Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 33

1.

INTRODUCTION
1.1 MOPED
Mopeds are motor vehicles that fall somewhere between full-sized motorcycles and motor-driven bicycles. Unlike traditional motorcycles, mopeds still contain pedals, hence the name "moped," which stands for "motor/pedal." Mopeds are classified differently by various governments and municipalities, but must usually be lowpowered vehicles. 1.1.1 Development Some of the earliest European automobile manufacturers and engine builders experimented with motor-driven bicycles. These vehicles served as the earliest motorcycles, but some retained their pedals and small engines, becoming the modern moped. By using pedals, early mopeds could be driven even when the engine wasn't powerful enough, such as on uphill climbs. This feature actually gave early mopeds an advantage over pure motorcycles, but the invention of more powerful motorcycle engines distinctly separated the two types of vehicles in the early 20th century. 1.1.2 Modern History The popularity of mopeds has been occasionally boosted by the ever-rising cost of gasoline. Coupled with the price of cars and motorcycles, this means that mopeds provide a low-cost form of personal transportation. In many parts of Europe, laws allow young drivers to operate mopeds on public roads even if they do not meet age requirements for a vehicle or motorcycle driver's license. This has led mopeds to become a symbol of youth culture. Mopeds have also been adapted to several other types of vehicles, including scooters and minibikes. 1.1.3 Operation Traditional mopeds resemble bicycles and contain one or more motors that connect to the driveline to provide power. The engines can be mounted anywhere, most often appearing on the handlebars, below the seat or in front of the rear wheel. A gas tank is also required, along with a transmission and engine controls for the driver. When the

engine is started, a moped can be driven in much the same way as a motorcycle with the driver shifting through gears, and controlling speed and acceleration with a throttle. The pedals may be used to augment the engine's power output, or when the engine is disengaged. 1.1.4 Evolution of Terminology Over time, the definition of a moped has been changed by different users. A variety of vehicles have been referred to as mopeds. This includes vehicles with such nontraditional features as three wheels instead of two, more powerful four-stroke engines (like those used on small motorcycles), continuously variable (shiftless) transmissions and a lack of pedals for supplying manual power. In the United States, motor scooters (which utilize an open, step-through frame) are sometimes lumped into the moped category. 1.1.5 Moped Hybrids In a strict sense, all traditional mopeds are hybrid vehicles, receiving power from a combination of manual pedals and the onboard gas engine. Recently, however, a new class of hybrid electric mopeds have begun to appear, mimicking the trend in car design by offering an electric motor that can store energy in batteries during braking or when coasting downhill and later use it to power the vehicle. Hybrid electric mopeds are generally more expensive than their gas-powered counterparts, often priced between $2,000 and $3,000 compared to a standard moped's $1,000 to $2,000 price tag. However, these hybrid models require even less fuel, making them more economical over time.

2. LITERATURE RIVEW

2.1 HISTORY OF MOPED


This 1912 Douglas has modern chain-drive but still benefits from pedals. The term "moped" now only applies to low power (often super-economy) vehicles, but pedals were a sign of sophistication when first fitted to the early motorcycles, such as the 1912 Douglas in the photograph. Pedalling away from stationary was a great improvement over "run and jump" and LPA (light pedal assistance) was valuable for climbing hills. Better transmissions with wider ranges, better clutches and much better engine performance made pedals obsolete on all serious motorcycles by 1918 but the pedals on mopeds remained valuable for their original purposes as late as the 1960s. The earliest mopeds were bicycles with a helper motor in various locations, for example on top of the front wheel; they were also called cyclemotors. An example of that type is the VloSoleX brand, which simply has a roller driving the front tire. A French VloSoleX moped. A more innovative design was known in the UK as the Cyclemaster. This had a complete powered rear wheel which was simply substituted for the bicycle rear wheel, which originated from a design by two DKW engineers in Germany. Slightly larger machines, commonly with a 98 cc (6.0 cu in) engine were known as autocycles. On the other hand some mopeds, such as the Czech-made Jawa, were derived from motorcycles. A further category of low-powered two-wheelers exists today in some jurisdictions for bicycles with helper motors these are often defined as power-assisted bicycles or motorized bicycles; see full article there. Other jurisdictions may categorize the same machines as mopeds, creating a certain amount of confusion. In many countries three wheelers and microcars are classified as mopeds or variations thereof. This practise is not restricted to the third-world, France and Belgium classify microcars such as the Aixam similarly or as "light quadricycles".

2.2 MOPEDS: HOW DO THEY WORK? Electric-Powered Moped Mopeds are basically any two-wheeled vehicles. Sometimes mopeds are also referred to as scooters. Mopeds work via a small capacity engine that is either powered by gas or electric with restricting speeds between 18 and 53 mph. However, mopeds generally do not exceed 30 mph if they are to legally be considered mopeds. Although mopeds are very similar to scooters, they do not perform like scooters due to the difference in speed, acceleration and model type. Mopeds are much slower than scooters. Scooters are generally very effective in achieving a higher top speed and better acceleration than mopeds. This is because of how mopeds are designed, due to engine displacement and transmission selection. Mopeds run on a tiny two-stroke engine. Two-stroke engines do not have valves. This allows their structure to be simplified. Two-stroke engines fire once every time there is a revolution or rotation of the crankshaft in comparison to the four-stroke engine that fires once with every other revolution. Therefore, two-stroke engines possess the potential to package approximately two times the power into the same space compared to a four-stroke engine. The power of the two-stroke engine in a moped allows the moped engine to produce a significantly greater boost in power.

2.3 MOPED OR SCOOTER?


A moped, sometimes called a "scooter," is a motor vehicle with the engine as an integral part of the vehicle. If the engine is an add-on it's likely the vehicle is a motor bicycle, which has limited operation on highways different from motorcycles and mopeds. A moped engine may not exceed 50 cubic centimeters (CCs) in size with an automatic transmission, or 130 CCs in size if it is a bicycle type vehicle with fully operative pedals for propulsion by human power. Traditionally, mopeds had fully operative pedals but modern mopeds are usually more like small motorcycles with an automatic transmission and no pedals. 2.4 Differences between a moped and a motorized scooter A motorized scooter is similar to a traditional foot-propelled scooter with two small wheels except it is powered by either an electric motor or gasoline engine. A person operating a motorized scooter typically is in the standing position although some scooters are equipped with a bicycle seat. Unlike mopeds, which may be driven legally on public roads, a motorized scooter may not be operated legally on public roads or sidewalks within a roadways right-ofway. Motorized scooters do not meet federal safety equipment standards for motor vehicles and are not designed for operation on roadways. Therefore, the law treats motorized scooters like lawn tractors, all-terrain vehicles, go-carts, mini-bikes and other off-road motor vehicles that are not allowed on public roads. In addition, anyone operating a motorized scooter on a street or sidewalk without a valid drivers license could receive a citation for operating a motor vehicle without a drivers license. For juveniles, such a violation could result in their being ineligible for a drivers license when they turn age 16.

2.5 DUAL LINKAGE COUPLING MECHANISM FOR A MOPED


1. In a moped having a motor, a rear wheel, a rotatable pedal crank including an axle carrying pinion gear means rotatable with said crank axle for drivingly coupling the axle with the rear wheel, and a pulley, driven by the motor, for rotation about the axle, a coupling mechanism for selectively coupling the pulley with the pinion gear means, comprising: a first lever having first and second ends, said first end being pivotably connected to said pulley, said first lever including means, disposed between said first and second ends, for selectively engaging said pinion gear means to whereby selectively lock the pulley to the pinion gear means; a second lever having first and second ends, said second lever being pivotably connected to said pulley, said first end of said second lever including a nose portion for selective engagement with said pinion gear means, the second ends of said first and second levers being pivotably interconnected to each other; and actuating means, rotatably connected to said pulley and connected to said second lever, said actuating means including means for moving said coupling mechanism,

(1) from a first position in which said first lever engaging means and said second lever nose portion are disengaged from said pinion gear means, (2) to a second position in which said first lever engaging means is disengaged from said pinion gear means and said second lever nose portion is engaged with said pinion gear means, and then (3) to a third position in which said first lever engaging means is engaged with said pinion gear means and said second lever nose portion is disengaged from said pinion gear means, whereby said coupling mechanism smoothly, efficiently and positively couples said engine with said back wheel. 2. The coupling mechanism of claim 1, wherein said pinion gear means comprises first and second pinion gears disposed in parallel, side-by-side relationship, the first

gear being coupled to said rear wheel and the second gear being engaged by the nose portion of said second lever. 3. The coupling mechanism of claim 2, wherein said first lever engaging means comprises a notch for mating engagement with at least one tooth of said second pinion gear. 4. The coupling mechanism of claim 1, wherein said pulley carries a first pivot about which said actuating means is rotatably mounted, and includes slot means disposed about said first pivot, said actuating means including a pin extending through said slot means and being connected to said second lever, whereby upon rotation of said actuating means about said first pivot, said nose portion of said second lever is guided by the geometry of said slot means into the first, second and third positions. 5. The coupling mechanism of claim 4, wherein said slot means defines a substantially semi-circular slot positioned concentrically about said first pivot, and said pin is disposed eccentrically about said first pivot. 6. The coupling mechanism of claim 4, wherein said pulley carries a second pivot, said first lever first end being pivotally connected about said second pivot, said first and second pivots being located on opposite sides of said crank axle, and defining with said axle an imaginary diametrically extending line, said pin being disposed on said imaginary line when said nose portion is in engagement with said pinion gear means. 2.6 FIELD OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a coupling device between the drive part and cycle part of a moped. 2.7 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION More particularly, this device is of the type of those known to the prior art, in which the axle of the crank drive is provided with a stationary pinion, connected by an endless chain, to the free-wheel pinion secured to the back wheel of the moped for driving this wheel by pedaling. Furthermore, the axle of the crank drive freely passes

through the hub of a pulley, having a trapezoidal groove, which is connected by an endless belt to a drive pulley driven by the engine. The device further includes a hub, on which is mounted to freely rotate, a double pinion, one of the gears of which is engaged with an endless chain connecting it to a gear which is integral with the back wheel of the moped and another gear of which works in conjunction with a mechanism carried by said grooved pulley, thus making it possible, at will, to connect or disconnect this pulley with said double pinion. 2.8 OBJECTS AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The function of this device, generally described above, is to achieve a reducing relay in the transmission between the engine and the back wheel of the moped and also to permit coupling or uncoupling between the engine and the back wheel, particularly to permit driving of the moped merely by pedaling or free-wheeling. The mechanism carried by the grooved pulley, which permits connection or disconnecting of the pulley with the second gear of the double pinion, in some cases, constitutes a double lever. The lever comprises an element, which is articulated on the pulley and includes a catch functioning to engage with at least one tooth of the gearing of the double pinion. The lever further comprises another element, articulated at the end of the first, which other element articulates with an eccentric element controlled by a control button mounted to turn on the pulley and placed on the outside of the latter. By making this button pivot, the user can move the double lever between a first locked position, in which, for example, the two catches, provided on one of the levers, engage with one or two teeth of the second gearing of the double pinion, and a second unlocked position. In the unlocked position the catches of the lever are separated from this gearing, which obviously serves to uncouple the engine from the back wheel of the moped. During maneuvering of the control button, which functions to make the coupling device move from the unlocked position to the locked position, interlocking can be difficult or uncertain if the catches of the lever are not brought exactly opposite the complementary notches existing between the teeth of the double pinion. It is therefore

an object of the invention to improve the operation of this known coupling device to permit easy and sure interlocking of the catch or catches of the locking lever with the second gearing of the double pinion because of automatic preselection of the positioning of this pinion. The two elements of the double lever, being respectively designated below by the expressions "locking lever" and "control lever," function to achieve the essential characteristic of the device. Accordingly, an object of the invention resides in the fact that the control lever is structured to comprise a nose generally turned toward the crank axle and which, in the locking or unlocking position of the device, is located in withdrawn position in relation to the second gearing of the double pinion. When the locking lever is, by its notch or notches, either engaged or disengaged with said gearing, this nose, on the other hand, momentarily engages with said gearing when the control button is turned from the unlocking position to the locking position and causes, during this momentary engagement, a rotational movement of the double pinion around the hub of the pulley so that the meshing tooth or teeth of the second gearing are brought exactly opposite the catch or catches of the locking lever. The above-described device facilitates the engagement of the catches of the locking lever with the second gearing of the double pinion utilizing extremely simple means since neither the double pinion, the control button nor the locking lever are modified. The only addition to the device structure consists of a nose that can be made integral with the control lever and, of course, would be correctly dimensioned and positioned to engage momentarily with the second gearing of the double pinion and to bring this latter mechanism exactly into the desired position. In a particular embodiment of the invention, this control lever is extended beyond its articulation point on the eccentric element, which is linked to the control button, the projecting nose of the control lever having a generally bent shape.

3. SYSTEM MODELING
3.1 KINETIC LUNA TFR PLUS MOPED

The LUNA TFR PLUS is a good moped which is well performed on the road with light weight and it was most liked by women.It was nicely designed keeping in mind that the scooter is mainly for city ride and it got success too .Its a pedal start like bicycle If it got some problem in engine you can pedal it this is the one plus point here.its a 50 cc moped which is good in pick up, given a good mileage , well suited for cities and its a reasonable too.The maximum speed given by the company is 60kmpl.This TFR plus was simple and attractive styled moped.It gives a mileage on an avg of 65kmpl in city.The 50 cc engine is air cooled auto uni ratio belt drive which perform well on road.Telescopic suspension for comfortable riding, very good in handling and braking. Kinetic TFR Plus is the first moped in India. Its low maintenance cost and other salient features has approached to the heart of the million moped buyers. Luna TFR Its 49.8 cc engines delivers maximum output of 1.67 HP @ 4500 + 500 rpm and maximum torque of 2.9 Nm @ 3000 rpm. Its stylish body lining and appealing colors are one of those striking features which are making this moped choice of the buyers. Its strong chassis, decompression lever for easy pedal start, larger fuel tank etc. have made this moped more market friendly. The moped has stylish body lining and appealing colors which helps end users to make Kinetic Luna their choice. Salient features of Kinetic Luna include Kick start,

10

Rugged boxed steel body in black and shiny chrome, light weight, easy to handle and pedal kick start. Mopeds can achieve fuel economy of over 100 mpg. The emissions of mopeds have been the subject of multiple studies. Studies have found that 2 stroke 50cc mopeds, with and without catalytic converters, emit 10 to 30 times the hydrocarbons and particulate emissions than the outdated Euro 3 automobile standards. Approximate parity with automobiles was achieved with CO and NOx emissions in these studies. Emissions performance was tested on a g/km basis and was unaffected by fuel economy. An additional air quality challenge can also arise from the use of 2-stroke transportation over automobiles, as a higher density of motorized vehicles can be supported by existing transportation infrastructure.

FIG. 3.1 LUNA TFR

11

3.2 SPECIFICATION

Make: Kinetic Model : Luna Tfr Cc : 49.8 Cc Power :1.75 @ 5000 Rpm Torque :2.94 @ 3000 Rpm Engine Type : Air Cooled Bore :38.4 Mm Stroke : 43 Mm Starter : Pedal Start Length :1650 Mm Height : 1030 Mm Gear : Uni Ratio Belt Drive Mileage : 65 Kmpl Tank : 2.5 Lts

VEHICLE SUMMARY Name: Luna Model: TFR Plus Type: Scooterette

ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS Displacement: 49.8cc Engine: Air Cooled Maximum Power: 1.25bhp@4500rpm Maximum Torque: 2.943Nm@3000rpm Gears: Automatic Clutch: NA Bore: NA

OTHER SPECIFICATIONS Ground Clearance: 120.00 mm Wheelbase: 1100.00 mm Electrical System: NA Headlamp: NA Horn: NA Tubeless: Colors: NA

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SAFETY Suspension(Front): NA Suspension(Rear): NA Brakes: NA

12

Stroke: Cylinder Configuration: Engine Block Material: Chassis Type: Carburetor:

NA NA NA NA NA

Brakes(Rear): Stand Alarm:

NA

DIMENSIONS Length: Width: Height:

N/A N/A N/A

COMFORT AND CONVENIENCE Self Start: Alloys: Warranty: NA Passenger Footrest: Passenger Backrest: Step-up Seat: Pass-light: Low Fuel Indicator: Low Oil Indicator: Low Battery Indicator: High Oil Temp. Indicator: Choked Air Filter Indicator:

13

3.3 VARIATION
. Type Bore Stroke No. Of Cylinders Displacement (Cc) Compression Ratio A. Max. Engine Output (Kw) Luna TFR Plus Two wheeler 38.4 mm 43 mm One horizontal 49.8 cc 8.0:1 ( + 0.5) 1.25 + 0.06 KW @ 4500 + 500 rpm B. Max. Engine Output (Hp) Max. Torque (Nm) Air Cleaner Oil Sump Capacity Weight Of Engine (Kg.) Wheel Base ( Mm ) Overall Width (Mm) Overall Length (Mm) Max. Gvw (Kg.) Min. Ground Clearance Tyre Size Front Rear 1.67 2.943 @ 3000 rpm Wire mesh N.A. 7.5 1100 630 1650 170 120 2.25" X 16" 2.25" X 16" - 6 ply Luna Superstar Two wheeler 42 mm 43 mm One 59.57 cc 8.8:1(+ 0.2) 2.2 + 0.1 KW @6000 + 250 rpm 2.94 4.2 @ 4000 rpm Wire mesh N.A. 12.5 1130 660 1805 184 180 2.5" X 16 - 4 ply 2.5" X 16 - 6 ply

14

4. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

4.1 THE TWO-STROKE ENGINE


Couldn't an engine be constructed, that needs less than four strokes and that performs the same power as the Otto engine? Couldn't you reduce or even replace the complicated valve mechanics? These questions led to the development of the two-stroke otto engine. It needs only one revolution of the crankshaft to indicate a new ignition. Additionally, the piston has at the same time the function of a valve, which saves many mobile parts: The two-stroke engine consists of only three mobile parts: Piston, connecting rod and crankshaft. Let's have a look at the mode of operation of this engine: 4.2 Mode of operation of the two-stroke engine 1st stroke: The piston is at the bottom of the cylinder. A pipe at the left side is opened and lets the fuel mixture, which is already compressed a bit, flow from the lower to the upper part of the cylinder. The fresh gases expulse now the exhaust through an ejection pipe, which is not closed by the piston at this moment. 2nd stroke: After being hurried upward, the piston now covers the pipe on the left side and the ejection pipe. Because there is no way out any more, the upper, fresh gas mixture gets compressed now. At the same time in the part below fresh gas is taken in by the piston driving upward through the open suction pipe. At the upper dead-center, the compressed fuel mixture is ignited by the sparking plug, the piston is pressed downward while he compresses at the same time the fresh gas below. The process begins again as soon as the piston arrives at its lowest point. Development The idea to build a two-stroke engine goes back to the year 1879. But this engine became a qualitatively good product only after many years, when the German DKW company accelerated its development. Because of its disadvantages

15

compared with the four-stroke engine, the two-stroke engine is used practically just in a small range of capacity, 4.3 THE COMPRESSION STROKE Now the momentum in the crankshaft starts driving the piston back toward the spark plug for the compression stroke. As the air/fuel mixture in the piston is compressed, a vacuum is created in the crankcase. This vacuum opens the reed valve and sucks air/fuel/oil in from the carburetor. Once the piston makes it to the end of the compression stroke, the spark plug fires again to repeat the cycle. It's called a two-stoke engine because there is a compression stroke and then a combustion stroke. In a four-stroke engine, there are separate intake, compression, combustion and exhaust strokes. On one side of the piston is the combustion chamber, where the piston is compressing the air/fuel mixture and capturing the energy released by the ignition of the fuel. On the other side of the piston is the crankcase, where the piston is creating a vacuum to suck in air/fuel from the carburetor through the reed valve and then pressurizing the crankcase so that air/fuel is forced into the combustion chamber. Meanwhile, the sides of the piston are acting like valves, covering and uncovering the intake and exhaust ports drilled into the side of the cylinder wall. It's really pretty neat to see the piston doing so many different things! That's what makes two-stroke engines so simple and lightweight. If you have ever used a two-stroke engine, you know that you have to mix special two-stroke oil in with the gasoline. Now that you understand the two-stroke cycle you can see why. In a four-stroke engine, the crankcase is completely separate from the combustion chamber, so you can fill the crankcase with heavy oil to lubricate the crankshaft bearings, the bearings on either end of the piston's connecting rod and the cylinder wall. In a two-stroke engine, on the other hand, the crankcase is serving as a pressurization chamber to force air/fuel into the cylinder, so it can't

16

hold a thick oil. Instead, you mix oil in with the gas to lubricate the crankshaft, connecting rod and cylinder walls.

17

4.4 PROBLEMS OF THE TWO-STROKE ENGINE Actually the two-stroke engine should perform twice the performance of a four-stroke engine with the same cubic capacity. Though it is just possible to gain a performance that is about 50% better. The reasons are obvious: The cylinder can't be filled up with the same amount of fuel as in the four-stroke engine, because the individual strokes are seperated not so clearly. If more fuel is induced, it leaves the combustion chamber through the ejection pipe without being burnt. Many concepts were developed to provide a better expulsion of the exhaust in way that the fresh gas doesn't leave the combustion chamber (as for example the "nosepiston" you can see in the animation above, which causes turbulences of a certain type). Though all these inventions, the filling of the two-stroke engine is always worse than in the four-stroke engine, which loses fresh fuel only because of the "overlap" of the valve times (both valves are open for an instant). Beside these performance-technical problems, there are also increasing difficulties with the environment. The fuel mixture of the two-stroke engine often gets shifted with a certain quantity of oil because of the necessary lubrication. Unfortunately the oil gets burnt partly, too, and harmful gases are expulsed by the engine.

18

4.5 TWO-STROKE BASICS This is what a two-stroke engine looks like: You find two-stroke engines in such devices as chain saws and jet skis because twostroke engines have three important advantages over four-stroke engines:

FIG 4.1 TWO STROKE BASICS Two-stroke engines do not have valves, which simplifies their construction and lowers their weight. Two-stroke engines fire once every revolution, while four-stroke engines fire once every other revolution. This gives two-stroke engines a significant power boost. Two-stroke engines can work in any orientation, which can be important in something like a chainsaw. A standard four-stroke engine may have problems with oil flow unless it is upright, and solving this problem can add complexity to the engine. These advantages make two-stroke engines lighter, simpler and less expensive to manufacture. Two-stroke engines also have the potential to pack about twice the power into the same space because there are twice as many power strokes per revolution. The combination of light weight and twice the power gives two-stroke engines a great power-to-weight ratio compared to many four-stroke engine designs. 4.5.1 The Two-stroke Cycle The following animation shows a two-stroke engine in action. You can compare this animation to the animations in the car engine and diesel engine articles to see the

19

differences. The biggest difference to notice when comparing figures is that the sparkplug fires once every revolution in a two-stroke engine. 4.5.2 Sparks Fly You can understand a two-stroke engine by watching each part of the cycle. Start with the point where the spark plug fires. Fuel and air in the cylinder have been compressed, and when the spark plug fires the mixture ignites. The resulting explosion drives the piston downward. Note that as the piston moves downward, it is compressing the air/fuel mixture in the crankcase. As the piston approaches the bottom of its stroke, the exhaust port is uncovered. 4.5.3 Fuel Intake As the piston finally bottoms out, the intake port is uncovered. The piston's movement has pressurized the mixture in the crankcase, so it rushes into the cylinder, displacing the remaining exhaust gases and filling the cylinder with a fresh charge of fuel. 4.5.4 The Compression Stroke Now the momentum in the crankshaft starts driving the piston back toward the spark plug for the compression stroke. As the air/fuel mixture in the piston is compressed, a vacuum is created in the crankcase. This vacuum opens the reed valve and sucks air/fuel/oil in from the carburetor. Once the piston makes it to the end of the compression stroke, the spark plug fires again to repeat the cycle. It's called a two-stoke engine because there is a compression stroke and then a combustion stroke. In a four-stroke engine, there are separate intake, compression, combustion and exhaust strokes. You can see that the piston is really doing three different things in a two-stroke engine: On one side of the piston is the combustion chamber, where the piston is compressing the air/fuel mixture and capturing the energy released by the ignition of the fuel. On the other side of the piston is the crankcase, where the piston is creating a vacuum to suck in air/fuel from the carburetor through the reed valve and then pressurizing the crankcase so that air/fuel is forced into the combustion chamber.

20

Meanwhile, the sides of the piston are acting like valves, covering and uncovering the intake and exhaust ports drilled into the side of the cylinder wall. It's really pretty neat to see the piston doing so many different things! That's what makes two-stroke engines so simple and lightweight. If you have ever used a two-stroke engine, you know that you have to mix special two-stroke oil in with the gasoline. Now that you understand the two-stroke cycle you can see why. In a four-stroke engine, the crankcase is completely separate from the combustion chamber, so you can fill the crankcase with heavy oil to lubricate the crankshaft bearings, the bearings on either end of the piston's connecting rod and the cylinder wall. In a two-stroke engine, on the other hand, the crankcase is serving as a pressurization chamber to force air/fuel into the cylinder, so it can't hold a thick oil. Instead, you mix oil in with the gas to lubricate the crankshaft, connecting rod and cylinder walls. If you forget to mix in the oil, the engine isn't going to last very long! 4.6 Disadvantages of the Two-stroke You can now see that two-stroke engines have two important advantages over fourstroke engines: They are simpler and lighter, and they produce about twice as much power. So why do cars and trucks use four-stroke engines? There are four main reasons: Two-stroke engines don't last nearly as long as four-stroke engines. The lack of a dedicated lubrication system means that the parts of a two-stroke engine wear a lot faster. Two-stroke oil is expensive, and you need about 4 ounces of it per gallon of gas. You would burn about a gallon of oil every 1,000 miles if you used a two-stroke engine in a car. Two-stroke engines do not use fuel efficiently, so you would get fewer miles per gallon. Two-stroke engines produce a lot of pollution -- so much, in fact, that it is likely that you won't see them around too much longer. The pollution comes from two sources. The first is the combustion of the oil. The oil makes all two-stroke engines smoky to some extent, and a badly worn two-stroke engine can emit huge clouds of oily smoke.

21

4.7 IGNITION & ELECTRICS Mount the Kill Switch and Ignition module where their wires will reach those coming from the engine (again dont over-tighten things). Hook up the two black wires coming from the ignition module and the engine. Hookup the green/blue wire from the ignition module with the blue wire from the engine AND the black/red wire from the kill switch (mounted up on the handlebar by the throttle). The other black wire from the throttle kill switch will need to connect to the frame of the bicycle for a ground. Install the spark plug and the plug wire (unscrew and discard the little cap on the top of the plug). The white wire coming from the engine is the electrical output of the motors generator: 7.5 volts at 0.5 amp. DO NOT hookup the white wire to anything other that whatever electrical gadget(s) you may have. Remember that exceeding 3.75 watts (7.5V x 0.5@) will kill the engine so be sparing with your electrical demands. 4.8 Magnato A magneto is an electrical generator that uses permanent magnets to produce alternating current. Hand-cranked magneto generators were used to provide ringing current in early telephone systems. Magnetos adapted to produce pulses of high voltage are used in the ignition systems of some gasoline-powered internal combustion engines to provide power to the spark plugs. The magneto is now confined mainly to engines where there is no available electrical supply, for example in lawnmowers and chainsaws. It is also universally used in aviation piston engines even though an electrical supply is usually available. This is because a magneto ignition system is more reliable than a battery-coil system. People discussing magnetos and coils used in early internal-combustion engines generally used the term "tension" instead of the more modern term "voltage." Production of electric current from a moving magnetic field was demonstrated by Faraday in 1831. The first machines to produce electric current from magnetism used permanent magnets; the dynamo machine, which used an electromagnet to produce the magnetic field, was developed later. The machine build by Hippolyte Pixii in 1832 used a rotating permanent magnet to induce alternating voltage in two fixed coils.

22

The first person to develop the idea of a high-tension magneto was Andre Boudeville, but his design omitted a condenser (capacitor); Frederick Richard Simms in partnership with Robert Bosch were the first to develop a practicable high-tension magneto. Magneto ignition was introduced on the 1899 Daimler Phnix. This was followed by Benz, Mors, Turcat-Mery, and Nesseldorf, and soon was used on most cars up until about 1918 in both low voltage (voltage for secondary coils to fire the spark plugs) and high voltage magnetos (to fire the spark plug directly, similar to coil ignitions, introduced by Bosch in 1903). The magneto also had a medical use on some mind illness in the beginnings of electromedicine. In 1850, Duchenne, a French doctor, developed and manufactured a magneto with a variable outer voltage and frequency, through varying revolutions by hand or varying the inductance of the two coils, putting out or putting in both ferromagnetic cores. One popular and common use of magnetos of today is for powering lights on bicycles. A small magneto is mounted on the wheel of the bicycle and generates power as the wheel turns. 4.9 Operation In the type known as a shuttle magneto, the engine rotates a coil of wire between the poles of a magnet. In the inductor magneto, the magnet is rotated and the coil remains stationary. On each revolution, a cam opens the contact breaker one or more times, interrupting the current, which causes the electromagnetic field in the primary coil to collapse. As the field collapses there is a voltage induced (as described by Faraday's Law) across the primary coil. As the points open, point spacing is such that the voltage across the primary coil would arc across the points. A capacitor is placed across the points which absorbs the energy stored in the primary coil. The capacitor and the coil together form a resonant circuit which allows the energy to oscillate from the capacitor to the coil

23

and back again. Due to the inevitable losses in the system, this oscillation decays fairly rapidly. A second coil, with many more turns than the primary, is wound on the same iron core to form an electrical transformer. The ratio of turns in the secondary winding to the number of turns in the primary winding, is called the turns ratio. Voltage across the primary coil results in a proportional voltage being induced across the secondary winding of the coil. The turns ratio between the primary and secondary coil is selected so that the voltage across the secondary reaches a very high value, enough to arc across the gap of the spark plug. In a modern installation, the magneto only has a single low tension winding which is connected to an external ignition coil which not only has a low tension winding, but also a secondary winding of many thousands of turns to deliver the high voltage required for the spark plug(s). Such a system is known as an "energy transfer" ignition system. Initially this was done because it was easier to provide good insulation for the secondary winding of an external coil than it was in a coil buried in the construction of the magneto (early magnetos had the coil assembly externally to the rotating parts to make them easier to insulate - at the expense of efficiency). In more modern times, insulation materials have improved to the point where constructing self contained magnetos is relatively easy, but energy transfer systems are still used where the ultimate in reliability is required such as in aviation engines.

24

FIG 4.2 IGNITION 4.9. Battery-operated ignition With the universal adaptation of electrical starting for automobiles, and the concomitant availability of a large battery to provide a constant source of electricity, magneto systems were abandoned for systems which interrupted current at battery voltage, used an ignition coil (a type of autotransformer) to step the voltage up to the needs of the ignition, and a distributor to route the ensuing pulse to the correct spark plug at the correct time. The first reliable battery operated ignition was developed by the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Co. (Delco) and introduced in the 1910 Cadillac. This ignition was developed by Charles Kettering and was a wonder in its day. It consisted of a single coil, points (the switch), a capacitor and a distributor set up to allocate the spark from the ignition coil timed to the correct cylinder. The coil was basically an autotransformer set up to step up the low (6 or 12 V) voltage supply to the high ignition voltage required to jump a spark plug gap.

25

The points allow the coil to charge magnetically and then, when they are opened by a cam arrangement, the magnetic field collapses and a large (20 kV or greater) voltage is produced. The capacitor is used to absorb the back EMF from the magnetic field in the coil to minimize point contact burning and maximize point life. The Kettering system became the primary ignition system for many years in the automotive industry due to its lower cost, higher reliability and relative simplicity.

FIG 4.3 LUNA TFR ENGINE

FIG 4.4 CHAIN SPROCKET

26

FIG 4.5 ENGINE DRIVE

FIG 4.6 THROTTLE SWITCH

27

Kinetic TFR/Luna moped engine piston and rings

Kinetic TFR/Luna moped clutch 3 bottom washers

Kinetic TFR/Luna moped throttle lever

Kinetic TFR/Luna moped front wheel

28

Kinetic TFR/Luna moped decompression lever

Kinetic TFR/Luna moped air box intake valve

Kinetic TFR/Luna moped front wheel

Kinetic TFR/Luna moped engine cylinder cover

29

Kinetic TFR/Luna moped lower frame assembly

Kinetic TFR/Luna moped clutch inner clutch shoe

Kinetic TFR/Luna moped brake cable adjuster

Kinetic TFR/Luna moped handlebar mounting bracket

30

FIG 4.7 ENGINE CASTING

31

5. CONCLUSION

Since its inception, Luna has been known for the convenient ride and negligible maintenance cost. It served as a ubiquitous mode of transportation in rural Indian hinterland. Over the years, the Luna has undergone changes so as to keep pace with the changing times. Its strong chassis, decompression lever for easy pedal start, larger fuel tank etc. have made the moped more user friendly. Extra footrest in front helps one to sit comfortably on it. TPFC boosts enhanced acceleration and sturdy body of course helps it in cruising on rural roads. Its wheel base provides firm grip on the road and the brake system and all other safety features give the assurance of secured riding. Telescopic suspension adds to the efficiency of the vehicle. Front and rear drum brakes are effective in bringing the vehicle to a halt.

32

REFERENCE
www.indianauto.com/bikes1/kinetic-engineering/luna.htm www.infibeam.com ... Kinetic Bikes Kinetic Luna autos.maxabout.com/twid0000100/kinetic_luna_tfr_plus.aspx www.letsknow.info/bikes/luna-tfr-plus-price/

33