Concrete Society Technical Report No. 43 TR.043 Published 1994 ISBN 0 946691 45 2 Published by The Concrete Society No. 3, Eatongate
Slough SL1 2JA Further copies may be obtained from Publication Sales, The Concrete Soaety
Q The Concrete Society 1994
All rights reserved, except as permitted under current legislation. No part of this work may be photocopied, stored in a retrieval system, published, performed in public, adapted, broadcast, transmitted, recorded or reproduced in any form or by any means, without the prior permission of copyright owner. Enquiries should be addressed to The Concrete Society.
Although The Concrete Society (limited by guarantee) does its best to ensure that any advice, recommendations or information ii may give either in this publication or elsewhere is accurate, no liability or responsibility of any kind (including liability for negligence) howsoever and from whatsoever cause arising, is accepted in this respect by the Society, its servants or agents.
This Technical Report was prepared by a Working Party of the Society's Design Group which is one of the specialist technical groups within The Technical Development Cen:re.
ROW& Benaim and Asmiates CCL Syslems Ltd Swift Smcrures Ltd Ove Arup and Partners
PW
Matthew
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
During the drafting of this report the working party received a large number of helpful commenrrc from members of the industry. Assistance in preparation of the report by the following members of Arup Research and Development is gratefully acknowledged: Kate Benton, Ian Feltham, Jonathan F ~ n c hGeoff , Lavender, Paula Youngs.
CONTENTS
1. 1.1
1 2
14 .
1.5
Effecrs of pascess Oneway and twoway spanning flmrs Flexure in oneway flmrs
2.4 . ..
. .. ,. .
,
2.4.1
.
2.5
~.
.shear
3.1 33
,
Column layout
:,.
... . .
,
'
...
...,.
.. .
..?. :
. 33
'
4.
4.1
4.2
4.2.1
4.22 4.2.3
Untensioned reinforcement
Cover requirements
The design process
1nh.oduction Design flow chart Basic analysis S m h u a l layout Loading Equivalent frame analysis Tendon profile and balanced load Prestress forces and losses Secondary effecks Flexural section design 6.10.1 6.102 6.103 6.10.4 6.10.5 6.10.6 Semceabiity Limit State sfter all losses Transfer condition Ultimate Limit State Progressive collapse Designed flexural untensioned reinforcement Minimum untensioned reinforcement
Shear seength 6.11.1 6.11.2 Beams and oneway spanning slabs Flat slabs (punching shear)
Detailing Tendon distribution Tendon spacing Tendon notation Tendon supports Layout of untensioned reinforcement
7.7.1 Extent of pours 7.7.2 Conswction joints 7.7.3 Protection of anchorages 7.74 7.75 7.7.6
Backpropping Stressing procedure Soffit d n g
Demolition General
8.1.1 E.1.2
9.
References Appendices
Appendix A:
Design examples
A.1
A.2
Solid flat slab wilh unbonded tendons Oneway spanning floor wilh bonded and unbonded tendons
Appendix E:
CaIcuMon of tendon geometry Calculation of secondary effects using equivalent loads Calculation and detailing of anchorage bursting reinforcement Simplified Shear Check: Derivation of Figures 17 and 18 V1"mlionof posttensioned concrete floors Advenisemen!s
Typical spanldepth ratios for a variety of section types for multispan flwrs. Allowable average stresses in flat slabs (twoway spanning). analysed using the equivalent frame method. Tolerances on tendon positioning.
21 40
49
Grosvenor Square Car Park  Southampton New Oxford Street Typical fa slabs l Typical oneway spanning floors Wsttensioned flat slab Posttensioned ribbed slab Posttensioned waffle slab Bending moment surfaces and tendon diagrams for different tendon arrangements Applied load bending moments in a solid flat slab Distribution of applied load bending moments across the width of a panel in a solid flat slab Load balancing with prestress tendons for regular column layouts Tendons geometrically banded in each direction Tendons fully banded in one direction and uniformly distributed in other directions Load balancing with prestressing tendons for irregular column layouts Preliminary selection of flwr thickness for multispan floors Preliminary shear check for slab thickness at internal column Ultimate shear check for flat slab at face of internal column Restraint l flwr shortening o Layout of unbonded tendons Layout of bonded tendons A typical anchorage for an unbonded tendon A typical anchorage for a bonded tendon Design flow chart Elastic load distribution effects Idealised tendon profile Idealised tendon profile for two spans with single cantilever Idealised tendon protile for two spans with point load Load 'dumping' at 'peaks' Practical representation of idealised lendon profile Resullant balancing forces
1 2 2 5 6 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 12 13 14 17 18
19
23 25 26 26 27 30 32 33 35 35 35 36 36
Presnessed elemenr as part of a statically determinate shucture Reactions on a prestressed element due to secondary effects Zones of inelasticity required for failure of a continuous member Section stresses used for the calculation of untensioned reinforcement Bursting stresses in rectangular beam subjected to an axial symeaic fotre Bursting smss dishibution Method of notation for use on tendon layour dmwings Fiat slab fendon and support layout detailing Flat slab reinforcement layout Reinforcement arrangement a a column L Prefabricated shear reinforcement Unseessed areas between tendons requiring reinforcement Unbonded tendons diverted around an opening Intermediate anchor at a consmction joint Inffil smp for jack access Strand aimming using a disc cutter Strand aimming using purposemade hydraulic shears Anchorages for unbonded tendons: fixed to formwork Greasefilled plastic cap t protect strand and o wedge grips Anchorage blcck sealed with mortar Stressing banded lendons at slab edges Soffit marking used to indicate tendon position
NOTATION
Area of concrete Area of prestressing tendons Area of untensioned reinforcement Area of s h w reinforcement Drape of tendon Width of section Breadth of member; or for T, I and Lbeams the breadth of the n i Effective depth of tension reinforcement or tendons Depth t the cenaoid of the compression zone o Shonterm modulus of elasticity of concrete Modulus of elasticity of concrete at time of wnsfer Modulus of elasticity of prestressing tendons Modulus of elasticity of untensioned reinforcement Eccentricity Compressive stress in concrete at extreme fibre used to calculate serviceability untensioned reinforcement requisemen~ Concrete suenglh at (initial) transfer (in N/mm? Stress in concrete at the level of the tendon due to initial p r e s m s and dead load (in N/mm3 Tensile stress in concrete at extreme fibre used lo calculate serviceability untensioned reinforcement requirements Characteristic concrete cube strength (in N/mmq Tensile stress in tendons at (benm) failure (in N/mml) Effective presuess (in tendon) after d l losses (in N/mrnz) Characteristic strength of prestressing steel (in N/mm2) Maximum design principal tensile stress (=0.24Jf,. in N/mm2) Characteristic strength of bonded untensioned reinforcement (in N/mm3 Overall depth of section Second moment of area Effective span length Length of tendon Length of tendon affected by wedge drawin Moment due to applied loads Moment necessary to pmduce zero stress in the concrete at the extreme tension fibre Secondary moment due to prestress Ultimate resistance moment Resuess force Slope of prestress force profile Characteristic strength of tendon (in 3 ) N Prestressing force in the tendon at the jacking end Prestressing force at distance x from jack Distance between points of contraflexure in tendon Length of a critical shear perimeter Shear force due IO ultimate loads Ultimate shear resistance of concrete Ultimate shear resistance of a section uncracked in flexure Ultimate shear resistance of a section cracked in flexure Design effective shear force Design shear suess at crosssection Design concrete shear strength Uniformly dishiiuted load Neutral axis depth Hl the side of the prestress end block af Half the side of the prestress anchor loaded area Top section modulus
2 ,
a
a ' A
P 9 Y r 7 ,
Iii
Bottom section modulus Angle change in tendon fmm anchor to point considered (radians) Average angle change in lendon per unit length (radianslmeue) Wedge dmwin Coefficient of fiction Creep coefficient P r i l safety factor for load ata P r i l safety factor for material strength ata Prestressed tendon 'wobble' factor (radians/metre)
INTRODUCTION
The use ofposttensioned concrets flwrs in buildings has been consistently growing in recent years. The greatest use of his type of consmcuon has b e n in the USA, and in California it is the primary choice for concrete floors. Postwsioned floors have also k n used in Australia. Hong Kong, Singapore and Europe. Their use in the UK is now increasing rapidly. Typical applications have been: Offices Car parks Shopping cenms Hospitals ApamenE Indusmal buildings These are illustraed in Figures 1, 2 and 3.
Figure 3 New Oxford Street. : The Concrete Society has published lhree repons on this subject, Technical Report No 8"'. The Design of PostTensioned Concrete Flat Slabs in Buildings; Technical ReponNo 17'". Flat Slabs inPostTensioned Concrete with Particular Regard to theuse ofunbonded Tendons Design Recommendationu, Technical Report No 25"', PostTensioned FlatSlab Design Handbwk TR17 was a revision of TR8, and TR25 amplied the recommendations of TR17. The purpose of the current repon is to update the information contained in TR17 and TR25 in line with BSgllO, 1985"', to combine these two repons into one document and to expand same of the recommendations in line with cunent practice.
This report explains the overall concept of posttensioned concrete floor consmction as well as giving detailed design recommendations. The intention is to simpliiy the tasks of the designer and contractor enabling them to produce effective and economic structures. Posttensioned flwrs are not complex. The lechniques, structural behaviour and design are simple and very similar to reinforced concrete smctures. The prestress tendons provide a suspension system within the slab and the simple arguments of the triangle of forces apply with the vertical component df the tendon force carrying part of the dead and live loading and the horizontal component reducing tensile stresses in the concrete. Two design examples are given in Appendix A. The report is intended to be read in conjunction with BS8110"'. Those areas not covered in BS8110'" are descrited in detail in the report with reierences given as appropriate. Tne principles laid out in the report may also be applied
to designs in accordance with E m o d e ECZ'fl, but some of the details will need to be modified. Two other Concrete Society publications give useful background information to designers of posttensioned floors. They are: Technical Report No. 21"'. Durability of Tendons in Prestressed Concrete and Technical Report No. Z3"I. P r i l Prestressing. ata It should be noted that since the integrity of the structm depends on a relatively small number of prestressing tendons and anchorages the effect of workmanship and quality of materials can be critical. This should be understcod by all parties involved in M design and construction.
The main advantages of posttensioned floors over conventional reinforced concrete insitu floors, may be summarised as follows: Increased clear spans Thinner slabs Lighter structures Reduced cracking and deflections Reduced storey height Rapid construction Better watertightness
. ' .
;.
These advantages can result in significant savings in overall costs. There are also some situations where the height of the building is limited, in which the :....? . . . . .reduced storey height has allowed additional storeys to be constructed within , : the building envelope.
'
12
Amount ofpnsbess
The amount of prestress provided is not usually sufficient to prevent tensile stresses occurring in the slab under design load conditions. The structure should therefore be considered to be partially prestressed. The amount of prestress selected affects the untensioned reinforcement requirements. The greater the level of prestress, the less reinforcement is likely to be required. Unlike reinforced concrete structures, a range of accepfable designs are possible for a given geomeuy and loading. The optimum solution depends on the relative costs of prestressing and untensioned reinforcementand on the ratio of live load to dead load.
Average prestress levels usually vary from 0.7 to 2.5N/mmz for solid slabs and occasionally up to 6N/mm1 for ribbed or waffle slabs. However, when the prestress exceeds approximately 2N/mmz or the flwr is very long, the effects of reshaint to slab shonening by supports may become imponant If the supports are stiff a significant proportion of the prestress force goes into the suppons so that the effective prestressing of the slab is reduced (see Section 3.3).
1.4
Unbonded: provides greater available lever arm reduces friction losses simplifies prefabrication of tendons grouting not required  can be constructed faster generally cheaper
15
Analytical techniques
The design process is described in Section 6. The analytical lechniques are the same as those used for reinforced concrete structures. The structure is normally subdivided into a series of equivalent frames upon which the analysis is based. These frames can be analysed using moment distribution or other hand techniques, however it is now more common to make use of a plane frame computer analysis program. In addition to standard plane frame programs, there are available a number of programs, specifically written for the design of prestressed structures. These propams reduce the design time but are not essential for the design of posttensioned floors. For more complicated flat slabs or for those which are be repeated many times, a grillage or finite element analysis of the flwr may be more appropriate.
2.
STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR
Effeects of prestress
The primary effects of presuess are a precompression of the flwr and an upward load within the span which balances part of the downward dead and live loads. In a reinforced concrete flwr, tensile cracking of the concrete is a necessary accompaniment to k generation of economic stress levels in the reinforcement. In posttensioned flwrs both the presompression and the upward load in the span act to reduce the tensile stresses in the concrete. However, the level of prestress is not usually enough to prevent all tensile cracking under full design live loading at Serviceability Limit Slate. Under reduced live load much of the cracking will not be visible. The act of presUessing causes the flwr to bend, shorten, deflect and rotate. If any of these effects are restrained, secondary effects of prestress are set up. As slated above, if the level of prestress does not exceed approximately 2N/mm2 the secondary effects due to the restraint to shonening are usually neglected. However, unless the floor can be considered to be statically determinate, the displacements of the flwr sets up secondary moments which cannot be neglected. Secondary effects are diszussed in more detail in Section 6.9 and the calculation of these effects is described in Appendix D.
21 .
There are several different types of posttensioned floor. Some of the more common layouts are given in Figures 4.5.6.7 and 8. An important distinction between types of floors is whether they are oneway or twoway spanning structures.
.
Figure 6: Posttensioned flat slab.
Figure 8: Pasttensioned coffered slab. dneway flwrs carry the applied loading primarily in one direction and are mated as beams or plane frames. On the other hand. twcway spanning flwrs have the ability to sustain the applied loading in two directions. However, for a structure to be considered to be twoway spanning it must meet several criteria. These criteria are discussed in Section 2.4.
23
Flexure in onewayfloors
Oneway spanning floors are usually designed Class 3 structures in accordance with BS8110"). Although cracking is allowed, it is assumed that the concrete section is uncradted and that hypothetical ensile stresses can be carried at Serviceability Limit State. The allowable stresses are discussed in Secdon 6.10.1. The behaviour of oneway flwrs at loads less than that which would cause cracking can be assumed to be linear and elastic. BS811OW1 recommends that when the tensile stresses under design permanent loads are less than the allowable stresses for Class 2 suuctms, then the deflection may be predicted using gross section properties, In other cases calculation of deflections should be based on the momentcurvature relationship for cracked sections.
2.4
Tests and applications have demonsuated thata posttensioned flat slabbehaves ns a flat plate almost regardless of tendon arrangement (see Figure 9). The effecrsofthe tendonsm;of course, critical tothe behaviour as they exert loads on the slab as well as provide reinforcemenr The tendons exert equivalent vertical loads on the slab known as equivalent loads (see Section 6.7). and these loads may be considered like any other dead or live load. Since the tendon effect is opposite to the effect of gravity loads, the net load causing bending is reduced. An additional effect of the tendons is the axial precompression which counteracts flexmal tensile skesses. Therefore, at service dead load, the net downward load musing tending in the slab is normally very low and the flwr is essentially under uniform axial compression. Examination of the distribution.of moments for a flat plate in Egures 10 and 11 reveals that hogging moments across a panel are sharply peaked in the immediate vicinity of the column and that t moment at the column face is b several times the moment midway behveen columns. It should k noted that the permissible snesses given in Table 2 of Section 6.10.1 are average sbesses for the full panel. They are lower than those for oneway floors L allow for this o nonuniform disnibution of moments across L e panel. h
C)
Rigure 9: Bending moment surfaces and tendon diagrams for different tendon arrangements
Experimental results
A
Span Column
i C
Column
+
i Column z
Panel width a) Moments on column line b) Moments halfway between column lines
Figure PI: DMbution of app!,"!jdIced beadi!zg moments ecross tbe wjdth of a panel in a solid flat slab. In contrast the sagging moments across the slab in midspan regions m almost uniformly distributed across the panel width as shown in Figure llb.
It is helpful to the understanding of posttensioned flat slabs to forget the arbihary column strip, middle strip and moment percenlage tables which have long been familiar to the designer of reinforced concrete floors. Instead, the mechanics of the action of the tendons will be examined first
The "load balancing" approach is an even more powerful tool for examining the behaviour of twoway spanning systems than it is for oneway spanning members. By the balanced load approach, attention is focused on the loads exerted on the floor by the tendons, perpendicular to the plane of the floor. As for oneway floors, this typically means a uniform load exerted upward along the major portion of the cenual length of a tendon span, and statically equivalent downward load exerted over the short length of reverse curvature. In order to apply an essentially uniform upward load over the entire floor panel these tendons should be uniformly dishibuted, and thedownward loads from the tendons should react against another smchual elemenr The additional element could be a beam or wall in the case of oneway floors, or columns in a twtiway system. However, a l w k ai a plan view of a flat slab (see Figure 12) reveals that columns provide an upward reaction for only a very small area. Thus, to maintain statical rationality, we must provide, perpendicular to the above tendons, a second set of tendons to provide an upward load to resist the downward load from the fusi set. Remembering that the downward load of the uniformly distributed tendons occurs over a relatively narmw width under the reverse curvatures and that the only available exterior reaction, the column, is also relatively narrow. it becomes obvious that the second set of tendons should be in narrow strips or bands passing over the columns.
Tendons uniformly spaced across floor exerting upward loads in the span and downward loads on the column lines.
Tendons concentrated on column lines exerting upward loads In the span to carry the downward loads of uniformly distributed tendons and downward loads on the columns. Figure 12: Load balancing with prestress tendons for regular column layouts.
There are two ways of accomplishing this twopart tendon system to obrain the nearly uniform upward load we desire for ease of analysis. In the first method. tendons are spaced uniformly in each of two directions and react against banded tendons along the column grid lines in each direction. This resulrs in some of the tendons in each direction being banded over the columns, and some uniformly distributed between these bands (see Figure 13). This method works well where the columns are atianged on a r'ectangular grid.
Figure 9 shows the bending moments derived from grillage analysis of square panels with differing arrangement of tendons. The balanced load provided by the.tendons in ea&directionis equalro the dead load. Figure 9c gives the most uniform distribution of moments and provides a practical layout of tendons. This arrangement gives 70% of the tendons in the banded zone and the remaining 30% between the bands. It should be noted that, since the width of the banded zone is 0.4 rimes the width of the bay, this arrangement is identical to providing 50% of the tendons evenly distributed over the full width of the bay in addition t 50% concentrated in the band. However, as c n be seen from o a Figure 9 the detailed dismbution is not critical provided that suficienr tendons pass through the column zone to give adaquate protection against punching s h a  and progressive collqse.
Where the column mangemern is.irregular. or where openings or other geometric considerations require if a second method may be used. In this method the uniformly distributed tendons and banded tendons may each be placed in one direction only (see Figure 14). The p w e r of the second method becomes very clear by examining afloor which has columns oEimgulx layour. For an example. with reference t Figure 15a. it is assumed that the odd o numbered grid lines are offset one half bay from the even numbered grid lines, but columns on a given letter grid are aligned.
I the 'column skip' approach illustrated in Figure 15b is retained as for conventionally reinforced floors, each span which stmed in a column strip ends in a middle strip, and tracing of load paths, a rational analysis, and proportioning reinforcemenL become difficult if not impossible and force a renun to the basic idea of balancing loads with tendons. The uniformly distributed system of tendons (parallel to letter grid lines) can be accomplished with liule regard for column location. It is only necessary to place the high points of the tendon prome (where reverse curvature and downward load occur) at the inersection of the tendons with the number grid lines. This system then reacts against the banded tendons placed on the number grid lines as shown in Figure 1%. By this pmwdute, the reaction o the gravity load balanced by the f tendons i s carried direcIly to columns, without any flexural action of the flwr. Since this balanced load is typically a large portion of the permanent load on !he flwr, errors in analysis which are due to incorrect assumptions of load path are a function of relatively small loads, and thus are small. The possible consequences of such errors can be investigated by examining the tehaviour of the floor under overloads.
Figure 14: Tendons fully banded in one direction and uniformly distributed in the other direction. Flexural cracking is initiated at column faccs and can occur at load lcvcls in the sewiccability range. Whilc these and early radial cracks remain small, h c y are unlikely to affect h e performance of the slab, Compression due to prestress delays the formation of cracks, but it is less efficient in controlling cracking than untensioned reinforcement placed in the top of floors, immcdialcly adjacent lo, and above the column. 2.4.1
Figure 15: Load balancing with prestressing tendons for irregular column layouts
Past experience shows that for the precompression to be effective it should be at least 0.7 N/mrn2 in each direction. Aspect ratio (length to width) oi any panel should not be greater than 2.0: This applies lo solid flat slabs, supported on orthogonal rows of columns. For aspect ratios greater than 2.0 the middle section will Lend to acl as a oneway spanning slab.
Stiffness ratios in LWO directions: The ratio of the stiEfness of the slab in two orthogonal directions should no1 be disproportionate. This is more likely to occur with nonuniform crosssections such as ribs. For square panels this ratio should not exceed 10.0, otherwise the slab is more likely lo behave as oneway spanning.
2.5
Shear
The method given in BS81101" for calculating shear in beams and oneway spanning slabs should be used. A method for calculating shear for posttensioned flat slabs is no[ provided in BS8llO. The method given in this manual (see 6.11.2) combines [he prestress effccts givcn in section 4 of BS8llO with L e method given for punching h shear for reinforced concrete in section 3 of BSBllO.
3.
STRUCTURAL FORM
Current experience in many countries indicalcs a minimum span of approximately 7m to make preslressing viable in a floor. However, cxamplcs are known in which prestressed flwrs have been competitive where shortcr spans have been used for architectural reasons, but presuessing was then only made viable by chwsing the right slab form. In general the ideal situation is, of course, to 'think prestressing' from the initial concept of the building and to chwse suitably longer spans. In chwsing column layouts ana spans for a prestressed flwr. several possibilities may be considered la optimise the design, which include: a) Reduce the length of the end spans or, if the architectural considerations permit, inset the columns from the building perimeter to provide small cantilevers. Consequently, end span bending moments will be reduced and a more equable bending moment configuration oblaincd. Reduce, if necessary. the stiffness of the columns lo minimise the prestress lost in overcoming the restraint offered ta flwr shortening (see Section 3.3). Where span lengths vary, adjust the tendon profiles and the number of tendoils to provide the uplift required for each span. Generally this will be a similar percentage of the dead load for each span.
b)
C)
Once the column layout has been determined. the next consideration is the type of flwr to be used. This again is determined by a number of factors such as span lengths, magnitude of loading. architectural form and use of the building, special requirements such as services, location of building, and the cost of malerials available.
F h r thkktzess m d types
The slab thickness must meet two primary functional requirements  structural strength and deflection. Vibration should also k considered where there are only a few panels. The selection of thickness or type (e.g. plate without drops. plate with drops, coffered or waffle, ribbed or even beam and slab) is also influenced by concrete strength and loading. There are likely to be several alternative solutions to the same problem and a preliminary costing exercise may be necessary in order to chwse h e most economical.
The infomadon given in Figures 16, 17 and 18 will assia h e designcr to make a preliminary choice of noor section. Figure 16 (derived from Table 1) gives typical imposed load capacities for a variety of'nal slabs and oneway floors over a range of spaddcpth ratios. These figures are based on past experience. Figure 16 is appropriate for all types of prestressed floor. Figures 17 and 18 are only appropriate for flat slabs but Figure 17 is not appropriate for coffered slabs which do not have a solid section over he column. At this slage it should b noted that the superimposed load used in Figures 16, 17 and c 18 consisls of all loading (dead and live) bar h c selfweigh~of h e section. The calculation methods used for obtaining thc graphs in Figures 17 and 18 are described in Appendix F.
Total
Note: 
Spanldepth ratio
This chart is derived from the emperical values given in Table 1 for multispan floors. For singlespan floors the depth should be increased by approximately 15%. Figure 16: Preliminary selection of flwr thickness for multispan floors.
Area (rn2)
D
K::%49Z$8$:
11 10
'
6 5
vc = 0.75 N/rnmz
4
3
Area (rn2)
1 6a .m n m " m a Tm ~ '2s , ~   m m m ~
O D D D D D D D
14 13 12 11 10 9
'
5
4 3
vc = 0.75 N/mm2
1
0
Area (mZ)
Figure 17: Preliminary shear check for slab thickness at internal column.
8 E D 8 8 8 ~ ~
16
NNnnprrul
14
13 12 'H
'10
,f = 40 Nlmrn2 Column (inc. head) 300 x 300 D.L. Factor = 1.4 L.L. Factor = 1.6
1 , , I I I I I I I I I I  I I zo 30 40 60 60 m no so iwnorzo1Joraorarsoren
Area (m2)
Figure 18: Ultimate shear check for flat slab at face of internal column.
Notes:
1. For column sizes other than 300 x 300 the slab depth should be multiplied by the factor (column perimeter 11200). 2. The maximum shear stress for f., = 40 Nlmm' and more is SN1mm2. For f., < 40 Nlmm' the maximum shear stress is 0.8 I & . For f,. = 35 Nlmm' increase slab depth by a factor of 1.06. For f,, = 30 Nlmm'increase slab depth by a factor of 1.14. 3. The value of dlh is assumed to be 0.85. 4. The ratio of V,NIV is assumed to be 1.15. 5. These curves do not takc account of elastic distribution effects. See Section 6.6.
Flat slabs e n d 10 exceed punching shear limits around columns, and often need additional shear rcinforcemcnl at these locations. The ,mphs in Figure 17 provide a prcliminary assessment as LO whcher shcar reinforcement is needed lor the scction types 1, 2, 3. 5 and 6 (all flar slabs) in Table 1. As the shear capacity 01a slab is dependent on the dimensions of the supponing columns or column heads, each graph has been derived using different column dimensions. In addition, h e shear capacity at thc face of the column should be checked. This can be done using h e graph in Figure 18. Thc graph has been dcrived lor slabs with 3W x 300mm supporting columns, and lo obtain the imposed load capacities for slabs w i h olhcr supporting column sizes, the valucs in h e graph should be multiplied by h e ratio of required column pcrimcled1200. should be followed when using Tablc 1, Figures 16, 17 and The following 18 ta obtain a slab section. a) Knowing the span and imposed loading rcquiremcnrs. Figure 16 or Table 1 can be used to choose a suitable spanldepth ratio for the section typc being considercd. Table 1 also provides a simple check for vibration effecs. If section type 1. 2.3, 5, or 6 has bcen choscn, check Lhc shear capacity of the scction. using onc of the graphs in Figurc 17 (depending on what size of column has been dccidcd upon). Obtain thc imposed load capacity lor the chosen slab section. I1 this excccds the imposcd load, then shear rc'inforccmcnt is unlikcly lo be ncccssary. If it docs not, h e n reinforcement will be rcquircd. If Lhc diffcrcncc is very largc. then a n increase in section dcpth or column size should be considcred. Check the shear capacity at the face of the column using the graph in Figure 18. If h e imposcd load capacity is cxceedcd, increasc thc slab dcpth and check again.
b)
C)
It should be noted that Tablc I and Figurc 16 are appliwblc for multispan floors only. For singlespan floors the depth should be increased by approximalely 15%. Figwes 17 and 18 arc applicable lor b o h floor types and havc b a n derived using an avcmge load faclor of 1.5 (see Appendix F . ) Figures 17 and 18 are set for internal columns. They may be used for external columns provided that (he loadcd area is doubled for edge and quadrupled for comer columns. This assumes thar the edge of the slab extends lo a1 least he'cenlre line of h e column.
Table 1: Typical spanldepth ratios for a variety of section types for multispan floors.
Additional requirements if no vibration check to be carried out for normal office conditions: either the flwr has at least four panels and is at least 250 mm thick or the nwr has at least eighl panels and is at least 200 mm thick. either the flwr has at least four panels and is at least 400 mm Lhick or the flwr has at least eight panels and is at least 300 mm thick
Section type
Spanldepth ratios 6 m 5 L 2 13 m
25 . 50 . 1. 00
40 36 30
A
25 . 50 . 1. 00
44 40 34
A
rI
slab
beam
25 .
45 40 35
25 22 1 8
A
I
span16
I I
5. O
10.0
.JiJ , LJL..
I
25 23 20
7 r   7
11
r   7 r1 1 11
25 . 50 . 1. 00
28
26
I
I L
23
Spanldepth ratios 6 m 5 L 5 13 rn 28 26 23
rl
LJL.
t
7. Ribbed slab
 7 
.?,T'
2.5 5.0
I1
30
27 24
!I
tt
I/
I ,
II
10.0
!I
slab 2.5 5.0
42
b m 18
38
34
16 13
I I I I I I
I
I
10.0
1. All panels asumed to be square 2. 'Spanldepth ratios not affected by column head 3. t It may be possible that prestressed tendons will only be required in the banded sections and that untensioned reinforcement will suffice in the ribs. or vice versa. it The values of spanldepth ratio can vary according to the width of the beam.
33
Elastic shortening due to the prestress force. Creep shortening due to the prestress force. Shrinkage of concrete.
The elastic shortening occurs during stressing of the tendons, but the creep and shrinkage are longterm effects. The flwr will be suppaned on columns or a combination of columns and core walls. Thesesuppons offer a restraint to the shortening of the flwr. There are no frm rules which may be used to detemine when such restraint is significant. As a guide, if the presmss is less than 2NImmz the flwr is not very long and there is not more than one stiff resminr (i.e. a IiB shaft) then the e f f e c ~ restraint are usually ignored. of
A simple method of ascertaining the restraint offered by the suppons is to calculare the elastic, creep and shrinkage smins expected in the slab and then to calculate the
forces required to deflect the supports. Figure 19 shows two simple frames in which the floors have shortened and the columns have been forced to deflect. The force in each column may be calculated from b e amount it has been forced to deflect and its stiffness. The stiffness may b e calculated on the assumption h a t h e column is builtin at both ends.
..,
..
The calculation of elastic. creep and shrinkage strains may be based on the values given in BS8110''1. The elastic strain should be based on the modulus of elasticity at the time the tendons are stressed. If this is at seven days after casting the modulus is approximately 80% of the modulus at 28 days. The creep strain depends on the age of the concrete when the tendons are stressed. the humidity and the effective thickness. The c w p strain would be typically 2.5 times the elastic strain. The shrinkage strain will generally be in the range 100 to 300 x 1r6, but in some circumstances it can increase to 400 x 10". Typical strains for a 300mm internal floor with a prestress of 2 N/mmz would be: Elastic smin Creep strain Shrinkage strain Total longterm s h a h ( ) , E
lo4
The following analysis is approximate but conservative and ignores any displacement of h e foot of the columns or rotation of the ends of the columns. A more accurate analysis may be made using a plane frame with imposed member strains. The force required to deflect each column. as shown in Figure 19. may b assumed e to be calculated as follows:
For the purposes of calculating H,, the value of EJ,for the column may be reduced by creep in the column and in some cases cracking. A reduction of at least 50% from the shortterm elastic properties is normally justifiable. The total tension in the flwr due to the restraint to shortening is the sum of all the column forces to one side of the stationary point In Figure 19a. the tension is H, + H in Figure 19b. the tension is H, + H, + H,. This lension acu; as a reduction in !he ; precompression of the floor by the prestress. I the tension is small in comparison f with the prestress. it may be ignored. If the tension force is moderate. it may be necessary to subtract it from the prestress to obtain the effective precompression of the flwr. But if the resmint is so severe that flexing of the vemcal lrlembers to accommodate the shortening is not possible. other measures are required. These may include freeing the offending stiff elements during a temporary condition. However, it must be remembered Lhat creep and shrinkage will continue to occur for up to 30 years.
4.
4.4
MATERIALS
Concrere Concrete should be mixed, transported and placed in accordance with BSBIIO, Pan 1. Section 614). Choice of concrete type and grade will be influenced by durability. early strength gain requirements, material availability and basic economics. At present concrete grades of C35 and C40 are the most commonly used for posttensioned floors. Where lightweight aggregates are used, references should be made to Lhe special requirements OF BS8110. Pan 2 Section 5l4). .
42
Tendons Strand The tendon material used for posttensioning concrete llwrs is normally 7wire suand. This strand should comply with Type 2 (low relaxation) as descr~hd BS in 5896, Table 6"0'.
4.1
42.2
Tendon protection Unbonded tendons Unbonded tendons are protected by a layer of grease inside a plastic sheath. An example is shown in Figure 20. These materials should comply with the recommendations given in reference 11.
Figure 20:
Under normal conditions, the strand is supplied direct from the manufacturer already greased and sheathed. In no circumstances should PVC be used for the plastic sheath, as it is suspected that chloride ions can be released in cerlain conditions.
Bonded tendons
Bonded tendons are placed in metal ducts which can be either circular or oval in om. An example is shown in Figure 21. The latter is used in conjunction with an anchorage which ensures lhar up IO four strands are retained in the same plane in order IO achieve maximum eccentricity.
Figure 2 : Layout of bonded tendons. i The ducts are made from either spirally wound or seam folded galvanised mela1 strip. On completion of smessing, the ducts are pumped full of cement grout which effectively bonds the strand to the structure as well as ensuring corrosion protection. Further information can be obtained from reference 12.
42.3
Anchorages
Anchorage companents should comply with BS 4447'L31. Details of these are shown i n Figures 22 and 23. In the case of unbonded anchorages corrosion protection should comply with Class A exposure as defined in reference 14. In addition, tests for unbonded anchorages should include fatigue testing consisting of cycling the prestressing force between M) and 65% of the characleristic strength of the s m d for two million cycles.
43
UEtensionad reinforcenssn:
5.
COVER REQUIREMENTS
Nominal cover is dependent on durability requirements or fire resistance, whichever condition is the more onerous. Bonded tendons: The cover to the tendons should be in accordance with the requiremens for prestressed concrete in BS8110, P r 1, Clause 4.12.3'4' the cover ai being measured to the outside of the duct. It should be noted Lhat the cover to the centre of the tendon will be more than that to the centre of the duct, since the tendon will press againsr the wall of the duct. Unbonded tendons: There is no durability requirement for unbonded tendons protected in accordance with 4.2.2. Fire pmtec6on shall be provided in accordance with BS8110, P r 1. Clause 4.12.3.1.3") and the nominal cover to the sheath should not at be less than 25mm. The tendon is normally specified as a nominal diameter (e.g. 12.9 or 15.7mm for 7wire super strand): 3mm should be added to the diameter to allow for the thickness of sheathing. Untensioned reinforcement: The cover to the untensioned reinforcement should be in accordance with the requirements for reinforced concrete in BS8110, P r 1, Clause at
3.3"'.
Anchorages: The cover to anchorages should be as for bonded tendons given in BS8110, P r 1, Clause 4.12.3.1(4). at Consideration should k given LO the layout of both tendons and untensioned reinforcement when deciding the critical cover requirements (see Section 7.5).
6.
'Ihis section considers the various stages of the design process in more detail. As in most reinforced and prestressed concrete design work, the customary design process is of an iterative nature following the cycle: 1. 2. 3. 4. Preliminary design Check design by analysis Revise design as required Repeat steps 2 and 3 if necessary.
The analysis is normally bzsed on semiempirical procedures such as the equivalent frame method. More rigomus analyses based on, for example, finite element methods are m d y adopted. They should only be considered for large pmjcts of unusual form where the high design costs and the inapplicability of h e empirical method justify them. ?he design is undertaken generally in accordance with BSgllO'" with additional guidance given in this report Normally the flexural capacity at Serviceability Limit State is considered firs4 and then checks on flexural and shear capaciry at Ultimare Limit State are carried out.
62
Design jlow c i w i
A typical design flow chart is shown in Figure 24.
63
Basic a ~ l y s i s
The analysis of posttensioned flwr systems differs from a reinforced concrete design approach owing to the positive effect lhat the tendons have on the structure. In reinforced concrete the reinforcement is inidally unstressed: the suess in the reinforcementresults fmm h e deformation and cracking of the structure underapplied load. In this way the reinforcemenr may be considered lo acl passively. On the other hand, the tendons in a posttensioned flwr are actively stressed by h e jacks so that they are loaded before the application of other loads. The force in the tendon is chosen by the designer and does not vary much with the application of Serviceability Limit State dead and live loads.
 load to be balanced
The analysis of equivalent frames may be undemken by hand, using moment distribution or flexibility methods. or by computer using planeframe analysis programs. There are also available on the market several computer programs specially written for posttensioned flooring systems. These programs not only undenake the analysis of the frame under applied loading and loading from the tendons, but also calculate the flexural stresses. For more complex or detailed analysis, grillage or finite element methods may be used. Whichever Whnique is used for the smctural analysis it must cake into account not only the dead and live loads but also the loads which the tendons apply to the structure (see Section 6.7).
The choice of layout and m e m k r sizing has been d i s c u s 4 in Section 3, and is probably the most important decision in the design process. Unless previous experience or ovemding factors dictate the exact form and section, seveml possibilities should be studied, although the designer should be able to limit the possible solutions by considering the various consuaints and by rough design and costing exercises. With regard to slab thickness and concrete suengths, the relationship of structural layout, slab thickness and loading has been referred to in Section 3. A determination of a trial m e m k r depth must b made at an early stage in the calculation process. e This can often be best obtained by assuming a value of about 70% of the equivalent nonprestressed member.
The loading for Serviceability Limit State should consider the dead load and posttensioning effects acting with those combinations of live loads which result in the maximum stresses. Unless there are specific abnormal loads present, it will generally be sufficient to consider the posttensioning effects in combination wilh the live loads as given in BS8110, P r 1, Clause 4.3.3"'. at At transfer of presuessing only the dead loads present during stressing, togelher wilh the posttensioning effecls before losses due to creep, shrinkage and relaxation, should be considered in obtaining stresses. Where the applied loads change significantly during conshuction or phased stressing is employed, the various stages should each b checked for transfer mess limits. e At the Ultimate Limit State the load combinations shown in BS8110, Part 1, Table 2.1 and Clause 4.3.3'" shall be considered to arrive at the maximum moments and shears at any section. Secondary effects of prestressing should be included in the applied loads with a load factor of 1.0 (see Section 6.9).
6.6
@
'
h
End Frame
Internal Frame
"
d k n d Frame
BS8110, P s 1, Section 3.72"' gives a clear definition on the division of a flat slab at into subframes or 'panels'. Other methods may also be used. It is now common to analyse smctures using plane frame computer programs. However, when longhand momencdisnibution calculations are employed, sliffness. carryover factors and fued end moment coefficienrs must te calculated. These can be quite complicated for varying sections, column heads and droppanels and, although often ignored in hand calculations, the effect on stiffness of the complete beam moment of inertia over the column width can be most significant, particularly for wide columns. It should also be noted that BS8110, Part 1, Section 3726" allows reduction of ...' negative moments U, the column face, which equally applies to posttensioned members.
67 .
. .
.,...
w/unit length
f
I
drape = a
The upward forces applied to the concrete by a parabolic profiled tendon, as shown in Figure 26. are uniformly distributed along the tendon. At the ends of the tendon downward forces are applied to the concrete by the anchorages. I h e upward and downward forces are in equilibrium sn that no external forces occur. The set of forces applied to the member by the tendon are known as the 'equivalent' or 'balanced' loads, in that the upward forces counterbalance a proportion of the downward forces due to dead and live loads. For a parabolic profile the upward uniformly distributed load, w, can be calculated as follows:
where: s a
paw
distance between points of inflection drape of tendon measured at centre of profile between points of inflection. Note that this may not be position of maximum sag average presEessing force in tendon
Usually, in continuous members, the most effective use of a tendon in producing 'balanced loads' is achieved by having the tendon at its lowest possible point in positive moment locations, and at its highest possible point in negative moment locations. In this way the drape, and consequently the 'balanced loads', is increased to a maximum. The 'equivalent' or 'balanced' loads may be applied to the smctural frame in order to obtain the total effects of prestressing. The total effects are a combination of the Primary and Secondary effects as described in Section 6.9. It is beyond the scope of this publication to give an extensive treatise on prestressing theory or loadbalancing design. Funher details may be oblained fmm reference 16.
In posttensioned design it is common to roughly 'balance' equal proponions of the dead and applied loads in each span. Some designers set out with a preconceived idea of what load they wish to balance as a proponion of the dead or total load. Othen balance the minimum amount which will result in the final stresses due to the outofbalance loads k i n g as close as pssible to the maximum allowable stresses.
This latter approach is usually the most economical overall but may not always k the most suitable for deflection or congestion of untensioned reinforcement. Figure 27 illusuates an idealised tendon profile for a twospan memkr with a cantilever. The parabolic profiles result in the balanced loads w,, w, and w, as shown, calculated from the tendon profile and hence the 'drapes'.
L,
Span2:
8, WT
L?
W,
L3
Cantilever Span 1:
4
WJ
h?,=
L2
~
+ 8,
~ + e ~
Lz2 )8 =
Span 3: e , ~ (
4 '
e ~ ) = ~
Figure 2'1: I d e a l i d tendon profile for two spans with single cantilever. Figure 28 illushates a twospan member with an idealised tendon profile to provide a uniform uplift over span 1 and a concenmted uplift in span 2. The concenmed effect is useful in members transferring column or similar point loads. While te bending moments 'peak' over the supports. it is clear !hat in practice a h tendon cannot do this and some approximation must be made. Remember that the peak is where the tendon is 'dumping' the load it has picked up by its parabolic shape (Figure 29). In practice, tendon profiles are of the form shown in Figure 30. The ratio t / should generally be kept as small as possible and is usually selected 'L as 0.10. Appendix C provides information from which the parabolic tendon geometry can be calculated. The resultant balancing forces are therefore as shown in Figure 31.
I
L,
2
81
L2
e2 + 1
P is the prestressing force at ths section under consideration. Note: that the centre of gravity of the concrete and the centre of gravity of the tendon coincide at the end of the member so that no equivalent load moments are applied at the end of the member.
Figure 28: Idealised tendon profile for two spans with point load
Figure 31: Resultant balancing forces. For the reverse parabala at the support the toul load downwards:
= 4s,
Since the upward and downward loads must be equal, it follows that i h = 3 7 s1 s , and hence a, =
a,
4
The balancing loads upwards and downwards due to the tendons can thus be calculated.
1.
Shortterm Losses, which include: a) Friction losses in ihe tendon b) Wedge set or 'drawin' c) Elastic shortening of the structure.
These losses take place during stressing and anchoring of the tendon. 2. Langterm Losses, which include: a) Shrinkage of lhe concrete b) C a p of the concrete under the effect of fhe prestress c) Relaxation of the steel tendon. Although lhese losses occur over a period of up lo ten or more years, the bulk occurs in the Grsr two years following stressing. Typically, losses reduce the applied preslress force by approximately 10% at transfer and 20%after aU losses. The calculation of losses is discussed in more d d l in Appendix B.
69
Secondary effects
The secondary effecrs of presmssing are sometimes called 'parasitic effects' but that implies that the effects are unwanted and harmful. This is not in fact the case. For most structures the secondary moment will be a sagging moment and will increase the moments due to applied loads at midspan but reduce the momenrs at the support. In some structures it is possible lo 'tune' the secondary effecrs by adjusting the shape of the tendon profile to obtain the optimum solution. This is more likely to be of use in the design of beams rather than slabs.
Primary prestressing forces and moments are fhe direct result of the prestress force acting at an eccentricity from the section centroid The primary moment at a section is simply the sum of the producc; of each lendon force with its eccenuicity; h e primary shear is the sum of transverse componenls of the tendon forces and the primary axial load is the sum of rhe axial components of lhe tendon forces.
When an element of a structure is prestressed its s h a p changes. It will always shorten, and will bend if the cenuoid of the prestress force does not coincide at all positions with the section centroid. (It is possible, however, to select a tendon profile which results in no rotation of the elemenl ends.) If the element is part of a statically determinate structure then lhese changes in shape will not affect the distribution of forces and momenls (Figure 32).
Reactions applied to
t
4,
through support positions Reactions applied to make beam have compatible rotations Total secondary forces and moments for element
V
 wp 
Figure 33: Reactions on a prestressed element due to secondary effects These secondary reactions result in secondary forses and moments in the members. These are typically consrant axial and shear forces throughout a span and uniformly varying moments. The calculation of these secondary effects can be difficult when staged construction, creep and shrinkage are considered. (Note hat secondary effects cannot develop in cantilevers as they are statically determinate.) Methods of calculating secondary effects are given in Appendix D. Equivalent loads will automatically generare'the primary and secondary effects when applied Lo the structure. Seniceability calculations do not require any separation of the primary and secondary effects, and analysis using the equivalent loads is suaightfonvard. However, at Ultimate Limit State the two effects must be separated because the secondary effects are treated as applied loads. 'The primary prestressing effects are taken into account by including the tendon force in the calculation of the ultimate section capacity. The primary prestressing forces and moments must therefore be subtracted from the equivalent load analysis to give the secondary effects. To calculate the ultimate loading oii an element, rhe secondary forces and moments are combined with the ultimate forces and moments horn dead and live loads. The Handboak to BS8llO'"', suggests that the partial load factor on secondary effects should b 1.0. The total ultimate moments can be redishibuted in accordance w t e ih BS8110. Pan 1, Section 4.2.3'''.
6.10
The bending moments calculated from the critical loading conditions given in Section 6.5, including the tendon effects, provide the serviceability stresses at each section using: top fibre stress, f, = boltom fibre smss, f, = where: z ,
P+M
A,
2 ,
P  IVI
A, zb
e = eccentricity of tendons, taken as positive below the neutral axis MA = applied moment due to dead and live loads M, = moment from prestress secondary effects
Location
In Compression
. 
0.29 kc"
o
0.154~
Allowable average stresses in nat slabs, (hvoway spanning), analysed using ille equivalent frame method. Bonded reinforcement may be either bonded tendons or untensioned reinforcement.
In Table 2, the support zone shall be considered as any part of the span under consideration within 0 2 x L of the suppon, where L is the effective span. Outside of this zone is considered to be the span zone. Additional designed untensioned reinforcement is required in the suppon zone ofall flat slabs, and in the span zone oE slabs using unbonded tendons where the tensile stress exceeds 0.15Jf,. The design of this reinforcement is presented in Section 6.10.5.
BS 8110, P r 1, Section 4.3.7''' gives guidance on the assumptions for calculating the at concrete and untensioned reinforcementsuesses and the allowable design stresses for the tendons. In the above Section, equation 52 for unbonded tendons has been developed from the results of tests in which the stress in the tendons and the lenglh of the zone of inelasticity in the concrete were both determined. The floor is considered to develop both elastic and inelastic zones and the length of the inelastic zone is taken to be 10 x the neutral axis depth.
The extension of the concrete at the level of the tendons is assumed to be negligible in the elastic zones and the extension in the inelastic zone is assumed to be mken up uniformly over the length. 1, of the tendon. This is discussed further in references 29 and 30. Hence, for a simply supported flwr there is only one inelastic zone associated with the failure, but with a continuous floor the numbee of inelastic zones required for failure is more complex (see Figure 34). The length of tendon. I, in equation 52 can be modified, bearing in mind that if the tendon does not continue the full length of the continuous floor it may not include all the inelastic zones necessary for failure. It is therefore prudent to assume no more than one inelastic zone per span, and no more than two inelastic zones for the full length.
plastic hinge
Without Columns
With Columns
(a)
Ductile failure
With Columns
@)
BrilUe failure
Where p r o ~ v e . c o l l a p e involves the use of unbonded tendons in key elements, the maximum stressin the unbanded tendon shall not exceed 0.85fW This ensures that the anchorages are not overstressed, and protects against catenary action. In unbonded memters there is also the risk that if tendons are severed accidentally there will be a 'progression' of failure for the full length of the lendons. This is pasticularly relevant for oneway spanning members such as beams. ribs and slabs spanning onto beams or walls.
In the case of onewa), members where horizontal progressive collapse is of concern, it is necessary to reiiiforcewiihuntensionedsteel. This should be provided to satisfy the load case of dead load plus one third live load [DL+ (I/3)LL] with an overall load factor of 1.05, and reduced material factor in accordance with BS8110. Pan 1, Clause 2.4.3.2'" for 'effects of exceptional loads or localised damage'. Reinforcement should be in accordance with normal BS8llO limits and arrangements.
Experimental and practical evidence in the USA has established that this problem does not occur in the iniernal bays of flat slabs due to the overall 'plale' or membrane action. The possibility of horizontal progressive collapse of edge and comer panels of flat slabs must be considered These panels should be supponed for the situation where the tendons parallel to the edge have been severed. This support can typically be provided by bonded reinforcement in the panel or an edge beam. 6.10.5 Designedflexural untensioned reinforcement Additional untensioned reinforcement shall be designed to cater for the full tension force generated by the assumed flexural tensile stresses in the concrete for the Iollowing situations: All locations in oneway spanning floors using unbonded tendons. Ail locations in meway spanning flwrs where transfer stresses exceed
0.36vfci.
Support zones in all flat slabs. Span zones in flat slabs using unbonded tendons where the tensile smss exceeds 0.15 df,. The reinforcement shall be designed, with reference to Figure 35, to act at a stress of (5/8)fy as follows: hx = f,, x h
f
fa
The reinforcementshall be designed for the soesses ar Serviceability Limit State, both afler all prestress 1osses.andat. m s f e r conditions. It shall be placed in the tensile zone, as near as practicable to the outer fibre (see Section 7.5). Under mnsfer conditions any designed reinforcement is likely t be on the opposite face to thar o required after all losses.
At Ultimare Limit State, additional untensioned reinforcement may also be required (see Section 6.10.3). Any reinforcement provided for the Serviceability Limit State may also be used in the calculation of the moment capacity at Ultimate Limit Stare. The designed reinforcement shall be checked against the minimum requirements given in Section 6.10.6.
Figure 35: Section stresses used for the calc~lntiw of untensioned reinforcemenL
Oneway spanningfIoors
Bonded tendons: There are no minimum untensioned reinforcementrequirement5 for oneway spanning floors with bonded tendons. It is considered that these flwrs have sufficient tendontoconcrete bond to distribute flexural cracking. Care should be taken to ensure sufficient reinforcement is provided to guard against cracking before stressing, if early phased suessing is not employed. Unbonded tendons: Oneway spanning floors with unbonded tendons should have minimum reinforcement in accordance with BSgllO, Part I, Table 3.27, Figures 3.24 and 3.25". This reinforcement should be spread evenly across the full width of slab in accordance with the spacing rules given in BS8110, Pan 1. Section 3.12.11'4'.
In the span zone, there are no minimum requirements. However, when unbonded tendons are used it would normally be necessary to provide designed untensioned reinforcement in the hotlam of the slab (see Section 6.10.1). This reinforcement should extend at leas1 to within a distance of 0 2 x L, measured from the centre of the support It should be placed at a spacing of 3 x slab thickness or 500mm, whichever is the lesser.
Slab edges
Untensioned reinforcement should be placed along edges of all slabs. This should include Ubars laced with at least two longitudinal bars top and bottom, as shown in Figure 38. See also Section 6.12. Reinforcement should k provided in the triangular unstressed area between anchorages. See Section 6.13.
6.33
Shew strength
Design capacities to be in line with other international standards. Increased punching shenr capacity for bonded tendons. Increased punching shear capacity when tendons are concenhated in the vicinity of the column. A design method which complements BS 8110'4' as far as possible. A design method which allows a smooth transition from reinforced concrete to prestressed concrete and allows for situations where the slab is prestressed in one direction only.
The following method achieves these aims and is recommended. Calculate !he effective shear force, V,,, in accordance with BSBIIO, Clause 3.7.6. The shear resistance, V. is obtained by adding together Lhe contributions from each of the sides of the critical shear perimeter as given in BS8110, Clause 3.7.7"'. The shear resislance of each side of the critical perimeter should be calculated in accordance with BS8110, Clauses 4.3.8 and 4.4'4J as modified below.
Fiat slabs are generally not heavily prestressed and will therefore be governed by the design for "sections cracked in flexure", using equation 55 (BS8110, clause 4.3.8.5"3. Equation 55 does not, however, provide a smooth transition from reinforced to prestressed concrete because of the term:
For lighrly presuessed structures the inclusion of this term in equation 55 can lead to a shear capacity less than that which would be calculated for the same slab but without prestress. This is obviously incorrect The British Cement Association @I1 has recently compared various forms of shear calculation with published test results and concluded that equation 55 would be more consistent with the test results if the above term were omitted. It is thaefore recommended that the shear resistance of each side of the critical perimeter be calculated from equation 55 moditied'as follows:
where v,, b. and d are fhe values for the relevant side of the critical perimeter. The value of v, should be calculated taking into account both A, and A,, for bonded tendons in accordance with BS8110 Clause 4.3.8.1. However the presence of unbonded tendons should be neglected in this calculation of v,. No further reduction is considered necessary (e.g. as suggested in reference 17, page 98). The decompression moment, M,,, should be calculated for the width of the side of the critical perimeter under consideration. It should be noted that the axial effects of prestress, P/A,, are uniformly distributed over the width of the slab whereas the prestress moment effects (P,+ M,) are concentrated at the lccation of the tendons at the critical perimeter. Hence the two contributions to M, have to k calculated separately as follows (for a hogging moment region):
the tntal prestress force, over the full panel width, after all losses the concrete section area across the full panel width
A,
'
= section modulus for the top fibre over the width of the side of the critical perimeter = = the total prestress force for all tendons passing through the side of the critical perimeter the eccenhcity of the prestress force, P', at the critical perimeter, measured positive below the centroid
P '
e'
The value of V/M must be calculated for the load case under consideration, normally that which generates the largest. , V/h4 should strictly be calculated at the location V of the critical perimeter but may be calculated conservatively at the column centreline. For a typical in~ernal column V/M will vary from 5.5& to 6.0/L, depending on h e ratio of dead load to live load, where L is the span length.
6.12
I
Anchoraoe Zone

mrnprerslve
Where a group of anchorages exist, as is often the case for 'banded' slab tendons. the bursting stress zones for both the individual and collective anchorages should be considered, and reinforcement placed accordingly. Care should also be taken to ensure that the phasing of the application of prestress to anchorage groups does not create a bursting condition which may be critical. If this condition is unavoidable, reinforcement should be added accordingly. BS8110, Part 1. Section 4.11"' gives design bursting tensile forces of a similar nature to Figure 35 and limits the steel stress to 2M)N/mm1 at Serviceability L i i t State. It is suggested that ban with f, = 4 6 0 ~ / m mare used for this reinforcement ~ Alternatively the bursting forces and distribution may b calculated in a more rigorous e method, such as suggested by GuyonCm'. some cases it may be shown that the In concrete is capable of withstanding bursting without the addition of reinforcement. At Ultimate Limit State for unbonded tendons only, reinforcement requirements should be checked in accordance with BS8110, Clause 4.11.3. This Ultimate Limit State check is unlikely to be governing. Where anchorages are grouped, or where the distribution of anchorages does not reflect the distribution of concrete in the crosssection, it may be necessary L include o 'equilibrium' reinforcement to prevent splitting between anchorages. Also when anchorages occur within the plan area of the floor rather than at the perimeter, it may be necessary u, include 'following' reinforcement This reinforcement runs parallel to the tendon past the anchorage to limit cracking adjacent to the anchorage. These effects are discussed in CIRIA Guide No. 1"". Posttensioning system suppliers often test their anchorage systems in concrete prisms. reinforced in a similar manner t that encountered in practice and using a orism size o similar to the common onsite member thichess, ek. Such tests may be deemed under BS8110, Part 1. Section 2.6'" to satisfactorily model the onsite conditions and the reinforcement may be considered adequate provided suitable safety factors are observedu4'. Two examples showing the calculation of, and the detailing of, bursting reinforcement are given in Appendix E.
613
Deflection
This is a Serviceability Limit State relating to the complete structure. The deflections of a structure, or of any pans of a structure, should not adversely affect appearance or performance. The final calculated deflection (including the effects of tempmure, creep and shrinkage, and camber), measured below the line between the supports of the flwr and roof, should not in general exceed s p d 5 0 . In addition.where internal partitions. cladding and finishes can be affected by deflection. the deflections should be limited in accordance with BS8110, Clause
3.2.1.2(4'.
As a guide for a prestressed solid slab, continuous over two or more spans in each direction, ihe span/depth ratio should not generally exceed 42 for floors and 48 for m f s . These limits may be increased to 48 and 52 respectively, if &tailed calculations show acceptable behaviour with regard to short and longterm deflections, camber and vibration. Lower span/depth ratios will often apply to slabs with high liveldead load ratio& The span/depth ratios for waffle slabs should not generally exceed 35.
Vibration
Prestressed flwrs are usually thinner or span funher than unpresuessed floors. They herefore lend to have lower natural frequencies and greater consideration must be given to their dynamic performance. The Steel Construction Institute has published a design guide on the vibration of floorsm'. This guide covers sources of vibration excitation in buildings. human reaction to vibration, evaluation of natural frequencies, response of floors and design procedures. Although it was written primarily for checking the acceptability of lightweight concrete composite floors on steel beams, most of the guide is relevant for any floor system. Appendix G gives a procedure, based on the guide for checking presnessed flwrs with a rectangular grid. Vibration should not k a problem for general office buildings if the total slab depth is greater or equal to the values given in Table 1. For more sensitive locations, or for slabs shallower than the above criteria. an aswsment of the dynamic response of the floors should be made.
6.15
7.4
Tendon &tributiQn
Various methods for dishibuting the tendons can be used. These are discussed in Section 2.4. In situations of ovaload, tendons passing through the colurnn/floor intersection are more effective than lendons elsewhere. It is therefore recommended that a minimum of two tendons should pass through this section. For ribbed slabs or beams, the dishibution of tendons is dictated by the spacing of members.
7.2
Tendon s@g
The maximum spacing of uniformly distributed tendons should not exceed six times the slab depth for unbonded tendons or eight times the slab depth for bonded tendons. Unbonded tendons may be placed in groups if required. It is recommended that grouped tendons are laid side by side and do not exceed four lendons per group. The minimum horizontal distance between ducts or groups of tendons shouid be the greater of 75mm or the gmuplduct width. Should it be necessary to arrange the tendons in vertical layers in beams or ribs, then it is recommended that the gap between the layers should be at least the venical dimension of the lendon or duct In the case of bonded tendons where oval metal ducts are used, it is recommended that their positions are staggered to ease the placing of concrete. If tolerances on tendon pasitions are not staled, the values in Table 3 should be adopted.
* 20mm
5 20mm
t 5mm
73
Tendon notation
The accepted standard notation or tendons on drawings is shown in Figure 38. It is recommended that this legend Figure is included on all tendon layout drawings.
One strand
T w o rtrandr
Three rtrandr
Four strands
Y
Five raandr
1x10 6 7 laddedl
2.40
+ Oead end
Add rrrandr
RedA = 75
3x24 50 ithrul
Blue A = 1 6 5
Lf
Note: When more than one symbol appears on a tendon group the number o f rtrandr equal the rum o f the symbol derignarionr.
Edgeof slab
Figure 38: Method of notation for use on tendon layout drawings. Figure 39a shows an example using the legend showing groups of tendons and anchorages types, together with the tendon sequence, detailed. This Figure is based upon reference 24 modified along Lines recommended in this document. Tendon profiies in the longitudinal and transverse directions are shown using an exaggerated scale for the vertical dimensions. These are usually given from the soffit of the slab to the centreline of the ducvsheath and are plotted at intervals of lm. Closer centres may be necessary for sharp vertical curves. For ease of placement on site, shop drawings are detailed giving the vertical tendon position from soffit m underside of tendon.
.me profile of the tendons is critical to the floor performance. It is therefore recommended that the support centres do not exceed lm. For ribbed stabs or beams, support bars can be adequately held by f wire ties. Spot welding can be used but m this makes any adjustment difficult. Figure 39b shows a typical support bar layout. The actual layout may be modified by the contractor depending on the support system adopted, so that the specified tendon profiles are attained and adequate suppon is provided.
Note: 1. Height given is from soffit of slab to underside 2. Diameter of support bar is 10mm.
@) Typical tendon pmfie and support bar layout for a flat slab
'tendon
ET12
.14 12  81 +
Floor plan
Section A.A showing reinforcement details Figure 4 : Flat slab reinforcement layout 0
75
7.5.1
At columns
Reinforcement should be placed in the Lop of the slab over columns. The design of such reinforcement is described in Section 6.10.5 with minimum requirements given in Section 6.10.6. Figure 41 shows a typical arrangement of tendons and untensioned reinforcement amund a column.
Figure 41: Reinforcement arrangement a t a column. Shear reinforcement Shear reinforcement in flat slabs. if required, is usually in the form of links or hairpins, although prefabricated shear reinforcementis available. Fabricated steel shear heads may also be used. See Figures 41 and'42 and Section 6.11 for details.
At a n d between anchorages
An adequate amount of reinforcement should be placed at anchorage end blocks to avoid splitting of the concrete. A sample calculation m determine the amount of this reinforcement is given in Appendix F.
Reinforcement should be provided in the 45" wedge area between the anchorages (Figure 43).
7.6
Figure 44: Unbonded tendons diverted around an opening. The oval sheathing used in bonded tendons is very rigid in the transverse direction, and cannot be bent around openings. In this instance, openings should t confined to e the areas between tendons. h e cutting of penemions in finished slabs is not a problem in ribbed slabs where the tendon positions are, in effect, defied. Gmuted tendons, providing the gmut is effective, can be cut without significant loss of prestress. However, when unbonded tendons have been used, care must be taken to lotate the tendons before concrete removal. Tendons can be cut and reinstated but it is recommended that this work be carried out by a specialisr
7.7
Construction d@IaiLr
7.7.1
Extent of pours
With bonded tendons, friction losses usually restrict fhe length of single end stressed tendons to 25m, and double end stressed to 5Om. The lower friction values for unbonded tendons extend these values to 35m and 70m respectively. Longer lengths are achievable but the friction losses should be carefully considered. These limitations usually determine the extent of pours. Prestressing tendons may be continuous thmugh construction joints allowing larger areas without any permanent joints. Allowances should be made in accordance with good practice to accommodate temperature variations by the provision of expansion joints on larger slabs.
7.7.2
Consmction joints
Generally consmction joints should be made in the vicinity of quaner and third points of the span from supports.
Shear provision in accordance with good practice should be made by the introduction of expanded mesh, by roughening the previously poured surface or by the introduction of a shear key.
In long slabs, intermediate anchorages may be introduced which allow the stressing to be continuous through the construction joint (see Figure 45). Alternatively infill skips can be used, but it should be noted that fhese will nor be prestressed. These suips are cast after the stressing of the adjacent sections is complete (see Figure 46). This operation should be delayed for as long a period as is reasonable to reduce the effects of creep and shrinkage.
55
Figure 46: Infill @rip for jack access. In assessing the movement of slabs at expansion or confraction joints from the time of polning concrete, a strain of 650 x 10"should be. considered as normal. The drying out effect of air conditioning can increase this to 1WO x lo4.
lo the direction of stressing should be avoided as this The use of dowels .could prevent the stress being transferred to the slab. Generally dowels should be avoided in slabs saessed in two directions.
7.7.3
Protection qf anchomges
Tendons are normally anchored within the middle third of the slab to ensure adequate edge cover to the anchorage. Pocket fonners at anchorages should be large enough lo allow adequate trimming of the tendons after stressing, thus ensuring good end cover to the sirand. Trimming should be. carried out using a disc cutler or hydraulic shears (see Figures 47 and 48). In no circumstances should the tendon be trimmed by flame cutting. Pocket formers are normally proprietary plastic or polystyreneinits which make up part of the anchorage fuings. Anchorages f i e d lo formwork are shown in Figure 49. It is recommended for unbonded tendons that, after trimming the strands, the wedges and the s m d end are coated with grease of similar specification to that used in the tendon and that a watertight cap be applied over the coated area (see Figure 50). The minimum end cover to !his cap should be 25 mm.
57
Figure 50: Greasefilled plastic cap to protect strand and wedge grips. and The pockets for anchorage are particularly vulnerable to ingress of mois~ure it is therefore essential that they be properly filled with a nonshrink m o m as s w n as possible afler snessing is complele (see Figure 51). Before installing the pocket m o m , the concrete surfaces should be coaled with a suitable bonding agent. In no circumstances should the monar conlain chlorides or other malerials which could be harmful to the presaessing steel.
7.7.4
Backpropping
Backpropping may be required to ensure that the consvuction loads can be safely carried by the earlier consauction stages, and this must be considercd by the designer in a similar manner lo normal reinforced concrete construction.
7.7.5
Stressing procedure
The stressing forces, extensions and sequence should be specified on the drawings. This has to be planned in such a way that the prestress is applied as uniformly as possible, and that no overloading of the formwork occurs. The banded [endons are usually stressed f i t to ensure this is the case (see Figure 52). Wherever possible the use of different forces for tendons of the same size should be avoided.
Figure 52: Stresing banded tendons at slab edges. In members where early stressing is desired to reduce the risk of early shrinkage cracking, it is common to stress the tendons in two stages. The first stage is usually 50% of the final prestress force. and is carried out as soon as the concrete has obtained adequate strength for the anchorage being used. This concrete strength is usudly between 12 and 15 N/mmz.
7.7.6
SofJit marking
Tendon positions in flat slabs ate not apparent on completion of concreting. Recent practice has been to introduce soffit marking, where the cover to the tendon is less than the penetration of ceiling and service fittings. An iiluslration of typical marking is shown in Figure 53. Unpainted zones indicate no tendons. Dark zones indicate tendons near the soffit and white zones indicate tendons near the top of the slab.
Special precautions are required for the demolition of presaessed concrete structures, and it is recommended that the advice of a presbessing specialist is obtained before planning the demolition. Two references giving useful information are the FIP guide to good practiceN' and the P T publication on the resent demolition of a pasttensioned I
8.1.1
8.1.2
90 .
REFERENCES
1.
THE CONCRETE m . "The design of posttensioned 'oncrete flat slabs S in buildings." Technical repon No. 8. Publication No. 53.028. 1974.
T H E CONCRETE SOCIETY. "Rat slabs in posttensioned concrete with
2.
particular regard to the use of unbonded tendons design recommendations." Technical repon No. 17. Publication No. 51.079. 1979.
3.
4. 5.
THE CONCRETE SOUETY. "Posttensioned flat slab design handbook." Technical repon No. 25. Publication No. 53.044. 1984. B ~ S STANDARDS H INSTITUTION. BS8110:1985 Pam 1 and 2. "Structural use of concrete." BSI, London. EURoCoDE NO. 2. "Design of concrete suuctures. Part 1: General ~ l e and s rules for buildings." Published in draft only. THE CONCRETE m T Y . "Durability of tendons in prestressed concrete." S Technical report No. 21. Publication No. 53.037. 1982. THECONCRETE SOCIETY. "Partial prestressing." Technical report No. 23. Publication No. 53.040. 1983. AALAMI, B.O. AND BARTH, FG. "Restraint cracks and their mitigation in unbonded posttensioned building structures." Post Tensioning Institute. USA, 1988. MA~EW,P.W. "Practicalconsiderations in design and construction of posttensioned slabs." Sociely of Engineers Journal. Vol. LXXIX No. 2, June 1988. B ~ H  S T A N D A RID S T O N . BS5896:1980. "Specification for high Nm tensile steel wire and suand for the prestressing of concrete." BSI, London. FEDERATION ~ V A T I O N A LLA P R E C O N T R A ~ . P~ DE E "Recommendations for the corrosion prolection of unbonded tendons." Institution of Structural Engineers, Landon. 1986.
FEDERATIONINTERTATIONALEDELA PRECOhWTE. "Grouting of tendons in prestressed concrete." Thomas Telford. 1990.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10. 11.
12. 13.
BRITISH STANDARDS INm710if. BS4447:1973. "Specification for the performanceof prestressing anchorages for posttensioned construction." BSI, London. FEDERATION I ~ A ~ O N A L EPRE~ONTRAINTE. DE LA "Recommendations for the acceptance and application of posttensioning systems." Institution of Structural Engineers, London. 1981. BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. BS4449:1988. "Specification for czbon stml bars for the reinforcement of concrete." BSI, London.
14.
15. 16.
Lw. T.Y. "Load balancing method for the design and analysis of prestressed
concrete structures." lournal of the American Concrete Institute Prffieedings Vol. 60,No. 6. June 1963.
17.
B m s H STANDARDS m U n O 5 . "Handbwk to BSBIIO, structural use of IN concrete." Viewpoinl Publications No. 14.015. 1987.
SAUNDERS, BREW, J. AND DUNCAN. "Strength and behaviour of D.H. R.R. closely spaced posttensioned monosuand anchorages." Post Tensioning Institute. OCL 1987. REGAN, Punching: current practice sheet 106. Concrete, Issue No 12, P.E. Dec. 23 24, 1985. GUYON,Y. "Limit srate design of prestressed concrete." John Wiley and Son, New York and London. 1972. CONSTUC~~ONINDUSTRY RESEARCH INFORMATION AND ASSOCIATION. Guide No. 1. "A guide to the design of anchor blccks for posttensioned presuessed concrete." CIRIA, London. May 1976. WYATT.T.A. "JJesign guide on the vibration of floors.'' Publication No. 076. Steel Conshuction Institute, 1989 I N m O F STRUCTURALENGINEERSTHE CONCRETE AND SOCIETY. "Guide to the srmctural use of lightweight aggregate concrele." 1987. THE CONCRETE SOCIETY AND bXilTUTE OF S T R U ~ R A L ENGINEERS. "Standard method of detailing srmctural concrete". August 1989.
IhTERNATIONALE DE LA PRECONTRAINTE. "Guide t0 good FEDERATION practice  demolition of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures." Institution of Slructural Engineers, London. 1982.
BARlH.F.G. AND AALAMI.B.0. "Conuolled demolilion of an unbonded posttensioned slab." Post Tensioning Institute. USA. 1989. WAIDRON,P. w 1 u ~ s . M . S ."Movement of unbonded posttensioning AM) tendons during demolition." Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers, Part 2. London. June 1989. CONSTRUCIION INDUSTRY RESEARCH AND INFORMATION ASSOCIATION. Report No. 74. "Prestressed concrele  friction losses during stressing." CIRIA, London. 1978. P ~ LF a.. "The ultimate moment of resistance of unbonded prestressed concrete beams." Magazine OF Concrete Research. Vo1.21, No.66. March 1969. pp.4354 PANNEL,FN. ANDTAM, A. "The ultimate moment of ~sistance unbonded of panialy prestressed reinforced concrete beams." Magazine of Concrete Research. Vo1.28. No. 97. December 1976. pp.203208.
APPENDICES
Appendix A:
Design examples
A1 A2
Solid flat slab with unbonded tendons Oneway spanning floor with bonded and unbonded tendons
Calculation of prestress losses Calculation of tendon geometry Calculation of secondary effects using equivalent loads Calculation and detailing of anchorage bursring reinforcement Numerical baris For fiat slab capacities given in Figures 17 and 18 Vibration of psttensioned concrete floors
NOTE: In some of the calculations given, there are instances where "rounded figures have been shown in the equation but the result has been based on the "unrounded" figure.
Two examples are given. The first is based on the use of unbonded tendons in a flat slab. The second on both bonded and unbonded tendons in a slab and beam arrangement spanning one way. The examples show differences which arise due t variations in smctural form and o tendon type, and illustrate the different design methods which can be adopted. The procedures used in the examples are widely adopted in the design of such structures today.
72
72 87
A1.2.2 Longitudinal direction Minimum untensioned reinforcement requirements Summary of presuess and untensioned reinforcement requirements A1.4.1 Presuess summary A1.4.2 Untensioned reinforcement summary F'pnching shear check Example 2: Oneway spanning floor with bonded and unbonded tendons.
Serviceability Limit State A2.1.1 Transverse direction A2.1.2 Longitudinal direction A2.1.3 Serviceability untensioned reinforcement calculations
Ultimate Limit State A22.1 Transverse direction A2.2.2 Longitudinal direction A2.2.3 Ultimate untensioned reinfolrement calculations
A2.3 A2.4
Al
A floor plan of the building is shown in Figure A1 together with a typical Pdnsverse s u b h e . This example analyses subframes on gridlines 5 and B. Calculations are carried out for full
bay width. The smcture is checked both at Serviceability and Ultimate Limit States. These checks are m out at transfer, during wnsrmction (where typically, when two weeks old, the slab may e d be required to carry its own weighL plus the weight of the floor above at concreting, plus associated consmction loads), and under working load conditions.
concrete: (strength at bmsfer) (elastic modulus at 2 days) 8 (elastic modulus at rransfer from BS8110,P r 2. Section 7"3 at bonded reinforcement
presuessing steel:
1 . mm diameter superstrand with highdensity polythene or polypropylene sheath and with 29 lubrication/corrosion protection as detailed in Section 4.2.2.
pt
= 186 kN
= 100 mm2
A,
$,
E,
Loading
(characteristic strength of tendon) (area of tendon) (characteristic strength of prestressing steel) (elastic modulus)
Imposed loading:
finishes:
live load:
From Figure 16, a slab depth of 210 mm would be adequate. However, to reduce shear reinforcement requirements (see Figure 17), a depth of 225 mm is chosen. Selfweight (using density of 24 kN/m3) Total dead load Total live load Check at temporary conshuction stage construction load selfweight of slab under construction above additional construction load share this load between two lower floors by propping
=
=
8.6kN/m2
4.0 kN/m2
I
I
i
load per floor selfweight of flwr under design Total construction load per floor worst loading = dead load + live load situation
=
12.6 kN/m2
At this stage in the calculation, it is recommended that the amount of load to be balanced is considered. The designer's experience can simplify this opration. In this example a balanced load consisting of all the dead load is chosen. (Balanced loads are discussed in more derail in Section 6.7 of this repon)
!
I
Cover requirements in accordance with Section 5 of this report for adequate cover against corrosion for 1.5 hours fire resistance
Take nominal cover to be
25mm
The dimensions from the top surface of the slab to the tendons and reinforcing steel are shown in Figure A2. The positioning of the reinforcement must be considered at this stage, so as to obtain a practical mangemenl of the steel at internal supports.
~firnm cover
25 mrn cover
I
I
I
= 48.3 m3
From Figure 17b for a total imposed load of 7.2 kN/m2 and equivalent floor area of 48.3 m2. some shear reinforcement will l required for a slab of depth 225 mm. x From Figure 1 the check for maximum shear stress (0.8df, or 5 N/mm2) is tine. 8 Edge Columns (300x 300) Figures 17 and 1 are set up for internal columns. In order to use the figures for an edge 8 column, the equivalent loaded area is doubled.
24.5 m2
From Figure 17a for a totnl imposed load of 7.2 kNlm2 and equivalent flwr area of 24.5 m2, no shear reinforcement is required for a slab depth of 225 mm. From Figure 18 the check for maximum shear stress (0.8df, or 5 N/mm2) is fine.
M.IJ
Transverse direcnbn
After deciding the limiting tendon eccentricities (Figure A2) and the pasitions of the poinrs of inflection  0.1 times the span, from the cenke of suppons  the tendon profile can be cdculared: see Appendix C.
Calculation of maximum drape Assume that the maximum drape occurs at midspan. Using the equation of a parabola'
also
when
s = 3M)O mm
x = 1800 mm
y = 87.16 mm
At this stage losses are assumed as follows: At m f e r 10% of the jacking load At service 20% of the jacking load.
A thorough check will he carried out after the stress calculations to check that these initial assumptions of 10% and 20% are within reason. If they are not, another estimare should be made and the procedure repeated.
Initial prestress
The initial prestress force, i.e, the jacking force, has been taken to be 70% of the characteristic strength (see BSXIIO, Pm 1. C1 4.7). For the transverse direction, the tendons will k saessed along gridline A only.
, Calculation of P
Jacking force = 0.7 x 186 Prestress force at uansfer (10% losses) Prestress force at service (20% losses)
Next the value of ptesuess force required in each span is calculated. This is done using the chosen balanced load of 8.6 kN/mZ(the dead load). the disrance between points of inflection. s, and the drape a, as shown in Figure A4.
C
a = 87.16
P
,P ,
= ws2
8a
a = 87.16
~ i ~ uA4: Drapes Tor load balancing re The prestress force is obtained from the following equation, which assumes aparabalic profile.
, P
= 8 . 6 ~ 7 ~ 3 6 0 0= 1 8 x 87.16 x lo00
1119kN 10.7;
try 11 tendons
=1 1 19
104.16
= 8.6 x 7 x 56001
per panel
, , P
=
=
= 2707
104.16
As the longer span requires more tendons than the shorter span, 15 of the rendons will be stopped off at the paint of inflection in span CB.next to support B. When accurate losses are calcula~ed, different force pmfiie of these shorter tendons must be taken i l account. the no
The effect of the tendons on the slab is modelled by means of equivalent loads, as shown below. Equivalent loads are discussed in more detail in Appendix D and Section 6.9 of this repori It should be noted that the portions of the cable from the edges of the slab to gridlines A and C are horizonral and so do not contniute to the equivalent loads.
Figure A5: Calculation of equivalent loads due to tendon The equivalent load, w, between any two poins of inflection for the chosen number of tendons is given by:
where:
n a s
P ,
is the number of tendons is the drape at the point considered is as shown in Figure A5 is the average force provided by each tendon.
11
I I
69.4 900 439.6 761.9 1400 181.7 314.9 5600 39.1 67.7 1400 131.1 227.2
a (mm)
W
Wm)
Total w (kNIm)
I
Equivalent loads at m f e r
11
18.3
900
a (mm)
87.2
3600
s (mm)
W
mum)
206.8
61.6
/ I I
61.6
1562.4
1562.4
1562.4
1562.4
a (mm)
w (kN/m)
I
206.8
Total w (kN/m)
Table Al:
Calculations of equivalent loads due to transverse tendons, at transfer and after all losses.
When tendons are anchored within the span, as in this example, additional equivalent loads may be generated by the end condition. These must be included in the Erame analysis when obtaining the bending moments and shear force diagmms. The forces consist of a vertical and horizmtal component of the tendon farce applied at the anchor. Figure A6 below shows the effect of an anchorage in terms of additional equivalent loads on the slab.
PI
.Psin rr
tendon centroid
Figure A6: Equivalent loads at anchorages. The vertical component of the tendon force is easily calculated, and should be applied to the slab as a vertical point load at the point where the tendon is anchored. The horizontal component forms a positive moment about the centroid, owing to its eccentricity from the centroid of the section, and should be applied in chis form to the slab. It should be noted chat the position of the tendon at the anchorage can be arranged so that the tendon is'both horizontal (no vertical force) and at the centroid of the section (no eccentric moment). In this example the anchorages at the ends of the fulllength tendons fulfil this requirement and no additional loads are generated. Vertical force = Psina Eccentric moment at the point of inflection = Pcosa x e For a parabolic tendon
&=
dx
s2
2a
S
sina =
2 x 25.32 450
= 0.1125
Eccentricity of tendon =
112.5 + 25(cover) + 16(diieter of untensioned reinforcement) + 8(half the tendon diameter) + 25.32(drape)
At kansfer
Psina =
197.82 ItN
P =
Psina =
1562.4 kN 175.84 kN
The equivalent loads from the tendons, the anchors and the superimposed loads are then used to calculate design momenE and shears by any convenient method of structural analysis. This is normally done using an appropriate computer program.
At Seviceabiliiy Limit State, an elastic method of analysis should be used for analysing posttensioned flat slabs, and patterned loading should be used in multispan situations (see BS8110, P r 1, Section 4.4'')). at
268 0.
61.6
677.3
279.9
60.2
202.0
Table A2: Summary of uniformly distributed equivalent loads from transverse tendons.
Vertical force
At transfer At service
Eccenhic moment
197.8 kN 175.8 kN
Table A3:
At Service
203.7
At Transfer (d) Total Applied Load Figure A7: Applied bending moment diagrams
At Service
+ 175.84
Downward loads = =
+ 202.0) x 0.7
The smatl difference between rhese values is due to earlier approximations. The equivalent loads were altered to total zero at !his point to enable consisrent calculation of secondary moments.
Calculation o stresses f
A.
As the section being considered is rectangular and symmetrical about the centroid, ,z and z , are equal.
As this example is a flat slab, analysed by the equivalent frame method. the allowable stresses s are a detailed in Table 2 (Section 6.10.1) of this report. To increase ease of construction, untensioned reinforcement ha. been deliberately omitted from the spans by keeping tensile stresses below 0.15Jf, (transfer) and 0.15Jf, (service). All tensile stresses are negative.
Table A5:
no Hogging and sagging values are given where they are both in one zone. Each span is split i t to L. three zones, from the end to & from Z to and from
10 10 10 10
In this example, the construction load is smaller than the load at service and larger than that at hansfer. This means that the construction case is not likely to be a governing situation and so the stresses are not calculated.
Loss c a l c u h ~ n s
At this stage the losses should be calculated accurately to check that the initial assumptions of 10% at transfer and 20% at senrice were reasonable. The method for calculating the various types of loss is given in Appendix B.
and
m = 0.05 radslm
= 16 x total dram
L2
total drape (the same for both spans)
Span CB
a'
108.96 mm
0.086 rad/m
Span BA
a'
Jacking force
= 16 x 108.96 x 10"
72 = 130.2 kN
0.036 rad/rn
b)
force loss at anchorage, 6Pw= 2p'I' where: p' = slope of force profile 1' = length of tendon effected by drawin
lake wedge drawin, A = 6mm Eps = 195 IrN/mm2 Aps = 100 m ' m
therefore,
I'
1 '
SP, at suessing
anchorage and
S , at dead end P
therefore,
= (A x E, x %)/I  @' x 1)
6. at stressing P
anchorage
= 16 x 195 x 1001 + 0.79 x 1 1 5 11.5 x 10' = L x 195 x 100)  0.79 x 11.5 6 11.5 X 10'
Forces after friction losses and wedge see (see Figure A8)
C )
Elastic losses
where:
E,
= 0.5 x f,
E.1
f, is the stress in the concrere adjacent r the tendon. Since this is unlikely to be critical, the n stress is calculated at a representative point and will be taken as uniform over the whole tendon length.
Prestress at tran$er
Prestress force at A = 110.9  0.89 Prestress force at B = 117.4  0.89 Prestress force at C = 120.0  0.89
Longterm losses
a)
Relaxation of steel SP, = 1000hour relaxation value x relaxalion factor x preskess force at transfer
From Table B2 in Appendix B values are taken for an initial jacldng'force equal to 70% of the characteristic strength. loss due to relaxation = 2.5% relaxation factor = 1.5
b)
Shrinkage of concrete
SPA
= EBX
P$.
C)
Creep of concrete
119.1
105.3
PL1.,
FORCE A T TRANSFER
STRESSING FORCE
//!
I 126.6
130.2
116.6
102.7
110.0 96.5
STRESSING END
Figure AS:
 Short tendons
Friction losses and elastic losses are the same as for the fulllength tendons, as are the longterm losses. The effect of wedge set is different as the tendon length is different and must be recalculated.
STRESSING FORCE
I I
FORCE AT TRANSFER
A
I

108.5
99.8
J
95.0
= 125.14 kN
Prestress at transfer
Resmss force at A = 109.4 0.89 Reseess force at B = 114.3  0.89
= 95.0 kN
= 99.8 kN
Average overall shortterm loss Average longterm loss for span CB (fulllength tendons only)
Although the assumed losses of 10% and 20%, respectively, have been exceeded in span BA. recalculation is not considered necessary, as it will not cause an increase in the number of tendons. Also the calculation OF stresses for the correct losses are unlikely to exceed the allowable values.
AI.I.2
L o n g i h i d i ~ direction l
Figure A10: Longitudinal tendon profile The method of calculation follows that given for the msverse section. Losses as assumed before, 10% of the jacking load at transfer 20% of the jacking load at service Initial prestress forces as before Prestress force at transfer, P, Prestress force at service, P," The elastic reaction on the internal columns along grid line B at working load was calculated for the transverse direction,
The total uniformly distributed load Hence the effective width of slab =
593
12.6 x 7
Assume a balanced load equal to 100% dead load as for the transverse direction.
Where w
S
= 8.6 kN/m2 = 5mmm = 81.54 mm (for span 1 lo 3 and 9 k 11) a 101.6 mm (for all other spans)
The length of slab is greater than 30m and so stressing is assumed to take place from both ends. This produces symmetry about gridline 6 and so the tendon requirements on either side of this will be the same. Spanl3: , , P
= 413.44 x 6.72
= 26.7, say 27
= 21.4, say 22
I
Equivalent loads at tmnsfer
11
1) Short tendons (n = 5)
w WIm)
37.7
10.8 58.5
48.9 264.1
54.0
I
59.4
I
237.6
I
59.4
 Total w OcN/m)
203.6
291.6
Table A6: Calculations of equivalent loads due to longitudinal tendons, at transfer and after all losses.
700
= 0.997
At transfer
I
Equivalent loads at transfer Wlm) Equivalent loads after all losses (kN/m) Table A7:
I
291 2. 203.6 65.8 85 5. 297.1 241 6. 328.0 216 9. 66.8 94 5.
I
267.3 237.6 66.8 59.4
Eccenhic moment
4 . kN 25 3 . kN 78
1. W m 29 1 . kNm 15
At Transfer
At Service
(d) Tolal Applied Load
Calculation of stresses
1
Zone
I
Allowable
stress
(NJrnrn3
1
bottom
DP
13(hogging)
13 bgging)
bottom
DP
bottom
bottom
DP
02 .3 22 .7 17 .2 0.38 36 .1
57( = g g k )
bottom
57 (hogging)
bottom Table A9:
5.14
Table A10: Stresses after all losses for the longitudinal direction
Loss calculations
Lasses are now calculated as before to ensure that the initial assumptions are reasonable.
 Fulllength tendons
Shortterm losses
a)
= 101.92 m m
Span 35:
Total drape
= 127 m m
Span 56:
Total drape
= 127 m m
PI
p 3
= 0.7 x 186
=  1303~'7 n0smm3~.m)
= 125.72~'7 W0alfl.m X
p 5
p s
b) losses due to wedge set
 120.gge'35 x 0 . W W l M ~
C )
elastic losses
Prestress at tranrfer
= 121.0  1.20
= 118.7  1.20
Lunglerm losses
a)
relaxation of steel
as before 3.754b
b)
shrinkage of concrete
as before .g5kN
C ) creep of concrete
 4.18  5.85  4.8  4.36  5.85  4.8  4.49  5.85  4.8  4.41  5.85  4.8
0
13.33 rn
L
&
130.2
STRESSING FORCE
FORCE AT TRANSFER
111.5
96.6
FORCE AT TRANSFER
108.9
94.1
1 1
I I
I
7700
 Short tendom
Recalculate wedge set for the shorter tendons, all orher losses as before.
+
= 125.72e4.'
x"06@a41
. " ) '
125.25 kN
6 , at dead end P
20.14 kN
94.1 kN 98.5 kN
Average shortterm loss for spans 35 and 57 (fulllength tendons only)
Average overall shortterm loss Average longterm loss for span 13 (both fulllength and shon tendons)
Average longterm loss for spans 35 and 57 (fulllength tendons only)
22.xLpb
A1.13
Untensioned reinforcement is required in the span if tensile stresses exceed 0.15.lf, (see Table 2).
Transverse direction
No tensile stre'esr, al C, therefore no designed untensioned reinforcement is required at serviceability. All stresses in the spans have been kept below 0.15Jf, so no untensioned reinforcement is required in any of the spans.
At support B, there is a tensile stress and so designed unlensioned reinforcement is required.
4
F,
0.625fr
=
f(hxlb 2
= 5.165 N/mm2
h = 225 mm
b = 7WOmm
use
= 1210mm2
Longitudinal direction
Tensile stresses at suppons 3 and 5. Support 3 Support 5
hx
= 45.99 mm
hx
= 43.61 mm
A,
Use
A,
Use 3T16
= 595 mm2
= 603mmz
The equivalent frame analysis at Ultimate Limit State may be carried out in accordance with Clause 3.7 of BS8110, P r 1, using the simplification of load arrangements given in Clause at 3.53.3. Section analysis may be carried out in accordance with Clause 4.3.7 of BS8110, P r 1. at From BS8110, Pan 1, Equations 52 and 53'"'.
where: f,
where: $ ,
The value of I is taken as the full length of the tendons. This may be considered to be conservative (see Section 6.10.3). First calculare f, and x. then calculate h.L, and compare with MA (the applied moment).
Applied Momenh
Figure A14 shows the moment envelope for the factored dead and live loads on bolh spans with 20% redistribution.
Moments of Resistance
The simplified method given in C14.3.7.2 of BS8110, Part 1 is used to calculate M,, at each critical section.
1 = 11500 mm
Table A l l :
Ultimate capacity due to prestressing tendons over the full panel width (7.0 m).
Having calculated the ultimate moment capaciries above, a comparison wiih the total applied moment at supporn and midspans must be made t fmd out whether further untensioned o
reinforcement is required.
The total applied moment is the sum of the moment From the Ultimate Limit State and ihe secondary moment Secondary moments arc discussed in more detail in Section 6.9, and methods of calculation are shown in Appendix D. The values given in Table A12 are for the full panel width (7m).
M,
secondary moment Wm) Table A1Z:
B
.
B
40.7
28.7
1. 08
83.7
The values shown in the above table have ba  calculated from method B given in Appendix D.
Table A13:
Table Ald:
Ultimate capacity due to prestressing tendons over the full panel width (6.72111).
M .
secondary moment Wm) Table A15:
1
134.9
55.0
58.0
69.2
66.6
2
Table Alh:
AI3
Transverse direction
Supports C. B and A reinforcement required = 0.075% x
= hb = 225
70M)
Ue s
= 1206 mm2
Steel positioning Along external edges 50% of the above values are used and positioned as shown in Figures A16 and A17.
j
I
Figure A16: Transverse reinforcement positioning for internal columns The reinforcement should extend into the span by 0 2 x span measured fmm the centreline of the column. The width of strip is the column breadth plus three times ihe slab depth.
Figure AD: Reinforcement positioning for external columns The width of strip is the column breadth plus 1.5 Limes the slab depth.
tongitudiml direction
Suppons along grid line B. reinforcement required Use
= 1206 mm2
Along the external edges 50% of the above value is used. The reinforcement is arranged in the same manner as for the hZnSVetSe direction.
M.4
Transverse direction
Span
Prestress force
CB
BA
163.7W 386.9 kN
26
Note: Prestress force given per metre widlh of slab. for the service condition. Summary of prestress requirements in the transverse direction.
Table A17:
Longitudiml direction
Span
Prestress force
13
35 57
27 22 22
4 9 1 kN 8. 398.5 kN 3 8 5 kN 9.
Nore:
Restress force given per metre widlh of slab, for the service condition. Summary oi presiress requirements in the longitudinal direction.
Table A18:
h ~ g i f u d idirection ~l
Pane1 width Effective depth, d,, = 225  25  8 Length of critical perimeter perpendicular to longihldiml direction, 4, = 500 + 3 x 192 Area of reinforcement provided (6T16s) Width over which reinforcement provided Area of reinforcement provided in width b, , = 1205 X 107611175 100 U , d , , = 100 x 1104/(192 X 1076) ~ Hence v,, = (0.7911.25) x ( 0 . 5 3 ) ' ~(400/192)*x (4005)" Effect of Prestress e,, = 22512 + 65 + (25 say) For Span 3:5 M V = ((331.9  355.9) + 18.44 X 6.72 X 7 X 3.5)/7 V , : = 0.76 x 1076 x 19211000 + 41.95 x 430.3D31.9 For Span 5:7 V,,, = 0.76
X
433.7D37.7
V,, = V(l + 1.5 W x ) see BSgllO, Equation 25 where x = b, V,, = 852 (1 + 1.5 x 150/(1.028 x 852)) Vm,> V, hence shear reinforcement required.
A2
SECTION AA
Properties
Concrere and bonded reinforcement as for the first example. Restressing steel: 15.7mm diameter supershand is used for both bonded and unbonded tendons, with a highdensity polyhene or polypropylene sheath surrounding the unbonded tendons, as detailed in Section 4.2.2.
P = 265.5 kN ,
= 150 mm2 ,f = 1770 N/mm2 E, = 195 kN/mm2
(characteristic force of tendon) (area of tendon) (characteristic strength of prestressing steel) (elastic modulus)
Imposed loading for a typical office building: finishes: live load: total imposed load In this example the loading from finishes will be considered as a live load. This will rake account of moveable panitions. Total live load = 5.0 kN/m2 Using h e values of span/depth ratio given in Table 1, h e section dimensions are as shown in Figure A19. For analysis purposes, the nibed section will be treated as one large Tsection spanning in the eansverse dimtion as shown in Figure Am.
1200
1
1
I
bj
1
7,
760
[
1
750
1
 transverse direction
selfweight of Tsection
C'
,
/'
29.38 W/m
Although the Tsection becomes a rectangular section when it meets the band beam, for this example the Tsection will kconsidered t run the full distance between the suppons. o An additional load wl be applied t the Tsection at the support ends, to represent this il o additional selfweight additional weight of concrete. at supports due to band beam
 longitudinal direction
selfweight of band beam
Balonced load
 transverse direction
balanced load = 1.5 x 29.38
,, 
For the ttansverse direction lake a balanced load of 1.5 times the selfweight.
 longitudinal direction
Tendon profiles
For the longitudinal direction take a balanced load equal to the self weight
At this point the practical arrangement of the tendons and un~nsionedreinforcement must be considered, espxially es links will k required in bath the ribs and the band beams. (See Figure A18). Steel mesh wl be placed in the rop of the ribbed slab as a provision against il
cracking, and l reinforce the mncrere for a loading situation between ribs. Continuity berween o slab and beam will b maintained by swaight bars which pass from the beam into the slab, and e which are then tied to the mesh. It should be noted that the cover to tendons in ducts must not be less than 50 mm.
/
I
TI6 nominal
I
reinforcement unbonded tendon
V'
b
(cl Section through rib mid span
4 _ 1 ,25rnm
T
111
9000
9000
r:
Initial prestress
'I
Seessing of the tendons will take place along gridline A only for the hansverse direction.
ladring force in tendon = 0.7 x 265.5 . Prestress force in tendon at uansfer, P , Prestress force in tendon at service. P ,
148.68 kN $GI.(.>
YO
Calculate the prestress force required in each span using the balanced load previously chosen and the drapes shown in Figure A23.
fiv?l' ,j*.*s',L
lbLf
p'J
As there are six ribs in the section, N o tendons are chosen For each rib giving a total of 12 tendons.
= =
12 x 167.27 12 x 148.68
MP..
s2
where
Table AS1: Calculations of equivalent loads due to transverse tendons, at transfer and after all losses, for the full slab width. Using an appropriate computer program, the bending moments and shear forces for each case can be obtained and then the snesses calculated. As for the transverse direction in example 1 patterned loading for the SLS is used.
It should be noted that, as the section being considered is not rectangular, z, and z are not , e u a l and I is not bd3/12.
By calculation it can be shown that I = 1.14 x 10" m4 and that h e cennoid of the section is 2330101 above the soffit Therefore:
Sunamary of results
I
Equivalent loads at m s f e r OcN/m) Equivalent loads after dl losses (kNIm) 202.6 180.1 56.3 50.0
I
247.8 220.2 56.3 50.0 202.6 180.1
Table A22:
Summary of equivalent loads from transverse tendons for the fuli slab width.
CaIculnh'on of stresses
The shwes can now be calculated. (Owing to symmeuy about gridline B, the stresses at A and C will be the same, as will those in spans AB and BC.)
Area of section
1224 rn2
/"
Stresses at msfer: 'The maximum allowable tensile and compressive shesses for oneway spanning structures at m s f e r are the same for both span and support locations (BS8110, P r 1: Clause 4 . 3 3 at max. compressive shess = 0.5 t, = 0.5 x 25 max. tensile s e a s = 0.36dfd = 0.36 425
C;:>J
..
/\
The maximum allowable compressive and tensile stresses for oneway spanning structures after all losses are shown below, using Tables 4 2 and 4.3 of BS8110, Pr 1, Clause 4.3.4.2 and at Clause 4.3.4.3'''.
Take the crack width limitation to be 0.lmm. mar tensile stress = 4.1 x 1.025
, ' (
Ltc.>A
r
h.0
r;
407 
1 . 4 
.
42N/mm2
 span locations
mar compressive stress = 0 3 f .3,
.f! ,
~S>,,@O
13.2 N/mma
c.i+ ~0 \ , :
16.0 N/mm2
tensioned reinforcement
Table A24:
Loss calculations
 Shortterm losses
a)
P ,
= P,x e.P**+q
.
a are,
p
total dmpe
+ 181.7
deviated angle per mem. a', the same for both spans is
a'
p* ps
16 x 227.14 x 10"
g2
PC
~ + b m w RBI *
'o O 5 + 0.W mW .
b)
a',
where: I'
2pl'
d ( ( ~ $ x P$3/p') x
and
take therefore: and
A
I'
6mm 13.20 m
S, P
Forces after friction lases and wedge set: (see Figure ,424)
c)
elastic losses
= ,
%X%XA,
.cl,
and
1.47 kN
Prestress at transfer
Presmess force at A Presbess force at B Prestress force at C
a)
Relaxation of steel
SP, = 3.75% as for the k t example
b)
Shrinkage of concrete
C)
Cresp of concrete
13.20
185.9'
159.2 139.7
176.d
.368.2
148.4,
_ I% + ,
[Ca
,
1172.4
167.7
2
147.9
Figure
Force profiies
4 1
j\?
Tq ,,.++l96
Although the initial values of 10% and 20% have been exceeded, the calculations will not be revised. This is because the stresses at transfer are not close to exceeding any of the allowable hits, and the number of tendons would not be affected if the losses were increased by 12%.
Selfweight =
Weight of slab
Weight of beam
w' @=
27.14
.
r'
48
134.12 I
I '

184
00
I
2331
1
I
3429 2000
2000
j
720
L
250 720' 7200 7200
!
e
1
In this example the centmid of the tendons was taken t be the same as the centroid of the o duct, as with this arrangement (20mm oval duct with 15.7mm tendons) the difference in eccennicity is negligible. (See section 6 7 of this manual.) . Calculation of maximum drape in each span. Span 12 Fmm Figure A25 and Appendix C
k = 1 7 x 10" and .4
s = 57M)mm
Maximum drape assumed to be at x = W2 = 2880 Maximum drape, y=144mm A detailed calculation would show the maximum drape a r m s at x = 2331 mm and is 139 mm as shown i n Figure h25. Span 23 lviaximum drape
These are higher than far the transverse direction because losses tend to be higher for bonded
systems in beams.
For a bonded shuctme, construction is easier if the number of tendons in each span is e q d Although ten tendons w.dd be just sufficient from this approximate dculation, the choice of 11will ensure no overstresing in the outer spans even if the calculation of final losses exceeds 25%. For this analysis it is considered reasanable to calculate the effective flange width for stifmess and stresses according to BS8110 Clause 3.4.1.5, ie. web width plus 0.7 times p 4 5 . The lcading width is, of come determined by the analysis in the transverse direction.
As the beam is a Tsection, z and 2 are not equal. By calculation it can be shown that , , I = 6.79 x llT3 m and that the centroid of the section is 196 mm above the soffit ' A = 0.6359 mZ.
Therefore:
z,
Zb
13. 776 3. 08
s (mm)
W (IrNb)
1440
265 0.
Table A25: Calculntions of equivalent loads due to longitudinal tendons, at transfer and after all losses, for the full slab width.
I
Equivalent loads at nansfer W m ) Equivalent laads after all losses (IrNIm)
I
206.5 182.2
I
308.4 272.1 77.1 80 6. 384 0. 221 7.
60.3
532
276.2 237 4.
Table A26: Summary of equivalent loads from longitudinal tendons for the beam.
Cakularion o stresses f
Table A27:
Table A28: Stresses at transfer after all losses for the longitudinal direction. Allowable skess calculations as for h e m s v e m direction.
Loss calculations
 Shorttenn losses
a) Lasses due to friction take recommended values oE spans 12 and 45 total drape
p = 0.2 El = 0.0085 radslm
= 167.65mm
= 230mm
PI p 2
p 3
jacking force
185 85
169 37e62x7.XMJJ71 a w l +
e42X7.&W%+0mhn
b)
Take A = 6mm
therefore SP, C)
40.81 kN
Elastic losses
Elastic losses are less than 1% and are ignored in the calculations. Prestress a transfer l
Prestress force at 1 Prestress force at 2 Prestress force ar 3
 Longterm losses
a).
Relaxation of steel
3.75% as before SP,
Spa
SP,
= = =
5.44 kN 6.09 kN 5 6 kN .6
b)
Shrinkage of concrete
SP,
8.78 kN as bsfore
c)
Creep of concrete
SP,
h XE,
1.% 78
27.3%
Initial assumptions of 15%and 25% losses respectively are reasonably accurate and no further calculations are considered necessary.
M.13 ServiceabiNry untensioned reinforcement calcuIntions
Transverse direction
h
therefore:
X
59.15rnm
Span AB
As the ribs will contain links, two bars will be needed in the lop and bottom of each rib although the actual amount of reinforcement was calculated to be much less.
LongitUdi~l direction
No untensioned ~einforcement required at serviceability in this d i i d o n . is
M.
where:
d.
X
fm
f,
fm
%,
I
at suppom,
1800 mm
in spans,
72W mm
Table A29:
Ultimate capacity due to preshessing tendons over full panel width (7.2m).
Calculate the secondary moments using method B to obtain the applied moment at Ultimate Limit Slate.
Table A30:
Compare the moment of resistance of the tendons with the total applied moment to see wheffier untensioned reinforcement is required
Secondary moment
Wm)
115.7 136.6 157.5
Redistributed M OrNm)
MU
(kNm)
A
AB
Table A31: Comparison of applied and ultimate moments. Reinforcement is required in span and at B as M has been exceeded. ,
$.
f
$.
1
b
%'$.
= 1770 N/mmz = 40 N/mm2 = 929.27 N/mmz = 1650 mm' = 28800 mm = 1500 mm at supports = 2508 mm at midspan = 0.525
d (mm)
1
!i & n
Td b ,
'~b
(NImm3
x (mm)
&
(mm)
MU @Nm)
12 2
Table A32:
Ultimate moment capacity due to prestressing tendons over the full panel width (15m).
The value of M for support 3 is the same as for suppon 2,and the value of M, for span 23 , is the same as that for span 12.This is because the values of d and b do not vary at these
pit. ons
1
secondary moment Wm) Table A33:
2 4. 76
118.8
62.6
73.8
lo
Table A34:
A223
Transverse direction.
Span AB
= =
d(0.5
+ $0.25  0.028fl.9))
5 0.95d
Therefore
z
0.95d = 2 7 5 5 mm
681.1 mm2
Therefore
20% redistribution
A,
42.1 mm'
Therefore
A,
= .
42.1
6
Longitudinal direction.
Support I
= = =
4'
4'
394 mm'
Support 2
A23
at For unbonded tendons, minimum reinforcement is required in accordance with BS8110, P r 1, Table 3.27, Figures 3.24 and 3.2514'.
From Table 3.27 At supports: flange in tension
A,
0.26%b.h
Therefore, A,=
1638
Therefore, A,
0.18% x b, x h
Therefore, A, = 1134 6
Longihrdinal direelion
For bonded tendons, no minimum untensioned reinforcement is required sez Section 6.10.6.
A24
Table A35: Transverse direction. Areas and bars given per rib.
Table A36: Longitudinal direction. Areas and bars given per beam. For calculation of anchorage bursting reinforcement, see Appendix E, example 2.
where: P ,
Po P a
tis
force at distance x from stressing end = stressing force (at anchor) = friction caefficient = angle change in tendon from anchor to point considered (radians) = 'wobble' factor (radiis/m)
0.0085 .
Table B1: Typical friction coefficients and wobble factors. For slab type structures with unbonded tendons it is normally reasonable m assume a uniform angle change per unit length. This angle change can be obtained by calculating the total angle turned thmugh over the full length of the tendon and dividing by the full tendon length. Alternatively a simple method based on the typical drape and span can be used. Figure B1 illushates the geometry for a typical pmbolic tendon with a reverse parabola at the support The tangent to the curve at the point of inflection extends through poinrs 'c' and 'a'.
Figure B1:
Similarly, using points 'b' and 'c', slope 8, can bs obtained Over the span L the total deviated angle = 2(6,+eJ The average deviated angle per unit length, a',is therefore
On the assumption that paint 'c' is at the centre of the span, this may be simplified to:
a = '
1 x total d r a ~ e 6
L1
In such cases, the friction formula may be written as:
p
=
pOe'Wd)
The prestress force profile after friction losses can now be drawn.
Figure 82: Loss of prestrw due to wedge drawin 'Ihe force loss is calculated as follows:
where: A
S. P
EP AP
1'
If it can be assumed that the tendon has a uniform angle change per unit length, then the force profile is appmximately linear. Consequently, if 1' is less than the length of the tendons, then:
If the wedge drawin affects the whole length of the tendon, then:
SP, S, P
at s w i n g = (A x E, x A&+ anchorage
at
p'x 1
dead end =
(A x
E .x +/I
 p):
where: &
= 0.5xf,
%I
f,
E, = ,
the stress in the concrete adjacent to the tendon after uansfer. the modulus of elasticity of the concrete at the time of uansfer.
In Ihe formula for E, given above, the factor of 0.5 rakes account of the averaging effect of several tendons stressed sequentially (BS8110, P r 1, Clause 4.8.3"'). If this is not the case. at this factor may have to be modified.
SP* =
where: &
E S h XEp X
A,
Creep of Concrete
Creep loss is based on the stress in the concrete at the level of the tendons. These losses are extensively covered by BS8110, Part 1,Section 4.8.5 and Part2,Section 7.3"'. They can have a very large effect in highly suessed thinner members. The force loss is given by:
where:
E ,
f, X $ E, .
the creep cefficient (BS8110, P r 2, Figure 7.1")). at
For ribbed shuctwes, an effective thickness should be obtained from the ratio of volume to surface area
 2.6
0 0
1
I
/'
I
I
0
1.8 1.4
a?   1.0
1.2
k
LL 1.6
,'
/
. '
. '
#(
0.8 0.6
 0.4
 
/'
/ . '
15
14 13
4 @ ~ temperatures
___1
55
fj0
60
65
70
75
80
85
Figure B3:
1000hour relaxation
4.5% 2.5% 1.0%
Relaxation factor
1.5 1.5 1.5
60%
The 1000how relaxation values from BS 5896@"given in Table B2 above can be replaced with the manufacturer's values if available.
AB
=
=
k,xz
k 2
BCD DE
For parabola AB,
kSZ
 a,
Similarly for DE,
~IP?
 a.
Let
=
=
k ( pJZ z
QI
ql42
and
QZ
e%
and
The slop, of the parabolas a any point is dyldx, and the pafabolas are tangential at B and D. t
As the parabolas are tangential at B and D. the slopes of h e two parabolas which meet at each of these points will be equal. For parabola BCD,
and
and
Substitute the values of k, and k, into the original equations for parabolas AB and DE. Therefore:
and
al
=
=
k l  PI) pv
kp,(LL'pJ
Substitute the values of c, and c,into !he original equations for parabola BCD. Therefore: Q,  kp~(L' PI) and
kW  PI)'
and
where:
L '
 m k Jfrn24111)
21
and
Parabolic drape
Figure D : Commonly occurring equivalent loads l One method of separating the secondary fmm the primary effects is t use a frame analysis n with the equivalent prestress load acting alone. The resultant moment and shear diagrams include both the primary and secondary effects. In order to obtain the secondary effects, it is only necessary to consider the moments and forces at h e supports and subhact the primary effects from them. The secondary moments along each span vary linearly from end to end. This method will be known as method A. To illustrate m e w A. the U t m t Limit State for the uansverse direction in Example A1 liae of Appendix A is used and the secondary effects obtained as follows: 1 . Calculate the equivalent prestress loads in the spms using a load factor of 1.0.
143
2.
a) slab
b) columns
Calculate the primary moments due to prestress (Pe) in the slab at each support. There are no primary moments in the columns. At support C, At support B(C), At support B(A), At support A, Pe = 0 Pe = 172 irNm Pe = 172 kNm Pe = 0
4.
Subtract the primary moments fmm step (2). At this srage it should be noted that the moments and reactions in the columns from the b e analysis are due entirely to secondary offecls.
An alternative method of calculating secondary effects is detailed below. This will k known as method B.
As there are no primary presness forces in the columns, the column moments and reactions are entirely due to secondary effects. So the secondary effects in the slab can be easily obtained by applying these column reactions and moments to the slab as shown in Figure D6.
Figure D : Column reactions and moments due to secondary forces 6 This results in the secandary moments and shears in the slab as shown in Figures D and D5. 4
Example 1
Depending on the tendon layout chosen from the calculations of Design Example 1 in Appendix A, anchorages will be in groups of 1.2. 3 or 4. The following example is for a p u p of 4 tendons of 12.9mm snands (unbonded) in a 225rnm Uiiik slab, as shown in Figure El.
A group of unbonded anchorages for four 12.9mm strands in a 225mm deep slab, as show
in Figure El.
Figure El: Anchorage layout for Example 1. Characteristic strength of the tendon
= 186 kN
therefore,
y,,jym =
058
a)
Figute E4 shows how the end block can be divided into individual end blocks or prisms for each anchorage. These must be rectangular and symmehical.
Prisms for anchorages A and B are 125 deep x 700 wide. The prism for anchorage C is 125 deep x 1500 wide. Anchorages A and B
xx direction
The jacking force per saand is 185.85 kN Hence P , = 4 x 185.85 = 743.4 WII From BS 8110"),Table 47 .
Hence F, = 0.203 X 743.4 = 150.9 kN and the reinforcement required at the allowable stress of 200 N/mm2 is
A, = 150.9 x 1@/200 = 7 4 5 mmz 5. positioned between 0.2% to 2.0% i.e. 70 lo 700mm from anchor.
;
Similar calculations for the yy direction of anchorages A and B and both directions of anchorages C (three shands only) yield the following reinforcemenrs: Anchorage A and B yy direction
yy direction
flange 110
SHEAR
steel requited A, =
$7.86
0.175
0.200
dishibuted over distance of 175mm IO 35Chnm ftom the anchorage faces. Fmm reference 21, minimum steel
wMA= M ,
=
MOMENTS
SHEAR
~21.5 mm2 *N
lo6
206.2 kNm
Hence,
Minimum steel = 0.3% x 350 x 1500 dishibuted over distance of 750 to 1500mm born the anchorage faces
1575 mm2
Note: The above moments are slightly oversrated since the anchorage force h been assumed s (conservatively) to be a point load Flow of mess into flangem' Load in flange = 3.215 x 2508 X 110 X 10"
Width of web
= 1500 mm
therefore F = 124 kN , Required a e of steel = 620 m d diihibuted over distance 250 lo 2500 mm from the ra anchorage faces. Check on horizontal shear capacity. From Figure E4 , maximum shear force giving a shear s m s of 935.2 x 1@
1503 X 350
Check on vertical hear capacity. Fmm Figure E5, maximum shear force giving a shear stress of 572.1 x 1 C ' = 5721kN = 10 N/rnmz .9 ? 225 NImm2 therefore fine.
1503 x 350
In the flange area, maximum shear force giving a shear stress of 1782 x 10.' 1500 x 110
=
The reinforcement layout given in Figure E6 satisfies a l l the preceding bursting and endblcck stability requirements.
Anchorages
50
6 T 10 Legs at 150
 
Section AA
Fiwe E : Layout OF end block reinforcement. 6
Assumptions:
1.
2.
v,
vc::uxd/1000inkN where v, is shear resistance of lhe concrete (N/mml) u is lhe lengh of the critical perimeter (mm) d is the effective depth (mm)
= 0.9h where h is lhe deplh of slab
3.
4.
6.
v
Therelore
SV'
n
I
4
I
3
r I
Figure G : I Two families of vibration modes are considered. This is conservative because some of the higher harmonics of the N o families are in common
EI,is flexural stiffness of slab spanning in the x direction per unit width (Nm%)
EL, is flexural stiffness of slab spanning in the y direction par unit width (Nrnz/m)
k, and k, depend on the effmtive aspect ratio. m is mass per unit area (r/m2) (dead load + 10% live load)
Let
"I" represent
1 k = I + ,
)2
k,=
I + 1
For slabs wirh perimeter b a s : fr = $ For slabs without perimeter beams: for solid or coffered slabs
f , = f:
 (f:  f,)
(lin= linv)
(3)
8 = li(0.5
+O.linolt,
= 1+(0.65 + O . l h ( ) A ,
C, = 30
20Hz S f ,
APPENDIX H: Advertisements
Page No.
Arup Oasys
160
161
162
ADPRSL is part o f the Oaryr ADC suite o f computer pmgrams for the analysis and design o f reinforced and prestressed concrete elemenn ADPRSL addresses pattensioned flat slabs with bnded M unbmula? t&lr %program was wi to follow rhe requirements o f BS 81 10 Part 1 and Pan 2, Gmcrere Sonety im Technical Repom No 17 and 25, and the draft version of a new Concrete Sociery D e e Manual on Posttenshd C o n m e FZwr Design
% manual of continuous slabs inposttensioned concrete can involve hm of arduous e, f fto~determine an efficient tmdon orofile and rn , prestrksingfme ADPRSL automates pmcess to*odxe higm that are economic and efficient
K i s
Numenius options have been mcorparated into the @gram to meet the needs of a wid^ variety of design problems Following analysis the user may explore orherprestress and balanced load combinatim quickly.
ADPRSL will also pmvide information on quantities of matm'als used so aumuing comparirim w'd~ fm mnmuclion orher of
%program ir currentlyfor singkwaY annlysis and and the urer must consider bod1 frame direnim of the sirware separately. ADPRSL uses the 'Loadh h m ' n g Metho* rn carry out the design of rectangular slabs and Teesections, for oneway and t w ~ w a spanning floors y
Up m 10 spans including md cantileup~s be considered and rectanghr may drops at columns can be simulated
Columns are considered m fired inpsition and in direction m their remore ends. The s m m e is analysed w'ng d~ Equivalent h e Method In this method rhe muaure is analysed as a frame in me directin& with the slab considerzd to be a continuous mip o f width equal to the panel width
e
lhe mr of equivaht lo& automatically t& into acrmmr the serumby u e @arasitic)e i f e m the stmcme. ~
% initial input infaMrirm required consists o f the slab and c o h n geomehy and design loads An uIrimnfe analysis is then cam'ed our without redistribution After data checking ADPRSL requests tendon data, global loss faaol~,deflection and limits, mareiialpmpememes balanced load h a i L and then cam'es our the prestressed analysis and a'esignwherever relevant dejault values are pwuided Serviceability and Ulzimare Limit State ( U moments can be reduced to the U) column face $ requird and deud and live loadperenrages setfor the tr&er condition it is ako possible to individualizeprestress fmes in any spans and set a minimwn premess levef
160
.w
CCL Systems are recognised worldwide as originators in the field of prestressed concrete construction. The company's wealth of experience in this highly specialised area  covering more than 30 years  is fully reflected in CCL Spanforce, the stateoftheart bonded and unbonded systems for posttensioned buildings. Major advantages of the CCL Spanforce system include simplicity of installation and uncongested detailing, leading to easier and faster concreting. To obtain the maximum benefits from the system, however, it is necessary for Spanforce to be incorporated into building detail of initial design stage. CCL Systems is a BSI registered company, BS5750 Part 1 (IS0 9001  EN 29001). Our quality assurance system is based on these international standards and is designed to ensure that all operations within the company are controlled, ensuring that total confidence in our ability to satisfy customer needs is maintained. For further details on Spanforce, or for assistance with any of our other product ranges, please contact: CCL Systems Limited, Cabco House, 201 Elland.*... . . LeedsLSll 8BH, We& Yorkshire. Road. . . . ... . .
'
PSC FREUSSINET
posttensioned systems for buildings
Britain's leading authority on the design and construction of posttensioned suspended, ground (including piled) and roof slabs.
PSC Freyssinet specialise in providing designers and contractors with a fully comprehensive service  literally from design to finished installation. PSC Freyssinet's service includes:
e
Preliminary scheme design and cost estimate. We provide a free scheme desigdbudget cost service which can be invaluable in comparing the relative costs of posttensioning versus traditional R.C and steel frame options. Final design and shoplworking drawings. We can undertake the production of final design calculations and working drawings. Alternatively we can produce shop drawings from consultants' design sketches.
Supply and installation of posttensioning and associated reinforcement. Stressing. Grouting for bonded tendons. Concreting of high tolerance posttensioned floor slabs.
e
e
REGIONS B;
cLuns
The Sociely is organised into 22 regions and clubs which each arrange a comprehensive prngrnmme of technical and social events in their areas. As wcll as all thc lcchnical hcncfirs, the Sanely provides M ideal sncittl forum for tncmhcrs tu mnke valuable business and pcnonal cunldcls. CONCRETE Members in all categories arc scnt a copy of each issue ol CONCRETE, the Sociely's journal, providing uptodate inlormalion on all aspects of concrete including dcsign, mnterials, construction techniqucs, quality control, cquipmont, mainrenance and repair.
R E G I O N A L ADVISORY ENGINEERS N O R T H OF E N G L A N D &SCOTLAND Deryli Sinrpsc~n Bolton  Tel: ((I 1912) R 15516 Fax: (01942) 842533 doltn Plimrner York Tel: (01937) 834827 S O U T H OF E N G L A N D , WALES & N O R T H E R N IRELAND Maldywn Enoch Cardill  Tel: (01443) 237210 Fax: (01443) 237271 George nurnbrook Romscy  Tel: (01791) 524455 Fax: (01794) 321325 Dick Rr~berts Guildford  Tcl: (01428) 725269 Fax: (01428) 727891
Depending on the tendon layout chosen from the calculations of Design Example 1 in Appendix A, anchorages will be in gmups of 1.2. 3 or 4. The following example is for a gmup of 4 tendons of 12.9mm sbands (unbonded) in a 225rnm thiik slab, as shown in Figure El. A group of unbonded anchorages for four 12.9mm strands in a 225mm deep slab. as shown in Figure El.
Figure El: Anchorage layout for Example 1 . Characteristic strength of the tendon = 186 kN
y. therefore,
= 22512 0.58
= 112.5 rnrn
y a m=
Therefore, at Serviceability Limit State with reinforcement acting at a suess of 200 N/mmz,
This untensioned reinforcement should be between 22.5 and 225 mm from h e anchorbearing
face.
x .
Therefore, From Table 4.7'6
= 120kN
Therefore.
This untensioned reinforcement should be between 150 and 1500 mm from the anchorage bearing face. Figure F2 shows the practical detailing of these requirements.
Section A A
Figure E2: Bursting reinforcement distribution for Example 1. Comment It is not usually required to do an equilibrium study for flat plates w t regularly ih spaced tendons, provided they are stressed in such a sequence as t avoid problems at coners. o
The ribs in Example 2 of Appendix A have unbonded anchorages and their bursting design will be similar to Example 1 above. The design of the anchorage bursting reinfonement for the banded tendons in the beams is outlined below. The design requires eleven 15.7 mm banded strands in the beam. It is decided to use two tendons of four strands each and one of h w shands, with the anchorages arranged as in Figure E3.
u
1500
hence
A = 105 mm.
until all For the stressing sequence, it is assumed that one strand in each tendon is sir& strands in aIl three tendons have been stressed (i.e. if the strands are numbered 111 as shown in Figure 3 the stressing sequence would be 1, 5 , 9 , 4 , 8, 11, 2.6, 10, 3 and 7). In this way, there is no need to consider in~ermediitestages and it is likely to give the least amount of bursting reinforcement In order t check the end block fully, two individual checks are required, namely: o a) Single anchorage bursting b) End block stability
a)
Figure E4 shows how the end block can be divided into individual end blocks or prisns for each anchorage. These must &z reztanguiar and symmerrical.
Prisms for anchorages A and B are 125 deep x 700 wide. The prism for anchorage C is 125 deep x 1500 wide. Anchorages A and B
xx direction
The jacking force per m m d is 185.85 kN Hence P , = 4 x 185.85 = 743.4 kN From BS 8110", Table 4.7
Hence , F = 0.203 x 743.4 = 150.9 kN and the reinforcement required at the allowable seess of 200 N h m * is
A, = 1 0 9 x 1ff/200 = 7 4 5 mml 5. 5. positioned between 0.2% to 2.0% i.e. 70 w 700mm from anchor. ,
Similar calculations for the yy direction of anchorages A and B and both directions of anchorages C (three shands only) yield the following reinforcements: Anchorage A and B yy direction
yy direction
flange 110
MOMENTS
SHEAR
= 3.215 N/mm2
Figure E4: End block moments and forces: yy direction. Because anchorages forces are increased evenly as explained above, and the anchorages are located on the c.g.c., the swss block behind the anchorages is uniform and equal t o
57.86
0.175
X
0.200
dislribuled over distance of 175mm KI 3 5 h m from the anchorage faces. From reference 21, minimum see1
w
SHEAR
Hence,
A,
= 234.9/(0.75
0.200)
1575 mm2
Note: The above moments are slightly overstated since the anchorage force has been assumed (conservatively) lo be a point load Flow of stress into flange"" h a d in flange = 3.215 x 2508 x 110 X Width of web
=
lom3
1500 mm