pj[s ;jkfJsk fdZsh ns/
S'NhnK tZvhnK feOgkBK jo nekbh d/ w'Y/ s/ bNeD bZr gJhnK ;B. fgzvK s/ FfjoK ftZu nekbh pDB ~ wkD
dh rZb ;wfMnk ikD bZr fgnk. go ni/ Bk sK r[od[nkfonK d/ ;[Xko bJh jh e'Jh e/Idoh iE/pzdh pDh ;h,
Bk ifEnK B/ nkgDk e'Jh e/Idoh db jh ekfJw ehsk ;h. go fco th nkebh pj[s Discplined ;B ns/
r[od[nkok ;[Xko bJh jo e[opkBh eoB bJh fsnko ;B. r[od[nkfonK T[^s/ ep}/ j'D/I FO'wDh r[od[nkok
gOpzXe ew/Nh d/ ti{d ftZu nkT[D s'I gfjbK jh F[o{ j' rJ/ ;B.

f;Zy gzE d/ wZE/ #s/ ;G s'I tZvk ekby dk fNZek bkT[D tkbh rZb fJj ;h fe no{VQ f;zx, nekb s]s
s/ dopko ;kfjp tZb'I d/F GrsK d/ eksbK ~ Fbkxk gZso d/ fojk ;h. fJE'I sZe fe wkoFb bkn d/ fdBK
ftZu dopko ;kfjp ftZu'I iBob vkfJo ~ f;o'gkT[ fdZsk frnk. fJZe g[ikoh B/ fJE'I sZe fejk ;h fe w?I
eVkj gOFkfd ftZu swke{ fwbk d/tKrk.

eJhnK ;kbK s'I r[od[nkfonK ftZu Xow, ;dkuko, fJybke, ;fGnkuko ns/ jo fJZe wBZ[ytkdh r[D
dk fJe;ko fBxko j' fojk ;h. fJBQK ftZu'I b'e ;/tk-Gkt, e[opkBh bJh T[sFkj, o{jkBh y[Fh s/ T[u/ fJybke
dh f;fynk b? e/ BjhI ;B iKd/, ;r'QI rzd/ rhs, pdwkFh d/ d'jV/ ns/ phphnK Bkb S/VykBhnK eoB d/ Yzr
f;Zy e/ iKd/ ;B. rOzEhnK s/ g[ikohnK dh }pkB s'I fJj pko-pko ;[DkJh fdzdk ;h `b'eK dhnK d[ekBK dh soQK
fJj dopko ;kfjp ;kvh d[ekB j?& ns/ fJE/ T[j nkgDh wo}h dk ;"dk t/ud/ jB. fJZe rOzEh d/ g[Zso B/ sK
fJZE'I sZe efjD dh i[ons ehsh fe,`i' n"osK dopko ;kfjp nkT[DrhnK n;hI p/gs eoKr/, fiBQK ~ Fow j?,
T[j Bk G/iDHHHHH&

wjzsK s/ g[ikohnK dk f;Zy iBsk Bkb toskT[ pj[s G?Vk ;h. T[j f;zx ;GhnK ~ f;zx ;cJhnk efje/
d[oekod/ ;B. eSfjok s/ feOgkBXkoh f;zxK ~ ;wki d/ pkrh ;wMd/ ;B. Xow n;EkBK s/ T[jBk ~ wkod/ s/
p/fJ}s eod/ ;B s/ T[jBK dhnK feOgkBK sZe T[sko b?Id/ ;B. ;OH pjkdo ;OH ;z[do f;zx wihmhnk, i' f;zx
;Gk bfjo d/ w'YhnK ftZu'I ;B, id'I nkgD/ bVe/ ;OH feOgkb f;zx dk ftnkj eoe/ gOFkfd G/N eoB bJh ;Oh
jfowzdo ;kfjp nkJ/ sK g[ikohnK B/ fJBQK dh nodk; Bk ehsh, feT[Ife nkg B/ bVe/ dk r[owfs ohsh
nB[;ko nBzd ftnkj ehsk ;h.

f;zx ;Gk bfjo B/ pj[s ;ko/ oftdk;h s/ w}jphnK ~ nzfwOs Sek e/ f;zx ;ikfJnk ;h. nzfwOs;o
fJBQK dh ekch frDsh ;h. @ykb;k pokdoh# d/ Bkw j/m fJj ;kbkBk dhtkB eod/ j[zd/ ;B. ;zB 1920 d/
nes{po dh 11-12 skohy ~ fJBQK B/ ;bkBk dhtkB ehsk, fiE/ nzfwOs gOuko th j'fJnk. T[gozs Bt/I ;i/
f;zxK ;w/s fJj eVkj gOFkfd dh d/r b? e/ jfowzdo ;kfjp nkJ/. fJ; ;w/I ykb;k ekbi nzfwOs;o d/ eJh
gO'c?;o s/ ftfdnkoEh th fJBQK d/ Bkb ;B. e[ZM d/ Bkw fJj jB L gO'H
s/ik f;zx, pktk jfofeFB f;zx ns/ ;OH fBoziB f;zx. id g[ikohnK B/ nodk;k Bk ehsk sK ;OH eosko f;zx
(MZpo), s/ik f;zx G[uZo nkfd jfEnkopzd j' e/ gj[zu rJ/ ns/ fJ; soQK nodk;k ehsk frnk. dopko ;kfjp
d/ g[ikoh vod/ wko/ d"V rJ/ s/ ep}k nekbhnK dk j' frnk. fco ;koh ;zrs nekb sys ;kfjp rJh ns/
d/fynk fe T[E'I th g[ikoh BZm rJ/ ;B. fJ; soQK nekb s]s ;kfjp dk gOpzX th ;zrsK B/ nkgD/ jZE b?
fbnk s/ 25 w?IpoK dh ew/Nh GkJh eosko f;zx MZpo dh nrtkJh ftZu pDkJh rJh. r[od[nko/ dk BtK
;opokj ;OH ;z[do f;zx okwrVQhnk w[eoo ehsk frnk. 12-13 nes{po ~ fvgNh efwFBo B/ ;opokj s/
e[ZM T[^x/ f;ZyK ;w/s 9 w?IpoK dh gOpzXe ew/Nh pDk fdZsh ns/ nekb s]s dk ep}k fJ; ew/Nh e'b nk
frnk.

j[D T[j tes nk frnk ;h, id'I e/Idoh iE/pzdh dh }o{os ~ pj[s wfj;{; ehsk ik fojk ;h. fJ;
we;d bJh 15 Btzpo 1920 ~ ;w{j f;ZyK d/ gOshfBXK dk fJZe fJeZm iE/dko nekb s]s tZb'I nzfwOs;o
;Zfdnk frnk. fJ; ftZu Fkwb j'D dk ;Zdk gZso, jo fJZe f;Zy ;zgodk ~ G/fink frnk.

;oeko B/ fJ; fJeZm ~ c/b eoB bJh, wjkokik gfNnkbk Bkb fwbe/ d' fdB gfjbK jh fJZe 36
w?IpoK dh ew/Nh pDk fdZsh. fi; ftZu e[ZM ;[Xkotkdh th oZy/ rJ/, go f}nkdsko fJj tckdkoK dh ew/Nh jh
;h. fJ; d/ d' we;d ;B fJZe f;ZyK ~ iE/pzd j'D'I o'eDk ns/ d{i/ f;ZyK ftZu c[ZN gk e/ r[od[nkfonK T[s/
nkgDk ep}k ih-j}{ohnK okjhI oZyDk. go r[od[nkok gOpzXe ew/Nh B/ fJj ubkeh Bkekw eo fdZsh.

15-16 Btzpo 1920 JhH ~ d' fdB nekb s]s ;kfjp T[^s/ fJeZm j'fJnk. tZvh nkw ew/Nh, fi;
dk Bkw FO'wDh r[od[nkok gOpzXe ew/Nh gOtkB j'fJnk, 175 w?IpoK dh u[Dh rJh. fJ; ftZu 36 T[j w?Ipo th
Fkwb eo bJ/ rJ/ fijV/ ;oeko B/ Bkw}d ehs/ ;B. T[; t/b/ ;OH ;[zdo f;zx wihmhnk ~ fJ; ew/Nh dk
gOXkB Ekfgnk frnk.

1921 JhH d/ F[o{ ftZu jh ;OH s/ik f;zx @G[uo# ns/ ;OH eosko f;zx @MZpo# B/ r[od[nkok ;[Xko dh
bfjo fco s/} eo fdZsh. FO'wDh gOpzXe ew/Nh d/ Bkw j/m fJj w[fjzw ubkJh rJh. fJ; dk fJj fBFkBk ;h
fe swkw f;Zy r[od[nkfonK ns/ Xkofwe ;z;EktK dk ezNo'b jk;b eoBk ns/ gotkDs bhjK T[^s/ T[jBK dk
gOpzX eoBk. FO'wDh ew/Nh d/ pDB Bkb f;ZyK dh fyboh j'Jh skes fJZe-w[m s/ w}p{s j' rJh ns/ fJ;
ew/Nh d/ c?;b/ wzB/ ikD bZr gJ/ ns/ nwb ftZu fbnKd/ ikD bZr/.

FO'wDh r[od[nkok gOpzXe ew/Nh dh j?;hns s/ y;bs f;Zy Xkofwe iE/pzdh dh ;h ns/ fJ; d/ ezwK dk
x/ok r[od[nkfonK d/ ;[Xko ns/ f;ZyK dh Xkofwe, ;dkukoe ns/ ;fGnkukoe gZXo ~ T[^uk eoB sZe wfjd{d
;h, oki;h wkwb/ fJ; d/ dkfJo/ s'I pkjo ;B.

r[od[nkok oekprzi ;kfjp d/ t/b/ fijVh Fjhdh iE/ dh Gosh nwo f;zx @Mpkb# B/ ehsh, T[j ikoh
oZyh rJh ns/ i;tzs f;zx Mpkb, s/ik f;zx G[uZo s/ j'o nekbhnK B/ BBekDk ;kfjp T[^s/ ep}k eoB tk;s/
th Gosh ikoh oZyh. fco fJj Gosh ;G EKJh F[o{ j' rJh. 24 iBtoh 1921 ~ ifEnK d/ gOshfBXK dh
nzfwOs;o ;Oh nekb s]s ;kfjp s/ whfNzr j'Jh fi; ftZu okiBhse wkwfbnK pko/ e/Idoh iE/pzdh ~ gqtkB
ehsk frnk ns/ fJ; dk Bkw Fq'wDh nekbh db ofynk frnk. fJ; d/ gfjb/ gqXkB ;qH ;ow[y f;zx ih u[D/
rJ/.

;qH ;[zdo f;zx wihmhJ/ ~ gzikp ;oeko dh n?r}?efNt e"I;b dk w?Ipo pDk fdZsk frnk ns/ T[jBk B/
Fq'wDh r[od[nkok gqpzXe ew/Nh dh gqXkBrh s'I n;shck d/ fdZsk. fJ; s'I pknd ;odko yVe f;zx ih ~
gqXkB pDkfJnk frnk.
1921 dk ;kb pV/ y{Bh ;kfenK dk ns/ xw;kB d/ ;zrokwK dk ;kb ;h. fJ; ftu fJe gk;/ nzro/}
nc;oK B/ r[od[nkfonK dh n}kdh d/ ;zrokw ~ e[ubD dk wB pDk fbnk ;h, d{i/ gk;/ Fq'wDh ew/Nh dh
nrtkJh EZb/ f;ZyK B/ r[od[nkok gqpzX ;[XkoB bJh bZe pB fbnk ;h.

18 d;zpo 1920 ~ nwo f;zx Mpkb s/ eosko f;zx MZpo B/ g'm'jko d/ wFj{o r[od[nko/ gzik
;kfjp T[s/ ep}k eoe/ fJZe gqpzXe ew/Nh d/ gqpzX j/m b? nKdk.

fJ;/ soQK soB skoB ;kfjp d/ r[od[nko/ dh nk}kdh tk;s/ 26 iBtoh 1921 ~ 40 f;zxK dk iZEk
nzfwqs;o s'I ufbnk. oks d/ e'Jh B"I ti/ d/ eohp Fokph g[ikoh N'bk FKswJh nekbh iE/ T[s/ N[ZN fgnk.
f;zxK ~ cZNK T[s/ cZN br/. nrb/ fdB GkJh jikok f;zx ns/ GkJh j[ew f;zx t;kT[ e'N (r[odk;g[o) tkb/
uVQkJh eo rJ/. r[od[nkfonK ~ nk}kd eokT[D dh sfjohe ftu fJj ;G s'I gfjbhnK d' FjhdhnK ;B.
fi;d/ Bkb jh j'o nekbh ifEnK d/ gj[zuD s/ r[od[nko/ T[s/ ep}k eo fbnk frnk. fJ; s'I pknd B"ozrkpkd
ns/ yv{o ;kfjp d/ r[od[nkfonK s/ th Fq'wDh ew/Nh B/ iE/ G/i e/ nfXeko eo fbnk.

T[go fpnkB ehs/ ;ko/ jkbks ;B, fi; tes BBekDk ;kfjp dk ;kek j'fJnk. j[D nkT[ BBekD/
;kfjp d/ esb/nkw dk t/otk ;wMD dk :sB eohJ/. fJ; r[od[nko/ dk wjzs BokfJD dk; ;h ns/ fJ; s'I
gfjbK d't/I wjzs Fokph j'D d/ ekoB eJh r[gs fpwkohnK d/ fFeko j'D eoe/ wo rJ/ ;B. fJ; soQK
BBekDk ;kfjp Xow n;EkB BjhI ;h bZrdk. fJj r[zfvnK, pdwkFK s/ GzrhnK g';shnK dh gotfoF-rkj pD
frnk ;h. fi; soQK nZi e[ZM pzd/ fJj ukj[zd/ jB fe r[od[nkfonK ~ f;Zy ikfros d/ e/Ido Bk pDB fdZsk
ikt/ ns/ fizB/ ikjb s/ nBgVQ ns/ e[eowK ftu yus f;Zy bhvo j'Dr/ UBk jh fJjBK ~ nkgD/ wsbp bJh
tofsnk ik ;e/rk. fpbe[b fJj jh jkbs T[; t/b/ fpqfNF r"ofwzN dh ;h.

jkbKfe wjzs BokfJD dk; B/ rZdh s/ p?mD t/b/ nzro/} w?fi;No/N d/ ;kjwD/ f;Zy ;zrs Bkb puB
ehs/ ;B fe T[j gfjb/ wjzs tkb/ e[ukb/ s/ e[eow Sv d/t/rk ns/ i/ T[; d/ fybkc e'Jh e;{o ;kps j' ikDr/
sK T[j n;shck d/ d/t/rk. go fJj gfjb/ wjzs Bkb'I th nr/ fBeb frnk. fJ; B/ gfjbK fJe fwok;B ~
xo gk fbnk, fco bkj"o s'I t/FtktK wzrtkJhnK. T[jBK d/ Bku iBw n;EkB nzdo eokJ/. wjzs dh fJ;
joes B/ f;Zy irs ftu T[; d/ fybkc r[Z;/ d/ GKpV pkb fds/. nypkoK, f;zx ;GktK s/ ;zrsK B/ fJ;
p/ndph s/ fJybke-ofjs eos{s d/ fybkc ws/ gk; ehs/. r"ofwzN ~ th fJ; pko/ ypo fdZsh rJh go T[j
u[g p?mh ojh. 1918 ftZu fJZe f;zX s'I nkJ/ :kso{ dh bVeh dh gs b[Nh rJh. fJ;/ ;kb 6 phphnK dh i'
g{oBwkFh d/ fdB doFBK ~ nkJhnK ;B, oks ;w/I iBw n;EkB d/ nzdo jh g[ikohnK B/ }pod;sh fJZ}s
b[ZNh. fJ; soQK d/ j'o ;?IeV/ e[eow ehs/ rJ/.

nes{po 1920 ftZu Xko'tkb Bro ftZu GotK dhtkB j'fJnk ns/ wjzs ~ nkgDk ;[Xko eoB tk;s/
fejk frnk. go T[j wjzs BokfJD dk; sK fJZe Boeh w;zd pD frnk ;h. r[od[nkok BBekDk ;kfjp d/ Bkb
fJZe bZy s'I T[go ;bkBk dh irho ;h, fJ; s'I fJbktk uVQktk s/ g{ik dk o[gfJnk p/-fj;kp nkT[Idk ;h, e[ZM
p/dh ikrhodko T[; dh fgZm s/ ;B. wjzs B/ f;Zy gzE dk w[ekpbk eoB dh mkB bJh. pdwkFK, r[zfvnK s/
wkoy'oK ~ FokpK s/ sBykjK d/ e/ r[od[nko/ nzdo oy fbnk ns/ iBw-n;EkB ~ izrh febQk pDkT[D dk
;kwkB fJeZmk eo fbnk. pkpk eosko f;zx p/dh s/ ;oekoh nc;oK Bkb r{VQk ;zpzX oyD tkb/ j'o pzd/ T[jd/
wFho s/ ;bkjeko pD rJ/. oKMk-fojkDk fij/ d; BzpohJ/ pdwkF s/ fJbke/ d/ fJe fJ;wkJhb GZNh ~ jZE
ftZu b? e/ w[;bwkBK ~ nkgD/ Bkb rzY fbnk.

d{i/ gk;/ fJjBK pdwkFK ~ jfEnko pzd eoB bJh iBw-n;EkB d/ nzdo, SZthnK, e[jkV/, Ne{J/
nkfd jfEnko pDkT[D bJh GmhnK ukb{ eo fdZshnK. bkj"o s'I pzd{eK, fg;s"bK s/ j'o n;bk wzrtk fbnk.
fwZNh d/ s/b d/ ghg/ oZy/ rJ/. gZEoK d/ Y/o SZs T[s/ brtkJ/ rJ/. ckNe w}p{s eotkJ/ rJ/ ns/ EK-EK w'ohnK
oZy e/ pzd{eK ubkT[D tk;s/ fJzsikw ehsk frnk.

fco gqkg/rzv/ tk;s/ T[; B/ BBekDk ;kfjp ftZu ;kX{nK s/ wjzsK dh fJZe whfNzr oZyh. fJ; ftZu e'Jh
;Zm-g?Im ;kX{ s/ wjzs fJeZm/ j'J/. fi; ftu Fq'wDh ew/Nh ~ wkBsk d/D'I fJBeko eoe/ ;kX{nK s/ wjzsK dh
nkgDh ew/Nh ekfJw ehsh rJh. @;zs ;/te# Bkw dk fJZe nypko eZYD dk fBoDk ehsk frnk. ew/Nh dk
gqXkB wjzs BokfJD dk; BBekDk ;kfjp s/ ;eZso wjzs p;zs dk; r[od[nkok wkDe Ekg/ rJ/.

Btzpo ftZu r[o{ BkBe d/t ih d/ gqekF fdjkV/ s'I uko-gzi fdB gfjbK wjzs B/ r[od[nkok iBw
n;EkB ftZu jfEnkoK Bkb b?; e'Jh uko e[ ;" uzr/ bVke{ pzd/ fJeZm/ eo bJ/ ns/ j[ew d/ fdZsk fe fe;/
feqgkB tkb/ f;Zy ~ r[od[nko/ nzdo tVB Bk fdZsk ikt/. GkJh bSwD f;zx Xko'tkb, pko ftu, wzfBnk
gqwzfBnk gzE dodh ;h. T[j nkgD/ fgzv d/ e[ZM pzfdnK Bkb r[od[nko/ d/ doFBK ~ nkfJnk. T[; ~ wjzs d/
eksbkBk fJokfdnK dk e'Jh gsk BjhI ;h. ;pZph T[; fdB fvgNh efwFBo s/ ;hHnkJhHvhH dk ;[gfozN?Iv?IN th
r[od[nko/ nzdo jk}o ;B. fJ; bJh GkJh bSwD f;zx ih T[; fdB iE/ ;w/s pu rJ/. go fJjBK nc;oK
d[nkok wjzs tZb'I ek~B ~ jZE ftZu b?D ns/ nekbhnK d/ esb d/ fJokd/ oZyD dh e'Jh skVBk Bk eoBk pVk
noE Gog{o ;h.

r[od[nkok iBw n;EkB BBekDk ;kfjp d/ wjzs BokfJD dk; d/ G?V/ nkuoB s/ T[; dhnK eJh j'o
eos{sK dh uouk ;ko/ gzE ftZu c?bh j'Jh ;h ns/ fJE'I d/ gqpzX ~ gzEe jZEK ftZu fbnkT[D bJh ;G dh fJZSk
pVh shpo ;h. wjzs Bkb ;wM"s/ dh rZb pks th j[zdh ojh. fi; ftZu iE/dko eosko f;zx MZpo s/ ;qH p{Nk
f;zx tehb F/y{g[o/ dk ekch Gkr ;h. gozs{ wjzs nzdoykB/ rmi'V eoB bJh jo tko Nkb wN'b eodk ubk
frnk. Fq'wDh ew/Nh B/ fJ; rZb pks ~ f;o/ uVQkT[D bJh BBekDk ;kfjp ftu 5-6 wkou 1921 ~ gzEe
w[yhnK s/ e[ZM e"wh bhvoK dh fJesosk p[bkJh. Gkt/I fJj gqo'rokw wjzs dh ;bkj Bkb jh pfDnk ;h, gozs{
wjzs nkgD/ fBih ;bkekoK d/ wFto/ Bkb nzdoykB/ j'o jh w;"d/ gek fojk ;h, fi; ftu T[;~ ;oekoh
nc;oK, yk; eo bkj"o d/ efwFBo fwL fezr dh th tZvh Ffj ;h. fwL fezr B/ fJZe fcos{ fuZmh (circular)
eY e/ wjzsK dh j"I;bk nc}kJh ehsh ;h fe ;oeko wjzsK dh jo soQK fjck}s eo/rh. fwL fezr dh fJZe j'o
r[gs fumh fwsh 18-12-1920 okjhI th fJ; rZb dh s;dhe j' iKdh j? fi;dh ekgh (India House
London) dh bkfJpo/oh ftZu gJh j'Jh j?, fijVh fe bkj"o d/ (Arms Dealer) ~ fbyh rJh fe wjzs Bo?D
dk; ~ n;bk, pzd{eK nkfd fdZs/ ikD. wjzs dh wBFk ;h fe 5-6 wkou ~, id'I gzEe w[yh s/ bhvo fJeZm/
j'D, pkjo s'I pdwkFK gk;'I jwbk eotk e/ BthI T[m ojh r[od[nkok ;[Xko bfjo d/ ;ko/ w[yhnK ~ wotk d/t/
ns/ nkg bKG/ ofjzdk j'fJnk, fJ; dk d'F pdwkFK s/ ;[ZN d/t/. fJ; ezw bJh wjzs B/ pj[s ;ko/ pdwkF
ftF/F eoe/ bkj"o d/ wM?bK ftu'I ns/ 28 gmkD gZe/ s"o s/ nkgD/ gk; oZy/ j'J/ ;B.

d{i/ gk;/ fJbke/ d/ b'eb iE/ pko ykb;k dhtkB fi; ftu bkfJbg[o ;Krb nkfd dhnK BthnK
nkpkdhnK d/ f;Zy Fkwb ;B ns/ nekbh db yok ;"dk pko i' tX/o/ eoe/ f}bQk ;/y{g[ok s/ r[ioKtkbk nkfd d/
tk;h ftoe f;ZyK dk iZEk ;h (fi; dh ;EkgBk 24-12-1920 ~ j'Jh s/ fi;d/ gfjb/ iE/dko GkJh eosko
f;zx MZpo ;B) fJj ukj[zd/ ;B fe BBekDk ;kfjp ~ gzEe jZEK ftZu fbnkT[D dk f;jok T[jBK d/ f;o j't/.
fJ; d/ Bkb jh 6 wkou 1921 d/ ;wkrw bJh ;zrsK d/ bzro d/ gqpzX bJh GkJh bSwD f;zx Xko'tkb, ;qH
dbhg f;zx ;Krbk, ;qH s/ik f;zx ;w[zdoh, ;qH eosko f;zx MZpo ns/ ;qH pyFhF f;zx dh ew/Nh ekfJw ehsh
rJh. fi; ~ nkNk, dkDk, o[gfJnk fJeZmk eoB ns/ dhtkB d/ bzro s/ j'o ;pzXs uh}K dk fJzs}kw eoB dk
ezw ;"Ifgnk frnk.

wjzs ~ brgr ;G pdh ikrhodkoK dh jwkfJs jk;b ;h. ;qH ;[zdo f;zx wihmhnk gfjb'I jh ;oeko
dk p/yohd ;h ns/ gzikp e"I;b ftZu wkb wzsoh ;h. uhc ykb;k dhtkB ;oeko gZyh j'D eoe/ Gzfvnk ik u[Zek
;h, e/tb T[; d/ d' w?Ipo Fq'wDh ew/Nh Bkb BoV/ j'J/ ;B- ;qH jopz; f;zx (nNkoh) ns/ gq'L i'X f;zx. wjzs
B/ wjkokik gfNnkbk s'I th wdd wzrh go rZb f;o/ Bk uVQh.

wjzs pVk f;nkDk ;h ns/ ;k}FK f;oiD dk wjko ;h. fJe gk;/ T[j f;Zy nkr{nK d/ wko w[ekD
dhnK rZbK ubkJh ik fojk ;h. fJj ;[bQk dh whfNzr 14-12-1920 ~ F/yg[o/ ;qH p{Nk f;zx tehb dh e'mh
j'Dh ;h gozs{ T[E/ wjzs dk ;[B/jk g[ik fe fJj rZb 15-12-1920 ~ bkj"o nk e/ ehsh ikt/. gozs{ fJE/ th
wjzs Bk nkfJnk ns/ Bk jh ;[B/jk G/fink. fJ; t/b/ MZpo ih dk ;{jhnk ;qH tfonkw f;zx G/fink fgzv, f}bk
fwzNr[woh (i' ;qH T[sw f;zx d/ ekoykB/ ftZu co}h w[BFh ;h ns/ BBekDk ;kfjp wjzs dh ekotkJh dh ypo
MZpo ;kfjp ~ gj[zuKdk ;h ns/ BokfJD dk; Bkb jh ofjzdk ;h) nkfJnk s/ T[; df;nk fe eb oks wjzs B/
nkgD/ okwrbh tkb/ wekB ftZu fJZe r[gs whfNzr ehsh ;h, fi; ftu EzwB dk wjzs noiB dk;, pfxnk
tkb/ dk irB BkE ns/ wkBe r[od[nko/ dk p;zs dk; s/ uko gzi wkM/ d/ iZN Fkwb ;B. BokfJD dk; B/ wkM/
d/ pdwkFK ~ v/Y bZy o[fgnk d/Dk ehsk j?. T[j wkM/ d/ 12 Gr"V/ eksb Bkb b? e/ 6 wkou ~ BBekDk ;kfjp
g[iDr/. fi; t/b/ gzEe w[yhnK dk fJeZm j' fojk j't/rk, fJj nukBe jZb eoe/ T[BQK s/ g? ikDr/, ;G ~ wko
e/ x'V/ Gik ikDr/. wjzs s/ T[; d/ nkdwh cVQ b', cVQ b', wko rJ/,# efjzd/ j'J/ T[BQK dk fgSk eoBr/. fJj
;koh rZb ;qH tfonkw f;zx B/ ;qH ntsko f;zx fBtk;h MZpo fgzv okjhI Mpo ih sZe gj[zukJh.

fJ; fog'oN B/ MZpo ih s/ T[jBK d/ ;kEhnK dhnK nZyK y'bQ fdZshnK. MZpo ih B/ nkgD/ w[yh ;kEhnK
Bkb ;bkj eoe/ c?;bk ehsk fe 19-20 cotoh ~ id'I bkj"o ftZu ;BksB f;Zy ekBcoz; j'Dh j? ns/ wjzs
BokfJD dk; B/ th fjZ;k b?Dk j?. r[od[nkok iBw n;EkB s/ ep}k eo b?Dk ukjhdk j?. pko ykb;k dhtkB d/
w[yh GkJh bSwD f;zx, Nfjb f;zx nkfd bkfJbg[o s'I GkJh p{Nk f;zx uZe BzL 204 ns/ ;zs s/ik f;zx dh
;bkj Bkb fJj c?;bk j'fJnk fe 20 cotoh 1921 ~ 4-5 j}ko dk iZEk b? e/ BBekDk ;kfjp g[fink ikt/.
GkJh bSwD f;zx j'oK d/ iZE/ B/ Xko'tkb s'I ube/ Mpo d/ iE/ ~ BBekDk ;kfjp s'I gzi whb d{o uzdo e'N dh
Mkb s/ fwbDk ;h ns/ bkfJbg[o s'I nkJ/ f;zxK B/ fJjBK ~ 20 cotoh ;t/o/ 4 ti/ BBekDk ;kfjp d/ bkr/
GfmnK s/ fwbe/ r[L iBw n;EkB gzi ti/ ;t/o/ g[iDk ;h.

fJj ukj[zd/ ;B fe fJj gq'rokw Fq'wDh ew/Nh s'I r[gs jh oj/, feT[Ife 6 wkou tkb/ fJeZm d/ ;Bw[y
ew/Nh B/ fJBQK ~ nfijk eoB dh nkfrnk BjhI ;h d/Dh. gozs{ fe;/ soQK wk;No skok f;zx s/ ;qH s/ik f;zx
;w[zdoh ~ i' bkfJbg[o rJ/ j'J/ ;B, fJ; gq'rokw dk gsk br frnk. T[BQK 19 cotoh ;t/o/ gzi ti/
u{jVekD/ s'I bzxd/ j'J/ ;qH ;[Zuk f;zx i? uZe tkb/ jZEhI MZpo ih ~ iZEk Bk b? ikD dk ;[B/jk G/fink ns/ fco
bkj"o g[i e/ T[E'I fJ; ezw fjs GkJh dbhg f;zx ih s/ ;qH i;tzs f;zx Mpkb ~ u{jVekD/ G/fink. fJ; t/b/
se ftoe?s d/ pj[s ;ko/ f;zx T[E/ g[i u[Ze/ ;B. ;zs s/ik f;zx th bkfJbg[o s'I 60 f;zxK ;w/s g[Zi/ j'J/ ;B.
iZEk Fkw gJh BBekDk ;kfjp tb ~ i' fJE'I 15 e'j j?, s[oB d/ nkjo ftZu ;h fe GkJh dbhg f;zx j'ohI
gj[zu rJ/. bzwh ftuko wro'I ;zs s/ik f;zx ih B/ fejk @Mpo ;kfjp i/ s[;hI Fq'wDh gzEe iE/pzdh d/ j[ew dh
T[bzxDk eoe/ BBekDk ;kfjp iZEk b? rJ/ sK s[;hI gzE ns/ r[o{ d/ d/Ddko j't'r/#. MZpo B/ fojk fejk fe nkg'
ftZu j'J/ c?;b/ nB[;ko i/eo iE/dko bSwD f;zx joh iK j'o BBekDk ;kfjp g[i rJ/ sK i' B[e;kB j'fJnk.
T[; dk e"D f}zw/tko j't/rk< GkJh dbhg f;zx B/ T[jBk ~ o'eD dh nkgDh f}zw/tkoh b? bJh. nyho fJe fuZmh
fbyh rJh fi; T[s/ GkJh dbhg f;zx, ;qH i;tzs f;zx MZpkb nkfd 6 f;zxK B/ d;sys ehs/ s/ uko x'V ;tko
fiBQK ftZu fJZe GkJh dbhg f;zx ;B. iE/dko bSwD f;zx d/ iE/ ~ o'eD bJh s[o gJ/. fJj uzdo e'N ns/
T[; s'I nr/ eJh EkJhI ;koh oks iE/ dh Gkb ftZu fcod/ oj/. i' iE/ iK fJeZb/ d[eZb/ f;zx fwb rJ/. T[BQK ~
BBekDk ;kfjp ikD'I tofink, gozs{ GkJh bSwD f;zx ih dk iEk fJjBK ~ Bk fwfbnk.

nzfwqs t/b/ uko ti/ d/ eohp fJj BBekDk ;kfjp bkr/ g[Zi rJ/. fJE/ th iE/ d/ nkT[D d/ e'Jh fBFkB
BjhI ;B. nyho GkJh dbhg f;zx, ;qH T[sw f;zx ih d/ ekoykB/ rJ/ ns/ w[BFh tfonkw f;zx ~ T[j fuZmh
fdZsh ns/ iE/ dh Gkb BBekDk ;kfjp ~ nkT[Id/ okjK s/ eoB bJh G/fink.

GkJh bSwD f;zx ih s/ GkJh Nfjb f;zx ih dk iEk nkgD/ fgzv'I 19 cotoh ~ s[o fgnk ;h. fJ;
iE/ d/ f;zxK B/ r[od[nkok BBekDk ;kfjp dh ;/tk bJh f;o bkT[D dk gqD b? fbnk ;h. fJ; ftZu fszB
f;zxDhnK (fiBQK ftZu GkJh bSwD f;zx dh f;zxDh th ;h) ;B. fJj iEk o;s/ ftZu Bikwg[o, d/tk f;zx
tkbk, XzB{tkb u/bktkb, m'mhnK, w{b f;zx tkbk nkfde fgzvK ftZu'I j[zdk j'fJnk w'jbD fty/, i' BBekDk ;kfjp
s'I e/tb 6 whb d{o j?, g[Zi frnk. fJE/ g[ZiD she fJ; ftu 150 f;zx Fkwb j' rJ/.

fJjBK B/ uzdo e'N s'I MZpo d/ iE/ dh ypo nkT[D s'I gfjbK jh ukb/ gk fds/ ;B ns/ fJj fwfEnk
fe id n;hI F[G ezw bJh jh nkJ/ jK sK fYb eoBh mhe BjhI ns/ BBekDk ;kfjp d/ iBw n;EkB tb s[o
gJ/. GkJh bSwD f;zx iE/dko B/ e'N dopko dh i{j ftZu fJe EK iE/ ~ o'e e/ ;ko/ f;zxK gk;'I jZE Bk
T[mkT[D ns/ FKswJh ofjzd/ j'J/ Fjhdh gqkgs eoB dk gqD fbnk. fJE'I dh nr'I tXe/ id iEk r[od[nkok
iBw ;EkB s'I nX e[ whb s/ GfmnK tkbh EK s/ g[Zik sK iE/dko ih (bSwD f;zx ih) B/ nkgDh f;zxDh, phph
fJzdo e"o ns/ d' j'o phphnK ~ GkJh jkew f;zx Bkb r[od[nkok szp{ ;kfjp tb G/i fdZsk. fJ;/ ;w/I GkJh
Nfjb f;zx B/ nkgDh i/p ftu'I 18 o[gJ/ phph fJzdo e"o ~ d/Id/ j'J/ fejk fe s[jkv/ torhnK G?DK Fjhdh
fgS'I ;qh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dk gkm eok d/DrhnK.
iE/dko B/ ;zy/g FpdK ftZu nodk;k ;'fXnkL @j/ r[o{ BkBe, s/o/ do d/ e{eo s/o/ doFBK ~ nkJ/ jK
s/ fJokdk Xkfonk J/ s/o/ sopko nzdo j' ojhnK e[ohshnK ~ nkgD/ y{B Bkb X'D dk. s{z pb pyF e/ n;hI
nkgD/ fJokd/ ftu ;cb j'JhJ/.#

iEk nr/ tXD jh brk ;h fe GkJh tfonkw f;zx ih G'ihnK tkb/, i' iE/ dh Gkb ftZu fco oj/ ;B.
fJE/ g[i rJ/ ns/ GkJh bSwD f;zx ih ~ Fq'wDh r[od[nkok gqpzXe ew/Nh d/ c?;b/ nB[;ko ;Zu/ ;"d/ s'I f;zxK d/
d;sysK tkbh fuZmh fdZsh ns/ j'o ;ko/ ifEnK d/ o[e ikD dh ypo fdZsh. fJ; rZb B/ iE/ d/ f;zxK ~ fJZe
nip fe;w dh d[fuZsh ftZu gk fdZsk ns/ Bt/I g?dk j'J/ jkbks s/ ftuko j'Dh F[o{ j'Jh. go GkJh Nfjb f;zx
j'oK B/ fejk fe ykb;k ih j[D ;'uD dk t/bk BjhI. n;hI nkgDhnK f}zdrhnK r[od[nko/ dh ykso brk d/D dk
puB eo u[Ze/ jK. fJj' fJokdk Xko e/ xoK s'I s[o/ ;K fe n;K BBekDk ;kfjp ~ nk}kd eokT[Dk j? iK Fjhd
j'Dk j? ns/ fJj' nodk; s[;K j[D/ ehsh j?. nkgD/ ehs/ puBK s'I fcoBk ;{ofwnK dk ezw BjhI. w?I tkg; BjhI
iktKrk. e'Jh w/o/ Bkb s[o/ iK Bk, w?I sK f;ZXk r[od[nko/ iktKrk. fJT[I efjzd/ j'J/ GkJh Nfjb f;zx ih r[L
iBw n;EkB tb tr s[o/. c/o e"D ;h i' fgSKj jNdk< u"L gkb f;zx B/ i' p[uhnkD/ tb'I eJh ifEnK ~
w'Vd/ j'J/ mhe fJ;/ ;w/I fJE/ g[i/ ;B. d"V e/ GkJh bSwD f;zx ~ ick wko e/ T[BQK ~ o'e b?D dh e'fFF
ehsh gqzs{ T[j iE/dko ih ~ o'e Bk ;e/.

wjzs BokfJD dk; i' bkj"o ;BksB f;Zy ekBcoz; ftu ikD tkbk ;h, 19 cotoh ~ Fkw 3-44 dh
rZvh s/ ;tko ;h. rZvh ubD s'I gfjbK jh fe;/ w[;bwkB u{jVh B/ T[;~ ik ypo ehsh fe iEk p[funkDk nk
frnk j?. wjzs rZvh ftu'I T[so e/ tkg; nk frnk ns/ ;koh oks T[; fsnkoh ftZu fpskJh. T[;B/ gfjb'I jh
nkgD/ Npo d/ pzd/ bkj"o G/i fdZs/ j'J/ ;B. o[gfJnk g?;k s/ }o{oh ekr}ks th bj"o G/i fdZs/ ;B. fJE'I sZe
fe T[;B/ e;{o d/ EkD/ ftZu d; BzpohJ/ pdwkFK-fojkDK, nwb, e[zdh, t;kyh ns/ e[ZM j'oBK dhnK jk}ohnK
btkT[D dk pzd'p;s th eo SZfvnk ;h sK i' T[j nkgDh g'ihFB ;kc eoB bJh T[^is g/F eo ;eD fe fiBQK
pdwkFK ~ eksb nkfynk ik fojk j? T[j sK T[; fdB BBekD/ ;kfjp ftu jk}o jh BjhI ;B.

nekbhnK B/ iBw n;EkB d/ pkjo sbkp s/ fJFBkB ehsk ns/ e'Jh 5-45 ns/ 6 ti/ d/ eohp f;zx
r[od[nko/ nzdo dkyb j'J/. wjzs d/ r[zv/ s/ pdwkF nZr/ fsnko p?m/ ;B.

nzdo g[id/ ;ko jh wZEk N/e e/ iE/dko bSwD f;zx ih B/ iE/ d/ ;ko/ f;zxK ~ EkT[I ~ EkJhI fvT{NhnK
dh ;"IgBk eo fdZsh ns/ nkg e[M f;zxK ;w/s r[od[nko/ dh u"yzvh (gqekF n;EkB) nzdo dkyb j' rJ/. GkJh
bSwD f;zx j'ohI ;qh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh skfpnk ns/ pkeh f;zx j/m p?m rJ/ ns/ nk;k dh tko dk ehosB
nkozG fdZsk. wjzs BokfJD dk; nkgD/ dyD dh r[m tkb/ wekB (wfjwkB ykB/) d/ u[pko/ ftu'I fJ; ;ko/ e"se
~ t/y fojk ;h. T[; B/ nkgD/ nkdwhnK oKMk, fojkDk, wkSh ns/ gmkBK ~ fwZEh j'Jh ekotkJh eoB dk j[ew
fdZsk.

r[od[nko/ nzdo ;zrs ftZu fijV/ ;kX{ nkfd p?m/ ;B, T[j j"bh fijh fy;e rJ/. r/N pzd eo fdZs/
rJ/. fJe dw njksk iBw ;EkB d/ dyD dh pkjh d/ ewfonK T[go'I r'bhnK ubD br gJhnK. fwzNK ftu jh
T[j ;ko/ f;zx i' u"yzvh d/ pkjo ;B ns/ SZsK s'I r'bh dk fBFkBk j' ;ed/ ;B, c[zv fdZs/ rJ/. GkJh Nfjb
f;zx ih th i' dyDh dotk}/ s/ fvT{Nh d/ oj/ ;B, Fjhd j' rJ/. T[gozs wjzs d/ nkdwh pzd{eK, poShnK,
rzvk;/ bJh nzdo ~ j/m T[so/ ns/ u"yzvh d/ gSwh dotk}/ d/ o;s/ r'bhnK wko-wko e/ nzdo p?m/ ;ko/ f;zxK
~ cNV iK Fjhd eo fdZsk. eJh r'bhnK ;qh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp ftu dh bzx e/ ;kjwDh dhtko Bkb tidhnK
ojhnK, fiBQK d/ fBFkB nZi sZe w"i{d jB. cNV s/ Fjhd j'J/ f;zxK d/ y{B d/ goBkb/ nzdo'I pkjo ~ ub oj/
;B.

r[od[nkok iBw n;EkB nzdo brksko r'bh ubD dh nktk} d{o d[okv/ sZe ;[Dh ik ojh ;h. GkJh
dbhg f;zx, GkJh tfonkw f;zx, iE/dko p{Nk f;zx uZe 204 s/ ;qH T[sw f;zx B/ fJj nktk}K ;qH T[sw f;zx
d/ ekoykB/ p?m/ ;[DhnK. ;[Dd/ ;ko GkJh dbhg f;zx s/ GkJh tfonkw f;zx ih r[od[nko/ tZb ~ T[^m BZ;/.
(GkJh tfonkw f;zx j'ohI bSwD f;zx d/ iZE/ ~ tkg; w'VB ftu n;cb j'D fgZS'I GkJh dbhg f;zx ~ fJj
rZb d;D bJh T[;/ ;w/I jh ekoykB/ g[Zi/ ;B ns/ jkbK nkgDh rZb d; jh oj/ ;B fe r'bh ubD dh nktk}
fJBQK d/ ezBhI gJh.)

Gkt/I ;qH T[sw f;zx B/ fJBQK ~ pj[s o'fenk go fJBQK B/ fJe Bk ;[Dh. GkJh dbhg f;zx d/ wB dh dFk
d;Dh pj[s emB j?, feT[Ife T[jBK yo/ ;"d/ puB fdZsk ;h fe T[j GkJh bSwD f;zx j'oK d/ iE/ ~ o'e
b?Dr/. GkJh dbhg f;zx ;[oyo{ j'D tk;s/ fJe whb dh d{oh s'I ;qH tfonkw f;zx ;w/s BZf;nk. wjzs nkg ~
uzrh soQK ikDdk ;h ns/ nkg dk ;fseko eodk ;h. go id'I d't/I doFBh dotk}/ w{jo/ gj[zu/ sK T[;
t/b/ wjzs dh uzvkb i[zvbh dk pkjo'I nkJ/ Bt/I f;zxK T[s/ jwbk ikoh ;h ns/ f;zxK ~ nzBQ/tkj ;Zi/ yZp/ esb
ehsk ik fojk ;h. GkJh ih B/ jZE i'V e/ wjzs ~ nkfynk, @Bk eo' esb ! pzd eo' esb/nkw, w?I ni/ th
s[jk~ gzE s'I w[nkch d[nK fdnKrk.# go T[E/ sK wjzs nzBQK j'fJnk fgnk ;h, T[;B/ GkJh dbhg f;zx ~
fg;s"b dh r'bh Bkb Fjhd eo fdZsk. wjzs d/ pzfdnK B/ ;qH tfonkw f;zx d/ th N[eV/-N[eV/ eo fdZs/. fJBQK
d'jK f;zxK d/ ;ohoK ~ ns/ 5-6 f;zxK ~ Bkb jh brd/ x[fwnkoK dhnK GZmhnK ftZu ;[N fdZsk frnk.

u"yzvh d/ nzdo e[ZM f;zx Fjhd ehs/ rJ/. i' e[ZM cZNV gJ/ ;B, T[jBk ~ N[eV/ N[eV/ eo fdZsk frnk.
25 e[ f;zx ewfonK ftZu ub/ rJ/, T[E/ th wjzs dh XkV B/ r'bhnK, Ne[J/ bkmhnK ns/ fJZNK wko wko e/ gko
p[bkfJnk. fJ; t/b/ pkjo'I f;zxK d/ i?eko/ SZvD dh nktk} nkJh. fJBQK r[zfvnK s/ pdwkFK B/ T[BQK T[s/ jwbk
eoB bJh doFBh pk}ko r/N y'bQ fdZs/ ns/ N[N e/ T[BQK T[s/ ik gJ/. T[BQK B/ f;ZyK ~ Fjhd eo fdZsk. wjzs
y[d fJ; esb/nkw dh nrtkJh eo fojk ;h. T[; B/ w{zj T[s/ ukdo bg/Nh j'Jh ;h ns/ x'V/ T[s/ ufVQnk
j'fJnk, ed/ fJXo ikdk ;h ed/ T[Xo ns/ T[^uh T[^uh nky fojk ;h, @@e'Jh e/;K tkbk f;Zy ihT{Idk Bk ofjD
fdU!## d' fszB f;zx, y/sK ftZu ik e/ Fjhd eo fdZs/ rJ/. o/bt/ bkJhBK sZe i' f;Zy B}o nkfJnk Fjhd eo
fdZsk frnk. fejk iKdk j? fJZe 12 ;kbK dk bVek dopkok f;zx fijVk u"yzvh nzdo fJe tZvh y[bQh ezX tkbh
nbwkoh ftZu b[e frnk ;h pu fojk. fJj bVek ior (fibQk gfNnkbk) fBtk;h Fjhd e/jo f;zx dk g[Zso
;h ns/ fgsk Bkb iE/ ftZu Fkwb ;h. fJ; ~ nbwkoh ftZu'I pkjo eY e/ pbdh nZr ftZu ;[ZN fdZsk frnk.

fi; t/b/ ;ko/ f;zx Fjhd j' rJ/ iK cNV j' rJ/ sd wjzs B/ j[ew fdZsk fe ;kohnK b'EK ~ fJefmnK
eoe/ e/tb uko b'EK ofjD fdU, pkeh ~ fwNh dk s/b gk e/ ;kV fdT[. fJBQK ftZu'I fJZe ;qH wzrb f;zx
@w}jph f;zx# ;h, i' GkJh bSwD f;zx dk g[Zso pfDnk j'fJnk ;h. fJZe ;kX{ th ;h i' fe;/ pdwkF dh r'bh
Bkb wkfonk frnk ;h. fJ; soQK cZNVK d/ s/ b'EK d/ fszB-uko Y/o pDkJ/ rJ/ ns/ nZr bk e/ ;kV/ rJ/. fJe
f;zx, i' FkfJd GkJh bSwD f;zx ih ;B ~ izv Bkb pzBQ e/ ;kV fdZsk frnk. skoK Bkb tfbnk j'fJnk
nX;fVnK izv pknd ftu f;ZyK B/ nZyhI d/fynk. fJj izv nZi th j?. fiZE/ th f;zx B}o nkfJnk esb ehsk
frnk.

esb/nkw dh ypo uzrh soQK s;dhe j' ikD s/ fv;NfoeN fJzihBhno ;odko n?BH n?;H ;zX{ B/
nkgDk fJZe yk; nkdwh 8-15 ti/ x'V/ T[s/ fvgNh efwFBo eZoh tb G/fink sK i[ T[j y[d w"e/ T[s/ nk e/
fJj fGnkBe ;kek nyhI t/y bt/. vhH;hH dk pkoK whb BBekD/ s'I d{o wKrN tkb/ ftZu w[ekw ;h. T[Xo ;qH
T[sw f;zx B/ e'Jh 9-15 ti/ d/ eohp ;qH eow f;zx ;N/FB wk;No okjhI, skoK d[nkok ypoK gzikp d/
rtoBo, efwFBo, vhH;hH s/ ;[gfozN?Iv?IN ~ xbhnK ns/ Bkb jh ;ko/ f;Zy e/IdoK, yk; eo Fq'wDh ew/Nh ~
ypoK gj[zuk fdZshnK. ;ko/ jh f;Zy irs ftZu jkjkeko wu rJh.

vhH;hH eoh BBekD/ ;kfjp 12-30 ti/ d[gfjo fgS'I gj[zfunk ns/ fJeZbk jh wjzs BokfJD dk; Bkb
nzdo frnk. fco T[; B/ c"ih d;s/ xZbD tk;s/ T[sb/ nc;oK ~ skoK fdZshnK. fJZe g[fb; dk ;p
fJB;g?eNo d' ti/ gj[zfunk ns/ T[; s'I pknd nZrK ~ p[MkfJnk frnk. }kfjo j[zdk j? fe vhH;hH d/ gj[zuD
s'I pknd th cNVK ~ Y{zv Y{zv e/ wkfonk ik fojk ;h sK fe e'Jh w"e/ dk rtkj Bk oj/.

fJ; ;ke/ d/ c"oB fgS'I BBekDk ;kfjp ~ nkT[D ikD tkb/ jo gk;/ d/ o;s/ pzd eo fdZs/. oks d/
e'Jh ;tk B"I ti/ bkj"o s'I efwFBo fezr ns/ vhHnkJhHihH g[fb; fJZe ;g?Fb rZvh ftZu gj[zu/. T[jBK Bkb
200 c"ih th ;B. T[; s'I pknd wjzs BokfJD dk; d' j'o T[; d/ fgm{ ns/ 26 gmkB cV e/ T[; ;g?Fb No/B
ftZu bkj"o xZb/ rJ/. j'o pdwkF fJ; no;/ ftZu BZ; GZi rJ/ ;B. r[od[nkok iBw n;EkB T[^s/ ;oeko B/
ep}k eo fbnk ns/ r[od[nko/ ~ izdo/ brk fdZs/ rJ/.

20 s/ 21 cotoh ~ e[ZM f;Zy nkr{ BBekDk ;kfjp gj[zu rJ/. ;qH wfjskp f;zx sK 20 skohy ~ jh
c"ihnK tkbh rZvh ftZu oks gj[zu rJ/ ;B. 21 cotoh ~ j'o f;Zy nkr{ s/ vkeNo ekoK ftZu gj[zu/. fJjBK
ftZu ;qH ;[zdo f;zx okwrVhnk ns/ ;qH jopz; f;zx nNkoh th ;B. 21 skohy ~ ;t/o/ 8 ti/ gVskb dk ezw
F[o{ j'fJnk. ;kok r[od[nkok FwFkB G{wh pfDnk j'fJnk ;h. e/; s/ ezx/ EK-EK fvr/ gJ/ ;B. gzi bkFK d/
nZv-nZv Y/o ftjV/ ftZu br/ gJ/ ;B ns/ fszB b'EK u"yzvh d/ pkjo T[gobh goeowK ftZu gJhnK ;B. fJZe
;kX{ dh bkF j/mbh goeowK ftZu gJh ;h. 56 y'gVhnK Y/oK s'I tZyohnK ;B. fJZe ;kX{ dh bkF j/mbh
goeowK ftZu gJh ;h ns/ pkjo GZm/ ftu'I S/ eV/ fBeb/. e[b fwbk e/ e'Jh 150 f;zx nzdo Fjhd j'J/ ;B.
fiBQK ftZu'I 86 d/ BK jh fwb ;e/. r[od[nko/ s'I pkjo th f;zx Fjhd ehs/ rJ/ ;B.

T[Xo 20 cotoh ;t/o/ frnkoK ti/ ;qh BBekDk ;kfjp s'I nkJhnK skoK s'I, r[od[nkok yok ;"dk
u{jVekD/ ftZu iE/dko eosko f;zx Mpo ~, iBw n;EkB ftZu tos/ ;ke/ dh fJsbkj fwb u[Zeh ;h. fJ;
;w/I yZo/ ;"d/ 80-90 f;zx jk}o ;B. fJjBK B/ nodk;k ;'fXnk ns/ BBekDk ;kfjp d/ ep}/ tk;s/ ukb/ gk
fdZs/. 40 e[ f;zx x'fVnK s/ fgzvK ftZu d"VkJ/ rJ/ ns/ BkBekDk ;kfjp d/ ;ke/ dh ypo fdzd/ j'J/ fgzv fgzv
x[zw rJ/ ns/ irQk irQk s'I f;zx FjhdhnK gkT[D tk;s/ s[o gJ/. fJ; d/ Bkb jh fiE/ feE/ th fJ; ;ke/ dh
ypo gj[zuh, f;Zy iBsk ns/ yk; eo nekbh BBekDk ;kfjp d/ FjhdK d/ doFBK ~ T[m BZ;/. 20 cotoh oks
d/ frnkoK ti/ sZe gzdoK ;" f;zx uzdo e'N dh Mkb s/ g[Zi u[Zek ;h. 21 cotoh d[gfjo sZe f;zxK dh frDsh
uko j}ko s'I T[go j' rJh fiBQK ftZu phphnK ns/ fpoX th ;B.

id iZEk r[od[nkok BBekDk ;kfjp s'I d' whb d{o gj[zfunk sK MZpo ih B/ ;G ~ yVk eoe/ fJZe
beho fyZu fdZsh ns/ fejk fe T[j jh f;zx nr/ nkT[D fiBQK B/ r[od[nko/ d/ ep}/ tk;s/ Fjhdh gqkgs eoBh
j?. fJ; soQK 2200 f;zx f;o s/ ecB pzBQ beho gko eoe/ yVQk j' frnk. iE/dko MZpo ih B/ d'-d' ;" d/
frnkoK iE/ pDk e/ T[BQK d/ iE/dko Ekg fdZs/ ns/ r[od[nkok iBw n;EkB ~ wkou nkozG ehsk. ;G s'I nZr/
x'V/ s/ ;tko ;qH eosko f;zx MZpo ;B. fJ; iE/ dk jo fJZe f;zx SthnK, rzvk;/, ;ck izr, feqgkB iK vKr
Bkb jfEnko pzd ;h ns/ fJjBK ~ n?;h e'Jh ;j[z BjhI ;h u[ekJh rJh fe tko BjhI eoBk. fJj sK nkJ/ jh
woB-wkoB dk gq'rokw pDk e/ ;B, ed sZe FKswJh wkoK yKd/< ;qH pL wfjskp f;zx, i' T[; ;w/I gzikp
;oeko d/ ;oekoh tehb ;B. x'V/ s/ ;tko nr'I nk fwb/ ns/ iE/ ~ nZr/ ikD s'I fJj efj e/ o'fenk fe
nr/ c"i j? ns/ wFhB-rzBK phVhnK j'JhnK jB.

MZpo ih B/ T[so fdZsk, @@j[D fgS/ w[VB dk ;wK BjhI, n;hI r[od[nko/ dk ep}k b?Dk j? iK ;Bw[y
Fjhd j' ikDk j?.## ;qH wfjskp f;zx tkg; w[V frnk. MZpo ih B/ iE/ ~ fco ;zp'XB ehsk - ykb;k ih, j[D
n;hI r'bh dh wko d/ B/V/ g[i rJ/ jK. ykb;/ dk ezw j? @@nrkjK e{ sqKx fgSKj c/o B w[jvVk##, fi; t/b/
r'bh ub/, s[;K ;G B/ g{o/ }'o Bkb d"V e/ r'ok c"i s/ jZbk p'bDk j?. i' r'bh yk e/ fvZr g?Dr/, T[BQK ~ gJ/
ofjD fdU. nr/ tXd/ ikU ns/ jE'I jZEhI r'fonK s/ g? e/ T[BQK gk;'I wFhBrzBK y'j bt'. n;hI nodk;k ;'X e/
s[o/ jK fe r[od[nko/ T[s/ ep}k eoKr/ iK Fjhd j'tKr/. iE/ ftZu'I fe;/ f;zx B/ i?ekok p[bkfJnk i' fJsB/ }'o
dk ;h fe fJZe tko Xosh th ezpdh gqshs j'D br gJh.

id iEk o/bt/ bkJhB d/ B/V/ g[Zik sK nZr'I nzro/} nc;o fwb/ fiBQK ftZu efwFBo, g[fb; ioB?b,
c"ih ioB?b, vhH ;hH ns/ ;qH pH wfjskp f;zx, ;qH jopz; f;zx nNkoh, GkJh i'X f;zx s/ ;qH bkb f;zx bkj"o
tkb/ ;B. fvgNh efwFBo fwL eZuh B/ nr/ tZX e/ MZpo ih ~ iE/ ~ o'eD tk;s/ fejk ns/ Bkb jh Xweh
fdZsh fe, @nkr/ r'ok c"i j?, nro nkg nZr/ pVQ'r/ s'I r'bh ub ikJ/rh.# MZpo ih B/ fejk, @@nkg r'bh ubkU
n"o w/o/ itkB'I e/ jkE d/y'.## vhH;hH eZoh B/ fejk, @@nkg e[ZM fJzs}ko eo', r[od[nko/ eh ukphnK eZb ;t/o/
fwb/Irh## MZpo ;kjp B/ fejk, @@ukphnK j[D/ jh b?DhnK jB ns/ r[od[nko/ s'I r'ok c"i th j[D/ jh
jN/rh.## iE/ d/ f;zxK B/ jfEnko ;{s bJ/ ns/ nzro/} nc;oK ~ fejk, @fgS/ jZN ikU, BjhI sK B[e;kB
d/n;hI f}zw/Itko BjhI.## fco vhH;hH eZoh B/ d' fwzN ftZu jh ukphnK iE/dko MZpo ih d/ jZE cVkJhnK n"o c"i
~ fgS/ jNkfJnk frnk ns/ T[;/ t/b/ jh 7 f;zxK dh ew/Nh pDk e/ r[od[nko/ dk ep}k f;zxK ~ fdZsk frnk
fi; d/ gqXkB ;qH jopz; f;zx ;B.

ew/Nh d/ w?Ipo ns/ e[ZM w[yh f;zx r[od[nko/ dk skbk y'bQ e/ nzdo rJ/ ns/ i' fdqF d/fynk, T[;~
f}nkdk d/o podkFs Bk eo ;e/. fJsBh d/o ~ ;qH T[sw f;zx ns/ j'o gq/whnK B/ iE/ d/ bzro gkDh dh ;/tk
ehsh. ew/Nh d/ w?IpoK B/ fJj sfj ehsk fe ;t/o/ 22 skohy ~ FjhdK d/ doFB eokJ/ ikDr/. iE/ B/ ;okfJ
ftZu nkokw ehsk. f;zxK B/ oks y[d r[od[nko/ dh oytkbh ehsh. oks Go j'o f;zxK d/ iE/ gj[zud/ oj/ ns/
;t/o sZe j}koK f;zx BBekD/ ;kfjp dh Xosh s/ nk u[Ze/ ;B. 22 cotoh, ;t/o/ 11 ti/ f;zxK ~ nzdo ikD
dk j[ew j'fjnk. nzdo dk B}kok d/y e/ f;zxK dhnK uhyK fBeb rJhnK ns/ i' jkbks ;qh r[o{ rqzE ;kfjp dh
;h, T[j th fpnkB s'I pkjo j?. ;kok coF bkb j'fJnk fgnk ;h, f;zxK d/ nZX-;V/ ;oho fJXo T[Xo gJ/
;B. s/b d/ ghg/ ;V/ gJ/ ;B. fiE'I feZE'I th ;V/ ;oho fwb/ T[j r[od[nko/ d/ nzdo fbnKd/ rJ/. o/bt/ bkJhB
e'b x[fwnkoK dhnK GmhnK ftZu'I ;qH dbhg f;zx s/ tfonkw f;zx dk ;oho efYnk frnk. fJ;/ t/b/ ;qH ;[zdo
f;zx wihmhJ/ dh oktbfgzvh s'I sko nkJh fe rtoBo w?eb?rB ;ke/ dk fdqF t/yD bJh 23 cotoh ~ g[Zik
fojk j?.

nrb/ fdB nEtk 23 cotoh dh ;t/o ~ rtoBo gzikp ;w/s eJh j'o nzro/} nc;oK ns/ e"I;bo
;qH ;[zdo f;zx wihmhnk, bkbk jofeFB bkb ns/ ;o c}b j[;?B ;w/s BBekDk ;kfjp g[Zi/. rtoBo th fJj
fdqF d/y e/ d[yh j'fJnk. fco FjhdK dk nzrhmk r[od[nko/ d/ njks/ nzdo gqekF n;EkB d/ ;kjwD/, fi; irQk
Fjhd rzi pfDnk j?, fsnko ehsk frnk. GkJh ;kfjp i'X f;zx ih B/ FjhdK d/ Bfws nfs t?okrwJh
Gktg{os nodk;k ;'fXnk ns/ Fkw d/ 7 ti/ FjhdK dk ;z;eko ehsk frnk.

nZi Fjhd rzi tkb/ ;EkB s/ FjhdK dh :kdrko j?. fi; d/ j/m G"o/ ftZu fJZe FhF/ d/ YeB/ j/m
FjhdK dh fpG{sh ns/ n;EhnK ;[oZfyns ehshnK j'JhnK jB. ;ke/ d/ w[ezwb jkbks gzikph, nzro/}h, cko;h,
T[od{, fjzdh nkfd ;s }pkBK ftZu nzes fJ; G"o/ j/m oy/ jB. fJBQK FjhdK dh :kd ftZu jh nzfwqs;o ftZu
Fjhd f;Zy fwFBoh ekbi y'fbnk frnk ;h ns/ jo o'} jo r[of;Zy nodk; ftZu fJjBK FjhdK dh :kd
sk}k eodk j?.

fJj Fjkds nkgD/ nkg ftZu fJ; rb dh rtkj j? fe i/ eo fJj f;zx fJ; fdB BBekDk ;kfjp Bk
nkT[Id/ sK wjzs fJ; d[oxNBk bJh ehsh fsnkoh ~ 6 wkou ~ j'D tkb/ fJeZm s/ T[;/ soQK tosdk fi; soQK
T[; B/ 20 cotoh ~ tofsnk ns/ n?;h jkbs ftZu i' e"wh B[e;kB j[zdk T[;~ FkfJd eJh g[FsK ftZu th e"w
g{ok Bk eo ;edh. fJ; Fjkds dk j'o fJj ckfJdk j'fJnk fe T[j ;ko/ d'F ns/ yk; eo f;Zy e"w nzdo
ikBpk}h dh T[; ;fgfoN ~ i' r[o{ r'fpzd f;zx ih B/ ykb;/ ftZu Goh ;h ns/ fi; ~ fJj b'e G[bd/ ik oj/
;B, w[V Bt/I f;foUI sk}k eo fdZsk. fi; dk f;ZNk ;w[Zuh nekbh bfjo ns/ r[o{ e/ pkr, r[od[nkok rzr;o
i?s' dhnK p/-fw;kb e[opkBhnK ;B.

nekbh fJ; fGnkBe wjK ;ke/ d/ ekoB G?-ohs BjhI j'J/, ;r'I fJ; d/ T[bN T[j T[jBK g{ofBnK T[s/
ubD bJh j'o fdqV j' rJ/ fiBQK T[s/ BBekD/ ;kfjp d/ Fjhd ub/ ;B.

T[od{ nypko @f}whIdo# B/ fJ; esb/nkw ftZu fjZ;k b?D tkb/ w[;bwkBK ~ p/-fj:k ns/ p/-Fow
fbfynk ns/ fejk, @@U p/-Fow w[;bwkB', s[;hI pzd{eK s/ sbtkoK T[jBK d/ fybkc tosd/ j', fijV/ BBekDk
;kfjp nkgDk Xkofwe coi g{ok eoB bJh rJ/ ;B.##
fJ; wjkB Fjhdh ;ke/ dh j'o d/D s'I S[N ;G s'I tZvh d/D fJj ;h fe fJ; B/ f;ZyK d/ fdwkrK ftZu'I
oki dh skfpnkdkoh s/ tckdkoh dk rzX X' fdZsk! BBekDk ;kfjp d/ ;ke/ dk fJe gqfseow fJj th j'fJnk fe
nekbhnK ~ wjzs - nzro/} ;oeko dh ;k}F ftZu Fohe B}o nkT[D br gJ/ ;B. fJ; bJh T[jBK B/ e[ZM
EkJhI r[od[nkfonK T[s/ ep}/ eoB/ j'o s/} eo fdZs/ ;B.

fJ; ;ke/ s'I pknd gzikph ethnK s/ fbykohnK ftZu BtK i'F s/ T[Gko g?dk j' frnk ns/ nzro/}
;kwoki dh gotkj Bk eod/ j'J/ e?dK s/ i[owkfBnK d/ pkti{d, pVhnK i'FhbhnK eftsktK fbyhnK ns/
gVQhnK rJhnK.

fJ; ;ke/ dk ;G Bkb'I tZvk bkG fJj j'fJnk fe T[j e[opkBhnK i' ;kv/ f;Zy p}[orK B/ fdZshnK ;B
fi; ~ b'ehI e/tb wBxVs ejkDhnK jh ;wMe/ G[bd/ ik oj/ ;B. T[jBK ~ fJ; ;ke/ B/ sk}k eo fdZsk.
b'ehI fJj efjzd/ ;B fe fJj fet/I j' ;edk j? fe pzd-pzd eNkfJnk frnk j't/. nko/ Bkb ;oho fuokfJnk
frnk j't/. y'goh bkJh rJh j't/, uoyVhnK s/ ukV e/ s{zpk s{zpk ehsk frnk j't/. go Fjhd GkJh bSwD
f;zx, dbhg f;zx ns/ T[jBK d/ ;kEhnK B/ fJjBK d/ fdbK ftZu fJspko eotkfJnk fe n?;hnK j;shnK f;Zy
e"w ftZu j'JhnK jB ns/ ;fsr[o dh feqgk Bkb nr'I th j'DrhnK.
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