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Society, Culture and Society, Culture and

Responsible Parenthood Responsible Parenthood


Vanessah Valle Vanessah Valle- -Castillo Castillo
Sociology defined
Study of society
A social science that uses various
methods of empirical investigations and
critical analysis to develop and refine a
body of knowledge about human social
activity often with the goal of applying such
knowledge to the pursuit of social welfare
hy study sociology hy study sociology
To To obtain obtain factual factual information information about about our our
society society and and different different aspects aspects of of our our social social
life life
Sociological Sociological information information enables enables us us to to
understand understand our our society society more more objectively objectively
and and to to see see our our place place in in it it
Sociology Sociology enables enables us us to to learn learn the the
application application of of scientific scientific information information to to daily daily
life life and and problems problems
Sociology Sociology performs performs its its
most most important important
function function when when
superstition superstition and and
misinformation misinformation are are
replaced replaced by by accurate accurate
knowledge knowledge about about
human human behavior behavior
Results Results of of sociological sociological investigations investigations are are
useful useful to to community community leaders, leaders,
entrepreneurs, entrepreneurs, and and government government officials officials in in
maintaining maintaining social social order order and and plotting plotting
causes causes of of action action for for the the future future of of a a society society
The Sociological magination The Sociological magination
AA quality quality of of mind, mind, a a capacity capacity to to understand understand
the the interplay interplay of of individual individual and and society, society,
biography biography and and history, history, of of self self and and the the
world world (C (C.. right right Mills) Mills)
t t enables enables us us to to see see the the connection connection
between between our our own own personal personal experiences experiences
and and the the social social forces forces in in the the bigger bigger social social
world world which which influence influence our our life life
Areas of Sociology Areas of Sociology
1. 1. Social Social organization organization investigation investigation of of
social social groups, groups, social social institutions, institutions, social social
stratification stratification and and mobility mobility
2. 2. Social Social psychology psychology concerned concerned with with the the
study study of of human human nature nature as as the the outcome outcome of of
group group life, life, personality personality formation formation and and
collective collective behavior behavior;; it it studies studies how how group group
behavior behavior affects affects the the individual individual and and vice vice- -
versa versa
.. Social Social change change (social (social
organization organization and and social social
disorganization) disorganization) involves involves the the
study study of of change change in in culture culture
and and social social relations relations and and
ongoing ongoing social social problems problems
4 4.. Human Human Ecology Ecology studies studies the the
behavior behavior of of a a given given
population population and and its its
relationship relationship to to the the group's group's
social social institutions institutions
5 5.. Population Population Studies Studies
concerned concerned with with population population
count, count, composition, composition, change change
and and quality quality as as they they influence influence
the the economic, economic, political political and and
social social systems systems and and vice vice
versa versa..
.. Sociological Sociological theory theory and and research research
concerned concerned with with the the discovery, discovery,
development development and and replication replication of of research research
tools tools that that will will test test the the applicability applicability and and
usefulness usefulness of of the the principles principles of of group group life life
7 7.. Applied Applied Sociology Sociology the the findings findings may may be be
applied applied to to fields fields such such as as marriage marriage and and
family family and and counseling, counseling, child child development, development,
criminology, criminology, social social work, work, education, education,
communication, communication, mental mental health, health, ethnic ethnic
relations relations and and others others
Relationship of Sociology Relationship of Sociology
to the other Sciences to the other Sciences
1 1.. Economics Economics concerned concerned with with human human
activities activities related related to to the the production, production,
consumption consumption and and distribution distribution of of goods, goods,
services services and and wealth wealth within within societies societies
- - the the economic economic figures figures are are reflections reflections of of
the the individual individual and and group group behavior behavior as as they they
affect affect population population movements, movements, family family and and
other other institutional institutional structures structures and and
functions functions and and social social stratification stratification
2. Political Science 2. Political Science
Concerned Concerned with with political political
processes, processes, power power
struggle struggle and and
governments, governments, voting voting
patterns patterns changes changes from from
previous previous elections elections and and
the the nature nature of of voters voters
Of Of interests interests to to
sociologists sociologists are are social social
backgrounds backgrounds of of political political
activists, activists, distribution distribution of of
power, power, source source of of political political
beliefs beliefs of of the the electorate electorate
and and role role of of women women and and
ethnic ethnic minorities minorities
. Anthropology . Anthropology
Study a wide range of Study a wide range of
cultures from primitive cultures from primitive
to modern to modern
Attempts to study Attempts to study
tribes, subcultures or tribes, subcultures or
society as a whole society as a whole
4. Psychology 4. Psychology
nterested nterested in in a a wide wide range range
of of psychological psychological and and
behavioral behavioral processes processes
such such as as learning, learning, human human
and and personality personality
development, development, perception, perception,
emotion, emotion, cognition, cognition,
motivation, motivation, creativity, creativity,
personality personality disorders disorders and and
mental mental illness illness
Social Social psychology psychology is is a a
new new field field formed formed by by
integrating integrating sociology sociology and and
psychology psychology
5. History 5. History
Primarily Primarily descriptive descriptive of of
the the chronology chronology of of
significant significant past past events events
Sociology Sociology makes makes use use of of
data data and and information information that that
is is provided provided by by historians historians
n n the the search search for for the the
underlying underlying forces forces that that
influence influence human human
behavior, behavior, history history uses uses
sociological sociological approach approach
Social Research Procedures Social Research Procedures
Social Social nquiry nquiry has has goals goals to to achieve, achieve, rules rules
to to follow follow and and strategies strategies to to work work out out in in
order order to to obtain obtain a a high high probability probability of of
success success
- - involves involves participants participants (the (the scientists, scientists, their their
assistants assistants and and other other workers workers;; the the
recipients, recipients, either either interested interested or or not, not,
appreciative appreciative or or not, not, benefited benefited or or not) not)
Social Action Social Action
The The way way by by which which
human human beings beings interact interact
with with other other in in social social
units units such such as as the the
family, family, the the school school and and
the the factory factory
The The prime prime concern concern of of
sociological sociological inquiry inquiry
This This concern concern goes goes
beyond beyond the the study study of of
face face to to face face contact contact
The The systematic systematic analysis analysis
of of the the motivations motivations and and
behavior behavior of of individuals individuals
within within groups groups
The basic goal of The basic goal of
Sociological nquiry Sociological nquiry
To To obtain obtain an an understanding understanding of of the the
observable observable social social world world
undamental Procedures in undamental Procedures in
Sociological nquiry Sociological nquiry
1. 1. Defines Defines the the problem problem locating locating and and
evaluating evaluating what what is is already already known known about about
the the prospective prospective area area of of inquiry inquiry
2. 2. Gathering of the data Gathering of the data
. . Analysis Analysis of of data data involves involves the the testing testing of of
the the hypothesis hypothesis or or answering answering questions questions or or
assumptions assumptions with with facts facts that that have have been been
gathered gathered
4. 4. Verification Verification further checking of the further checking of the
findings findings
Culture Culture
AA complex complex whole whole which which includes includes
knowledge, knowledge, belief, belief, art, art, law, law, morals, morals,
customs customs and and many many other other capabilities capabilities and and
habits habits acquired acquired by by people people as as members members of of
society society
AA person's person's social social heritage heritage or or the the
customary customary ways ways in in which which groups groups organize organize
their their ways ways of of behaving, behaving, thinking thinking and and
feeling feeling
Culture and behavior Culture and behavior
That That complex complex whole whole which which includes includes
knowledge, knowledge, belief, belief, art, art, morals, morals, law, law, custom custom
and and any any other other capabilities capabilities and and habits habits
acquired acquired by by man man as as a a member member of of society society
The The entire entire way way of of life life followed followed by by a a people people
and and everything everything learned learned and and shared shared by by
people people in in society society
Society Society
Group Group of of people people bound bound together together in in a a more more
or or less less permanent permanent association association organized organized
for for collective collective activity activity
The The common common pattern pattern to to which which they they are are
reacting reacting is is the the culture culture of of the the society society
Culture Culture is is a a system system of of behavior behavior
shared shared by by members members of of a a society society
Society Society is is a a group group of of people people who who
share share a a common common culture culture
No No society society can can exist exist without without a a culture culture
and and no no culture culture can can develop develop without without a a
society society
Characteristics of Culture Characteristics of Culture
1. 1. Learned Learned from parents and family from parents and family
- - additional additional sources sources are are playmates, playmates, work work
companions, companions, school, school, churches, churches, books, books,
television, television, radio, radio, movies movies and and computers computers
2 2.. Shared Shared individual individual habits habits that that can can be be
shared shared
.. Cumulative Cumulative knowledge knowledge is is stored stored
and and passed passed on on from from one one generation generation to to
the the next next and and new new knowledge knowledge is is
constantly constantly being being added added to to the the existing existing
stock stock while while information information which which is is no no
longer longer useful useful is is slowly slowly discarded discarded
4 4.. Dynamic Dynamic stems stems from from cumulative cumulative
quality quality
- - no no culture culture is is ever ever in in a a permanent permanent
state state
Culture as a System of Norms Culture as a System of Norms
s normative since it regulates our action s normative since it regulates our action
and conduct and conduct
Norm Norm behavior expectation behavior expectation
- - an idea of how people are supposed an idea of how people are supposed
to act and behave to act and behave
Examples:1. when death occurs Examples:1. when death occurs
2. family purse 2. family purse
Language Language
A factor responsible for the existence and A factor responsible for the existence and
development of culture development of culture
AA systematized systematized usage usage of of speech speech and and
hearing hearing to to convey, convey, communicate communicate or or
express express feelings feelings and and ideas ideas
Symbolic Symbolic language language colors, colors, emblems, emblems,
gestures, gestures, designs, designs, marks marks or or words words
Culture Shock Culture Shock
hen hen one one loses loses the the familiar familiar signs signs and and
symbols symbols of of social social intercourse intercourse and and may may
experience experience some some unpleasant unpleasant sensations sensations
or or frustrations frustrations
t t may may be be a a reaction reaction to to unpalatable unpalatable food food
which which one one may may consider consider obnoxious, obnoxious, the the
inability inability to to perform perform natural natural functions functions like like
sleeping sleeping or or moving moving one's one's bowels, bowels, a a
repulsion repulsion to to the the norms norms and and values values of of the the
group group or or a a lack lack of of communication communication with with the the
new new society society
hen hen people people encounter encounter another another culture culture
whose whose patterns patterns of of behavior behavior are are diverse diverse
from from their their own own
AA situation situation brought brought about about by by unfamiliarity, unfamiliarity,
lack lack of of understanding understanding and and inability inability to to
communicate communicate with with the the society society they they come come
in in contact contact with with
&nity in Culture &nity in Culture
1. 1. Human Human biological biological drives drives all all persons persons are are
alike alike in in range range of of emotions, emotions, in in the the need need
for for love love and and security, security, in in the the capacity capacity to to
symbolize symbolize and and in in being being subject subject to to
conditioning conditioning
2. 2. Psychic Psychic unity unity one's one's psychic psychic unity unity is is not not
exactly exactly identical identical with with his his inherited inherited
psychological psychological traits traits
a. a. Cognitive Cognitive structure structure made made up up of of
concepts concepts and and beliefs beliefs by by which which one one
defines defines the the world world around around him him
- - where where members members of of the the society society draw draw
their their definitions definitions of of reality reality
b b.. Habit Habit structure structure are are acquired acquired through through
learning learning
- - regularly regularly pattered pattered ways ways of of acting, acting,
feeling feeling or or thinking thinking
cc.. Trait Trait configurations configurations any any characteristic characteristic
that that can can be be observed observed and and measure measure
- - a a repetitive repetitive way way of of reacting reacting to to a a particular particular
event event
- - it it simply simply gives gives a a pattern pattern of of behavior behavior a a
name name (extroverted, (extroverted, lover lover;; aggressive aggressive;;
pushy pushy;; workaholic, workaholic, charming charming..) )
d d.. Acquired Acquired predisposition predisposition refer refer to to the the
repetitive repetitive manner manner in in which which an an individual individual
appears appears inclined inclined to to favor favor a a person person or or
group, group, an an object object or or situation situation that that arises arises
periodically periodically in in his his environment environment
(preferences, (preferences, attitudes, attitudes, values, values, prejudices) prejudices)
.. Dependence Dependence upon upon group group life life The The size size
and and types types of of groups groups persons persons will will
continually continually enjoy, enjoy, the the people people they they will will
cooperate cooperate and and compete compete or or even even have have
conflict conflict with with to to achieve achieve their their goals, goals, the the
group group they they will will depend depend on on for for help help are are
factors factors involved involved in in the the constant constant struggle struggle
for for survival survival
4 4.. Physical Physical and and social social environment environment the the
geographical geographical environment environment can can have have
significant significant conditioning conditioning effects effects upon upon the the
economic economic aspects aspects of of societies societies
Diversity in cultures Diversity in cultures
1. 1. Cultural Cultural Variability Variability cultures cultures differ differ
because because of of the the great great variety variety of of solutions solutions
people people of of different different societies societies evolve evolve in in
solving solving life life problems problems
2. 2. Cultural Cultural integration integration cultures cultures vary vary
significantly significantly in in the the degree degree of of their their being being
internally internally consistent consistent in in their their patterns patterns of of
values, values, beliefs beliefs and and behavior behavior
. Cultural relativity . Cultural relativity
Difference Difference in in culture culture also also arise arise from from the the
relativity relativity of of the the standards standards that that societies societies
uphold uphold and and use use for for evaluating evaluating truth, truth, right, right,
virtue, virtue, morality, morality, legality, legality, justice, justice, beauty beauty
and and the the means means of of adhering adhering to to it it
Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism
Extreme Extreme preferential preferential feeling feeling which which
individuals individuals have have for for the the customs customs of of their their
own own group group
The The idea idea that that one's one's own own group group is is more more
important important that that any any other other
Expression Expression of of group group solidarity solidarity combined combined
with with antagonism antagonism toward toward the the outside outside
groups groups
enocentrism enocentrism
Opposite of ethnocentrism Opposite of ethnocentrism
Preference for things foreign Preference for things foreign
hat comes from far away has a special hat comes from far away has a special
quality or charm quality or charm
enophobia enophobia distrust of anything foreign distrust of anything foreign
Stereotypes Stereotypes
Group Group- -shared image of another group shared image of another group
or category of people or category of people
Applied Applied indiscriminately indiscriminately to to all all
members members of of stereotyped stereotyped group group
without without allowance allowance for for individual individual
differences differences
Selective Selective identification identification mukhang mukhang
taga taga- -baryo baryo
Selective Selective exception exception He's He's not not
behaving behaving like like a a Tagalog! Tagalog!
Philippine Values Philippine Values
hat are values? hat are values?
Expressions Expressions of of the the ultimate ultimate ends, ends, goals goals or or
purposes purposes of of social social action action
Society's Society's moral moral imperatives imperatives that that deal deal with with what what
ought ought to to be, be, and and are are therefore therefore considered considered
desirable desirable and and important important by by the the members members of of
society society
Values Values are are generated generated in in nature nature
Values Values influence influence a a person's person's behavior behavior towards towards a a
large large class class of of objects objects or or persons persons although although they they
are are not not related related to to any any specific specific object, object, person person or or
group group
Standards Standards for for determining determining whether whether
something something is is good good and and desirable desirable or or not not
and and serves serves as as the the criteria criteria by by which which norms norms
themselves themselves are are judged judged
AA thing thing has has value value when when it it is is perceived perceived as as
good good and and desirable desirable
ood, ood, money money and and housing housing have have value value
because because they they are are perceived perceived as as good good;; and and
the the desire desire to to acquire acquire them them influences influences our our
attitudes attitudes and and behavior behavior
Not Not only only material material goods goods but but also also ideals ideals
and and concepts concepts are are values, values, such such as as truth, truth,
honesty honesty and and justice justice
Value Value commands commands in in us us an an inner inner
commitment commitment which which in in turn turn translates translates itself itself
into into our our daily daily speech speech and and action action
Values Values are are standards standards and and principles principles for for
judging judging what what is is correct correct and and incorrect incorrect
behavior, behavior, what what is is worth worth attaining attaining or or not not
attaining, attaining, what what is is desirable desirable or or undesirable undesirable
inds of values inds of values
1. 1. Terminal Terminal end state end state
2. 2. instrumental instrumental
An example of a value in its end state is An example of a value in its end state is
peace peace
To attain peace, one must respect others To attain peace, one must respect others
as a mode of behavior type of value as a mode of behavior type of value
Values guide judgments across Values guide judgments across
situations, decisions and actions situations, decisions and actions
Human Human behavior behavior is is judged judged by by the the
standards standards of of good good and and bad bad
Members Members of of a a society society tend tend to to pattern pattern and and
standardize standardize their their behavior behavior in in accordance accordance
with with these these values values
Those Those who who fail fail to to do do so so or or violate violate accepted accepted
behavioral behavioral patterns patterns face face the the prospect prospect of of
being being ostracized ostracized or or censured censured by by the the
members members of of society society
The Study of Values The Study of Values
Values determine the behavior of people Values determine the behavior of people
Values Values cannot cannot be be readily readily identified identified since since
they they are are abstractions abstractions from from reality reality
Values Values must must be be deduced deduced from from social social
action action
Sociologists Sociologists watch watch the the way way people people
behave, behave, listen listen to to what what they they say say and and note note
the the comments comments and and insights insights made made by by
others others who who observe observe these these actions actions
our our fold test of Robin illiams fold test of Robin illiams
Needed to identify the values operative Needed to identify the values operative
in a given society in a given society
1. 1. Extensiveness Extensiveness when when the the value value is is
recognized recognized by by a a representative representative number number
of of people people within within the the society society
2. 2. Duration Duration when when the the value value has has been been
shared shared and and practiced practiced in in common common for for
some some time time
.. ntensity ntensity when when the the value value involves involves the the
emotions emotions and and is is taken taken seriously seriously and and
sought sought after after by by many many
4 4.. Prestige Prestige of of its its carrier carrier when when the the value value
provides provides ready ready- -made made means means for for judging judging
the the social social worth worth of of persons persons or or groups groups who who
share share or or practice practice it it
The forces that shape The forces that shape
contemporary values contemporary values
ilipinos are cosmopolitan in nature ilipinos are cosmopolitan in nature
They are both oriental and occidental They are both oriental and occidental
The The Aeta, Aeta, ndonesian, ndonesian, Malayan, Malayan, Hindu, Hindu,
Arabian Arabian and and Chinese Chinese elements elements are are the the
foundation foundation of of the the ilipino's ilipino's oriental oriental nature nature
the the core core of of their their moral moral and and social social
conscience conscience and and cultural cultural identity identity
nterpersonal nterpersonal and and social social relationships relationships
revolve revolve around around "blood "blood ties, ties, marriage marriage and and
ritual ritual kinship kinship
Spanish Spanish and and American American culture culture compose compose
the the ilipinos' ilipinos' occidentalism occidentalism
Spanish Spanish influence influence found found its its way way into into our our
religious, religious, political, political, economic economic and and
educational educational life, life, as as well well as as into into our our
language, language, dress dress and and diet diet
Spain Spain introduced introduced Roman Roman Catholicism, Catholicism, the the
encomienda, encomienda, galleon galleon trade, trade, fiesta, fiesta,
municipal municipal building, building, village village plaza plaza and and
compadre compadre system system
Preparation of life after death Preparation of life after death
Has Has set set the the foundation foundation for for the the contemporary contemporary
ilipino ilipino attitude attitude towards towards divorce, divorce, birth birth control control
legislation, legislation, fiesta fiesta and and ceremony, ceremony, gambling, gambling,
along along with with charitable charitable activities activities and and faithful faithful
attendance attendance of of mass mass
Spain Spain caused caused us us to to regard regard our our own own way way of of life life as as
degraded degraded or or inferior inferior and and developed developed in in us us an an
aversion aversion to to manual manual
Compadre Compadre system system initiated initiated the the practice practice of of
extended extended families families
t t has has strengthen strengthen the the notorious notorious practice practice of of
nepotism nepotism and and favoritism favoritism
Oppressive Oppressive policies policies of of the the Spanish Spanish
colonizers colonizers developed developed in in the the ilipino ilipino a a
hatred hatred for for manual manual labor labor
The The Americanization Americanization of of the the ilipino ilipino
consisted consisted mainly mainly of of the the introduction introduction of of a a
democratic democratic system system of of government government
Popularized Popularized education education as as the the most most
essential essential channel channel for for social social mobility mobility
ntroduced ntroduced the the English English language language as as the the
medium medium of of instruction instruction in in the the school school system system
which which they they established established
This This intensified intensified the the ilipino's ilipino's preference preference
for for the the academic academic white white collar collar occupations occupations
and and encouraged encouraged the the use use of of honorific honorific titles titles
English English language language and and the the diploma diploma system system
also also served served the the further further the the stratification stratification of of
Philippine Philippine society society because because the the primary primary
beneficiaries beneficiaries of of American American- -sponsored sponsored
education education were were the the ilipino ilipino elite elite
Americans Americans also also introduced introduced the the values values of of
materialism materialism and and consumerism consumerism
Most significant influence Most significant influence
DECS 1988 DECS 1988
Launched Launched the the comprehensive comprehensive Values Values
Education Education Program Program
Draws Draws inspiration inspiration from from the the 198 198 EDSA EDSA
Revolution Revolution and and 1987 1987 Philippine Philippine
Constitution Constitution
"a "a just just and and humane humane society society
Calling Calling for for a a shared shared culture culture and and commonly commonly
held held values values such such as as truth, truth, justice, justice, freedom, freedom,
love, love, equality equality and and peace peace..
Different Value Orientations Different Value Orientations
1. 1. Non Non- -rationalism rationalism Rationalism Rationalism
Non Non- -rationalism rationalism
man has to adapt himself to nature and to man has to adapt himself to nature and to
forces outside himself forces outside himself
- - &ncritical acceptance, reverence and &ncritical acceptance, reverence and
protection of traditions and rituals protection of traditions and rituals
- - Resistance to scientific methods and Resistance to scientific methods and
unquestioning obedience to authority unquestioning obedience to authority
Rationalism Rationalism
- - AA belief belief that that by by systematic systematic planning, planning,
studying studying and and training, training, once once can can actively actively
control control and and manipulate manipulate his his or or her her destiny destiny
- - One One is is thus thus greatly greatly responsible responsible for for his his or or
her her own own success success or or failure failure
- - The The rational rational person person is is future future- -oriented oriented
rather rather than than past past or or present present oriented oriented
- - Thoughts Thoughts and and actions actions are are characteristically characteristically
scientific scientific- -oriented oriented
ahala ahala na, na, palabas, palabas, pakitang pakitang tao, tao,
pagyayabang, pagyayabang, espiritista, espiritista, mangkukulam, mangkukulam,
tinalaga tinalaga ng ng Diyos, Diyos, gulong gulong ng ng palad, palad,
iginuhit iginuhit ng ng tadhana, tadhana, malas, malas, napasubo, napasubo,
hiya, hiya, utang utang na na loob,amor loob,amor propio propio (self (self
esteem), esteem), SR SR (smooth (smooth interpersonal interpersonal
relations) relations)
ilipinos ilipinos find find it it difficult difficult to to say say no no to to a a
request request or or an an invitation invitation and and use use
expression expression like like kuwan, kuwan, marahil, marahil, tila tila nga nga
and and pipilitin pipilitin ko ko
2. Personalism and mpersonalism 2. Personalism and mpersonalism
Personalism Personalism
Attaches major importance to personal Attaches major importance to personal
factor which guaranties intimacy, warmth factor which guaranties intimacy, warmth
and security of kinship and friendship in and security of kinship and friendship in
getting things done (pakiusap, areglo, getting things done (pakiusap, areglo,
lakad lakad weaken the merit system in weaken the merit system in
employment) employment)
mpersonalism mpersonalism
Tendency to eliminate the influence of Tendency to eliminate the influence of
friendship or kinship in working situations friendship or kinship in working situations
. Particularism . Particularism - - &niversalism &niversalism
Particularism Particularism
Centered Centered on on sub sub- -groups groups made made up up of of
relatives, relatives, friends, friends, colleagues, colleagues, associates, associates,
religious religious affiliates affiliates or or members members of of his his ethnic ethnic
regional regional group group in in the the larger larger society society to to
which which he he belongs belongs
&niversalism &niversalism
one's one's main main concern concern is is the the advancement advancement
of of the the collective collective or or national national good good
ilipino Nationalism ilipino Nationalism
Nationalism Nationalism is is the the advocacy advocacy of of making making
one's one's own own nation nation distinct distinct and and separate separate
from from others others in in intellectual, intellectual, social, social, cultural, cultural,
economic, economic, political political and and moral moral matters matters
eeling eeling of of oneness oneness among among the the nationals nationals
who who seek seek to to establish establish the the identity identity and and the the
good good of of the the nation nation
More More than than just just a a sentiment sentiment of of love, love,
affection affection or or feeling feeling of of patriotism patriotism for for one's one's
country country
s s a a philosophy philosophy or or a a doctrine doctrine of of what what a a
country country is, is, what what its its goals goals are are and and how how it it is is
to to achieve achieve these these goals goals
Can Can be be a a factor factor for for either either evil evil or or good good
May May take take the the form form of of ethnocentrism ethnocentrism or or
racism racism or or xenophobia xenophobia
The The Philippines Philippines suffer suffer from from "national "national
amnesia amnesia and and colonial colonial mentality mentality
Philosophy of the Philosophy of the
Values Education Program Values Education Program
The Human Person The Human Person
His/her role in shaping of society and the His/her role in shaping of society and the
environment environment
Subject Subject of of education education center center of of the the
curriculum curriculum and and the the entire entire program program
The The task task of of education education is is to to help help the the ilipino ilipino
develop develop hi hi human human potential, potential, contribute contribute to to
the the growth growth of of Philippine Philippine culture culture
Multi Multi- -dimensional (the person as self and dimensional (the person as self and
the person in the community) the person in the community)
Physical being Physical being has material needs has material needs
Does Does not not live live in in isolation isolation but but in in community community
with with other other persons persons
elongs elongs to to a a family family
s s also also economic economic
The The human human being being is is political political
Core Values Core Values
The human person is of infinite value. The human person is of infinite value.
As As physical physical (made (made of of matter), matter), one one must must
maintain maintain health health and and harmony harmony with with nature nature
As As spiritual spiritual (capable (capable of of higher higher concerns concerns
and and of of rising rising above above the the material) material) one one must must
cultivate cultivate a a sense sense of of spirituality spirituality in in
consonance consonance with with his his nature nature and and respond respond
to to God God in in faith faith
As As intellectual intellectual (gifted (gifted with with mind, mind, the the faculty faculty
of of knowing) knowing) one one must must constantly constantly search search
for for the the truth truth and and must must seek seek knowledge knowledge that that
will will transform transform society society and and the the world world
As As moral moral (endowed (endowed with with the the faculty faculty of of
freely freely choosing choosing and and loving) loving) one one must must go go
out out to to others others and and in in fact fact to to all all humanity, humanity, in in
love love
As As a a social social being being (living (living in in a a community) community)
one one must must cultivate cultivate the the sense sense of of social social
responsibility, responsibility, aware aware of of his his unique unique
participation participation in in the the pursuit pursuit of of the the welfare welfare of of
the the family family and and the the common common good good of of the the
larger larger society society
As As economic economic (bound (bound to to concerns concerns of of
livelihood) livelihood) one one has has the the obligation obligation to to help help
achieve achieve economic economic efficiency efficiency for for the the
community community
As As political political (member (member of of the the nation), nation), one one
must must foster foster the the sense sense of of nationalism nationalism and and
patriotism patriotism
Related Values Related Values
1. 1. Health Health implies implies physical physical fitness fitness and and
cleanliness cleanliness..
2. 2. Truth Truth implies implies the the tireless tireless quest quest for for
knowledge knowledge in in all all its its forms forms..
. . The The moral moral nature nature of of the the human human being being
places places primacy primacy in in the the value value of of love love..
4. 4. Human Human existence existence especially especially
experiences experiences such such as as love love and and suffering suffering
points points to to a a reality reality beyond beyond one's one's
experiences experiences..
5 5.. Social Social responsibility responsibility means means strengthening strengthening
the the family family as as "the "the foundation foundation of of the the nation nation
and and "a "a basic basic autonomous autonomous social social society, society,
weathering weathering the the impact impact of of modernization modernization
and and technology technology..
.. Economic Economic efficiency efficiency is is achieved achieved by by
people people through through work, work, the the exercise exercise of of
human human mastery mastery over over the the resources resources of of
nature nature and and creative creative imagination imagination in in the the
solution solution of of complex complex problems problems..
7 7.. The The spirit spirit of of nationalism nationalism and and patriotism patriotism
means means love love of of country country..
Translating the Values Education Translating the Values Education
ramework into Programs ramework into Programs
1. 1. Establish school Establish school- -community linkages and community linkages and
networks networks
2. 2. Maximize Maximize the the use use of of community, community, human human
and and material material resources resources
. . Consolidate Consolidate efforts efforts of of both both government government
and and non non- -government government agencies agencies and and
institutions institutions for for the the purpose purpose of of minimizing minimizing
costs costs and and maximizing maximizing results results
Personality and Personality and
Socialization Socialization
hat is Personality? hat is Personality?
AA more more or or less less enduring enduring organization organization of of
forces forces within within the the individual, individual, associated associated
with with a a complex complex of of fairly fairly consistent consistent
attitudes, attitudes, values values and and modes modes of of perception perception
which which account account for for the the individual's individual's
consistency consistency of of behavior behavior
AA product product of of socialization socialization
Determinants of Determinants of
Personality ormation Personality ormation
1. 1. iological inheritance iological inheritance
rom parents to off spring through the rom parents to off spring through the
mechanisms of the genes found in the mechanisms of the genes found in the
chromosomes of the sex cells chromosomes of the sex cells
2. Geographic environment 2. Geographic environment
Refers to location, climate, topography Refers to location, climate, topography
and natural resources and natural resources
. Cultural environment . Cultural environment
refers to the learned ways of loving, the refers to the learned ways of loving, the
norms of behavior norms of behavior
4. Social environment 4. Social environment
Refers to the various groups and social Refers to the various groups and social
interactions going on in the groups of interactions going on in the groups of
which one is a member which one is a member
Theories of Theories of
Personality Development Personality Development
reud's Theory of Socialization reud's Theory of Socialization
Sigmund reud Sigmund reud
ormulated the first comprehensive theory ormulated the first comprehensive theory
of personality of personality
s s a a form form of of biological biological determinism determinism which which
holds holds that that socialization socialization is is a a process process
characterized characterized by by the the internal internal struggle struggle
between between the the biological biological components components and and
the the social social- -cultural cultural environment environment
Three major systems of personality Three major systems of personality
1. 1. d d the biological component which is the biological component which is
the source of a number of drives and the source of a number of drives and
urges urges
- - it centers around the satisfaction of it centers around the satisfaction of
basic needs like food and sex basic needs like food and sex
- - operates on the pleasure principle operates on the pleasure principle
2 2.. Ego Ego the the mediator mediator between between the the needs needs of of
the the individual individual and and the the world world of of reality reality and and
strives strives to to delay delay tension tension until until the the suitable suitable
environment environment exist exist
- - the the cognitive cognitive and and intellectual intellectual processes processes
are are controlled controlled by by the the ego ego
.. Superego Superego the the moral moral arm arm of of personality personality
representing representing the the traditional traditional rules, rules, values values
and and ideals ideals of of society society
"The "The id id and and the the superego superego are are continually continually in in
conflict, conflict, while while the the ego ego mediates mediates between between
them them..
Personality Personality development development undergoes undergoes
different different stages stages which which show show the the unfolding unfolding
of of the the sex sex instinct instinct
The various stages of development The various stages of development
1. 1. Oral Oral stage stage (birth (birth to to 1 1 year) year) eating eating is is the the
major major source source of of satisfaction satisfaction.. rustration rustration
or or overindulgence overindulgence at at this this stage stage can can lead lead
to to overeating overeating and and alcoholism alcoholism in in
adulthood adulthood
2. 2. Anal Anal stage stage ( (1 1 years) years) toilet toilet training training..
The The result result of of fixation fixation at at this this stage stage are are
personalities personalities who who are are grasping grasping and and
stingy stingy
. Phallic Stage( . Phallic Stage( years) years)
pleasure pleasure comes comes from from the the sex sex organs organs.. This This
is is the the time time when when the the child child desires desires parents parents
of of the the opposite opposite sex sex
Oedipus Oedipus complex complex boys boys desire desire for for their their
mothers mothers
Electra Electra complex complex girls girls desire desire for for their their
fathers fathers
The The child child represents represents erotic erotic desire desire toward toward
the the parent parent of of the the opposite opposite sex sex and and hostility hostility
for for the the parent parent of of the the same same sex sex
4. Latency period 4. Latency period
( years ( years Adolescence) Adolescence)
Children Children turn turn their their attention attention to to people people
outside outside their their families families like like teachers teachers and and
friends friends
Erotic Erotic impulses impulses are are dormant dormant
5. Genital stage 5. Genital stage
(Adolescence and beyond) (Adolescence and beyond)
The sexual impulses become active again The sexual impulses become active again
and the individual focuses on the opposite and the individual focuses on the opposite
sex sex
Looks Looks around around for for potential potential marriage marriage
partner partner and and prepares prepares for for marriage marriage and and
adult adult responsibilities responsibilities
Culture and Personality Culture and Personality
The personality development theory The personality development theory
ranz oas, an American anthropologist, ranz oas, an American anthropologist,
was the proponent of this study was the proponent of this study
Personality Personality development development is is a a result result of of
learning learning what what is is found found in in the the culture culture and and
that that significant significant differences differences in in personality personality
are are learned learned
ndividual ndividual personalities personalities of of members members of of society society
are are tiny tiny replicas replicas of of their their overall overall culture culture
Members Members of of a a society society are are subjected subjected to to similar similar
childhood childhood experiences, experiences, producing producing similarities similarities in in
personality personality
There There are are cultural cultural determinants determinants of of personality, personality,
ranging ranging from from matters matters of of the the social social graces graces and and
rules rules of of etiquette etiquette to to attitudes attitudes toward toward society society and and
the the universe universe
The The cluster cluster of of behavior behavior patterns, patterns, attitudes attitudes and and
values values shown shown by by members members of of a a society society is is known known
as as society's society's basic basic personality personality
Symbolic nteractionism Symbolic nteractionism
ased ased on on the the works works and and ideas ideas of of George George
Herbert Herbert Mead Mead and and Charles Charles Horton Horton Cooley Cooley
The The basic basic idea idea in in this this theory theory is is personality personality
is is a a result result of of the the interaction interaction between between
individuals individuals mediated mediated by by symbols symbols or, or, in in
particular, particular, language language..
Language Language is is crucial crucial in in the the development development of of
social social self self
The The symbols symbols that that constitute constitute a a language language
represent represent concept concept by by which which the the person person
engaged engaged in in cooperative cooperative activity activity acquire acquire the the
attitudes attitudes of of others others involved involved in in that that activity activity
To To the the proponents proponents of of symbolic symbolic inter inter- -
actionism, actionism, the the development development of of the the social social
self self and and the the generalized generalized others others are are
important important
Development of the Social Self Development of the Social Self
The The human human infant infant is is born born helpless helpless and and
without without a a sense sense of of self self
The The self self emerges emerges in in the the process process of of
socialization socialization a a process process of of social social
interaction interaction and and social social activity activity mediated mediated
by by language language
This This starts starts at at birth, birth, when when parents parents hold hold their their
baby baby and and attend attend to to his his or or her her needs needs
The The baby baby begins begins to to realize realize that that he he
depends depends on on other other people people for for comfort comfort
nitially nitially the the baby baby acquires acquires some some significant significant
symbols symbols and and learns learns that that certain certain actions actions
like like crying, crying, smiling, smiling, screaming screaming and and
reaching reaching our our will will elicit elicit responses responses from from the the
people people around around
Through Through make make- -believe believe verbal verbal play, play, they they
develop develop the the ability ability to to look look at at themselves themselves
from from the the standpoint standpoint of of others others
The The self self consists consists of of two two parts, parts, the the ", ",
which which is is active active and and spontaneous spontaneous and and the the
"me "me which which is is the the product product of of socialization, socialization,
resulting resulting in in a a social social self self
The Looking Glass Self The Looking Glass Self
The The ability ability of of children children to to visualize visualize
themselves themselves though though the the eyes eyes of of others others
To To imagine imagine how how they they appear appear to to others others
The The social social self self
amily, amily, friends, friends, teachers, teachers, classmates classmates and and
peer peer group group exert exert a a group group or or form form a a part part of of
what what is is called called "significant "significant others others
Significant Significant others others become become models models for for the the
child child who who usually usually identifies identifies with with them them
Three elements Three elements
of the looking glass self of the looking glass self
1. 1. The imagination of how we appear to The imagination of how we appear to
other persons other persons
2. 2. The imagination of the judgment of that The imagination of the judgment of that
appearance appearance
. . Some sort of feeling Some sort of feeling
The Generalized Others The Generalized Others
at at the the age age of of 8 8 or or 9 9,, children children engage engage in in
games games where where they they are are able able to to take take the the
attitudes attitudes and and responses responses of of others others in in social social
activity activity
The The individual individual thinks, thinks, feels feels and and sees sees
things things from from a a perspective perspective characteristic characteristic of of
the the group group of of which which he he is is a a member member
The Process of Socialization The Process of Socialization
Human Human beings beings are are born born without without any any
concept concept of of self self
The The culture's culture's symbols symbols and and ways ways of of
classifying classifying experiences experiences are are taught taught to to
children children through through the the medium medium of of language language
so so that that they they begin begin to to interact interact with with others others
and and share share in in the the culture's culture's common common stock stock
of of symbols, symbols, norms norms and and values values
Teaching Teaching and and learning learning the the culture culture enables enables
the the child child to to become become part part of of the the society society
The The process process by by which which children children become become
participating participating and and functioning functioning members members of of
society society is is socialization socialization
Socialization Socialization is is the the process process of of fitting fitting into into an an
organized organized way way of of life life and and established established
cultural cultural tradition tradition and and includes includes the the
complementary complementary process process of of transmission transmission of of
the the culture culture and and social social heritage heritage and and
development development of of personality personality
unctions of socialization: unctions of socialization:
1. 1. The The group group transmits transmits its its values, values, customs customs
and and beliefs beliefs from from one one generation generation to to
another another
2. 2. Socialization Socialization enables enables the the individual individual to to
grow grow and and develop develop into into a a socially socially
functioning functioning person person
. . Socialization Socialization is is a a means means of of social social control control
by by which which members members are are encouraged encouraged to to
conform conform to to the the ways ways of of the the group group by by
internalizing internalizing the the group's group's norms norms and and
values values
2 types of socialization 2 types of socialization
1. 1. Deliberate Deliberate or or conscious conscious persons persons are are
explicitly explicitly and and directly directly taught taught the the norms norms
and and values, values, the the social social expectations expectations and and
obligations obligations of of the the group group
- - Socialization Socialization is is deliberate deliberate as as carried carried out out
in in the the family family and and other other agencies agencies of of
socialization socialization
2 2.. Non Non- -deliberate deliberate or or unplanned unplanned when when
individuals individuals learn learn the the norms norms and and values values by by
themselves themselves from from observations observations in in the the
various various groups groups they they come come in in contact contact with with
*Social *Social pressures pressures are are applied applied to to make make
members members conform, conform, but but members members may may
react react differently differently..
*The *The individual individual being being socialized socialized is is not not a a
passive passive object object..
*There *There are are times times when when one one rebel rebel or or deviate deviate..
Agencies of Socialization Agencies of Socialization
The FamiIy The FamiIy
Plays Plays a a unique unique role role in in personality personality
development development
Main Main link link between between the the child child and and the the
society society
Responsible Responsible for for initiating initiating the the child child into into the the
culture culture of of the the group group
here here the the child child gains gains his his first first experience experience
of of love, love, affection, affection, kindness, kindness, sympathy, sympathy,
courtesy courtesy and and other other traits traits..
Set Set examples examples to to the the child, child, who who learns learns the the
habits, habits, attitudes attitudes and and values values
Performance Performance of of socially socially accepted accepted behavior behavior
is is rewarded, rewarded, while while socially socially undesirable undesirable is is
punished punished
Acts Acts as as the the social social laboratory laboratory which which
prepares prepares the the child child for for life life in in the the bigger bigger
society society and and that that it it is is the the family family which which is is
first, first, the the closest closest and and most most influential influential social social
group group in in the the child's child's life life
Parents Parents have have the the primary primary right right and and
obligation obligation to to provide provide for for the the upbringing upbringing of of
their their children children and and to to discipline discipline them them as as
may may be be necessary necessary for for the the formation formation of of
their their good good character character
Children Children learn learn to to cooperate, cooperate, compete compete and and
accommodate accommodate
This This will will determine determine their their relationship relationship with with
others others
The Peer Group The Peer Group
As As the the child child grows grows older older he he joins joins groups groups
linked linked with with his his age age and and interest interest
Child Child tends tends to to associate associate with with children children of of
the the same same age age coming coming from from kin kin group, group,
neighborhood neighborhood or or school school
Peer Peer groups groups in in adulthood adulthood are are formed formed in in
places places of of work, work, politics, politics, fraternities fraternities or or
sororities sororities or or religion religion..
Egalitarian Egalitarian in in nature nature equality equality in in status status
Child Child gains gains freedom freedom as as he he is is released released
from from the the dominating dominating pressures pressures of of adults adults
and and in in cooperative cooperative interaction interaction with with equals equals
Should Should there there be be conflict conflict he he settled settled it it with with
equals equals
here here the the child child learns learns to to make make decisions decisions
as as he he is is introduced introduced to to a a world world often often in in
conflict conflict with with adult adult world world
Learns Learns to to develop develop self self- -sufficiency sufficiency
Adolescents Adolescents are are warned warned against against joining joining
the the barkada barkada because because the the parents parents feel feel that that
such such kind kind of of intense intense attachment attachment brings brings
more more harm harm than than good good
nfluences nfluences the the norms norms and and values, values, interests interests
and and activities activities of of its its members members
Members Members develop develop storing storing attachment attachment and and
loyalty loyalty to to the the group, group, getting getting support support and and
security security in in times times of of uncertainty, uncertainty, stresses stresses
and and strain strain
Develop Develop among among members members a a sense sense of of
belonging belonging and and a a strong strong we we- -feeling feeling
Their Their style style in in life, life, consumption consumption needs, needs,
recreation recreation and and other other activities activities are are
influenced influenced by by the the peer peer group group aided aided by by
media media
They They improvise improvise words words or or have have a a lingo lingo to to
set set them them apart apart from from others others
Some Some committed, committed, cause cause- -oriented oriented groups groups
dedicate dedicate themselves themselves to to working working for for certain certain
ideals, ideals, like like social social justice justice and and human human rights rights
ecome ecome especially especially influential influential when when
parental parental guidance, guidance, affection affection and and are are
lacking lacking
Schools Schools
The The primary primary agent agent for for weaning weaning the the child child
from from home home and and introducing introducing him him into into the the
society society
here here the the child child gets gets his his formal formal instruction instruction
and and acquires acquires skills skills
The The child's child's emotional emotional and and intellectual intellectual
growth growth is is forged forged
nculcates nculcates the the basic basic cultural cultural values values and and
selective selective knowledge knowledge they they will will need need to to
participate participate in in the the society society to to which which they they
belong belong
Mass Media Mass Media
ts ts functions functions are are primarily primarily to to inform, inform,
entertain entertain and and educate educate
Substitute Substitute for for activities activities like like reading reading and and
playing playing
Parents Parents usually usually find find it it convenient convenient for for their their
children children to to view view TV TV programs programs as as it it enables enables
them them to to do do their their household household chores chores or or
orkplace orkplace
n n the the rural rural communities, communities, farmers, farmers,
fisherfolks fisherfolks and and craftsmen craftsmen live live close close to to their their
place place of of work work so so that that their their work work is is usually usually
tied tied up up with with other other activities activities in in the the home home or or
community community
n n urban urban areas, areas, the the work work activity activity of of people people
is is usually usually distinct distinct from from other other activities activities
Employees Employees are are socialized socialized according according to to
their their role role expectations expectations
Social Change Social Change
AA significant significant shift shift or or modification modification in in the the
lifestyle lifestyle of of a a society, society, affecting affecting major major
segments segments of of the the population population and and bringing bringing
about about transformation transformation of of its its social social structure, structure,
its its institutions institutions and and its its traditional traditional values values and and
patterns patterns of of behavior behavior
Social nstitution Social nstitution
amily amily
The Marriage Process The Marriage Process
a. a. inding a potential spouse inding a potential spouse
b. b. Securing the marriage Securing the marriage
c. c. Maintaining it Maintaining it
a. Choosing a spouse a. Choosing a spouse
Rules vary among societies Rules vary among societies
Endogamous Endogamous mate must come within mate must come within
one's community one's community
Exogamy Exogamy spouse may be chosen spouse may be chosen
outside the community outside the community
n extreme cases, members resort to n extreme cases, members resort to
marriage by capture marriage by capture
n the Philippines, it is locally known as n the Philippines, it is locally known as
"pikot "pikot
Marriage Marriage has has to to be be arranged arranged by by families families of of
the the couple couple
Child Child marriage marriage among among the the T'boli T'boli
Meeting Meeting the the Terms Terms::
He He is is expected expected to to perform perform the the bride bride
service service (one (one year year or or more) more)
Depending Depending on on the the wishes wishes of of the the bride's bride's
parents parents
b. Securing the Marriage b. Securing the Marriage
Marriage is secured through the payment Marriage is secured through the payment
of bridewealth of bridewealth
ridewealth ridewealth given to the parents of the given to the parents of the
bridegroom for the fertility of the woman bridegroom for the fertility of the woman
Dowry is the recognition of the virility of Dowry is the recognition of the virility of
the man the man
Residence After Marriage Residence After Marriage
Neolocal residence Neolocal residence couple live in a place far couple live in a place far
from the residence of their parents from the residence of their parents
Patrilocal or virilocal residence Patrilocal or virilocal residence the man brings the man brings
his wife to his parent's house his wife to his parent's house
Matrilocal or uxorilocal residence Matrilocal or uxorilocal residence wife brings the wife brings the
husband to her parents' house husband to her parents' house
ilocal residence ilocal residence shift from matrilocal to shift from matrilocal to
patrilocal or vice versa patrilocal or vice versa
orms of Marriage orms of Marriage
1. Monogamy 1. Monogamy
most common and universal form most common and universal form
&nion of a man and woman &nion of a man and woman
Predicated on the personal choice of the Predicated on the personal choice of the
couple couple
Serial marriage Serial marriage one has a number of one has a number of
spouses but he or she is married to them spouses but he or she is married to them
consecutively consecutively
2. Polygamy 2. Polygamy
Refers to a plural union where an Refers to a plural union where an
individual is married to several individuals individual is married to several individuals
at the same time at the same time
nvolvement of man to several women nvolvement of man to several women
The Muslim marriage exemplifies this form The Muslim marriage exemplifies this form
as it is provided in the oran as it is provided in the oran
Polyandry Polyandry woman involved with several woman involved with several
men men
Social scientists believe that this is Social scientists believe that this is
effective means of population control effective means of population control
. Adoptive Marriage . Adoptive Marriage
orm of marriage found in Japan orm of marriage found in Japan
One's One's surname surname is is patronymic patronymic (surname (surname is is
transferred transferred from from father father to to son) son)
amilies amilies who who only only have have daughters daughters adopt adopt
the the prospective prospective son son- -in in- -law law before before the the
wedding wedding thus thus his his surname surname is is changed changed to to
that that of of the the bride's bride's family family
4. ictive Marriage 4. ictive Marriage
&nion between two women, an older and a &nion between two women, an older and a
younger one younger one
The The older older woman woman has has been been divorced divorced by by her her
husband husband because because of of her her being being barren barren
She She will will marry marry a a younger younger woman woman to to take take care care of of
her her
The The younger younger woman woman can can have have a a relationship relationship
with with a a man, man, and and their their children children will will be be considered considered
as as the the children children of of the the couple couple
Sex Sex is is never never the the function function of of such such union union
Lesbianism Lesbianism is is out out of of the the question question
5. Sister 5. Sister- -Exchange Exchange
This This form form of of marriage marriage is is prevalent prevalent in in some some
agricultural agricultural areas areas where where every every member member of of
the the family family must must be be a a farm farm helper helper
AA man man cannot cannot be be allowed allowed to to marry marry unless unless
the the sister sister of of the the bridegroom bridegroom agrees agrees to to
marry marry the the brother brother of of the the bride bride
. ride Capture . ride Capture
n itself part of the marriage ritual (legal) n itself part of the marriage ritual (legal)
Tikopia, an island in the Pacific Tikopia, an island in the Pacific
Relatives of the bridegroom assist him in Relatives of the bridegroom assist him in
"capturing the bride "capturing the bride
f the bride is not in favor, she makes this f the bride is not in favor, she makes this
known to her relatives and they in turn see known to her relatives and they in turn see
to it that she never gets captured to it that she never gets captured
There are other forms of marriage There are other forms of marriage
which are considered as which are considered as
second marriages second marriages
1. 1. Sororate Marriage Sororate Marriage
sister sister- -in in- -law marriage law marriage
The man remarries his deceased wife's The man remarries his deceased wife's
sister sister
Also referred as the inheritance Also referred as the inheritance
Commonly practiced in African societies Commonly practiced in African societies
2. Levirate Marriage 2. Levirate Marriage brother brother- -in in- -law law
marriage marriage
A woman marries the deceased husband's A woman marries the deceased husband's
brother brother
The objective is to take care of the The objective is to take care of the
brother's children and his widow brother's children and his widow
. Ghost Marriage . Ghost Marriage similar to levirate similar to levirate
marriage marriage
The difference lies in the fact that children The difference lies in the fact that children
by the second marriage are considered to by the second marriage are considered to
be "sired by the dead husband be "sired by the dead husband
eyond Monogamy eyond Monogamy
1. 1. Husband Husband ife Swapping ife Swapping
- - There There is is an an organization organization which which handles handles
the the activities activities of of the the participating participating
members members
- - Singles Singles not not allowed allowed
- - No No emotional emotional relations relations to to be be established established
between between partners partners
- - Parties Parties are are held held after after nine nine in in the the evening evening
2. Live 2. Live- -n Relationship n Relationship
Relationship Relationship between between single single man man and and
single single woman woman who who agree agree to to live live together together
as as husband husband and and wife wife without without the the formal formal
marriage marriage rites rites
Resembles Resembles the the common common- -law law relationship relationship
The The difference difference is is that that the the couple couple may may be be
married married to to other other persons persons
C. Other forms of Relationship C. Other forms of Relationship
Swingers Swingers middle middle- -aged aged men men who who find find
pleasure pleasure in in going going to to bars bars and and attracting attracting
women women
They They collect collect women women
Their Their egos egos are are inflated inflated when when they they realize realize
that that there there are are still still women women who who fall fall for for them them
in in spite spite of of their their age age
Dual Career Dual Career- -amily amily
The The task task of of providing providing for for the the economic economic
needs needs of of the the family family is is no no longer longer the the sole sole
responsibility responsibility of of the the husband husband and and father father
but but also also of of the the wife wife and and mother mother
oth oth husband husband and and wife wife pursue pursue their their
individual individual careers careers
Husband Husband must must also also share share in in the the household household
tasks tasks
oth oth participate participate in in domestic domestic chores chores
Changing Role of omen Changing Role of omen
Gender Gender inequality inequality one one of of the the issues issues
associated associated with with the the emergence emergence of of the the dual dual
career career family family
Most Most companies companies prefer prefer male male employees employees
because because of of the the "burden "burden women women bring bring
The The take take- -home home pay pay of of the the wife, wife, as as well well as as
her her successful successful career, career, is is often often the the source source
of of tension tension within within the the family family
efore efore industrialization industrialization and and urbanization, urbanization,
women women were were confined confined to to the the homes homes and and
tied tied down down to to domestic domestic chores chores
n n slums, slums, women women are are the the principal principal wage wage
earners earners for for their their families families (husbands (husbands are are
usually usually unemployed unemployed or or on on contractual) contractual)
omen omen in in the the middle middle and and upper upper classes classes
get get better better training training and and complete complete tertiary tertiary
education education from from reputable reputable institutions institutions
Causes of Change in the amily Causes of Change in the amily
Attributed to the introduction of more Attributed to the introduction of more
sophisticated technology sophisticated technology
Available family planning methods Available family planning methods
Mass media and group influence have Mass media and group influence have
also been responsible for some of the also been responsible for some of the
changes in the family changes in the family
Technological changes have also been Technological changes have also been
responsible for the distance between and responsible for the distance between and
among family members among family members
Has Has brought brought about about the the rise rise of of more more dual dual- -
career career families families in in order order for for parents parents to to meet meet
the the needs needs and and demands demands of of family family
members members
Has Has given given rise rise to to institutions institutions such such as as
schools schools (pre (pre- -schools schools and and nursery) nursery)
ast ast food food chains, chains, instant instant meals, meals, ready ready- -to to- -
cook cook meals meals available available at at the the market market
orking orking parents parents may may not not find find time time to to eat eat
dinner dinner at at home home
Husbands Husbands and and wives wives become become physically physically
and and psychologically psychologically distant distant from from each each
other other
This This may may lead lead to to cooling cooling off off period period to to legal legal
separation separation
uture of the amily in the uture of the amily in the
Philippines Philippines
Remains Remains to to be be strong strong and and vital vital institution institution
in in molding molding the the character character of of its its young young
members members
oreseen oreseen decrease decrease in in the the size size of of the the
family family as as younger younger couples couples realize realize the the
value value of of having having fewer fewer children children
Proliferation Proliferation of of agencies agencies and and services services
available available to to assist assist working working women women with with the the
burden burden of of housekeeping housekeeping
orking orking women women will will continue continue to to assume assume
some some of of their their traditional traditional roles roles
Men Men will will share share in in the the traditional traditional roles roles of of
women women;; they they will will begin begin to to be be supportive supportive of of
the the careers careers of of their their wives wives after after marriage marriage
omen omen who who are are career career- -oriented oriented will will put put
off off marriage marriage
Stable Stable jobs jobs before before marriage marriage because because of of
the the significant significant contributions contributions to to the the family family
income income
Economic Organization Economic Organization
Economy Economy
The The decision decision that that people people make make given given the the
limited limited resources resources or or wealth wealth on on hand hand
The The desire desire to to obtain obtain or or utilize utilize unlimited unlimited
goods goods and and services services
To To maximize maximize the the achievement achievement of of goods goods
while while at at the the same same time time minimizing minimizing
expenditure expenditure
Activities Activities people people engage engage in in to to produce produce and and
acquire acquire goods goods and and services services
Modes of production Modes of production
1. 1. Hunting and foraging Hunting and foraging
2. 2. Horticulture Horticulture associated with slash associated with slash- -burn burn
method method
. . Pastoralism Pastoralism involves involves a a primary primary
dependence dependence on on herding herding and and animal animal
husbandry husbandry
4. 4. Agriculture Agriculture
Money serves Money serves
three important purposes three important purposes
1. 1. As means of exchange As means of exchange
2. 2. As mode of payment As mode of payment
. . A standard of value A standard of value
Exchange Exchange
Simply refers to the practice of giving Simply refers to the practice of giving
and receiving valued objects and and receiving valued objects and
services services
Comes in various forms: Comes in various forms:
1. 1. Reciprocal Reciprocal
2. 2. Redistributive Redistributive
. . market market
Reciprocal Exchange Reciprocal Exchange
The The exchange exchange process process noted noted among among
simple simple and and small small- -scale scale societies societies
characteristics characteristics::
1. 1. No No immediate immediate return return
2. 2. No No systematic systematic calculation calculation of of the the value value of of
the the products products and and services services exchanged exchanged
. . An An overt overt denial denial that that a a balance balance is is being being
calculated calculated or or that that the the balance balance must must come come
out out even even
Redistributive Exchange Redistributive Exchange
An An extreme extreme case case of of reciprocity reciprocity where where the the
redistributor redistributor gives gives away away everything everything and and
gets gets nothing nothing in in exchange, exchange, but but the the
admiration admiration of of those those who who benefit benefit from from the the
transaction transaction (an (an egalitarian egalitarian redistributive redistributive
exchange) exchange)
The The redistributor redistributor withholds withholds his his labor labor from from
the the production production process, process, keeps keeps the the largest largest
share share and and therefore therefore gets gets more more material material
goods goods for for himself himself (stratified (stratified redistribution redistribution
exchange) exchange)
Price Market Exchange: Price Market Exchange:
uying and Selling uying and Selling
Market Market is is a a place place where where people people assemble, assemble,
buy buy and and sell sell commodities commodities that that they they
produce produce and and the the services services they they need need
Market Market is is also also a a place place for for socialization socialization
Suki Suki frequent frequent market market buyers buyers
- - gets gets an an extra extra treat treat
The rural household and its The rural household and its
contribution to economic production contribution to economic production
Household Household is is the the basic basic unit unit of of economic economic
organization organization (economists) (economists)
Household Household is is the the basic basic unit unit of of analysis, analysis,
particularly particularly in in terms terms of of production production and and
consumption consumption (anthropologists) (anthropologists)
The The household household is is the the only only easily easily
identifiable identifiable starting starting point point for for any any kind kind of of
socio socio- -economic economic investigation investigation in in most most of of
the the societies societies they they have have studied studied
The economic value of children The economic value of children
1. 1. hen the mothers become widowed and hen the mothers become widowed and
the control of the household's productive the control of the household's productive
assets have been transferred to the next assets have been transferred to the next
generation generation
2. 2. hen hen a a child child returns returns to to the the parental parental
household household after after having having spent spent some some years years
in in a a position position of of independence independence
Political Organization Political Organization
"Politics begin where "Politics begin where
kinship ends kinship ends
Political Organization Political Organization
is is a a part part of of the the total total organization organization
concerned concerned with with the the preservation preservation of of social social
order order within within a a specified specified territory territory by by a a duly duly
recognized recognized authority authority
Politics Politics is is about about the the absolute absolute power power to to
make make decisions decisions in in society society
Always Always associated associated with with government government
Exists Exists in in all all societies societies
The government's decision is authoritative The government's decision is authoritative
and can be coercive at times through the and can be coercive at times through the
use of police, law courts, prisons and other use of police, law courts, prisons and other
institutions institutions
n effect power is vested in government n effect power is vested in government
Concept of Power Concept of Power
The key concept of politics is power The key concept of politics is power
Power Power is is defined defined as as the the ability ability to to make make
others others do do what what others others would would not not
otherwise otherwise do do
Can Can operate operate in in various various levels levels
1. 1. Personal Personal
2. 2. Organizational Organizational
. . National National
4. 4. nternational nternational
The problem arises when power is used
simultaneously, confusion emerges and
therefore difficult to resolve particularly,
when the people involved do not have
power that is, to make final decision on the
problem, but nevertheless have the
influence and can affect decisions
Power can be used and abused in
the following ways:
&ses
1. To gain consent
2. To secure
agreement
. To find general good
4. To find what people
want
5. To act quickly in an
emergency
. To maintain the
society
Abuses
1. To gain obedience
2. To override
reasoned opposition
. To push a special
interest
4. To tell people what
they ought to want
5. To use emergency
powers to keep
oneself in power
Theories of Political Power
1. Those who believe that the key to
political power lies in the economic
organization. This is related to the idea
that the class who controls means of
production has political power.
2. Those who believe that the political
power is in the hands of the few (ruling
elite)
. Those who believe that political power is
widely distributed in society and that for
every center of power there is the
countervailing center of power (the
pluralist model)
Model
Source
earers
Conscious?
Means
Ruling Class
Economic
Class
Yes
Control of production
Model
Source
earers
Conscious?
Means
Ruling Elite
Group cohesion
Elite
Yes
Control of information
Model
Source
earers
Conscious?
Means
Pluralist
Popular with
organization
Competing groups
No
Countervailing power
Ruling Class Model
The Marxist view upholds the theory that
the real centers of power are the classes
People who compose them have a
common interest and can develop
common purpose predicated on a
common relation to the factors of
production
Economic is the primary source of power
in a capitalist society (Marx)
The ruling class enjoys the
following powers
Controls the state (government, police,
judiciary, army) and can coerce others in
obeying it
Controls the processes of information
(media, educational system)
Ruling Elite Model
Elite refers to a small groups of people
who occupies the most influential and
prestigious positions in society
A political elite refers to those people who
have a disproportionate share of power
Elite theory has its origin in taly by those
pessimists who decry the possibility of
democracy
The term elite was coined by Vilfredo
Pareto, an talian economist who
developed interest in sociology in his later
life
rom Robert Michel's point of view,
oligarchy, the rule by the few, is inevitable
product of the basic principles of the
organization
asic Principles of the organization
1. Size-increase in the size of an
organization inevitably results in the
division of labor and eventually
specialization..
2. Power and influence
Specialists begin to take the status of
experts. Concentration of expertise leads
to concentration of power.
. Lack of participation
The rank and file within an organization do
not have the necessary training as
specialists and therefore cannot
participate.
4. Organizational facilities for power
maintenance.
Leaders can remain in power by:
1. Superior knowledge because of
specialization, access to files, just being
around when decisions are made.
nowledge can empower one to
manipulate the organization.
2. Control of the organizational media
(journals). Views approved by the top are
transmitted to the subordinates.
. Time leaders are highly paid and given
incentives. They have plenty of time on
hand to accumulate knowledge.
4. Political skill a factor in order to achieve
power, once in power, leaders have this
skill and eventually become full time
politicians
actors to consider which are
external to the organization but
contributory to oligarchy
1. The generally illegitimacy of opposition.
Criticism is viewed as subversion
2. The economic and social gap between
leaders and followers.
. Psychological factor (The masses are
incompetent and apathetic. As such they
are grateful to the leaders for assuming
the responsibility to govern them)
Pluralist Model
&phold the view that the group, not
individuals, can command power
t oppose the view that in a democratic
society, every citizen has equal chance to
influence decisions
Political Party exists to contest for political
office
Pressure group exists to influence on
decision makers like the politicians
ays by which pressure groups
exert their influence
Media
Public demonstration (rally, meeting or
lobbying)
Representations to members of Congress
Political Community
Consists of people with similar political
norms and goals
Agree to follow the same political
procedures
&nique in the specific avenues for the
acquisition of power
The Political Elite
Those people within a community that
weld power and leadership
Leaders are example of a member of the
political elite
An individual who has the power to make
decisions for and in behalf of a group
Political power of a leader is personal
(within the context of the socioeconomic
setting where a leader lives
Political Organization of Societies
Two broad categories:
1. Those associated with states
characterized by the presence of
centralized authority, administrative
machinery and judicial institution
2. Those associated with stateless societies
small scale societies, without the
specialization present in state
governance
Stateless societies are of two types
1. Acephalous (headless) consists of
people who live and work together in
bands, camps or villages.
- t is usually a small group consisting of
about twenty to twenty-five people who
are related by blood or marriage
- decision is done by consensus
- commonly organized into loose
alliances known as tribes
A tribe consists of people with certain
cultural characteristics, a common territory
and enjoys political autonomy
2. Chiefdom its administrative structure
integrates a number of communities and
therefore highly stratified
Status above the other members of the
society
The position is hereditary
Chief accumulates goods which he
redistribute (feast or dole out)
Population size and growth are important
factors in the transformation of acephalous
to chiefdom and chiefdom to states
Higher population densities imply
specialization and a more intensified
production which contribute to a greater
accumulation of wealth and power
State
An autonomous integrated political unit,
encompassing many communities within
its territory with a highly specialized central
governing authority
Has a monopoly of power
Many states were creations of colonial
powers
Conflict
People within a community are bound to
experience interpersonal and social
tension
Communities have devised certain
strategies to cope with such problems
t is possible that those in power are
motivated to want more and are unwilling
to give it up
or those not in power, they resort to
conflict as a resource to increase their
position in society
Rebellion
nvolved in the struggle for power and
change
nvolves the innocent masses at the
crossfire
Disrupted the operations of government
and economy
The effect led to the loss of lives
ig chunk of government's expenditure
and budget went to the National Defense
department, rationale to protect internal
security
ncentives are offered to lure rebels to put
down their arms and recognize
government authority
Revolution
nvolves fundamental change in the nature
of the state, the functions of government,
the principles of economic production and
distribution, the relationship of social
classes, particularly as regard the control
of government a significant break with
the past
Revolution are rare because of the
following reasons
Lack of power
nability to organize
Motives are simple
Multiple and divided loyalties that make
change difficult
Decisions made by those in power institute
reforms to ease pressure
Ability of those in power to co-opt the
leadership of the opposition