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Time on Task

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AMERICAN FEDERATION OF TEACHERS- Education Research and Dissemination
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TIME ON TASK

2005 2001 Copyright AFT 2001, 2005

Time on Task


RESEARCH ON TIME ON TASK
()
.
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.
.

CARROLLS LEARNING EQUATION

" 1963
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60 60
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30
30( 60 / ) .
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Copyright AFT 2001, 2005 2005 2001

Time on Task

ALLOCATED TIME

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( .)1980

. 35
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).

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Table 1 1


Average Class Time Allocations

)California Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study (BTES





15

5
55

45
44

( :
( ).3-10/2-9 1980 )110 .
- -
" " .
.
)1978(
45
. ( )1975

. ( )1978
55 40 .



Copyright AFT 2001, 2005 2005 2001

Time on Task

. 1
" ."
%60
%20 ( )5/1 35 45
.
Table 2 2

Average Time Allocations for Academic Activities


)California Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study (BTES


90
35
8


110
45
17
( 1980 )111 .

Time Allocation Among Subjects


"2 "
( )
.
.

. 25
60 .
35 . 60
140 .
110 .
.

9 315.
1000 ( 10
) 5000 ( 50
).

Copyright AFT 2001, 2005 2005 2001

Time on Task

Table 3
3


Time Allocation Ranges Within a Single Grade
Institute for Research on Teaching

84 -24

67 -36

63-28

48-0

55-14
()


. 3
.
(
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%42 151( 360).

.
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.

ENGAGED TIME OR TIME ON TASK

ENGAGED TIME
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.


.
Copyright AFT 2001, 2005 2005 2001

Time on Task


.
( )%40 .
55

25 .
35 .
( .)1980

25 (
) 35 ( )
25 75 35 105 .


105
.

Engaged Time and Instructional Strategies


.


- .
%84 %70
.

. %66 %75
.

( ) %90 .
( )
.




.
( )1981


.
.

Engaged Time and Non-instructional Time
.

.
45

.
:
Copyright AFT 2001, 2005 2005 2001

Time on Task

40 .

11:10 .
.
.
.
.
. .
30 %75 .
1800 30 .

Interruptions From Outside the Classroom

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. :
.
.
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.
.

ACADEMIC LEARNING TIME

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.
" "
.

.


. ( )
.
( .)1980

.

%75
%75 .
(
) . %75
.

Copyright AFT 2001, 2005 2005 2001

Time on Task

85-80( )
.%70


.

Striking a Balance

.

()
. .

.

( )1980
.

Copyright AFT 2001, 2005 2005 2001

Time on Task


RESEARCH LINKING TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS
AND CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT TO TIME ON TASK

IMPLICATIONS FROM TEACHER EFFECTS RESEARCH

( ) (
) .
( )1981
.

.
:
( ) ( )
().
Interactive versus Non-Interactive Teaching Effects
( )1978
.

-
-
( .)
.

Copyright AFT 2001, 2005 2005 2001

Time on Task

TABLE 4
Interactive and non-Interactive Effects
4


( )* -


()
* .
. . .)1978( .

Distribution of Time Across Activities

( )1981

.
:
/ ()%15
. . . . - .

)Organization/Management Activities (15%

()%55
-

)Interactive On-Task Activities (50%

/.
( ).
/ .
( ).
/ .

()%35

)Non-Interactive On-Task Activities (35%

. . . Copyright AFT 2001, 2005 2005 2001

Time on Task 10

()

.

.

IMPLICATIONS FROM CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT RESEARCH


.

.
.

Classroom Management Research



. ().


.

Appropriate Room Arrangement


.
.

() .


( . " " ).

Establishing Rules and Procedures

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.
( ) .

Copyright AFT 2001, 2005 2005 2001

Time on Task 11
.
.
.
.
.
Using Group Management Strategies
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" .

. " :
!"
"" ""
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.


.

Holding Students Accountable

.

.
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.


.

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.
.

Copyright AFT 2001, 2005 2005 2001

Time on Task 12
REVIEW OF CONCEPTS
TIME ON TASK

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-1
-2

-3
-4
-5
-6
-

()
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( ) .
.
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:

.


. :


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.


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.

Copyright AFT 2001, 2005 2005 2001

Time on Task 13
-7
-8

-9


.
25
75 () !


. :

.

%75


%50.


.

%75 (
) . " "
.




.

.

Copyright AFT 2001, 2005 2005 2001

Time on Task 14

REFERENCES

Anderson, L.W. Time and Learning (1981, May). Presented at the Conference on
Instructional Time and Student Achievement, Evantson, III.
Carroll, J.B. (1963). A model of school learning. Teachers College Record, 64, 723-733.
Emmer, E.T., Evertson, C.M., and Anderson, L.M. (1980). Effective classroom
management at the beginning of the school year. The Elementary School Journal, 80(5):
219-231.
Fisher, C.W., et al. (1980). Teaching behaviors, academic learning, time and student
achievement: An overview. In C. Denham and A. Lieberman (eds.), Time to Learn.
Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Educations National Institute of Education.
Harnischfeger, A. and Wiley, D. (1978, March). Conceptual and policy issues in
elementary school teacher-learning. Paper presented at the meeting of the American
Educational Research Association, Toronto, Canada.
Rosenshine, B.V. (1980). How time is spent in elementary classrooms. In C. Denham and
A. Lieberman (eds.), Time to Learn. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Educations
National Institute of Education.
Stallings, J. (1975). Implementation and child effects of teaching practices in followthrough classrooms. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol.
40, Nos. 7-8 (Serial No. 163).
Stallings, J. (1981). What research has to say to administrators of secondary schools
about effective teaching and staff development. In K. Duckworth, et al. (eds.),
Proceedings of a Conference held by the Center for Educational Policy and Management,
Eugene, Oregon.
Stallings, J., Cory, R., Fairweather, I., and Needles, M. (1978). A Study of Basic Reading
Skills Taught in Secondary Schools. Menlo Park, Calif.: SRI International.
Stallings, J., needles, M., and Stayrook, N. (1979). How to Change the Process of
Teaching Basic Reading Skills in Secondary Schools: Phase II and Phase III. Menlo
Park, Calif.: SRI International.

2005 2001 Copyright AFT 2001, 2005

Time on Task 15
Training Activity 1
FINDING THE TIME IN ELEMENTARY CLASSROOMS


Part 1: Maximizing Time through Efficient Procedures
:
.
. :


.
.
.

. :
- 1
.

- 2 .
-
- (
).
- (

).

- 3

Copyright AFT 2001, 2005 2005 2001

Time on Task 16
Part 2: Structuring Routines to Increase Learning Time
:
.

.


. .
. ( )
( . ).

Part 3: School-Wide Policies Affecting Instructional Time


:
(
) .

Copyright AFT 2001, 2005 2005 2001

Time on Task 17
Training Activity 2
Finding the time in Secondary Classrooms
2

Part 1: Maximizing Time through Efficient Procedures
:
.
.
.
:
- 1 ( ).

- 2 .
-
- (
).
- (

).
- 3

( )
( ).

-4

Copyright AFT 2001, 2005 2005 2001

Time on Task 18
Part 2: Targeting Potential Trouble Spots
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:

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. :


. .


.
. .
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.
- 1

- 2

- 3
( : ).

- 4

:
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Time on Task 19
Part 3: School-Wide Policies Affecting Instructional Time
:
(
) .

Copyright AFT 2001, 2005 2005 2001