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AN INTRODUCTION TO SKILLS INVENTORIES Skills Inventories maybe defined as a comprehensive database of information of the companys workforce focusing on,

among other aspects, employees skills, abilities, knowledge, work preference and other items of information. These essentially indicate the value of the employee to the company. Some of the data included in the skills inventories are: 1. Knowledge, skills and abilities ratings. 2. Previous Work Experience. 3. Education Degrees and major fields of study 4. Work Histories and accomplishments 5. Trainings Completed 6. Geographical Preferences 7. Career Aspirations and Objectives 8. Anticipated Retirement Dates. NEED FOR A SKILLS INVENTORY: A skills inventory can be a useful tool in human resource development programs since it brings into focus the present level of technical ability and the achievements to date of all employees who might be considered for participation in education and training programs. It is a tool through which the employees recognize the fact that they are working for an organization which values their skills and competencies and where his contributions are appreciated. Certain factors to which the design of skills inventories may be attributed to are: 1. Most organizations today lack complete, accurate and a comprehensive database regarding the capabilities of the employees. There always is a feel of a certain skill level that the workforce possesses but lack of more precise information handicaps ability to project potential and impending future requirements/shortages in certain skill areas. This in turn undermines the ability to plan for necessary employee training and education, as well as the ability to determine future directions for the recruiting, selection and placement of employees and if required purchasing contracted services from outside the organization. 2. If certain individual position openings occurred within the organization that require a unique combination of skills and experience it is difficult to readily identify the best qualified individual. It happens that employees who are most familiar tended to appear as potential candidates. This negatively affects managements ability to move employees periodically to different positions so as to capitalize on their varied talents, as well as to afford employees opportunities for job variety and development of new skills.

A skills inventory serves some important functions within an organization. Their primary function is to help the firms understand the makeup of their workforces. The data arrived at maybe used for a variety of purposes including making transfer and promotion decisions, developing needs skills training, and improving the recruitment and selection process. The basic objective is to consolidate information about the organizations manpower resources into a flexible format which can serve a wide variety of needs. Over and above there are five organizational needs that can be met by this system. They are: 1. The inventory should be a source of data for calculating and evaluating manpower trend data over time. Turnover rates, accession rates, and rates of skills development and upgrading should be available as a base for manpower planning and projections for other analyses and reports as well. 2. The skills inventory should serve as a manpower search and placement function. If the data about present employees backgrounds and capabilities is readily available, it should lead to better selection of employees to fill the vacancies that arise. It should also ensure that no candidates are overlooked for promotion or for optimum manpower utilization. 3. The inventory should serve as an important audit function and thus promote better manpower management. 4. The inventory should be flexible enough to serve as a source of information for manpower research purposes. It can provide a ground for studies of selection, of the factors contributing to or blocking success and mobility, and for evaluations of staffing standards. Inventories are being used in organizations world over for quite sometime now. Firms have felt their importance and are increasingly using them as a valid and authentic source of information about their employees. However the need for these inventories will continue to rise even in future. Two trends which may be responsible for this aspect are: 1. Given the dynamic nature of most organizations today, there is an increased tendency for jobs to require a greater number of as well as more complex skills. To follow up on employees who possess these skills is a task which maybe accomplished using this tool. 2. Workers in future are likely to perform a wide range of tasks or jobs, belong to several team projects, and be moved about the organization, or from organization to organization, based on needs. This points out to the fact that staffing decisions will occur more frequently and require skill information for determining who goes where. INFORMATION TO BE INCLUDED IN THE SKILLS INVENTORY

First and foremost the various sources of information to be included in the skills inventory must be tapped in order to keep the skills inventory current. These sources might include participation in training programs, results of periodic performance appraisal, benefit plan records etc. An important aspect to be taken note of is that the amount of information included in the skills inventory in not a parameter which is fixed. Neither is the type of information rigid, for the inventory maybe structured to suit a particular organization in a manner which the organization feels appropriate. However, on a broad scale every firm would have the following data in its manpower skills inventory: 1. Personal history data such as age, sex, marital status, number of dependants etc. 2. The basic skills information, including formal education, previous work experience and training, experiences and training acquired within the present company, hobbies, familiarity with foreign languages and other special areas of competence. 3. Special qualifications of the individual such as patents, publications and honours, and other kinds of recognition, membership in professional or other relevant organizations and any record of special assignments completed. 4. The employees salary and occupational progress history. The salary here would include both present as well as past salaries and this information would also include the advancement in the individuals career. 5. As already mentioned above, certain other data useful to the company like benefit plan data, retirement information, seniority and service dates etc. 6. We also should lay emphasis on the capacity of the individual. That is to say his psychological test scores and significant health information. 7. Another factor of importance to be included in the skills inventory is the data about the employees job and location preferences as well as any other special interests which he could have and which could have a bearing on his employment and occupational utilization. Uses & Implication of Skill Inventory: A skills inventory is a compilation of the skills, education and experiences of current employees. Organizations use these inventories to assess their ability to meet certain company goals. Understanding the companys pool of current skills/talents and its future skill requirements can aid an organization in its strategic planning efforts. 1. Recruiting: Tracking the skills and abilities of your current employee population can focus your recruiting efforts. Skills

inventories provide an accounting of the abilities, skills, training and experience of its current employees and can help identify skills gaps. These inventories can help guide hiring decisions that will ensure employers have the manpower necessary to meet the current and future needs of the organization. 2. Training: Skills inventories can identify skills gaps for employees and allow employers to budget for and determine appropriate training programs. 3. Succession planning: Succession planning ensures that an organization has the right personnel to function in the event of an employees departure. Creating and maintaining current skills inventories allow employers to develop succession plans based on current employee skills sets and identify key employees for future openings critical to the companys leadership and business success. 4. Skills inventories should be reviewed on an ongoing basis and employers should take steps to ensure employees keep their own skills inventory current and updated. By doing so, employers can help ensure the success of their strategic plans and achievement of their companys short- and long-term goals. 5. Professional Pointer: Regularly update your companys skills inventories to identify new and/or hidden employee talent. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY OF SKILL INVENTORY In todays competitive era every organization wants to be and to remain at the top most position and everyone is doing very hard work to attain this. For attaining this firstly we have to manage our all the resources according to the needs. Customer satisfaction is the most important one among these .But we dont forget that everyone is capable of fighting externally, when it is internally stronger so to attain stability outside firstly we have to maintain ourselves internally, means we have to acquire stability from inside .So if we want to grasp top most position in the market than we have to manage our internal talent accordingly. To manage all the resources like money, machinery, time and among these the most important asset is human resource. These all provides internal stability to an organization. To manage human resource according to their capabililities and the requirement of the job. It is not an easy task and, it is the most important factor that provides maximum stability or act as a scaffold for any organization .To manage people at the right place ,at the right time according to their talent is a very tricky task .we can also recruit talent externally but there are lots of wastage of resources takes place in this case like time, money (cost of hiring), and the major problem faced by the organization is that person is also not aware of the culture of the organization so he really requires lot

of time to fit within the organization that causes adverse effect in the growth of an organization So its better to promote employee internally within the organization , for this firstly every organization has to make database or plan in which information of the capabilities like technical skills and management skills must be present and according to that, particular job is given to the particular person after analyzing the skill gap and requirement of the job . It is also very much important to promote any employee within the organization that reduces all the extra costs like recruitment cost, turnover cost because it provides motivation to an employees and reduces the possibility of leaving the job, because it provides carrier opportunities to an employees within the organization. So the main task is to assign right task or job to the right people at the right time to maintain the standards of the organization. INTRODUCTION Listing of abilities, capacities, qualifications, and career goals of the employees to identify suitable candidates for internal recruitment or promotions. Every job has its specific job requirement of skills, (technical and management skills etc). Skills development and training programs, often a target of budget cuts, may help organizations achieve these corporate objectives and enhance their overall corporate culture. Managing employee skills and competencies lays the foundation of any organization. A skills inventory is essentially a checklist or database of organizational capabilities, that can help a company determine whether it can deliver a particular product on time or service the client efficiently. The differences between the existing and expected conditions determine the skills gap. It is the responsibility of line managers and the HR department to analyse the skills gap and provide the necessary training to bridge it. Alternately, they can also hire people with the requisite skill sets to build a skills inventory. It is the skills and competencies developed by the organization that determines how it does its business and whether it will succeed. In a globally competitive business environment, it is necessary for an organization to know its competitive strength. By creating its own unique inventory of human capabilities, an organization is better equipped to compete. The first step in this process is to measure the as-is status. This is where skills inventory and measuring the existing skill sets of employees come into the picture. Once this is mapped, companies can then look at the ideal profile of employees that it must have to remain competitive and work towards building this. The fact of the matter is that when an organisation is aware of its strengths and weaknesses, and requirements, it can make the right decisions which will enable a greater return on its human capital investments. "You cannot capitalize on your workers' talents if you do not know their skills and proficiencies." - Bryce's Laws The need for improved productivity has become universally accepted and that it depends on efficient and effective training is not less apparent. It has further become necessary in view of advancement in modern world to invest in training. Thus the role played by staff training and development can no longer be over-emphasized. Staff training and development are based on the premise that staff skills need to be improved for

organizations to grow. Training is a systematic development of knowledge, skills and attitudes required by employees to perform adequately on a given task or job. New entrants into organizations have various skills, though not all are relevant to organizational needs. Training and development are required for staff to enable them work towards taking the organization to its expected destination. The need for improved productivity in organization has become universally accepted and that it depends on efficient and effective training. It has further become necessary in view of advancement in modern world to invest in training. Thus, the role played by staff training and development can no longer be over-emphasized. However, the need for organizations to embark on staff development programme for employees has become obvious. Absence of these programme often manifest tripartite problems of incompetence, inefficiency and ineffectiveness. These are the functions of training which are as follow: increase productivity, improves the quality of work; improves skills, knowledge, understanding and attitude; enhance the use of tools and machine; reduces waste, accidents, turnover, lateness, absenteeism and other overhead costs, eliminates obsolesce in skills, technologies, methods, products, capital management etc. The training needs assessment is a critical activity for the training and development function. Whether you are a human resource generalist or a specialist, you should be adept at performing a training needs assessment. LITERATURE REVIEW Skill-based human resource management is a relatively new and underdeveloped approach. The effectiveness and success of an organization therefore lies on the people who form and work within the organization. It follows therefore that the employees in an organization to be able to perform their duties and make meaningful contributions to the success of the organizational goals need to acquire the relevant skills and knowledge. The need for improved productivity has become universally accepted and that it depends on efficient and effective training is not less apparent. It has further become necessary in view of advancement in modern world to invest in training. Thus the role played by staff training and development can no longer be over-emphasized. Staff training and development are based on the premise that staff skills need to be improved for organizations to grow. Human resources, are the most valuable assets of any organization, with the machines, materials and even the money, nothing gets done without man-power. The effectiveness and success of an organization therefore lies on the people who form and work within the organization. It follows therefore that the employees in an organization to be able to perform their duties and make meaningful contributions to the success of the organizational goals need to acquire the relevant skills and knowledge. Skill as an Organizing Principle The concept of skill and the capabilities of individuals are basic to human resource

practice. It plays an important role in strategic approaches and it is particularly important in the competency based approaches to strategy. Job Descriptions and Skills The most common approach to human resource management is based on job descriptions. Needed skills are discovered by analyzing the jobs in the organization. Job evaluations typically rate job value on the basis of skill level as well as other factors. The resulting job descriptions are used for defining jobs and setting pay rates. Implications of a Skill-Based Approach Instead of the fundamental building block of the human resource management system being the job, in a skill-based approach the basic building core block needs to be the individual. The design task in the organization concerns to develop the model of what skills each individual in the organization needs. The skill mix that is identified for each individual, of course, needs to reflect the core competencies of the organization and the way the organization wishes to operate from a management style point of view. The human resource management subsystems, such as the training system, selection system, the appraisal system, and the career development systems need to be aligned with the development of individuals so that the organization ends up with the right skill profile for each individual employee. After the analysis of skills training will be planned accordingly. Designing a training and development program involves a sequence of steps that can be grouped into five phases: needs assessment, instructional objectives, design, implementation and evaluation. To be effective and efficient, all training programs must start with a needs assessment. Long before any actual training occurs, the training manager must determine the who, what, when, where, why and how of training. To do this, the training manager must analyze as much information as possible about the following: Organization and its goals and objectives. Jobs and related tasks that need to be learned. Competencies and skills that are need to perform the job. Individuals who are to be trained. Overview of Training and Development The first step in designing a training and development program is to conduct a needs assessment. The assessment begins with a "need" which can be identified in several ways but is generally described as a gap between what is currently in place and what is needed, now and in the future. Gaps can include discrepancies/differences between: What the organization expects to happen and what actually happens. Current and desired job performance. Existing and desired competencies and skills. A needs assessment can also be used to assist with: Competencies and performance of work teams. Problem solving or productivity issues.

The need to prepare for and respond to future changes in the organization or job duties. The results of the needs assessment allows the training manager to set the training objectives by answering two very basic questions: who, if anyone, needs training and what training is needed. Sometimes training is not the solution. Some performance gaps can be reduced or eliminated through other management solutions such as communicating expectations, providing a supportive work environment, arranging consequences, removing obstacles and checking job fit. Once the needs assessment is completed and training objectives are clearly identified, the design phase of the training and development process is initiated: Select the internal or external person or resource to design and develop the training. Select and design the program content. Select the techniques used to facilitate learning (lecture, role play, simulation, etc.). Select the appropriate setting (on the job, classroom, etc.). Select the materials to be used in delivering the training (work books, videos, etc.). Identify and train instructors (if internal). After completing the design phase, the training is ready for implementation: Schedule classes, facilities and participants. Schedule instructors to teach. Prepare materials and deliver them to scheduled locations. Conduct the training. The final phase in the training and development program is evaluation of the program to determine whether the training objectives were met. The evaluation process includes determining participant reaction to the training program, how much participants learned and how well the participants transfer the training back on the job. The information gathered from the training evaluation is then included in the next cycle of training needs assessment. It is important to note that the training needs assessment, training objectives, design, implementation and evaluation process is a continual process for the organization. | | | | Methods of Training and Development 1. On the job training/coaching This relates to formal training on the job. A worker becomes experienced on the job over time due to modification of job behaviors at the point of training or acquisition of skills. 2. Induction/orientation This is carried out for new entrants on the job to make them familiar with the total corporate requirements like norms, ethics, values, rules and regulations. 3. Apprenticeship A method of training where an unskilled person understudies a skilled person. 4. Demonstration Teaching by example, whereby the skilled worker performs the job and the unskilled closely observes so as to understand the job.

5. Vestibule This is done through industrial attachment for the purpose of skills and technology transfer. It is therefore achieved through placement of an individual within another area of relevant work or organization. The effect is the acquisition of practical and specialized skills. 6. Formal Training A practical and theoretical teaching process which could be done within or outside an organization. When training is carried out inside an organization, it is called an in-house training. Off-house training is carried out in professionalized training areas like: Universities, Polytechnics and Professional Institutes RESEARCH METHODOLOGY An inventory of skills helps in identifying gaps in competencies, and initiating remedial action. Managing employee skills and competencies lays the foundation of any organisation. A skills inventory is essentially a checklist or database of organisational capabilities, that can help a company determine whether it can deliver a particular product on time or service the client efficiently. The difference between the existing and expected conditions determines the skills gap. In a globally competitive business environment, it is necessary for an organisation to know its competitive strength. By creating its own unique inventory of human capabilities, an organisation is better equipped to compete. The first step in this process is to measure the as-is status. This is where skills inventory and measuring the existing skill sets of employees come into the picture. Once this is mapped, companies can look at the ideal profile of employees that it must have to remain competitive and work towards building this. Above problem can be solved with the help of following steps: In an organisation for promoting an employee from lower level to higher level firstly we need to analyse the skills of particular employee whether that skills matched to skills required in higher designation or not (level in which person is going to promote). If the skills required for the next higher level is not matched with the current skills of the person then that person will not be promoted and this can be identified through skill gap analysis. Input people (researchers and other partners staff-time) equipment ( office) Services (phone, fax, e-mail, etc.) For identification of skill gap analysis the project need skill Resource profile and the skill description of the employee who is going to be promoted from lower level to higher level

within the organisation. Activities: |A. |Could qualify as an INSTRUCTOR or EXPERT in this area | |B. |Could act as an ASSISTANT INSTRUCTOR | | |C. |Has had formal training or some sort of experience (STUDENT) | | |D. |Is unaware and needs training | | | | 10 6 3 1 | |

These are the some important categories of skills that must be developed by Telecom organizations: Basic Business Skills: e.g. conducting a meeting, Interviewing, Speaking/presentations, Writing, E-Mail, Word Processing, etc. Business Functions: knowledge of a specific corporate function, e.g., Marketing, Sales, Manufacturing, Inventory, etc. Degrees & Certifications: e.g., Associates Degree, Bachelors, Masters, Doctoral, and trade certifications. Languages: foreign - e.g., French, German, Italian, Japanese, Spanish, etc. Knowing a resource's skill is one thing, knowing its level of proficiency is anotherRate :These reports are needed to construct matrix for skill inventory management as discussed above: Resource profile Skill description Report After getting all the above details or information about an employee who is going to be promoted to next higher level, matrix will be constructed on the basis of proficiency level or rating, then It will be analysed that what are the critical skills which is present in that individual required in the higher level in which he/she is going to promote, than skills Rating will be done by the person who is going to be promoted means self-rating is done, secondly rating is done by their subordinate and also by the person under whom the supervision of whole work is to be done, and then score of average proficiencies will be calculated. If the proficiency level is below 5 (avg.score) than it indicates that person is needed training to achieve level of score 10. Score 8 and 9 means person is having knowledge of their work but he needs training of 2 to 3 days. Score 1, 2 and 3 indicates that person requires depth training. Resource profile of an employee who is promoted or recruited within the organisation

Step I: CONSTRUCTION OF RESOURCE PROFILE OF AN EMPLOYEE Date on which present evaluation of the employee is taking place ( / / ) RESOURCE: (Name of employee) ALT IDLAST EVALUATEDTYPEDATE HIRED//

SKILLSPROFICIENCY RATING (These are imaginary values) 1. ASSEMBLER PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE 2. BASIC PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE 3. HYPER TEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE 4. ADOBE PAGEMAKER 5. MICROSOFT OFFICE 6. Statistical Process Control (SPC) 7. Data interpretation Soft skills or Management skills rating chart: |Soft skills |1-very poor |2-poor |3-average |4-qualified |5well qualified | |Leadership |1.able to transfer |1. able to transfer|1. -able to |1. able to transfer| 1. able to transfer| | |instruction of her |instruction of her |transfer |instruction of | instruction of | | |superior to her |superior to her |instruction of her |superior correctly | superior correctly | | |members but |members but with |superior correctly |to members |to members | | |incompletely and with|some errors |to her members | | | | |some errors; | | |2.able to lead and |2.able to lead and | | | |2. able to lead her|2.able to lead her |organize group well| organize group well| | |2. unable to lead her|group but with the |group well although| | | 3 5 9 7 9 5 6

| | |

|group and needs

|frequent assistance|still needs some | |assistance from | |

|constant assistance |of superior

| | |of superior | |superior when | | | | | | |organizing | | | |Reporting |1.able to report on |1.able to report on|1.able to report |1.able to report |1.able to report | | |working process, |working process, |correctly, |correctly, | correctly, | | |results, etc. upon |results, etc. upon |concisely and |concisely and | concisely and | | |frequent follow-up by|request from |timely on working |timely on working |timely on working | | |superior and with |superior but with |process, results, |process, results, |process, results, | | |some errors and |some errors and |etc. upon request |etc. even without |etc. even without | | |lacking information |lacking information|from superior |the request from |the request from | | | | | |superior |superior | | | |2.able to prepare | | | | | |2.able to prepare |various reports |2.able to prepare | | | | |various reports with |with considerable |various reports |2.able to prepare |2.able to prepare | | |considerable errors |errors |with least error |various reports | various reports | | | | | |with least error |correctly and | | | | | | |completely | |Planning |1.unable to plan work|1.able to plan work|1. able to plan but|1. able to plan, |1. able to plan, | | |and events and needs |and events but |sparingly needs |organize and |organize and | | |superior's constant |frequently needs |superior's |carry-out work, | carry-out work, | | |guidance |superior's guidance|assistance to |events, etc. | events, etc. | | | |and follow-up |organize and | | | | | | |carry-out work, | | | | | | |events, etc. |2.able to plan and |2.able to plan and | | | | |2.able to plan and |present new ways of|present new ways of| | | | |present new ways of|work, new system, |work, new system, |

|work, new system |rules, etc. upon |rules, etc.

| | | | |upon request from |request from |considering various| | | | |superior |superior |aspects and | | | | | | |viewpoints | |Managing |1.totally unable to |1.able to control |1.able to control |1.able to control |1.able to totally | | |control all elements |personal matters |physical and |physical and | control all | | |such as physical, |only in order to |personal matters |personal matters |elements such as | | |personal and |achieve management |in order to achieve|and partially |physical, personal | | |financial matters in |purpose |management purposes|control financial |and financial | | |order to achieve | |with the guidance |matters in order to| matters in order to| | |management purposes | |of superior |achieve management | achieve management | | | | | |purposes |purposes | |negotiations |1.totally unable to |1.able to partially|1.able to |1.able to | 1.able to | | |negotiate, explain, |negotiate, explain,|negotiate, explain,|negotiate, explain,|negotiate, explain,| | |persuade or convince |persuade or |persuade or |persuade or | persuade or | | |others to proceed to |convince others to |convince others to |convince others to |convince others to | | |realize what is being|proceed to realize |proceed to realize |proceed to realize |proceed to realize | | |thought of or |what is being |what is being |what is being | what is being | | |intended to be done |thought of or |thought of or |thought of or | thought of or | | |at work |intended to be done|intended to be done|intended to be done|intended to be done| | | |at work with the |at work with the |at work with the |at work with the | | | |assistance of |assistance of |assistance of |assistance of | | | |superior and |superior |superior |superior | | | |colleagues | | | | |Judgement |1.unable to judge any|1.able to judge but|1.able to judge |1.able to judge |1.able to judge the|

| |acceptable solution |sometimes |limited but |good solution for | best solution for | | |for the company |unacceptable |acceptable solution|the company |the company | | |according to |solution for the |for the company |according to | according to | | |circumstances |company according |according to |circumstances |circumstances | | | |to circumstances |circumstan | |-makes correct | | | | | | |judgment generally | Conclusion can be drawn on the basis of the rating and the scores acquired by an employee in management or soft skills rating chart and in resource /skill description or operating skill matrix analysis of skill gap becomes easier and according to that gap training is provided. Output: It helps to identify the skills of the employees which are present in an organisation and to identify the gap in their skills if they want to be promoted to the higher level with in the organisation. If any organisation does not know about the skills of their employee than how it can be align towards the achievement of the objective .if any organisation dont know about their employee skills and proficiencies than no organisation can capitalise on their talent.so with the help of project it is easier to analyse the skill gap difference. Beneficiaries and impacts : It is very much essential for any organisation to do skill gap analysis it is advantageous for both organisation as well as for the employee. It gives carrier opportunities for the employee within the organisation. It prevents cost of hiring and training of new employee. It helps to maintain the productivity of an organisation. It helps in employee engagement and to retain employees within the organisation that is very much essential to maintain its productivity level, because, if we hire new employee than he/she requires supervision in his work so work of that supervisor is also affected which in turns affect the productivity level. Possible beneficiary groups: Employee of an organisation Management

Organisation Customers Budget On the basis of difference between skill gap we can easily determine whether that person is doing their job efficiently or not .larger the difference between current and required level ,greater is the requirement of giving training to do better job and for promoting to the next higher level.

References
1. Ronald B. Morgan and Jack E. Smith, Staffing the New Workforce, 1996. pp. 400 2. Thomas H Pattern, Jr., Manpower Planning and the Development of Human Resources, 1971, pp. 237 3. A Computer Based Employee Skill Inventory System, Robert V Lorenzo, Ford Motor Company 4. Dharma Vira Aggarwala, Manpower Planning, Selection, Training and Developmet,1987