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INTRODUCTION There are no two opinions that the existing pattern of teacher training programmes have failed to develop

desirable teaching competences and teaching skills among the prospective teachers. Passi and Kulshresta points out that in order to make teacher education programme effective and to bring qualitative improvement a few innovative alternatives like micro teaching technique, competency/ performance based teacher education programmes, role playing, self confrontation etc have come into practice. MEANING Micro teaching is a training procedure aiming at simplifying the complexities of regular teaching process. In micro teaching procedure the teacher is engaged in a scaled down teaching situation, in terms of class size, length of class time and in teaching tasks. These tasks encompass: practicing and mastering of specific teaching skill such as lecturing, questioning or leading discussion, mastering of specific teaching strategies, flexibility, instructional decision making,alternative uses of specific curricula, instructional materials and classroom management. DEFINITION Micro teaching as a scaled down teaching encounter in class size and class time. The number of students is from 5-10 and the duration of period ranges from 5-20 minutes. Allen (1996)

Micro teaching is a teacher education technique which allows teacher to apply clearly defined teaching skills to carefully prepared lessons in planned series of 5-10 minutes encounters with a small group of real students often with an opportunity to observe the results on video tape. - Buch MB (1968) Use of cloud-circuit television to give immediate feedback of a trainee teachers performancein a simplified environment. - Urwin (1970) OBJECTIVES To improve teachers teaching skill To improve skill of public speaking To review a topic Update knowledge To enable the teacher to concise An organized way of planning To master a topic To improve specific knowledge To change a routine To cover syllabus To teach time management, AV aid management Incidental health education

CHARETERISTICS 1. Micro element : Micro teaching reduces the complexity of the teaching situation in terms of

No of students to be taught Duration of lesson Subject matter to be taught The number of instructional objectives and content is kept low Microanalysis of teaching process consists of analyzing the minute details of teaching

2. Teaching skills: Micro teaching approach provides opportunity to select one skill at a time and to practice it through its related down encounter and then take other skill in a similar way.

3. Safe practice ground: Teaching is performed under simulated conditions with a small group, the trainee is on a safe practice ground 4. The teaching models: The trainee gets many opportunities to study the desired pattern of behavior through demonstration given by the supervisor or a tape guide, the trainer can develop his own style 5. Feedback: Micro teaching has a provision of adequate feedback which enables the teacher trainees to know their performances, weakness immediately after the lesson. 6. Micro teaching is a highly individualized training device 7. It is a teacher training technique and not a teaching technique BASIC PRINCIPLES 1. Psychological theory of reinforcement: In micro teaching the pupil teacher is given encouragement from time to time for his better performance with feedback. As a result of teaching reinforcement, feedback and reteaching, he becomes perfect. 2. The Pedagogic Principle of practice and drill : Teaching is a complex skill which needs constant drill and practice. It emphasis practice in each small task or skill and there by the student teacher gain mastery

3. The Principle of Continuity: Micro teaching is a continuous process. Teaching feedback- reteaching- refeedback till perfection is attained.

4. The Principle of Evaluation: Evaluation by supervision and self evaluation of his performance while seeing video

5. The Principle of Experimentation

6. The Principle of Microscopic supervision


Micro lesson plan Teaching

Microteaching cycle




The microteaching cycle starts with planning. In order to reduce the complexities involved in teaching, the student teacher is asked to plan a microlesson, ie, a short lesson for 5-10 minutes which he will teach infront of a microclass ie, a group consisting of 3-4 students, a supervisor and peers if necessary. There is scope for projection of model teaching skills, if required to help the teacher prepare for his session. The student teacher is asked to teach concentrating one or a few of the teaching skills. His teaching is evaluated by the students, peers and the supervisor using check lists. Video recording can be done if facilities permit. At the end of the session, the teacher is given feedback on the deficiencies noticed in his teaching methodology. Feedback can be aided by playing back the video recording. Using the feedback the teacher is asked to replan his lesson and reteach immediately the same lesson to another group. Such repeated cycles of teaching feedback and reteaching help the teacher to improve his teaching skills one at a time. It is important, however that the cycle is used purely for helping the teacher and not as a tool for making a value judgement of his teaching capacity by his superiors. TEACHING SKILLS According to Allen and Ryan(1969) Stimulus variation Set induction Closure Silence and non verbal cues Reinforcement of student participation Asking questions Probing questions Divergent questions Attending behaviours Illustrating Lecturing Higher order questions

Planned repetition Communication completeness According to B.K. Passi(1979)

Writing instructional objectives Introducing a lesson Fluency in questioning Probing questions Explaining Illustrating with examples Stimulus variation Silence and non verbal cues Reinforcement of student participation Increasing student participation Using blackboard

PHASES According to J.C. Clift there are 3 phases 1. Knowledge acquisition phase The student teacher attempts to acquire knowledge about the rationale of the skill, its role in the classroom and its component behavior He reads relevant literature, observes demonstration lesson to develop knowledge regarding the mode of presentation of the skill. Therefore the student gets theoretical as well as practical knowledge of the skill

2. Skill acquisition phase On the basis of the model presented to the student teacher, a micro lesson is prepared and skill is practiced by carrying out the micro teaching cycle.

3. Transfer phase STEPS 1. Orientation of the student teachers : This involves providing necessary information and theoretical background about concept of microteaching rationale or significance of using microteaching Here student teacher integrates different skills In place of scaled down teaching, the student teacher in the real class room tries to integrate all the skills.

procedures of microteaching requirement and setting for the adoption of microteaching technique

2. Discussion of teaching skills: Analysis of teaching into components teaching skills Discussion of rationale and role of these skills in teaching Discussion regarding the component teaching behavior comprising various teaching skills

3. Selection of particular teaching skill Each skill needs to be practiced at a time It is necessary to observe a model of demonstration lesson on the selected particular skill

4. Presentation of a model demonstration on a particular skill Demonstration is given by the teacher (modeling) or by exhibiting a film or video tape for the student teachers to observe the practice of a particular skill.

5. Observation of model lesson: An observation schedule designed for the observation of the specific skill is distributed for the guidance of the student teacher for observation of the lesson

6. Criticism of the model lesson: A critical appraisal of the model lesson is made by student teachers.

7. Preparation of the micro lesson plan: For the preparation of the microlesson plan on the skill to be demonstrated, help be taken from sample lesson plans and from the teacher.

8. Creation of microteaching setting: The Indian model of microteaching developed by NCERT gives the following setting. Number of pupils: 5-10 Types of pupils: real pupils or preferably peers Type of supervisor : teacher and peers Time duration of microteaching cycle: 36 mts Teach: 6 mts Feedback: 6mts

Replan : 12 mts Reteach : 6 mts Refeedback: 6mts 9. Practice of the skill (teaching session): The student teacher teaches the prepared lesson for 6mts to a micro class of 5-10 real pupils or peers. The teaching activity is supervised by the teacher and other student teachers (peers). Where possible, the student teacher may also have the lesson taped on a video or audio tape 10. Providing feedback: The peers and teacher observing the micro lesson may provide immediate feedback where possible mechanical gadgets like video tape audio tape, closed circuit television etc may be used for providing feedback 11.Re planning : In the light of feedback received the student teacher replans his micro lesson. He is given 12 mts for this purpose.

12.Re teaching:- This session last for six minutes and the student teacher retraces his micro lesson on the basis of his relicensed lesson

13.Re feedback session:- The student teacher is provided refeedback on the retaught microlesson

14.Integration of teaching skills:- It is concerned with the fast of integrating several skills individually mastered by the student teacher. It is helpful in bridging the gap between training in isolated teaching skills and the real teaching situation faced by the teacher.

Advantages If focuses on sharpening and developing specific teaching skills and eliminating errors It enables understanding of behaviours important in classroom teaching It increases the confidence of the learner teacher It is a vehicle of continuous training applicable at all stages not only to teachers at the beginning of their career, but also for senior teachers It enables projection of model instructional skills It provides expert supervision and a constructive feedback It provider for repeated practice without adverse consequences to the teacher or his students.

Drawbacks It is time consuming It hampers the creativity of students by simply imitating thus producing homogenized standard robots with set smiles and procedures

It depends a lot on the motivation of the teacher to improve himself and the ability of the observer to give a good feedback Requires competent and suitably trained teacher educator Micro teaching alone may not be adequate, it needs to be fortified and integrated with other teaching techniques. Application of microteaching to new teaching practices is limited It can be carried out successfully in controlled environment only Although these limitations are there it is found that over a period of time microteaching produces remarkable improvement in teaching skills

Comparison of microteaching with traditional teaching Microteaching Focuses on training student teachers Scaled down teaching Immediate feedback Focus on one skill at a time Self evaluation is possible if videotaping is there Objective evaluation possible Traditional teaching Focuses on teaching students Duration, content and number of students is more Feedback by formative or summative evaluation Focus on entire teaching skills Self evaluation minimal Mainly subjective evaluation

Conclusion Micro teaching can be and is trust effective in imparting effective teaching skills in student teacher. With effective use of educational technology this method help the student teacher gains confidence to teach. Thus it helps to make good teachers and there by conveying the information to the students effectively. Bibliography Sankaranarayan B, Sindhu B . Learning and Teaching Nursing, 1st Edition: Calicut,2003. Neeraja K. Textbook of Nursing Education,1st Edition: NewDelhi, 2003. Devi E. Manipal Manual of Nursing Education, 1st Edition: Basvanthappa B. Nursing Education, 1st Edition: NewDelhi, 2003. Aggarwal J, Essentials of Educational Technology, 1st Edition: NewDelhi, 2004. Verma R, Sharma S. Modern Trends in Teaching Technology, 1st Edition: NewDelhi, 2004.



Submitted To By Mrs. Philomena Fernandes Associate Professor MSc.

Submitted Ms. Riya Joy 1 st Year NUINS


Submitted On: 13/12/2010