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YLG
dG GQOEG
q
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INCORPORATING GENDER
INTO YOUR NGO
QSGh df dCJ
by Nicolien Wassenaar

d J~q YCG

''fQd Qhf''
Edited and Published by:

Networklearning

www.networklearning.org

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TdGh qdD G e PEH fh LJ h

q YLG dG GQOEG
q eG Z qe
INCORPORATING GENDER
INTO YOUR NGO

QSGh df dCJ
by Nicolien Wassenaar

.TdGh dDG e mPEH fh LJ h www.networklearning.org e PNCe d~dG Gg


.2006 je/QjCG networklearning.org. ' fQd Qhf'' X jfEG dG M L

gfh WG~dG ~WJ S J ,HQ Z e g (NDI) dh~dG hDd WdG WG~dG ~G


jJ LCG e ,SdGh f~G IOd dG I~YG WdG WG~dG ~G ajh .dG SGh f Y
e kjCG ~G hjh .YG AGG e Y H ke ,WG~dG SDGh SQGh dG
J EG aVEH ,HfG gGf Uh ,f~Gh SdG G AH ~H ,dG AfCG c WG~dG
.G dAGh fG jJh ,WGG cQe
:`H JG Ljo ,eG e ~j
National Democratic Institute for International Affairs
2030 M Street, NW
Fifth Floor
Washington, DC 20036
Telephone: 202-728-5500
Fax: 202-728-5520
Website: www@ndi.org

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,eG HdG ,Z T ,EG QT 2030
20036 UdG TGh
202-728-5500:Jg
202-728-5520 :ca
www@ndi.org :hdEG bG
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.d p oW .2007 ZCG/BG ,d - hH ,WdG WG~dG ~d X HdG dG M L


cP T ,l Fa jQ Z G~gC e e f eCG ,iNCG d EG HdG dG LJ Y eEG ALdG
.IQG IOd Gk Q~e ~G
arabictranslation@ndi.org :hdEG bG EG dG Gg LJ M GDS hCG J CG SQEG ALdG

CONTENTS

jG

e~q G .1

?q YLG dH OG e .2

q SSCG jJh ge :q YLG dG .3

4
5
5
10
10
10
11
11
12

q YLG dGh G
q YLG dG M QGhOG
G M dG J
LdGh ICGG LMG
LdGh ICGd q dG LMG
LdGh ICGd q JGSG LMG
eGdGh FdG SdG G jb eOEG
G jb Y kAH dG
(''G'
q ' fdG) G M fdG J

13

gJ ch gPqJG Vn G GG .4

13
14
17
18
19
19
22
25
26

dG e :jq Me
?MG g dEG q dG LGdG FG e
MdG GG
qG G jb Y kAH dG :hCG IG
' GS''
q Y f
Ld kah dG q Y J
?MG g G e
HG GdG ~j~ :fdG IG

26
29
30
31
31
33
33
34
36
38
38

dG Nh q YLG d q JGSG dG :ddG IG


dG Nh qJGSG OG~YEG
r G
n H RGdG ME gOYG q JGSG Y P
dG I~q e ae
dG :HGdG IG
dGh bGG :eG IG
bGG
bGG e J
q
bGd YVe q LJ Oe
bGd I~q e ae Y P
dG

42

ffEG T Y IqaG QOGh LGG :1 G

44

GhOCG :2 G

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

INTRODUCTION

e~G
q

G j UTCG e dG Gj ,Gg ej q YLG dG IQY SG T ZQ


Y j e kda .qY LH dG Gh e qe EG dH J G eh ,J dG
j m f Y , qG Y Ue c q YLG dG GQOE dG ~j~ q gCG qG
IGhGh RGq dG MEGh ,eGdGh q FdG SdG G jb eOEG IYGe EG UdG
q
.H J dG WdG ie Yh qG NGO
gG Y MhdG H VH GC ~a ,qdG g I~YG ~J EG qdG Gg j
Vn G GG'' GH b MhdG g j .q YLG dH qG q SSCG jdGh
YGJ IH fGG q c e EG ~j gh ,LQN hCG qe NGO EG ,''gJ Sh gPqJG
;d j dG OdG RGHG e dG EG LG q dG j ,QWEG Gg h .q YLG dG
.IuKD G eGdGh WG gG M YdG j c
g Uh j . qe NGO ' r G
n H QGdG IYGe'' q Y GN I~q Y qJG e ~q H
q K eh J EG kUhh ,Y qN OG~YEH Gk Qheh , qe H Gk A~H ,IN kIN ,GG
.Jh bGe
dG qfhdEG HGhdG Y ka ,dG GP qfhdEG bGGh QOH qdG Ohj
q ,keN
.hG IQhO dEG ~J ,r d
YGe q Le FGc ,q e GhOCG EG
n

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

GENDER,
WHAT DOES IT MEAN?

OG e
?YLG
dH
q

dG'' :d a IOq Q hCq G ,j e kdZ ,q YLG dG IQY J q Y SdG CJ M


d S qFdG cG hCG VN dG dG EG bj dP qd .''IGC G g q YLG
.ICGG hDH a jo q YLG dG q dh .bMh ICGG jb EG fG
.q YLG dG SG ddG I~dG ~J Hq Q

ICGeG q c EG
S QGB ffff H
V be e q dG S ICGeG q c He
,qjb qfCG Q~J a
Ibq QdG q e l LQ
V qfGC j gh
,AdH gdG gYCG ICGeG q c He
e sbj e K Rj lLQ
.''IOQGdGh IOQdH EG'' kehO
n oJ CG gYCG ICGeG q c He
' q WdG ICGH''
.qbH q dGh AdG qM Y noj lLQ
,''fqj'' OhCG qC H J mIGC eG qc He
.q HCG qH kq c q dG e n jo l LQ

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

q e H dG q M e eh ICGeG q c He
,Lq dG LCG gj m LCG VnJh
q dG AYCG ec q j CG Y j l LQ
.NBG f
HGY J ICGeG q c He
,GQdG IOb
.dG Iqd j l LQ
,jq H RdG f kIN J ICGeG q c He
jq G f jdG qGC j l LQ
.IY qbCG JH

' hO'' e PEH

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

GENDER: KEY CONCEPTS


AND

DEFINITIONS

:YLG
dG
q
SSC
q G jJh ge
q YLG dGh G

?rnJdG Jg H dG e :q YLG dGh G


qGC Y J G aNa .ICGGh LdG H FdG LddG NG Y G c q ~J
dG M e LdG Y ICGG J c ;VJh OhCH ICGGh ,q G Rj Lq dG
.q dGh ,fedG h ,jq ~G
LdG bGh N e NG LhCG ~q TCG RJ qfGE .dG H q c r G
n H Y QGdG HJh
dG IQY ~n oJ dd .Ye
bhdGh bhdG g H d YLG
q
q aK ICGG hCG
.q LddG fEG cH qj e g ,YLG dG N Y ,kGPEG a .q LddG
EG J YLG dG IQYh .kqYLG IO~q QGa Y j G ICGGh LdG be qEG
Y dG hCG q cdG H q j fCG SdG qGC H .G gO~q j dG QGdG J
QYH ,q e ICGeEG hCG LH J qfGC Y fCG H EG hjh ,jfCG hCG jQcP qfCG
.NBG m hCG m~H LdG H qj CG q e m hCG m~H ICGG H J Y q GC qCG

OGdG H ,q G g cJ H ,LdG e e g RG ~J qGC G gCG j ,HKCG


ceCG qeGC ,LdG e ZCG ,TOH cG edG .ICGG EG ,h~dG e YCG
QGG C dG g ICGG ,GOdG AfCG e ,kGNCGh .G g edG qg Ada ,SdG
qj qfGC ,MCG dG e qbdG-qddG G q G g LdG qdj a ,AH
.qedG ceCG J CG GC ~G M e ICGd
,q YLGh ,q ffdGh ,q adG dH r G
n ~MCG Y Q~J IO~q q c S J
kY Sj cS qCG kjCG fh .H qKC jh ,fEG a j dG q SdGh ,jq ObGh
gj dG QdG J ,r G
n H QGdG fh .e O~q dG jq SCG bdG
.Jjq dhCGh ,FGQBGh aQe jJ Rj c ,IG ICGG LdG

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

q YLG dG M QGhOCG
Rq h ~bh .G ICGG hCG LdG ' jOq D j'' CG sbG Qh~dG J q YLG dG M QGhOCG
kda .d hCG d ' kSe'' Jj e ah ICGGh LdG Y fCGh ,q dhDeh ,kGQGhOCG G
.OhCG YJh G hDT ICGG j~J H ,FY d bRQ j CG LdH Vn jo e (kehO )

G M dG J
dGh W M e j Y qGC Z ,Gh FdG dYE ,gc ,ICGGh LdG j
.r G
n H FdG bdG Y ,N Q~e qJ CG dG ,g NG f C Jh .q dG
Y qCG qGE .FEG j ,JSC qWdG IOdGh q YLG ANdG eCH ICGG oJ
Gk LCG Va ,ICGG Y q gCG e sjo e kdZ H .LdG Y j dG j~dG IOY j
c ,q SdG FKdGh jQdG qCG kY ;WEG Y m LCG q CG V J hCG LdG LCG hO
jQe OG~YEG j M kq c g q j dG ,bGdG Gg cJ q SdG q WdG q FMEG
q G M dch ,ICGGh LdG QGhOCG M aGh SGQO oJ GPEa .q e hCG e e
.sN e~q J dG gGh ICGG Y qa ,JY Y IG qdhDGh

e ,~U Z Y GQhe L ,hedG e qddG WG q YGQR efH OG~YEG ~Y


qXe dh qadG OdG H f ,dh .qjhdGh ,idG h ,qeG SDG
eDj g~MCG j ,dP EG aVEH .ADg e qGE GhQe G J ,LdG e , ,hG
.dG Me Hh OG~YEG QW hG Rh qK .qb k ge gG Y IQOb ICGG qC H
qJ SG jW J M ,q YGQR ce I~MGh S I~q J CG SCH Vn oj c
Sq e ,cd L H hG qXe ~q YCG ~a .GdG HJ UCG Jh j~M qYGQR
AdGh LdG Y j CG VG e ,VQCG H ISG qc M c .ISCG qd (kNc) kH
.d NBG e qSSCG jZCG H e j Gfch .ke
PEG ,ce QKCG ,dG Gg Y ,~MGh e ebEG qC khCq G ,YG H SCG LGh e YS
M ,Nc wc ,j AdGh LdG c ,idG a .g dG jW aj G c
.H UN
q qYLG IH Jh ,Wf e q j Y qc J

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

,VQCG b ICGeG qc CG Gk FL c ,idG a .qedG LdG e hqej LdG NCG ,kfK


c qh .YGh LGh~dG kIOY qHJ gh .qdG hCG qjdG YCGh ,HGdGh ,QG a QJ
j a .N H q FGdG dG Qg~J e ISCG fY ,G g EG j q YGQdG cG
.G J gQhOh ICGG Y EG ~MCG
q e M cQG Y rn Fb h SGQO AGLEG q QhdG e ,hG ~j~ Me
qGC Y ~qcD j e Ga .JLMGh ,Jq dhDeh ,dYCG Mh ,Afh LQ e ,q G GWCG
LdG Y q dH Oj qfGC Yh ,LCG dG UCG LM q j m f Y ~q e g hG
,kq S cCG fEG QcdGh ,dGh dG H j q dG Rj ,G H h .ke ICGGh
. YCG e

j~d ,! qdH
!e kFa
g ?G Y GPe
c j~d GR e
?ac

Gg H e
!LdG

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

J Oc ,GQhe LdG e QGO M ,HKCG L qjdG d V lefH ~q Yp GCo


HdG ICGG hDT e cQ Mh ,AdH UN I~Mh qT hG qGC e ,AdG Y
.N~dG Qq ~H kSSCG qJ e eGH Vh Vn oj c .ed
eh ,jdGh ,dGh ,dGh ,Gh ,YGQdc ,qe Fe Y Iah ee L q
Y Yn Ru hho ,TGG HJh YGQdG jd eGH Ld ~q Yp GCo c .a LdG e qfEG ,cT
.gGS hO Ld ,YGfCG Y ,qjQ~dG GQh~dG g n uof ~bh .q YGQdG fEG d GhOCG
.e hCG MG ~H qGE ' IGC G hDH q G dG OG~YEG' `d G jH w UNG hH noj h
dG M qe'' fH dG ,q YLG dH qG SGQ~dG i~MEG c e Ya
,q ObG G~G Gk c keSEG SCG ~b G J ICGG qGC Y c ,(e) ' YLG
d I~q G dG
q fEGh ,fGG HJh ,YGQdG V qdhDe JY Y NCG PEG
ICGG qGC Y G~Y ,j~dH Y nj h ,gQhO Y Gk ~HCG s j Gk ~MCG qGC a G qeGC .jdGh
.Y RGHE eRqdG OQGG G~SG qG hCG ,dH J hCG ,J q GC sJ JGP ~q H
kegG ICGG ~HCG ,d q FGdG eCG eCJh ISCG N~e keSEG qJ ,LCH ,qG g fc qh
.gGSh VhdG hCG ,qjdGh qYGQdG e~c OQGG Y Gh ,q YGQdG jQ~dH kUN
q

dG J
:qFQ a K Y dG J
~a .q QdG OdGh Sd I~q G e~Gh dG fEG Y J LfEG YCG
NC
q Hh ,fEG YCG Y K~q j e kdZ ,Y W Y UTCG e SG
.kNO Qq ~J dG hCG Gk LCG Y r Vj
dG J
n
eCJh H jdGh ,OhCG Ec ,jYQh gOGaCHh ISCH jdG J HEG YCG
dG qGE .ISCG q H AYGh ,G Jh ,dH
dGh ,ObdGh AGh dG
q
e Hq Q Oq g ICGa'') ' kM kY'' jo e Gk QOf d ,OGaG Ad q M q HG
,ke kY fc Y ka ,bdG e dG dG Gg j e e kdZ dh .(''...
.dGh AdG gc Y kehO j Oj

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

,M :q YLG e~Nh Se J YG e j q YG dG
cQGh , qe hCG Y EG fGh ,G jd Wfh ,MGh
kY ,q G WdG LdGh AdG j .dP G eh ,q q SS Wf
,ke ,LdG EG ncj e kdZ) .kjCG G Gg q eg r G
n H q G jRJ qCG
qG G Y~H AdG M ,qSdG hDdGh QGdG H qG fG
.(fLG ~q G dG OG~YEH
,jOG ~MCG Y QdG da .Fa q gCG j G FS LdGh ICGG Y qEG
e S ,ke YLG cQG qGC M e ,iNCG jOG Y GqKD S ,a Nq ~dGh
.iNCG qe d Sq G bdG

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

LhR
Y~J

jYdG qaJ
q dG

dCG

HG J

H J
q eCG

G q ~J
G J
dG e

qe FXH J

G qJ
G J
YQG J

G
OhCG YJ

J
LJ

J
9

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

LdGh ICGG LMG


jYdG aJ qj OhCG Ea .H j dG q G NH LdGh ICGG LM J
FShh GQe EG a ISCG q Q Qh~H dG eq GC .IO~q q U e~N e IOaEGh ,IOdG ~Y
.LH j N~e eCJ fCT e
.q JGSG iNCGh q a LM H LG J

LdGh ICGd q dG LMG


aJh ,q dG jYdGh ,G eCJ Y LdGh ICGd q dG LMG J CG
, ,J LG g fc qh .ISCG VGZCH j N~e c hCG qYGQdG GhOCG
EGh ,q bGh ce q S J qEa LdGh ICGG jOq DJ IO~q q h fEGh EG YCH
,OQGH qdG ie Y hCG ,dG Y FdG bdG LEH J q CG ~ d fc
.QGdG U S hCG

JH ICGG qGC EG IQhdH j qdG jYd aGe aJ qCG ,G S Y ,cf


.gqJ dG qdG jYdG Y G fEGh ,aGG g OJQG H Qq J CG Y IQOb
,q Q m Sd qdG bGh qj d q YGQdG fEG d dG aJ qGC EG aVEH
.kYJQG cCG QSCH kM d qf~e QSCH G j ,Pf p MU

LdGh ICGd JGSG LMG


jq M YJh ,dG bY J
q CG LdGh ICGd JGSG LMG J CT e
JGSG LMG qJ CG h .GQGdG U q Mh ,Y IdGh OQGG G~SG
;dG a HG~J e IOaEGh ;OQGG e gZh VhdG Y G q M ICGGh Ld
.q e AbG hCG VGQCG eG q Mh ;QGdG U jq H q dGh
qG jq gG jdG Y kjCG qKD J CG LdGh ICGd JGSG LMG J CT eh
.a J G~MEG eCG Y ,H qdGh OQGG Y G q Mh ,QGdG Uh ,dH

10

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

kj~J ~S ,qe AbH ICGG j


q ,fdG m j~J q GC qCG ,G S Y ,cf
bG jS q YGQdG Y~dGh OTQEG e ICGG IOSG qC ,OQGH qdG ie Y
qe qfhJ V LdG U J qGC Y ka .OQGG Y G Lh J dG
.Je d aCG QSCG Y G e q ~b

eGdGh q FdG SdG G jb eOEG


ICGGh LdG g mGh H dG EG eGdGh FdG SdG G jb eOEG ~j
G~gCG ~j~d d ae Ua V EGh ;eGdGh SdG V fGO~q j dG jq dhCGh
.e IOSGh ,a cQGh ,jq dhCGh
Sh Y ,dH JJ ICGGh LdG jb qC H kYh ,SSCG ,G jb eOEG Ljh
.q dGh ,SdG jJh ,dG jOe Se gh ,J
,r
n G H IGhG MEG eGdGh FdG SdG G jb eOEG gj CG e ~q H
,hqdH ,G~j CG h ,IGhG ~b Y ,Hh ae UH ICGGh LdG qj H
a Q~j CG j H ,jQGh eGdH q YLG dG EG j .dG Nh eGdG e
GHh , qG Ue q c LGQOEG q j CG Y ,ke G IG J c ,q SSCG IOq c
.d Hbh dq a q YLG dG Y FdG HQG J ,m F~Y .A~dG e ,jQeh

G jb Y Ak H dG
FdG SdG G jb eOE q FQ IGOCG G jb Y Ak H dG j
? j dG e :dG a ,QWEG Gg f j dG GDdG eq GC .eGdGh
:j e kIOY j
;ICGGh LdG e qc QhO
;LdGh ICGG q dhDe
;H qdGh OQGG EG ICGGh LdG Pf
;LdGh ICGG q MUh GQGdG U

11

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

;H q j dG q feEGh AGdG Y ICGGh LdG LM


;ICGGh LdG H bdG
.be Yh ICGGh LdG Vh Y KCdG
,G jOe h ,I~UCG qac Y G jb Y kAH dG OYG e ~q H
qC ,SDq G ie Y dch ,eG ieh ,YG ieh ,ISCG ie Yh
Vh Y VGh Ia S qe hCG SDe q GC V QG G jb Y kAH dG
q GC eb GPEa .IGhG MEG f jdG gPqJG dG MqdG GG EG jh ,r G
n
Y KCG ~q TCG g HQ a ,r G
n H IGhG hCG q YLG dG IYG qe
.a J dG G rG
n H IGhG MEG kdJ gJh ,JqY

(''G'' fdG) G M fdG J ''


,Jq dhDeh ,jr Qn hOh ,ICGGh LdG q e Y qWG EG mLH g q eG Z e qEG
qdG c OQGG G PdGh ,idG H bdG Y ee L EG mLH qfGC c ;JLMh
,dG UCG e IG fdG H dG Y~j dG eCG .QGdG U dBG Yh ,H
.G M fdG H n jo e EG jh ,AdGh LdG e G
q fdG Rah
cCG AdGh LdHh ,dGh dH UG
q fdG H dG EG kfMCG IQhdG Y~J
G V q bY Y qG fdG H Mh ,iNCG QYCG Hh ,kq S
dG Jh ,LdG H qj dG qG Y iq J CG qYGQdG eGdG ,ke ,Rpa .~MGdG
dch ,H j dG WdG Y LdG j bdG e c J CGh ;ICGG H J
.JWf Y ICGG J dG bdG

jdG dG O~Y qGC qdG cGG e IGh YLG dG M qG fdG qH


k ZQ h~j SqdG qGC EG dP dG Ojh .dG O~Y j qdG cGG Y hOOq j
S ' Gk e'' jdG g~dGh ~qJ ,qfGC Y gf ;'' d b '' dG ,IdG Y G fEG
.gYjh ,rj~n dGh q dG Rj ~b ,HG .LhR gCG e d J M ,aaR

12

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

WHAT TO DO AND
HOW TO DO IT

VG
GG
n
gJ ch gPqJG

:ddG q G SCG OhGJ ,q YLG dH qG q SSCG gG EG aq J ~bh BG


?dG p~oJ c
? qG V r G
n H IGhG IYGe J c
?CG~J jCG e
? EG J dG e
?GG d ~q J c

dG qe :jq Me
ZQ ~J CG qG g Y hCq G j , qG e qe q GC q YLG dG GQOE
.dG Gg EG LG J
q CG ,q gCG H ,J G~MEG
.G d qj e qdh ,IVG qdH lY qfC :MJ Ve kej dG c e
,qfC ,dG hG j J q c ?gGdG VdG Y kVGQ c EG ,Vh d YG~q dG a
qj ,G Gg e .ANCG bj hCG ,be Y qKD j hCG ,dG hCG IdG ~j ~b
aG CG ,a edG q JGdG G c ,dEG LG i~e d q J CG dG Y SdG
.a~G dGh , qG Y dch ,q T IQH e Y j dG
d QhdG eh ,g~j~ q j e q C H jNBG IWe EG G AYCG LM EG IQTG Q~
dG q dh .dG EG LG ,fCH ,GhO~q j CG Y dd ,dG G~gCG ' G ' CG
dG Up ho M ,]QNCGh UdGh dGh IdG
q f [ (SWOT) ' GS'' H
.dG jW Y hCG IG qj ,a AYCG L GTEG e , 19

13

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

d qdG Lh jJ
JGP qJG
q h~dG OqJG :Q~G
MCG dG q

?MG g dEG q dG LGdG FG e


. qJ LCG e ,MGH beh hG ~j~ j
CG Ra .aGh ae hCG ac ee EG QaG H ,aq dH dG Ln Gjo e kdZ
kb ddG j qfCG q M ,IO~q eGH hCG q e UTCH q YLG dG j
j h ,aq dH q YLG dG Hn jo ,dd .''k Ff kfCT'' j H , qG e kq W
H fc qh .qc G kdJh ,ICGGh LdG J ~U Y qgCH GYEG
ae c EG lIQhV RH ,LQCG Y FT dGR e q YLG dG Y ddG QaCG
.dG q gCGh r G
n e q c Qh~Hh ,q YLG dH qG gH bO
.kaGh keEG H EGh ,q YLG dH qG Qn eCG Ao YCG j G j ,NBG H
~dG Y dch ,JGAGLEGh ,gh , qG aK J ~j CG e ~q H
,bCdGh dG ZdG AG~HEGh ,aG cG IQhdG J ,dG Gd .q dG
.r G
n H IGhG MEH GdG e

14

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

EG LH g qe q c qGC QYH ,G q c Y J d jq S Uh e e
UTCGh ,IO~q G JLMh qG VhCG e aGdH ,qe Vd I~q e HQe J
.a J dG G e dch ,a WG
.gJ LGdG LG ~j~ EG kS ,FdG VdG H GC ~J CG J qY qc Y
AGLEG q GC PqJG b FdG VdG Y q dGh ,LGh cG ~j~ dc q jh
.dG YG~H
eY Y OdG C J CG FG e .f hCG Ob q C ~q dG EG Qo S ,dG q Y N
e WdG qeGC .QGdG U S ie Y RJ CGh jdGh ,UTCGh ,edG
Cc .dG Y UTCG H VGYG S Y iq J CG a ,fG TCG
dG EG UTCG Y~J dG SCG a qC ?UG
q e qj dG e :AJ
.jNBG aGe Y G hCG G GLG ~Yj CG q e jH
EG Gk q e f iJ kfMCG ,dh .IN kIN a ~q J k qY dG iJ CG j
dG J hCG FG H jEG VH ,bGG H ' GE IOdG''h ,GN H LGdG
.SdG Y
g h~j qfGC Z .ae dG GhCr GQ EG hdG I~jGe k ZQ OGaCG ~j e kdZ
JQ~b Jh M Yq ~J CG e Y~j ,aGh MhT Y dM ~Y qGE ZdG
.gqj CG n G aG M e hG~dG Y

dG LdG qGC e ,Mh ICGG M qdG HdG QJ CG Y hedG IOdG LQO


.kGNBGh khCG QGdG fU dH g ' QG'' f h
~LGJ CG ~U ,qU ee ~q J GQhO AdG e O~Y HJ M ,qYGQdG cGG ~MCG a
GhNCa ,gfG VG YSGh .MdG Y MhdG H AYEG ~Y G LdG H
.SCG Mj

15

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

,IG ~b Y AdG ahCG qH S OhCa .MdG ~FGa (IdG c) ke GcQOCGh


.qdG cGG IQjR Y nG GeCG e f N~q j ,VGeCd k VY qbCG fjh
Ga e~Y .LdG eCG Me qdG eG M qjQ~dG GQh~dG UCG ,M m Me h
.gGSh ,qG hCG G~q G VQe ~j~J ke JLhR YO e Gq ,kG~L ka dG QeG
QT j~d j
q ,CdG GH c d fch ,Gh bG SdG qeY QT GPEG
.kegG J qfC Hh ,j~J Ve g JMeh gQaCG qC Hh ,QeCG e mq H Y fqC H
.dG gGh q dG Y~d cCG Gk OG~SG h~S ,dHh
.dG n q Y q j dG IQGOEG fL e m GdG s CG EG
n jo e gh - dG g e Y fG h , qe i~d IdG
q f O~q M e
q dG dG Y cdG ~Y R dG GP qj ke~q J RS - IdG f Y~H
.fGOEG LJh

QG~a .idG i~MEG q FGdG eCG


q CG qgCG qe OGQCG ,GOdG e qddG G
e aJh ,QGdG M LCG e d H AfEG e VdG ch ,AdGh LdG H GQhe
.''VGbG'' hCG G H e G Lh ,dEG LG ~Y e j
.GQGdG Ghqjh ,qjdG dG GcQjh ,dG IQGOEG Gqdj CG ,eCG OH ,LdG OGQCG
H ,MCG ZCG FZ fj LdG qGC QYH ,kaT vM ~q j qG Gg qGC EG IdG Ca
.dG Gg e IQGOE gDe nd AdG qGC LdG YOq G H ,iNCG ceCG dYCG
EG ncj CG .qM EG UdG
q q ,Vhe N~dGh ran dG e G OJh ,m~L W ~H
e~N ,jdG GdG ,kqS cCG LdG e KG ~q j a ,G H IQGOEG kqej AdG
UG
q qjQ~dG GQh~dG d j ~b rjQn G c AdG qGC EG IQTEG Q~ .qjQSG
.JQGOEGh dG he WEG YG~H qgCG qG e I~YG sr jh

16

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

,ke ,Fa q GC ~n oj H ,q FGdG eCG jc ,gSCH jdG AE HQCG G~SG


.G q e UE hCG I~j~L AGOS GdCG AGd
.qfS eH jdG e OaCGh gQM ~Y kFg kYO LdG d ~q a ,kGgH kM hG qM

MdG GG
j ,GMCG MCG h .jq dG YCG e AfG p Y ,dG EG LG ~j~ j
q
FdG SdG G jb eOEG IYGe J Y dG A~d gOG~SG Y G
EG' h ' ?BG be jCG' :fG f e GC ~J CG Y q j ?MdG GG g e ,kGPEG .eGdGh
' ?UdG Oq f jCG

q g ,a e'' :dCG dCS


CG H Vj
n jW Cq G ,JNCG
' ?g e SCG
~M
x EG qbj Gg'' IdG
q HLCa
j~jJ dG G Y c
' dG UdG
FdG OH dCG ,hQc jd
jdG gCG e dG :Q~G

:ddG GG PqJG e ~q H ,jq dG MG ~H


qG :hCG IG
jQhdG GdG ~j~ :fdG IG

17

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

Y qN OG~YEGh q JGSG dG :ddG IG


dG qN J :HGdG IG
dGh bGG :eG IG
c'' qdG ,hG IQhO M IOQGdG eG EG IOdG ,MG g ,~G e j ~b
e kf dG ,(6-3 dG hCG GC dG ) ' I~q Lh IU q eM Z qe oJ
www.networklearning.org :dG qhdEG bG

G G jb Y Ak H dG :hCG IG
qXe Zj i~e q GC EGh ?G jb J hCG q YLG dG qG YGJ ~q M G EG
EG LG cQ~j g ?CdG Gd l EG dh ,eGdGh q FdG SdG G jb eOEG cQG
?e ILG
q aG dch ,j dG q gCGh ,eGdGh FdG SdG G jb eOEG
H j ,VdG Gd k Jh .G G jb Y Ak H k CG A~dG H Q~j
QG FG GJ ,je dJ
q dG FSdG O~q J ZQ ,dh . qG FN jJ CG
. qH qG fGG Y AdG qJ dG FG HCG e J fOCG dEG

qG FN
qG AfEG S q qG dG
JjZh aG~gCG
qG/hG/efdG e VdG
J q JGSG
G~gCG d I~n G FSdGh HQG
JWff
G~gCG Hh q JGSG J VH H qJ dG q G L
H
,q dhDGh ,q G jRJh , qG MG UGh ,q dG qG
dGh
fCG
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q dG dGh GeCGh qXG
q QG Lh
dGh jG c ,FYCG hCG qXe Y IQOdG q cdGh ,bGG
j~d I~n G
q LQG JbY
dG fh ,iNCG qe e hq dG

18

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

''GS''
.Sd I~q G GhOCG e ' GS'' ~q j
:Y ' GS'' LCG QNEG q ~jh
IdG f
dG fh
UdGh
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edG QNCGh MG UdG c , qG i~d dGh IdG f Y ' GS'' j
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qG jdG e Y qG IQ~b Sb EG ea ,G jb Y Ak H q GC eq GC
.H

q Y f
n jh .VH mjGQO Y ,G NGO e ee e~q e e Tf AGLEG G dG ~j
;OGaCG hCG YG H e qe T He T q J Cc ,m jW Z GQhG g J CG
ee e~q e e q YL Tf hCG ;ghD CG eG e~q e Y q j fSG T hCG
.VH qe lYh bCG ac Y gj ,Y TQh V Qh~j Tf hCG ;jQ
j Ve g q YLG dG qCG EG Gk f ,Y TQh J ahCG e j ,MCG ZCG h
e CG , qG NGO je I~q Y e qXe a qj CG dc q G eh .gSCH qG
GPEG XG ec kjCG gj CG Rjh .q fG~G Xc ,jq QGOEGh QGdG fU ie
.G IU qG fc
:ddG H dG TQh f qj
;egG ghjh gQM Gh~qcDj CG cQG L Yh ,O~q l bh d q j

19

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

Q~b Y dCe q YLG dG J qfGC ,Y TQh q GC J N e ,G q J


;qgCG e
GdOjh GMj CG dch ,FGQBG Y jOGh bCG e G q j CG
;dG TQh N YG GhWjh dG Lh
;q YLG dG M I~FdG WG gG hJ
;hdGh TdG AME G Y TQh q GC J
eOEG S ,fhJh db EGh ,jOGh ,bCGh ,GWCG qc cQe EG qfGC
.dP H J dG TQh qE a , qG NGO eGdGh FdG SdG G jb
qc kqe j CG
s oj ,Ac e
q EG kjCG ,dG dJh dG TQh dh
kSh d kJ) qG NGO e QNG q j CG e fe .H qG QeH EG
CG T ,VdG Gd kN
q sXoj ,kqjOM j CG oj c ,(IOLG GG e IOaEG EG
. kq eh , qG ad kYGh j
jCG Y ~q TQh H IO~q G GQG hGJh .bdG e dG J Y TQh q GC qGC Z
e QN q d .IO~q q eR Ia V bq e jq GC I~q Y Y ~q TQhh ,H Ua IOh~e
CG ,gGq dG VdH k We J eeCG MG GQG qE a ,dP eh .JqSh JM rjQn G
H Q~j hCG ,I~MGh k aO qc ~G J Y GC q J a . Oq J h ,Jh ,REG
?IN kIN qdG g J CG
:MGe I~q Y Y ' GS'' J
, qG UY e Y qH UGh
,G jH JG dGh IdG f O~q J
q
,a dGh dGh IdG ee qJ dG SCG SGQO kjCG H jh .bJ q K
GQY T Y (fOCG IOQGdG) aG dG dEG oj dG FdG EG IQTEG e
VdG b AcG IQhV EG gfG f .jW L T Y ,I L hCG
.OG VdG hO ,gGq dG
jb M qWdG SdG a ,qLQG QNCGh UdG J ,M Me
,q gCG Gh q eG Z G AGREG eG be dch ;ICGG jh G
Q~ .dN h ;G jH qj e bGeh iNCG fG Gh G QhOh
.aG kjCG Q~oJ GQhG M qCG EG IQTEG

20

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

M ,aG fh~G
q eG EG OSH ,QaG S k L MG g j
,G jH qG WdGh G~gCG e WdG M Y G IQ~b i~e
.GH J eGdGh q FdG SdG G jb eOGh
g qCG kY ,jq dhCd kah g~j~h HG GdG ~UQ MqdG TdG hj
.qfL bQh OpnS MG
jJ Y qcJ ,Y qNh q JGSG Vh EG LG Y~S ,(fK mIN h) Gk NCGh
dG QNCG LGeh dG f e Y jdG qj qK ;MG UdGh IdG f
hCG g~j~J Y IQOdG q JGSG Y dG N e ,ICGG GQ~b VJ
q CG
.Y qdG

dG G M eT If
p G
.e qFdG UdG EG ~j d e NC
.G jb Y cdG H e ,fOCG IOQGdG ,G jH qG SCG ~p YGh
(G jH L qG) ddG SCG WEG
?e i~d dGh IdG WGe g e ?gO~q J dG QNCGh e eCG MG UdG g e ) gGq dG VdG J ,qFQ c ke ,VdG GQhCG i~MEG Y HLCG hOu
.(OG VdG
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' GS'' Y LP
H
q
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QNCG
fG G PqJG
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G jb e

21

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Qq ~e qaJ M aG dG
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IdG f
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q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

Ld kah dG q Y J
e .Ld kah q Y q c H IQhdG J ,iNCGh e H FdG NG EG Gk f
SCG Jh VH q G SCG O~q CG Y q j qfEG ,MW q LP SCG j
kbfG ,dG jW EG aVEH ,SJ dG HQG O~q CG Y c .egG J dG
.''Y ja''h ,aKh ,e H e
OG~YEG q Y q j CG dP CT e qC ,q em Vh b ' S Y'' fH CJ CG ~G e j ~b
.M Me G
?q YLG dG dG f g e
(dG G dEG QoG G jH qG qLG FGdH J CG kjCG )

G
H
q
jb ~Y ,NBH hCG m H ,dG Gg qbj g ?r G
n H IGhG q G H qJ g
?G

VGZCGh G~gCG
hJh LdGh ICGG Y qcJ g ?r G
n H IGhG VH VGZCGh G~gCG J g
?S Ca ,J GPEGh ?e W q H UG
q LMG

JGSG
q
g J g ?Vh QT eh ,n Vp ho e ?q YLG dG YJ SS q GC ~n oJ g
,dH dH gOYG q j g ?q e VGZC gOYG iL hCG ebCG eH G SdG
?G jH UN fHh ee EG SdG g ~SG g ?LG ~Y
q JGSG J g ?dGh bGd YNEGh ,H qG SdG J q g
g g ?dG UCG cQe d gOG~YEG q dG q JGSG e ?r G
n H IGhG
g Rh J CG~H g ?LdGh ICGG cQe Y VhG OdG e O~q M g ?Fe
?G OdG

22

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

WdG
UCG LMG Gk ~j~ J g ?q YLG dG YJ HQe ,JWf ,e ~J g
q GC C j CG g ?IO~q G LMG g e TJ hG G~gCG g ?r G
n e dG
IQhO nep~oSG gh ,G M fdG J aGj g ?LdGh ICGG H dG mQJ
.(MhT Y d 12h 11h 10 dG EG ~Yo ) ?cCH hG
?Jh ,bGeh ,Jh ,hG OG~YEG (kGOQGh Gg c EG) LdGh ICGG e q c QT g
Sb q gh ,WdG FS eGdGh q FdG SdG G jb eOEG iL g
?Jh Ye
M e) rG
n H bdG QYG H WdG OG~YEG qYh qJGSG NCG g
?Gh ,YGh ,ISCG je Y (dG
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?OQGG G~S ae Ua Y ICGGh

dG
AdGh LdG O~Y ihj g ?q YLG dG Qe e q dG G h~L h~j c
,qdhDGh ,G jRJ Mf e rG
n H RGdG j c ?f~dG UGh ?dG UG
?''q MdG''h ,dGh

fCG
,bGGh ,dGh ,j~dG fCGh ;q JeG fCG) jq OdG GAGLEGh fCG NCG g
IGhGh ,eGdGh q FdG SdG G jb eOEGh ,G jb EG q J (dGh
?r G
n H
XG ~jhJ q g ?rG
n Vh J G~MEG EG YO HS UJ CH ~M dG eh
?eGdGh q FdG SdG G jb eOEH UN
q GhOCGh ,eeh ,LH

OQGG
:qjdG OQGG
kq NGO) AGQ~G Qhj e e ?G jb AGREG jQGOEG qXG Qc gq j dG bGG e
?G jb UH (kq LQNh

23

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

,Jq MU g e ?e e ?G jb Y d qXe J hCG I~Mh J q g


?G jH qaK qN hCG ae j~d g ?Je ge ?gOQGeh ,Hh
?G jH q G edH qXG CGQ eh ?dG eh ?q da i~e e
q jQ~dG GQh~dG g e ?ICGGh LdG H IGhG Y dG dhDe j XG L g
IYGe g ?dM fhqj dG bGG eh ,G jb M j~d dG GQGh ,QGh
q j hG ,HG jdG g n oJ g ?Je hG XdG UGe IOQGh q YLG dG
?dG q Y dhJ

:qdG OQGG
jb eOEGh G jH qG SdG Jh d j/fRGe J q g
eh ?ICGGh LdG H IGhG MEG EG jBG WdGh ,eGdGh FdG SdG G
q G XG GQ~b Ad j/fRGe J q g ?Fe OQGG g ?qM dG FdG
?qM dG FdG eh ?G jH
:BG/qdG dG
YSh ,edGh ,JBeh dG Me ,LdGh ICGd kYh keBG k G eq D J g
?FG e gZh ,WCH jYdGh ,MGGh ,UGG HG~Jh ,dG

LQG
bdG
q
G jb NCJ g ?G Y Gk KCJ SQ dG q LCG GWCGh q LQG G g e
?~q G Y
,G~G h ,dG UCG U H - G H G jH j dG q dG G
q e
,fG G H AGQBG jJ e gh ?eG ShCG h ,q G IOdGh ,jdG Vh
?ICGGh LdG H IGhG Y cdG CH Gh ,eGh

24

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

?MG g G e
q bGh J
GQh ,q a fH qdGh ,q bGh jH dG G jH WdG qj
qGC ,gVh d H q j da .Ie M GLG qj c ,dY UGJ
e .dH ~q J jW Id OS dG QaCGh dGh,jGh ,bGGh ,SdG
.bdGh aGG OjEG IQhVh ,G jb M YdG YTEG EG LG g
43 QH ,HKG Z L ~fG dG ,G jb M qjQ~dG GQh~dG i~MEG
.G IgdG g d Gk f ,ICGG ~q V dG dCe M Tf QGO ,kLQ
Gfc ~a .qadG MdG e de fc dG ,JSQ Y MGdG LdG ~q
Aj ,qHV Y GMCG M h !qG Y J g dG qC ,JLhR GHj CH eeee
.dP M qdG gQhjh ,qfj Gfc GPEG q Y kqj~L q YLG
EG AdG qGE ,dG Y G Zjh dG e jq eCG fj JGdG AdG j
n h
qH Q~j qfGC dG g VhCG ~bh .a LdG e (dH) J
q fc ,qdG Qc e
dG jWh bGG J qj ,dG Gd .qaK ~dJ Y qj dG GO e ,qedG
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qdG SCH QGbEG
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n H hdG e ~q G keq g Gk QhO q dG SCG J CG
FGh~dG NGO h~e T ,QGdG U ie Y Ue rj JGdG ,AdG O~Y c
jb Y kAH dG XCa .HKG Z L e V bGh IU I~H qeG
.qe JH GJ G~MEG EG LG qCG G
n
Gqaoj ,UG g AdG e cCG Om ~Y J I~j~dG QGdG fU ZQ e ZdH ,dh
qHKCG G J Af e k qb qGC ,rnac qaK qN hCG/h qK ie qr j~d AH
.dG dG r nHJ

25

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

,ICGd dGh jQ~dG e ~m je aJ EG qjdhCG J SS fG EG Gk NCG aCG e Gg


.''qHq J'' bhh dG H dG jd O~q efH Vh EG aVH

HG GdG ~j~ :fdG IG


ebh .G jb G ~FdG VdG CH Me jh~J q ,dG AGLEG N
.gJ LGdG VGGh ,jq QhdG GdG W ~j~H MdG IG

r p oe qfCG e ,YVdG ae Y qeC G WEG H qdG cGG ~MCG qXG qdJ


EG Oe J q CG qj ,dHh .qY hX Y Tf Ob H ,dH dG e GdH
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?IOG GdG g a .ILG
q dG WGe LL YG AYCG ec QT
p cG H ,MG g ~Y Y UJ oJ
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?kfCT qbCG g eh ?qgCG
gG~Y e h ,fKh ,hCG Me KG~MEG LGdG Jh ,JqjdhCG H IOG GdG O~q M
.MGe e

dG Nh q YLG d q JGSG dG :ddG IG


.gJ Vn G LG hCG KG~MEG OJq dG GdG O~q M ~b J ,dG e AfG ~H
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,e ?G J qdj eh ?HG GdG eh ?GdG g NOEH S c ,dh
.q JGSG dH hDdG g qc hj dG TdG qY n oJh ?jCGh

26

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

G~gCG EG ' GS'' IO~q G ILG


q GdG j q JGSG dG I~Fa J
qj CG q QhdG a .YdG FS h qac G je Y ~j CG j e gh ,VGh
g J CG j h .UG dYCG ie Y fq j dG AYCH G~gCG HQ e OGaCG
O~s oJ CG j Gd .''fCT e'' H ,''iG adG XG'' CT e CG ,''fCT'' e g G
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G~gCG
f dG G~gCG a .q e q eR Ia j ,Sd Hbh IO~q Ff g G~gCG
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(.G M
q de ,OQGe G~SG qS ~g q c qGC h .d Hbh q bGh G~gCG J CG e ~q H
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qFdG SdG G jb eOEG S) ~eCG jW G~gCG H G~gCG jRJ kjCG Rj


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JGSG
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?S G

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j ,dG Ve Vh ddG IG J ,VH O~u Mo ~b G~gCG J CG ~H
:UY I~q Y e dG qN Jh
q .Y qN EG G~gCG j

27

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

eh , soJ jCGh e ?G~gCG H LCG e gJ G WdG e :WdG


? qj
?bdG ?jq Oeh ,Yh ,q de OQGe ?jq H OQGe ?LG e :HG gG
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;YLG dG M qjQ~J GQh~d ,TCG 6 QG~e Y ,S qXe e %50
MdG hG VGZC k J ,q YLG dG M qe fH L EG QoS qfGC h
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' ?~dG i~G qjQGSGh J Y qKD J ~b qfGE h
eh ?WdG H qS e .q eR h~L EG Y qN q GC :q eedG h~G
?qbG FdG J eh ?Ff Y G qbJ

28

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

:ddG HQG OYG ,Y qH j q JGSG J Vh Y q d

dG qNh
q JGSG OG~YEG
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Y Y cQG Rq J CG ,dNOEG n Qq b dG ILG
q GdG Fb EG Gk OSEG
q c ~q J ,M Me h . Y dG j ' Gk Oe Gk J'' Y q c EG Jh ,IU
.Y Tf V JMGbG Y
:ddG a qN q c AGQh edG edG IdG eq GC
?H q f dG IdG
q WGe Rq f CG c ?V f Y qf CG c ?MG UdG qf CG c ?QNCG q f CG c :JBG UdG Y J CG Y q c Y
; G G~gCG Gk ~j~ q Yh G dG Up :G~gCG
G e c EG SG qK .fhOh
q ,d HdG qJGSG HEG :qJGSG
?jCGh ,e ,c ,q JGSG g G~SG
;(fOCG IOQGdG MG kjCG fCG) ?J j~H FSh ep g
;(H FdGh ,feRh ,fe ~j~ e) J j dG WdG Up :WdG
;jq QhdG (q edGh ,q dGh ,jq OGh ,jq dG) OQGG O~u Y :gG
?IO~q G gGh WdG dEG S nEGh . qbJ q Y ~q :FdG
bdG EG qN q c e~q S dG gG ,dEG UdG
q G FdG O~u M :YG
;r G
n H IGhG hCG ,eGdGh q FdG SdG G jb eOEG hCG ,r G
n H
;ILG
q GdGh ,qG GREG Sd gOYG LGdG GTDG Up :GTDG
qj dG hdGh ,S VJ CG dG bGdG HEG :qVdGh WG
.qJGSG g J

29

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

:r G
n H RGdG ME gOYG q JGSG Y P
;G M fdG J SSCG Y dG UCG
;q YLG dG YGJ SS SQ
;q YLG dG YGj q JGSG J
;G jH qj jQ~J
;r G
n H RGdG VGZCH J fRGe ~UQ
;G M q e fH L
;jG Y XG J M e rG
n H RGdG ME G~gCG ~j~
;YJ dG GAGLEGh XdG je j~J
;hG Y aGd q YLG dH qe q Le Fb OYG
;eGdGh q FdG SdG G jb eOE bCG g IOYEG
;G jb Y hDe cCG hCG Xe J
;fGG ac e ICGd eAe ~q TCG fh e EG dG fh dG e j
;Jh d dch r G
n H IGhG bG mq dBG Vh
.r G
n H IGhG jJ f cCG Lq dH jq QGOEG XG Qc GdG Y ~cCdG
dG AGLEG
ILG
q GdG ~j~
G~gCG
q JGSG
WdG
FFdG : gG
YG
GTDG

30

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

dG I~q e ae
QWEG q J G~SG q j e kdZ ,Gg ej h .dG qN Oq G~YE ddG aG OYG
EG a ,eh dq a IGOCG qJ q dG g qGC e ZdH ,dh .G q GC Vd q G
,IQcG q dH ShCG jGQO Y c GPEG eq GC .dG jdH d AGG ~MCG I~Ye
.aG Y kVY g~Ya
qVdG GTDG YG

FFdG gG WdG qJGSG ~dG


qbG HG

dG :HGdG IG
,q dG dG jW Y OGaCG a qj Me gh ,dG qN H MdG IG J
i~HCGh ,Gj e Y QeCG QS GPEa .JGKCJh Jeh ,G jb LGeh ,cGh
e ,H ej dG dG M q dhDH Ql T qS ,QGdG U GcQTh kSM XG
XG fj CG g OGoG c GPEG QdG Gg J e ~q H a .''q H'' kSMEG j~d ~qdj
.H GeDj CGh ,dG S
T
gh ,IH qj e
l
q hCG Qq ~e qdG MGe qc aGj CG Rj ,GMCG MCG h
OG~eG Y q dGh ,dG ~q j CG Qh~h ,CdG GH aeh q YLG d YGe bGe d
r Fa GMGh b q dG Gg j CG e ~q H .Lq jh q j CG dch ,q dG
a ,NBG QG eq GC .dG jH qj CGh ,q G VdH mae Y j CGh ,G
.GMGh GdG e c Q~H q j ,Yb hCG bCG I~q Y e Xe q J IU J
.QG e
q fSG ~j NBG MG Y ka
CG Y q j ;ANCG JQGh q dG dG jW Y qdG Y gSCH q dG S
q J ,dh .d kbEG ~q TCG q JGSG hCG G GL mdh ,CG SCG qJ
,dGh ,YdGh ,dG qj GdG G~MEG qC ,dEG oJ dG FdH SG Y
.LGdG ~Yh

31

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

eq Y Me
kVh kjCG LdG LGj e kda ,ICGG Vh EG J jQe Y dG I~q T ZQ
Zh ,q dG dGh ,dGh ,fEG H mU Y c ~j M ,kU
.~q oJ h ce e gG~Y eh ,dG

.dG e qM e qj TOH (R~jEG) G YG f Ve NCG


GV ~Yh ,AdG H YdG YTEG Y qG qfEG ,edG e jW Ia GWh
,G VdH J Ad e~q G eG qGC G i~ME qJ PEGh .AdG qGE gj
e Y H aGh dG J MGa .kjCG LdG Y gOL qcJ CG Gk NCG Qq b
e Y cdG e qe m f Y ,WdGh G UYh ,MdG Fc ,LdG
.G jb e I~MGc G
.ICGG qGE J
q qb ICGG ~q V dG poYG d
a .kjCG LdG Y g~L IQGh ,I~YGh ,Y~dG ~d I~q G eGdG qa dG qeGC
WEG EG ,ke ,dGh fEG H qG qeG Z qG i~MEG QOH ,ke GOdG
iNCG dG TCGh ,qG dG e WdG UCG Yh ,ICGG M Y WdG UY
.dG qj dG LdG e WdG c GP PEG qa .ICGG ~q V SQG
n
.~MGh m GB dGh ~G e kIOY qjQSG e~N ~q J dG G J ,dHh
kqFNCG' h kqYLG keY d QG jQ~J j ,H HG edGh G~fZhCG We
.hG qHGE Y TCG e j FdG OGaCG e Oa Z qCG EG Gk f ,''ISCG hDT
IOQ qGC Z .dGh fH ,G jb dhJ ~Y ,LdG a IOq Q qJ e kdZ
LG ee qfCG EG J PEG peh ,I~YGhh ,Jd~ q Z J e kdZ g a
,dG UCG cQh ,q eG Z G J M ke j e Ggh .bGdG
.JM M QJ SGQO AGLEH ,kAfh kLQ

32

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

AGLE IY~dG np WGCo ,HKG L bGdG ,''fH'' jb d q QGOEG G e Im QO


q dG hCG Iq G J fch .''ac'' bEG EG ICGG e~q b dG qjObG gG M SGQO
AdGh LdG QT ,hCG dG e .G J G M qG fdG L a
GMGQ qK .SGh qN OG~YEG Y ,G jb q UNG I~Y ,GYh ,SGQ~dG g
GhC dch ,qFQ ee e~q eh jdG gCG e Tf hjh qfG~e GQjH ej
.eG Y Sd IGOCc QeCG j bGe EG
qG e qdG GH qJ fc ICGG qCG Gj a ,gdH LdG UCG e YSh
fc ICGG qGC a g~dG JNCG c .dG jdG bdG Gg ,kqej ,Jh ,qdhDGh
MG MCG ZCG SGQO J EGh ,Q aCGh HLEG Z U M Y IQOb
.qdG
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n Vh Y VGh IQU AGdG Y AdGh LdG j
q EG e
dG GQOE kSM Gh~a ,a ZdG i~e Gjh
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q
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dGh bGG :eG IG


J c GPEG q Y iq J CG a .qbJ hO dGh bGG SQ EG dG q Y
NCJ CG Rj ,Jbd aGe FdG J M a .dG QG Y afG hCG dG jdG
H qcJ dG q Y q GC qGC h .q dG Y~jh Ya~fG OGaCG ~j ,kH k e QeCG
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bGG
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:WH qH J Cc .G FdG aCG d qJGSG J qch ,WdGh

33

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

,FG HQGh FSdG ~f gh ,SG I~G gJ O~H f a ; qN fO~YCG ~d


?SG UTCH fh
Y VH eGdG JQG j CG fCT e kjq M Gk Y fH K~q G eG qJh
cG ~j~h ,qjdhCG ~j~H AGQ~d J FG~dG bGa . qda j CGh Gh~dG
K~q G eG qGC Y gf .GH LGe LJh ,gOhOQ Y LdG KCG ~UQh ,TdG
q Y ,ke ,Sc ,dH kWJQG ~q TCG J CG Rj MW OQGdG SCG qGC EG J fH
eGdG bGe e I~q G eG qCG ncjo .MhG G Y ka qKD S efdG c GPEG
.iNCG VGZCh ,dGh ,LGd eG~SG j ~b UGe H
?bG j CG Q~j dG e
;dG ie Y Rn G ~q dGh ,WdGh efdG
;efdG J j c :GAGLEG
;OGaCG
.Y FQdG GdGh VdG Y KCdG
Y j dGh bGa .(fOCG dG fCG) JGH kFb kWf ,iNCG L e ,dG ~q j
e Gk AL WdG g qJh .bWEG Me ~H eGdG/jQG ~H ee L
Gdh Vd ,mGDe H ,HSG i~eh LG J IOYEG Y J UGe q Y
.bGG FH dG qY jJ qfeEG RhH g e .IOG

bGG e J
q
e aGj bGe H fSG ~G e ,Gd .dM bGd kaN ,I~qe bGG q Y h~J
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:ddG dG dG e d ~q H ,OG~YEGh bGG f Vd
,dJ EG - LG n EG ?OGaCG Y q dhDG Rq S c ?bGG SQS c
?jQJ ~Jh JG FShh ,jq Oeh jq H OQGeh
h~Gh GTDG SQOCG ?Sb hCG HMG J dG e :GTDH q Le Fb Vh
.g~q J dG dG N q edG

34

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

O~Y AMEG EG ~J ,WCd J M qJ a .gZ e bGd SCG g jQG H


k HU LGJ dh .J CG G g T jdG WCG f qK ,ADg
e bO GTDe EG OSG qGC Z ,q cdG hCG bGG Y FQdG GdG bGe i~d cCG
.q dG g q S jdG hCq G
Z Tf EG AdG ?dEG C S dG SdG e .fdG qe FSh ~j~
e ?fdG g S IJh q C H ?q N jQJ ?q FQ ee e~q e ?q SQ
Gk Te kWJQG Je G
q eG J CG jCG ?qdG g He Y S
g KJ kjCG j .ge Y jh I~e J CG Q~jCG ,NBG H ;efdH
.bq S IN q G qdGh ,iNCG cdGh YdG he Vhh fdG
LhCGh L jW :e G'' G H c ,e G e m~ j)
:q hdEG bG e (Information, its Collection and use)''eG~SG
http://www.networklearning.org/books/collecting-information.html

Qd aGe (gG~Y eh ,dGh ,dG FSh) I~n G JG FSh J CG q j


eG J CGh ,qSQ H fe EG aJ dG jdG JCj CG q QhdG a .~n G
,MCG H h .a j mSCH IOQGh ,dG Lq J jdG eCG dG UCG H OhJ
q dG
Y ~q dGh ,dEG or N e M beh ,FdG VY LCG e Y TQh ~Y Qq J CG Rj
.MdG GG
hCG ,qN FKh SCG ?j~j H dG fdG S jCGh c :fdG M
?Jc ILCG Y hCG ,~e UGbCG Y
?a QS eh ?dG oJ IJh q C Hh ,Y GTEG qdS e :eG
?U jq C Hh ,W q GC eh ,~q oJ L q C :jQdG ~J
?ch ,eh ,e ~j Y :dGh ,LdGh ,dG IOYEG
?e ~j Yh ,e :J OoG G J V

Gsr J ~b ,gO~Y eH ,XG j CH j dEG ~J dG GTDG ~MCG qGC ,ke ,d


EG bGJ CG H j Gk PEG .2007 dG e jO/hCG fc T H G jb M kjQ~J
H jh .2007 fj/GjM dCG g e qdG Qq J CGh , hCG Y ke~q J R c

35

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

I~Yb e Jee CG feEH .dCG g Y q dG qdS dG dG qJ CG kjCG


.qjdG OQGG UG fdG
eG d OJ hCG ?JfH I~Yb q J hCG ?q dG jJ eG g h~S
q g
q dG AL EG ?Y YWEG LGdG fG g e ?fdG I~Yb UN
q U
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bGd YVe q LJ Oe
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qG~G XG j dG FG a .qe W dEG j dG eG d kW
?j~G Y qj CG j dG q G eG g eh ,ae

,Lf qdG fc EGh ,jQ~d GN jdG OGaCG O~Y j CG ,ke ,j~G Oq j ~b


ae EG j j~a .iNCG GTDe EG OSG Y~J fdG dCG qCG kY
ASG ae EG qjdG OQGG Y hDG j H ,dP G eh ,jQGdGh ASCG
.qde ee EG qHQ LM Y ka ,jQGdGh ,jQ~dG GqJ jdG XG
hCG ,q SQ hCG ,q N hCG ,q T J CG dG ,UGdG dSCG q T G~SG Q~j
e M QXEG LCG e Sd Fe kehO J dG QdG EG aVEH .q SQ Z
iL AYh He Gk Qe kAYh RJ Cc - ~H eh b e VdG QJ
q M NC
q Hh ,M
.jQ~dG Y IQH kjCG fSG Q~h .MUEG
EG dG dH dG eG jh ,eG b~dG Y JQ~b e ~qcCJ
.SG dG

,MUEG iL ~b jdG G q eh dG qGC gOe qT dSQ ,ke ,qJ Cc


~J CG b~dG Sh e qS ,G g .e H J JH q G qGC h
.Lh cCG Y ka J dG qCG e qd ,jdG (NBG T ~j CG hCG) H

36

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

J g eh ,gOYG q U dG SdG eh ,kM b dG e bGG qJ CG


dG AL gh ?JGDG OQGG SG q a .SCG J e ,gOYG qj dG
.qG Fd aGe nG q dG
.cQG H
q OGaCG j c q cQdG SCG ~YEG

,O~q G bdG I~j~G q Gh QHBG cJ e ~qcC d bGG qdJ CG ke YG Qq J ~b


gqJ ihT KCG Yh ,M Me .dG G V dG YCG AGLEG eh
S q C h ;q G J qY EG dG UCG j c F EG J,YG
... G W EG dch ;~dG q G e GC SCG hCG aCG f Y q G g J
.iNCG MGbG hCG J q GC IQcG FdG EG kjCG Jh
PJG EG QOJ CG Y q j ,GdG H OLh ,dq dG bGG H ,~UJ M
.dGRE eRdG HG~dG

d qe HG~J PJG Y qGC j e ,~qL H I~j~G QHBG i~MEG J :ke


.J M
bGG FSh Y j e qJh .dG q Y e bGG q Y NG~J MCG ZCG
:eG~SG dG ke dGh
;dG UCGh AcdG e dOJh eG be
;jQdG ZU
,q FMEG hCG ,fH I~Yb hCG ,fH hG~L) ddG AGLE JdG ILCG G~SEG
;(ce eGH hCG ,SQ hCG
;cT eh ,FGNh ,SQh ,aeh ,q fH fSG
;QUh ,j~a WTCG G~SEG
.MG M
q G OSEG
q j dG e O~u Mh , qG g ja .ae T Y JO~YCG dG bGG qN J CG
J qfCG e qd q J dG GTDH p SG q K .bGj eh ,bGJ ch ,bGJ CG Y
.dG G

37

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

bGd I~e
q ae Y PP

IJh
Sh
FdG FdG
f
e
GTDG
IOYEH dH ~J eG L jj eG L
dG
jQdG
QSh Y QSh Y /JdG
:Jq e QS
He AGLEG ec qJ .1
efH fj/GjM
b~dGh SCG XG
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2007
e fH M jQ~dG
/hCG fc
qjdG OQGG G jb
2007 jO
dG H
2007
.2

/VG
dG
jQ~dG
jb M
G

CGh ,JqJGSGh aG~gCG dG ~J CG d Rj ,dEG UJ


q dG LSG EG Gk OSEG
.Vh dG dG qN j~J

dG
jG~H ,Y bdG , j qfGE ,qY hCG he q GC e INCG MG dG qj e kdZ
.~j~L GbH hCG ~j~H j
q hCG ,ddG MG
:dG ie Y K H dG
;bGH kfhe I~G e J (1
;hG e AfEG Qa (2
.hG SG e ILh Ia ~H (3
H QG e qe dch J CG Rj a ,kq NGO kJ G Xe Oj CG
e Xe ,e H j CG kjCG n jo h .MCG ZCG fG G e mH ,q LQN
qJ CG ,JGP ~q H ,d qj ,dP Y ka .qLQG dcdG e hNBG eYh G
.q MdG ~j~ QJ CG dH Y q jh ,dH kIj~L gGJ dG dG VH
~H dG Y jRGoC ~b dG qCG e ICGG ~qcC J a :UG
q OL AG q j CG q dG e
j~H Qq dG ejh ,Lh cCG Y j UCG dG q G qCG e q fG qj ,Z

38

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

hCG ,JHQe j~J EG ADg q jo CG n G e ,dh .Ae dG UCG EG Qq d G


.dP N GhCr GQ GPEG FSh hCG ,JGhOCG
,dG GfCG H dG .f q GC Y LdG q dG FdG j~J EG dG ~j
KCJ EG J M ,YG Jh ,hG Ve qdG Qe HJ M ,qdG c
:dG N je a ,ddG dG eq GC .a~n G dG Y hG
?S q C a , NEG M eq GC ?c q C Hh ?G~gCG q i~e q GC EG : q YdG
q dG IdG f g e :ddG SCG n oJ ,q G HG~dGh q JGSG CH eq GC
Yhe G~gCG g dGR e gh ?a dG ee fc eh ?HG~dGh qJGSG H
?IQcG G~gCG S KG~MEG G GdG g eh ?j~J EG LH qfGC hCG
OQGG :OQGG G~SG dH ~j ?aG e dG M Sj g : q ddG
.OGGh ,Gh ,bdGh ,bdGh ,jq dG

sn nJh ,I~j~G dG Ad I~j~e YS LdG/AdG Sq j CG EG ,ke ,LG YO GPEG


H RGdG NG QX n G a ,gH H AdG e~n G OGG OGSG
.qG FdGh e~q G gG
hO e ,G jb M jQ~dG Y Gh ~Gh ,bdG e dG fEG M hCG
.ki~S G Gg gj ~a ,G
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n
GdG eh ?dG UCGh ,Gh ,XG Y qJG YG e :YG
:kjCG qbG Z qfGE ,IOG J GdG g J CG ?hG K~MCG dG

d m Vb Y G~dG i~MEG M ,TOH ,''cGO'' Ad ~q e N~G Qq ~d efH


,''IOhe'' QSCH ,QG AGd ,j~G QN EG qLJ ,cdG dG ,j qc fa .dH q
.gQN H QdG M ,e EG J fc qK .G GSCG i~MEG e

39

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

a .M Me q QdG q SJh ,Vb ~j~J e q ,JQ gORG qh


dG ,LhR iCGa .q FGdG FY Vh h ,SQ~G EG gOhCG SQEG dN
q ,FW NG~e
J CG qGE e c a .G Gg qgP Ua ,MGdGh AdH jh ,HK Xh j c
I~dG qeGC .IKdGh dH j M ,qG kNe ,QG H JY Y NCGh ,Y
qG J EG kUh ,dG QG H Gk A~H ,G YCG RE Iq e fa
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G qgCG M ~H e Qq b ,IgdG g QGJ VhdG ~q J dG G M qh
.JSCG J dG ICGG OSG e HRdG IdH VhdG Y
,dG UCG FS e jQG MG q J CG e ~q H ,kq LQN hCG kq NGO cCG ,dG N
.kq cQJ kHW ,Ak f hCG kLQ GfcCG
oU dG a .''nG n p dG'' H dG N dG q G q dG GG q gCG J
e ?sG HQGh SQG e I~q n G ShQ~dG eh ?S q C h ?J j hCG ?J
ShQ~dG g ~YS ?gCGSCG hCG ?SQG aCG fc e ?dq a Z hCG ,Lf fc dG FSdG
e qJ M ,SQG aCG e Gk O~ ~J CG Ra .q G G Vh G
n
.j~G Z QdG

.Ke
q Zh qf gCG OG~eE ,e q h ,H idG i~MEG GOdG V e OhRq
kMJQG i~HCG G qGC h ,kMS kM b ~j~G G Q~e qGC hr n LCG dG dG GYCa
.G Nq ~J M Gk ~j~T
qFSG Y rHn YCG JGdG ,jdG Af EG ~q dG ~Y d JQG Ije IQU qGC Z
QGG A jW ae r j CG AdG Y c ,L a .I~j~G G q e e ~j~dG
.jdG QN ~H e I~j~G q G cJ H , Qj~dG EG H IOdG qK ,H dG
gCG ~j ,jdG h .dG e Ln G G W IAGOQ e GhRCG qeJ ,fK L eh
dG ,gAe qd ,Th Ke
q fc qfGC e ~dG dG G~SG GhOhY H ,I~j~G q G
.dG Ijd fc ,LGSG j

40

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

dG ,hG Gg Y dhDG G qCG qGE .dG h dG AdG QJ


jQG J AGdG Y LdGh AdG cQe Rq Y ,''nG dG'' Gk NCG YSG
.J
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.gJ Sh ,gJ
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.keh
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dG e p Gh ,fOCG q G qG EG fCG .gZ e UCG g GdG H qGC Y ka
:HU ~q TCG dG EG HU q bCG

HU ~q TCG
J
G S

HU qbCG
J
OGaCG S

J
bGG

J
GQG

J
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n H IGhG MEG gSh Ve g qM dG FdG
!~H q dG aG~gCG H Y YGh

41

q eG Z qe YLG dG GQOEG

ANNEX 1: REFERENCES
AND

WEB RESOURCES

QOGh LGG :hCG G


ffEG T Y IqaG
:LGG

- Gender and Development Training Centre (2002) Material from Training of Trainers in
Gender and Development Training Course, Khartoum
- Gender, Society and Development (2000) Institutionalizing gender equality: commitment, policy and practice. A global source book, Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute
- Lingen, Annet, Gender Assessment Studies, a manual for gender consultants, The Hague, ISSAS
- Macdonald, Mandy; Sprenger, Ellen; Dubel, Irene (1997) Gender and organizational change:
Bridging the gap between policy and practice, Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute
- March, Candida (1996) Concepts and Frameworks for Gender Analysis and Planning, a Toolkit,
Haarlem: Gender & Development Training Centre
- Posavac, Emil J; Carey, Raymond G (1996) Programme Evaluation, methods and case studies,
New Yersey: Prentice Hall
- Rao, Aruna; Stuart, Rieky; Kelleher, David. Gender at Work, Kumarian Press

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43

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GENDER ISSUES IN THE

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49

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50

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