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Our group would specially like to give thanks to our Cookery lecturers who have provided us with the guidelines and necessary resources to help form the basis of this project. The group worked well together collecting information from many of the reputable chain hotels and individual ones as well and the Ceylon Tourist Board for helping to form standards and rules and regulations that properties must abide with.


The Hospitality Industry finds itself increasing in population with the number of tourists traveling round the world and the number of hotels, ranging from the guest house to the 3 star up to the 5 star hotels. This industry is highly profitable and also helps people improve their relationship with the public. We too have decided to move into the bigger sea and invest in opening a new hotel. Since we are cookery students, we have undertaken the task of designing a moderate kitchen for our hundred room hotel.

As you know, the world of manual labor is increasingly becoming more and more costly to hire and manage, thus, we have decided to step into the 21 st century and take hold of the modern technology to help reduce the manpower required and also to make operations much more smoother and more standardized.

The use of equipment and the manpower that can fit into our human resources budget is not the only focus of designing the kitchen, following hygiene and safety precautions is very important. There are many institutions and organizations that make sure food and beverage outlets keep the production area clean. To make sure that this also became a standard, they have formed the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point.

Different types of kitchens

There are different types of kitchens, each one designed to fulfill requirements that enable an operation to carry out its job, for example, a small school cafeteria will require just two cooks, three at the most and a few service staff for the food that is cooked is done in bulk and is meant for children and is to be eaten in a span of 15 minutes to half an hour.

While a restaurant will require more staff and a larger workspace to fulfill the demands of its maximum capacity of an average of 50 to 300 pax whilst a large five star kitchen will need the full workforce that of staff and sophisticated equipment to successfully cater to hundred and fifty plus rooms as well as its many restaurants.

The kitchen we will be designing is one for a full fledge five star kitchen will the latest technology in equipment due to the increase in costs of labor and the ever decreasing skilled staff.

Points to be considered when planning a kitchen.


Fittings Heavy Light Semi- Manual/ Automated Smooth operation

For smooth operation

Try experienced trained employees

Usage of modern equipment will help reduce manpower

Pre-prepared (convenient) foods and drinks.

Use a suggestion box

Communication and meeting every one month

Conduction classes for all employees

Checking/repair all equipment twice a week

All employees have to follower a roster

Use of regularly updated notice board

Supplying necessary knife and tools for employees by hotel

Try to conduct programs for their motivation


Equipment helps reduce Manpower in the kitchen.

Doughsheeter for folding bakery, pastry, dough eg. Puff pastry, pasta dough, sugar and pie pastes

Potato Peeler

Vegetable preparation machine

Different size and different cutting styles of vegetable

Bread roll divider

Pako Jet machine mixing, chopping, blending. Every manual job done within 2 minutes

Ice Cream machine

Hot dog machine

Prooving cupboard

Microwave ovens

Hot cupboard

Dishwashing machine

All-purpose machine

Bread slicer


Gum machine –

Bone Saw machine

Automatic KOT display

Vacuum packing

Bain Marie & Service Counters

Griddle /Dosa Plate

Silver Carrier

Hot Food Trolleys

Six Burner Cooking Range

Boiling Pans

Hot Cum Display Cases

Single Deck Oven

Bulk Cookers Butchery Boy

Ice Cream Parlour Idli Steamer

Steam Boiler Sterlizers

Chapati Plate Cum Puffers

Industrial Ovens

Stock Pot Stove

Chinese Cooking Range

Insect Killer

Storage Racks & Pot Racks

Convection Oven

Juicer Wet Graingers


Cooking Ranges & Stoves

Tea Boiler

Cooking Vessels, Pot & Pans

Meal Trays & Tumblers

Cooling Rack ( Mobile )

Meat Mincer

Tea Coffee Dispensers

Counter Top Frier

Open Top Bain Marie

Tea Snacks Service Trolley

Cutlery, Crockery & Glassware

Oven With Prooving Chamber

Tea Urns

Deep Fat Frier

Pantry Station

Tea, Snacks Service Trolleys

Deep Freezers & Refrigerators

Pastry Trolley

Three Burner Cooking Range

Dish Landing Table

Pizza Dressup Unit

Three Sink Unit

Dish Washing Equipment

Tilting Frying Pans / Skillets

Display Counter

Platform Truck

Toasters / Salamanders

Double Desk Oven

Pot Rack

Tray Carriers & Meal Trays

Dough Kneeding Machines

Potato Peelers

Two Burner Cooking Range

Drink Mixer

Potato Slicer

Two Sink Unit

Egg Boilers / Idli Steamers


Under Counter Refrigerator

Electric Cooking Range With Oven

Rice Boilers & Bulk Cookers

Espresso Coffee Machine

Exhaust Hoods

Roomali Roti Counter

Flambey Trolley

Food Processors

Salad Trolley


Four Burner Range With Oven

Sandwich Griller

Four Door Refrigerator

Scrub Sinks

Water Cooler

Water Stations

Handwash Units

Wet Grinders

Work Table & Sinks

Dough Kneeding Machines Potato Peelers Two Burner Cooking Range Drink Mixer Potato Slicer Two Sink Unit
Hygiene Before designing a kitchen, one of the most important things to remember is kitchen, food


Before designing a kitchen, one of the most important things to remember is kitchen, food and personal hygiene. This is not just a safety feature but now is one of the rules and laws of countries around the world. In the following we will see how we can implement hygiene into our production.

Bacteria and germs are the cause of all physical illnesses. By preventing these microscopic creatures we can prevent, if not eliminate, such threats.

Cross contamination is easily achievable, so the chefs must take precautions when handling and storing different types of food.

Using safe chemicals, like sanitizers, to clean work surfaces, one can also prevent such outbreaks.

The aim of food hygiene is to ensure a clean and safe, food supply. One that is not free only from visible contaminants but also from invisible ones.

Food Safety Basics

There are many diseases going around nowadays and these have increased due to the increasing number of people traveling and pollution that helps to grow the range of infectious diseases. Keeping clean not only helps stop the spread of these infectious diseases but also gives a sense of attraction to a place that will definitely draw more customers to a place due to man’s need to be clean. True, the previously mentioned equipment will make recipes and outcomes much more standard and will quicken the process speed but it will not help in keeping a place clean. For that human supervision is required and all staff must undergo intensive training to learn this.

The high price of food borne illnesses

The price of food borne illnesses is very high, indeed. If there is an outbreak, many will fall sick and some will die. There seems to be only one institution that will benefit from all this, hospitals. But we, as hoteliers are to lose greatly and most indefinitely.

Weighing the risks

We could keep food on the shelf longer to reduce spending. We could defrost meats and seafood by keeping them outside to save

time or even together to reduce use of space. We could even not clean floors and work surfaces to reduce manpower and eventually save money by reducing labor, but if all this leads to closing down an operation, is it really worth it? It leads to legal action from the government, private legal action by the affected customers, and loss through bad publicity (just to name the least).

What makes food unsafe?

The most logical answer to this that we could see is ‘US’. Humans have the power to make the food unsafe by not obeying what is simply called common sense and the concern for others.

Safe food production and service

Is simply ‘VERY IMPORTANT’ not just to our customers, but also to staff and to the rest of the human, animal and plant population. Outbreaks of illnesses have been known to happen due to the careless nature of humans. By instilling the knowledge of safe food production and service (yes, hygiene should not only occur during the making of food but also when it is served to the guests and also after he finishes it.) How do we know what is safe and unsafe? The next few topics will dwell into this matter to show you, the reader.

Food Safety Guidelines throughout the food service operation

  • 1. Always use fresh produce (that is, meats, vegetables and seafood)

  • 2. Always keep equipment and cooking utensils free of dirt and grease. Everything should be washed properly before and after use with a mild detergent and rinsed well with hot water.

  • 3. Work surfaces must be kept clean. Always use a Sanitizer.

  • 4. Never keep food in the chiller for more than three days.

  • 5. Always wear clean uniforms.

  • 6. Always keep oneself clean by baths and proper handwashing techniques.

  • 7. Keep cutting tools clean and wash inbetween jobs.

  • 8. Never smoke or bring any outside materials (rings, gloves, clothes, watches) into the kitchen

  • 9. Keep your hair short and facial hair fully shaven.

10.Visit a doctor once a month for a complete checkup.

Holding/Displaying food between preparation and serving

Sometimes, food must be advertised before it can sell. This is done by placing it in display counters. Never sell a dish that is been used in the display counter, even if there is no more ingredients to make another one for a customer. This dish has been left out for a long time and is contaminated.

Never touch food with your hands, always use gloves.

Personal hygiene guidelines for employees


Always change the clothes you wear every day.

  • 3. Never wear jewelry or timepieces on you during the working hours.

  • 4. Have short hair.

  • 5. Shave even if there is a slight growth of facial hair

  • 6. Keep your fingernails short and clean

  • 7. Wash your hands inbetween jobs.

  • 8. See a doctor at least once a month to ensure you are disease free.

Hand washing guidelines

This may sound simple but it must be done properly to ensure that nothing will be able to spread around.

  • 1. Use lukewarm water.

  • 2. Wash both hands thoroughly together.

  • 3. Use a mild detergent or soap.

  • 4. Scrub well using fingers of both hands, and in between finger joints.

  • 5. Use a nail brush to scrub nails

  • 6. Rinse well with lukewarm water.

  • 7. Dry hands with a disposable paper towel, never with a duster of a cloth towel that everyone may use.


What is HACCP?

Means ‘Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point’

Benefits of HACCP

One of the key benefits of HACCP is that it makes life easier. It is difficult to keep areas, equipment and oneself clean so often but the HACCP is a guideline that we follow to ensure that no part of anything is missed. This is what makes it easier. By reading through it step by step, not only do we know what area we have missed but also why it is important to clean and the benefits of cleaning.

Cleaning Guidelines of cleaning equip.

Floors and walls

Sweep Hotwater detergent Warm water, mop disinfection solution Warm water (This process can be done closing down the kitchen and beginning of shift). But floor must be given extra consideration for cleaning at least 5 or 6 times a day necessary.

Deep freezer/ Chiller/ Cold room

Switch off moveable stuff Sweep or wipe Clean, detergent solution wipe wet cloth use bleach solution cleaning allow to few minutes rinse fresh water (2 times per day)

Oven heat 60oc oven cleaning solution wipe with cloth fresh water with some vinegar and wipe.

Chopping boards use of detergent, hot water. Finish with fresh water and drain well after use.

All pots/ Pans/ spoons etc. Soak in detergent water hand wash, scrub hot water drain.

Chopper/Slicer/Mincer/ Bonesaw fittings dipped in detergent solution, scrub and hand wash hot water solution disinfection solution clean hot water allow to dry.

Kitchen Planning

Flooring (Tiles)

Choose tiling that is white in color without any design. This will help in maintaining the cleanliness of it. If it starts to turn off white, either clean it with a strong abrasive or change the tiles. The same is said of using tiles on walls. This makes walls washable and cleanable and replaceable.

Tiles should be made of ceramic and not a plastic stick on. This makes it easier to maintain and keeps the floor slip-free.


Lighting must be made bright and white. To help see better, to reduce fatigue and to help notice dirt and stains before it becomes

too dangerous.

A good lighting is necessary so that people working in the kitchen do no strain their eyes to see. Good lighting also helps to keep the kitchen clean.

Advantage of lighting

Create a good working environment Improves the level of the vision of employees Helps to increase the productivity Kitchen can be cleaned well, thereby, minimizing spread of bacteria


Adequate ventilation must be provided so that fumes from stoves are taken out from the kitchen and stale air in the stores and stillroom etc. is extracted. Good fresh air should be pumped to the kitchen.

Advantages of ventilation.

It improves the quality of the air you get. Workers do not feel lazy Working environment is not hot Productivity increases


Adequate supplies of hot and cold water must be available for keeping the kitchen clean. There must be hand washing and dry facility and suitable provision of toilets, which must not be in direct contact with any room in which food is prepared .Hand washing facilities must also be available. Advantages Easy to carry out workers smoothly Bacteria can kill by hot water ± 60 o c


The better the way a person walks the more easily he reaches his destination.

By placing sections of the kitchen in certain areas, the work can be done so much easier. The bakery next to the pastry, the substores in an easily reached area, the ‘a la carte’ kitchen near the restaurant service door to improve the speed of service by reducing the distance walked by waiters.

Inter-section relationships benefit from this. The eye-contact between staff that require each others skill and expertise make the final product much more satisfying to the guest.

The following page shows the blueprint of our kitchen that we are planning to construct.

Pest Control

What are pests?

Pests are any animal that harms our production. Rats, mice, cockroaches, flies, etc.

These creatures themselves are not solely responsible for destroying businesses. They carry germs, bacteria, and insects smaller than the eye can see on to our food and pass it round by touching, excreting waste matter and eating food items left lying around. They are some of the major causes of death in man.

Where do they come from?

If we leave food out in the open and keep doors or windows open, they can easily smell it and enter. By bringing in foreign matter where they hide. By staff who have not properly bathed or changed into clean uniforms.

There are so many ways where they can enter into the premises to infect.

How do we control them

The best way to control them is by preventing their entrance. To do this we must make sure we never leave food outside on counters for more than it is necessarily required.

We must remove and clean garbage bins when they are full or even better, every two hours to prevent cross contamination.

By installing electric pest killers that draw the insects to it.

We could use poison, but should be very careful when handling it for it may enter a dish. The cooks should never touch poison for even if they wash their hands, they may never be fully rid of its harmful effects which may be passed on to the unknowing customers. The best way to do this is to call professionals who know every risk of using pest prevention methods and the safe way of using it in the catering industry.

Integrated Pest Management

Food Production

Work Flow

The definition of workflow is exactly as it looks. It is the flow of work and in this case, the flow of work through the hospitality industry. The term flow of work can range from work with a lot of setbacks to that which is so efficient and effective. Sometimes when the work flow is effective and efficient, lesser staff can be employed because it is more hassle free.

The following paragraphs will show the workflow of one production kitchen from the point of purchasing to the point of consumption by customers.

All database in our hotel is computerized, with backup compact discs made every two hours to ensure that if anything goes wrong with our computers the system can be reset and the work continued.

The storekeeper should have all records of their suppliers, what they sell and how much they sell at, even if the prices or suppliers change season to season, this must also be noted on the database program.

An internet link to all suppliers will make the store’s operation much quicker for then there will be no need to call the suppliers by telephone one by one, although this can only be done with the most commonly used suppliers.

Once the goods are delivered, a proper way must be used to account for the items that go out from the stores. A bin card must be used.

Below shows an example of the bin card.

Proper storage of items not only ensures that the supplies do not become spoilt but if stored correctly a) the FIRST IN FIRST OUT method and b) most commonly used items are much more easier to reach, then the efficiency of workflow will come about in a much shorter time.

The kitchen must make a market list everyday to inform the stores of the necessary items that the kitchen will be requisitioning for. If a special ingredient is required, then a separate form must be filled and handed over to the stores at least two days before the required date. A sample of the market list is shown below and a special ingredients form along side.

Every form must include four spaces for signatures the person who requires the items, the executive chef, the financial controller and the storekeeper.

Once the items are brought to the kitchen, dry items must be properly placed, as mentioned previously like in the stores, in the sub-stores and perishable items in the chiller or freezer.

A chef can prepare and store dishes as many as needed but this can only be issued to the restaurant on presentation of the KOT (Kitchen Order Ticket). This displays the date, time, cheque number, name of waiter, number of guests and the name of the dish. This is very important for accounts, so the chef must collect this and store it carefully until the end of his shift.

Below shows a sample of the KOT.

For smooth operation

Try experienced trained employees

Usage of modern equipment will help reduce manpower

Pre-prepared (convenient) foods and drinks.

Use a suggestion box

Communication and meeting every one month

Conduction classes for all employees

Checking/repair all equipment twice a week

All employees have to follower a roster

Use of regularly updated notice board

Supplying necessary knife and tools for employees by hotel

Try to conduct programs for their motivation

Energy Management

Another important detail to look over is energy. It does not come free and everyday, we see the energy bills increasing and increasing. Not using or not saving this properly will lead to a major loss in profits and also a great damage to our environment.

Energy we are looking at is Electricity, Water and Gas. Each have its own specific uses and we can not do without a single one.

Saving all three is very important and it helps keeps our profits up.

By not using lights where it is not required or by switching off lights after use, one can save.

By closing taps or using less water to wash, but it must be properly washed.

By unnecessarily reheating food, which is not recommended as the temperature will be ideal for bacteria to thrive in when it is right for them.

Waste disposal is also part of a way of managing energy, but this will be seen into in a later chapter.

The following are some internationally approved ways of managing energy.

5 S System

Why The Need For The Energy Optimization Strategy (EOS)?

Facility Automation Systems are designed to save energy but are rarely optimized for that purpose.

Why not?

First cost considerations usually sacrifice long term operational efficiency. Few facilities are rarely re-commissioned. Generally accepted design concepts have evolved and become more efficient since original design. Changes are made to the facility and its use. Performance of complex HVAC systems degrade without continuous commissioning (tune-ups).

What is EOS?

EOS is continuous commissioning and more. It is the application of Control Technologies’ proprietary software algorithms in order to minimize energy consumption. We’ll also apply good old fashioned common sense—making sure equipment is operating correctly and schedules are optimized, for example.

Why purchase a Mechanical or Controls PM contract? Mechanical PM

Peace of Mind —- The knowledge that should a

problem arise fast and competent response is just a phone call away. Priority Response —- We offer a higher priority

response to those customers with a service agreement. Documentation —- We provide complete

documentation of the contract services we have provided along with a PM binder left on your site. Keep Your System Current —- We are available to

assist in planning mechanical upgrades or replacements allowing you to take full advantage of current technology. Maximizes System Efficiency — Simple things like

plugged filters or clogged coils can dramatically affect the efficiency of your HVAC system. Reduces Operating Costs — With a service

agreement you are effectively time-sharing the right amount of technician labor to keep your facility operating at peak levels. Preferred Pricing — We offer preferred pricing for

parts and labor (10% off our regular labor rates). Protects Your Investment — A system that is

allowed to deteriorate over time quickly loses its value and effectiveness. With regular attention, HVAC systems maintain their value through the benefits they provide, such as an energy efficient comfortable environment. Increased Up-Time — A system that is maintained on a regular basis has fewer critical failures.

Why Choose Control Technologies?

Our Service Department is committed to maintaining the highest level of satisfaction; customer service is our specialty. Whether it is installing a brand new system or cleaning and tuning up a boiler, you will find us to be the most thorough and dedicated company. We are experienced at servicing a broad range of HVAC equipment such as:


Rooftop Units


Hydronic Pumps




Cooling Towers


Air Handlers


Data Room Air




Speed Drives





Recovery Units

What does the Mechanical PM service include? Preferred Labor & Materials — The customer will be advised of the defect. Subject to approval by an authorized agent of the customer, work will be performed on our preferred time and material basis. Emergency Labor — What this means is all of the

necessary unscheduled emergency labor to restore, repair, or replace the equipment on the list of maintained equipment during CTI’s normal working hours. Any material replacement will be invoiced on a preferred pricing basis. Comprehensive Coverage — The labor and material

components and parts necessary to restore covered equipment to normal operation. These replacements will be of like or current design to prevent system depreciation or obsolescence. All work will be performed during CTI normal working hours. 24-Hour Coverage — This coverage includes back- up emergency services for critical responses on a 7-day/week, 24-hour/day basis. Subject to approval by an authorized agent of the customer, work will be performed on our overtime preferred time and material basis.

Controls PM

Peace of Mind — The knowledge that should a

problem arise, fast competent response is just a phone call away. We provide system backups which prevents you from losing valuable data. Priority Response — We offer a higher priority

response to those customers with a service agreement. Documentation — We provide complete

documentation of the contract services we have provided along with a PM binder left on your site. Keep Your System Current — Our control PM program includes software upgrades keeping your system up to date and allowing you to take

advantage of current technology. Maximizes System Efficiency — Calibration of

sensors and devices keeps your system operating as it is designed to. Reduces Operating Costs — With a service

agreement you are effectively time-sharing the right amount of technician labor to keep your facility operating at peak levels. Preferred Pricing — We offer preferred pricing for

parts and labor (10% off our regular labor rates). Protects Your Investment — A system that is

allowed to deteriorate over time quickly loses its value and effectiveness. With regular attention building systems maintain their value through the benefits they provide such as an energy efficient comfortable environment. Increased Up-Time — A system that is maintained

on a regular basis has fewer critical failures. We’ll analyze alarm histories and correct problems as required. Remote Online Support — The quickest and most cost effective way to solve minor system problems.

Why choose Control Technologies?

While controls are our specialty, we also provide a full range of facility maintenance, repair and management services. Recognizing that each customer has a unique need, we will work with you to design a service contract specifically geared towards your needs.

What does the Controls PM service include?

Remote Online Support — The quickest and most

cost effective way to solve minor system problems. HVAC Performance Analysis — We review your

temperature control performance and adjust the system as necessary. Calibration of Sensors and Devices — Keeps your

system operating as it is designed to. Alarm and Fault Review — We’ll analyze alarm

histories and correct problems as required. Software Upgrades — Keeps your software from

becoming obsolete. Control System Backups — Prevents you from

losing valuable data and system programs. Emergency Service — 24-Hour Emergency On-Call Service available.

Waste Disposal System

Hotel owners and operators are analyzing ways to make changes in operations to cut waste disposal costs, protect the environment and increase guest loyalty. A few proactive hotel corporations have mandated hotel environmental programs such as water and energy efficiency and more recently, waste reduction and recycling.

Today leaders in the industry evaluate their environmental practices including waste reduction and recycling. In the past, the industry was satisfied to organize and manage an efficient waste removal system, now they are challenged by changing methods and costs of disposing of waste. Solid waste disposal systems must be analyzed frequently due to escalating costs associated with subtitle D landfills and increasing opportunities to recycle.

External forces are also impacting the way the lodging and hospitality industries handle their waste. There is a steady movement of “green consumerism” from hotel guests, businesses and tourist related industries. Green consumers are asking questions related to the hotel’s environmental practices including waste handling, energy and water management, before selecting a site for vacations and conferences. The travel industry also has joined the movement and is developing a rating system for hotels and resorts based on environmental practices. The hospitality industry is being forced to join the “green movement” or loose their market share of the “green consumer.”

Stewardship of natural resources and making business decisions based on sound environmental practices have enabled certain proactive hotel companies to tap into the ever increasing “green consumer” market.

Each waste reduction program must be specifically designed to accommodate the hotel’s procedures of operation, hotel activities and structural design. This guide is intended to assist hotel and motel management in organizing their waste reduction initiatives. The Hotel and Motel Waste Reduction Educational Module is available and includes:

Reducing Waste and Recycling in Hotels and Motels, a Guide for Hotel Managers How to Recycle in Hotel and Motel Kitchens, Offices, Housekeeping and Conventions--

employee training videos (Sorted and Mixed Versions of each

department are on one tape).


Center Posters--posters for departmental recycling


Recycling Information --recycling instructions for employees to use in their work stations (English and Spanish).

The Waste Reduction Module is distributed at seminars and may be obtained from:

Waste Reduction Recycling Waste reduction includes all actions taken to reduce the amount and/or toxicity of waste. It includes waste prevention, recycling,

cornposting and the purchase of products that have recycled content or produce less waste.

Waste prevention is one of the easiest methods of reducing waste and can be controlled at the time of purchasing products and services. There is a direct correlation between what a hotel purchases and what it throws away. In addition, all of the resources and economic costs of materials, manufacturing, labor, transportation, packaging, storage and disposal are wasted when a product is discarded. Cornposting food waste and yard trimmings can save a hotel money on hauling and landfilling fees. However, cornposting is limited by land space at the hotel and/or availability of commercial cornposting sites. Purchasing products made with recycled content creates outlets or markets for the materials collected in the hotel’s recycling program. As such, procurement sustains the recycling process and in turn, reduces the amount of waste going to the landfill.

Benefits of waste reduction:

Savings through reduced purchasing costs, reduced waste disposal

costs, reduced energy consumption and pollution, conservation of natural resources.

Recycling is the process by which materials, otherwise destined for disposal, are collected and used as raw materials for new products. Recycling prevents useful materials from being landfilled or combusted, thus saving energy and natural resources.

There are three steps in recycling:

1) collecting the recyclable components of solid waste, 2) processing and manufacturing them into reusable products, 3) purchasing and using the products made with reprocessed materials. Hotel recycling programs focus on collecting recyclable materials from the hotel’s waste stream for recycling and purchasing products made from recycled materials.

Benefits of recycling:

Reduces hotel waste disposal costs by diverting materials from the landfill, possibly provides revenues through the sale of recyclable materials, demonstrates a hotel’s commitment to environmental protection to guests, businesses and employees.

Waste Reduction Guidelines for Food and Beverage

Waste Reduction Guidelines will assist hotel and motel food and beverage managers in reducing the volume and toxicity of wastes generated by the food service operations. To successfully reduce waste disposal costs, conduct a departmental audit to determine the types and volumes of wastes generated for disposal. Plan your waste reduction initiatives by targeting specific products or materials that contribute the greatest volume and/or weight to your departments waste stream or which create disposal problems. Establish short and long term departmental goals for waste reduction and implement appropriate waste reduction strategies.

Reduce Waste

Use reusable metal or nylon coffee filters. Use only reusable dishes and flatware in restaurants and employee cafeteria. Install a magnet on food waste containers to recover silverware accidently thrown away with food waste. Use paper towel dispensers in employee rest rooms that control the amount of paper being dispensed or use less than standard width paper to reduce paper waste as well as litter. Use filters in deep fryers to extend the life of cooking oil.

Distribute condiments, paper napkins, and straws upon request instead of offering them self-serve for take-outs. Replace individually wrapped condiment packages with bulk dispensers in restaurants and employee cafeterias. Use washable hats and aprons for kitchen employees instead of disposable paper ones. Use only cloth napkins, tablecloths and china for restaurants, meetings, and conventions.

Use stained wash cloths and towels for cleaning rather than paper towels. Redye tablecloths and napkins to match new color schemes when remodeling; reuse worn table linens as cleaning rags or remake into aprons, laundry bags, mattress covers. Use glass or plastic coasters to reduce cocktail napkin waste. Eliminate paper place mats and use cloth ones. Reuse five gallon PVC buckets. Request fruits, vegetables and meats to be packaged in reusable crates, or recyclable boxes.


condiments in bulk and dispense the items in smaller, refillable containers. concentrate bar mixes; reconstitute and serve from reusable containers. dispenser beverages (i.e., juice, iced tea, hot chocolate) in concentrate or bulk and pour into reusable serving containers. milk in five (5) gallon dispenser bags delivered in reusable plastic crates, rather than by the gallon. If milk is purchased by the gallon, select recyclable plastic jugs, not waxed cartons. frozen foods in bulk and store unserved portions in airtight reusable food containers. Flours and grains in bulk and store properly in reusable food containers. Draft beer in returnable/refillable kegs to reduce the quantity of bottles and cans requiring disposal.

carbonated fountain beverages in refillable cylinders and dispense into reusable glasses. beverages with the least distribution packaging.

The Central Recycling Center

The Central Recycling Center (CRC) is an area outside the hotel where recyclable materials are stored until they are transported to a processor. In larger hotels CRCs may be located in the dock or receiving area.


Consideration should be given to the location of the CRC. For convenience, locate it outside the hotel near an employee service exit. Easy access to the container(s) is needed for vehicles picking up and transporting the materials. The CRC is usually located outside the hotel because of the amount of space required for containers. Odors, insects and rodents are also reasons for locating CRCs outside. The hotel’s design, space limitations and vehicle access may make it impossible to locate CRCs conveniently. Local zoning ordinances may regulate the CRCs location. Visibility of the CRC is a concern for some hotel management. They are concerned with the visibility of recycling equipment and stored materials creating an undesirable appearance for the guests. However, guests are expressing interest in preserving the environment and recycling is one way for the hotel to create a positive environmental image. Well kept CRCs that are visible to guests create a positive image for the hotel. In areas with zoning restrictions CRCs can be concealed with fences, walls or landscaping. Equipment Equipment is needed in the CRC to prepare materials and store them until they are hauled to the recycling materials

processor. Equipment usually found in the CRC are storage containers such as a large recycling roll-off, dumpster and/or portable 92-gallon containers. The type materials storage container(s) needed depends on the available space, volume of materials to be recycled and the requirements of the processor. Hotels with food and beverage operations need a baler for reducing the volume of cardboard created from food and drink packaging. A large trash container for disposing of non-recyclables should be placed in the CRC. If a trash container is not available, nonrecyclable materials may be thrown into recycling containers or on the ground.

Materials to be Recycled:

Aluminum Cans Plastic Bottles (Type depends on what is accepted by your processor )

Rules and Regulations of Law

It is not just the HACCP that governs us, but even the individual laws of the country. Like taxes imparted upon the hospitality industry to ensure that the customers are always safe and also to ensure that the hoteliers are also safe from some customers, one when it comes to the service offered and the price that it is offered at and the other when it come to the payment of bills.

There are laws on the import of meats and certain seafood to guarantee freshness and that the product comes from a reliable supplier.

There are laws to fine hoteliers when the premises becomes to dirty or the rules start to go out of hand.

There are laws to say what can be done, what can not be done and how to do it to make sure that every hotel is, at least, running a standard form of service, but of course, the service provided can excel over the standards if the hotel only wills it.





Second edition


Reference number ISO 9004:2000(E) © ISO 2000

Introduction 0.1 General

The adoption of a quality management system should be a strategic decision by the top management of an organization. The design and implementation of an organization's quality management system is influenced by varying needs, particular objectives, the products provided, the processes employed and the size and structure of the organization. This International Standard is based on eight quality management principles. However, it is not the intent of this International Standard to imply uniformity in the structure of quality management systems or uniformity of documentation. The purpose of an organization is — to identify and meet the needs and expectations of its customers and other interested parties (people in the organization, suppliers, owners, society), to achieve competitive advantage, and to do this in an effective and efficient manner, and — to achieve, maintain, and improve overall organizational performance and capabilities.

The application of quality management principles not only provides direct benefits but also makes an important contribution to managing costs and risks. Benefit, cost and risk management considerations are important for the organization, its customers and other interested parties. These considerations on overall performance of the organization may impact — customer loyalty, — repeat business and referral, — operational results such as revenue and market share, — flexible and fast responses to market opportunities, — costs and cycle times through effective and efficient use of resources, — alignment of processes which will best achieve desired results, — competitive advantage through improved organizational capabilities, — understanding and motivation of people towards the organization's goals and objectives, as well as participation in continual improvement, — confidence of interested parties in the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization, as demonstrated by the financial and social benefits from the organization's performance, product life cycle, and reputation, — ability to create value for both the organization and its suppliers by optimization of costs and resources as well as flexibility and speed of joint responses to changing markets.

0.2 Process approach

This International Standard promotes the adoption of a process approach when developing, implementing and improving the effectiveness and efficiency of a quality management system to enhance interested party satisfaction by meeting interested party requirements. For an organization to function effectively and efficiently, it has to identify and manage numerous linked activities. An activity using resources, and managed in order to enable the

transformation of inputs into outputs, is considered



process. Often the output from one process directly forms

the input to the next. The application of a system of processes within an organization, together with the








processes can be referred to as the “process approach”.

An advantage of the process approach is the ongoing control that it provides over the linkage between the individual processes within the system of processes, as well as their combination and interaction. When used within a quality management system, such an approach emphasizes the importance of

  • a) understanding and fulfilling the requirements,

  • b) the need to consider processes in terms of added value,

  • c) obtaining results of process performance and

effectiveness, and

  • d) continual improvement of processes based on objective

measurement. The model of a process-based quality management system shown in Figure 1 illustrates the process linkages presented in clauses 4 to 8. This illustration shows that interested parties play a significant role in defining requirements as inputs. Monitoring the satisfaction of interested parties requires the evaluation of information relating to the perception of interested parties as to whether the organization has met their requirements.

0.3 Relationship with ISO 9001

The present editions of ISO 9001 and ISO 9004 have been developed as a consistent pair of quality management system standards which have been designed to complement each other but can also be used independently.

Although the two International Standards have different scopes, they have similar structures in order to assist their application as a consistent pair. ISO 9001 specifies requirements for a quality management system that can be used for internal application by organizations, or for certification, or for contractual purposes. It focuses on the effectiveness of the quality management system in meeting customer requirements. ISO 9004 gives guidance on a wider range of objectives of a quality management system than does ISO 9001, particularly for the continual improvement of an organization's overall performance and efficiency, as well as its effectiveness. ISO

  • 9004 is recommended as a guide for organizations whose

top management wishes to move beyond the requirements of ISO 9001, in pursuit of continual improvement of performance. However, it is not intended for certification or

for contractual purposes. For further benefit to the user, the basic content of the ISO

  • 9001 requirements are included in boxed text following the

comparable clause in this International Standard. Information marked “NOTE” is for guidance in understanding or clarification.

0.4 Compatibility with other management systems

This International Standard does not include guidance specific to other management systems, such as those particular to environmental management, occupational health and safety management, financial management, or risk management. However, this International Standard enables an organization to align or integrate its own quality management system with related management systems. It is possible for an organization to adapt its existing management system(s) in order to establish a quality management system that follows the guidelines of this International Standard.


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