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30

Naths
5tarters
vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Licence
Duncan Keilh 2004 (malhs+sublangenl.com)
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30 Malhs Slarlers page 2 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
lntroduction
This is a coIIeclion of puzzIes for Malhs Iessons. HopefuIIy you'II find lhese are a bil more
inleresling lhan lhe Lel's counl up in 0.2's lype of Iesson slarler lhal leachers in IngIand
are encouraged lo use. Il is aIso hoped lhal some of lhese puzzIes can be used as a laIking
poinl lo inlroduce nev malhemalicaI ideas.
There are pIenly of oId cheslnuls here, aIong vilh some nev puzzIes. There are aIso a fev
generic slarlers for vhen you're feeIing Iazy...
Suggesled uses:
Irinl onlo lransparencies for Iesson slarlers
Irinl and Iaminale for exlension or smaII group vorks
DupIicale lvo lo a page for homevork
The slar raling is a rough guide lo difficuIly:
;
LillIe leacher inpul is required. These puzzIes don'l require much
malhemalics beyond basic arilhmelic.
;;
These may require expIanalions of key vords by a leacher. They may require
more vork lhan one slar puzzIes, or a parlicuIar insighl lo soIve lhem.
;;; These puzzIes can be difficuIl, and may need a Iol of leacher inpul.
30 Malhs Slarlers page 3 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Find Ihe Path ; 1
5tart at the bottom left
square and move up, down,
left or right until you reach
the finish.
4 9 7 7 4
8 9 4 5 7
6 6 4 9 9
7 8 8 8 6
5 5 6 5 5
Add the numbers as you go.
Can you make exactly 53 ?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 4 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
'Finish
5tart'
Nissing Number ; 2
Which number should go in
the empty triangle?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 5 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
8
8 +
+

$ l8
8
z
7 $
7
+
l+
How Nany Iriangles? ; 3
How many triangles can you
see in this picture?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 6 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Iimes Iable ; 4
Ihere is something strange
about this addition square.
Can you work out what the
missing number is?
+ 3 8 11
3 6 11 2
8 11 4 7
11 2 7
30 Malhs Slarlers page 7 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Nissing Natches ; 5
Remove just 4 matches to
leave 4 equilateral triangles
they must be all the same
size.
30 Malhs Slarlers page 8 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Ihe 1umping Frog ; 6
A frog has fallen into a pit
that is 30m deep.
Each day the frog climbs 3m,
but falls back 2m at night.
How many days does it take
for him to escape?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 9 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Number Pyramids ;; 7
Can you work out what
number will be at the top of
the pyramid?
z7 z8
l8 l lz
7 7 8
Can you make a pyramid with
100 at the top?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 10 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Number Race ;; 8
Here are the first few square
numbers:
l + 7 l z$ 8 +7
Here are the first few
Fibonacci numbers:
l l z 8 $ 8 l8
Ihe square numbers are well
in the lead. Do the Fibonacci
numbers ever catch up?
...and here are the triangular
numbers coming up on the
rails...
l 8 l0 l$ zl z8
30 Malhs Slarlers page 11 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Perfection ;;; 9
6 is a very special number.
Ihe factors of 6 are 1, 2, 3
and 6.
lf we add the factors other
than 6 we get 1+2+3=6.
Can you find another perfect
number?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 12 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Nagic 5quares ;;; 10
Can you put the digits 1 to 9 in
a square so that every row,
column and diagonal add to 15?
Ihis example doesn t work:
1 3 5
9
9 6 4
19
2 7 8
17
13 112 116 117 `15
30 Malhs Slarlers page 13 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Games ; 11
Pool balls are numbered from 1 to 15.
What is the total of the numbers on
all the balls?
Dominoes have two parts, each can
have from 0 to 6 spots. How many
different dominoes are there in a
set?
lf you roll 2 dice and add the spots
are you more likely to get an even or
an odd number? What if you multiply
instead?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 14 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs

s
z
0
a

4
z
s
a c
4
z
s
a
Nonty Hall ;;; 12
You are the winner in a quiz
show and can choose a prize
from behind 3 locked doors.
Behind one door is a new car.
Behind the other two doors are
goats.
When you have made your
choice the host opens one of
the other doors to reveal a
goat.
5hould you stick with your
choice, or switch to the other
one? Or does it make no
difference?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 15 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Number Lines 1 ;; 13
Can you put the numbers 1 to 7
in each circle so that the total
of every line is 12?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 16 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Number Lines 2 ; 14
Can you put the digits 1 to 11 in
the circles so that every line has
the same total?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 17 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Words & Numbers ;;; 15
Ihe number 4 in...
Norwegian,
fire
Dutch,
vier
and English
four
but not in
French quatre
have something in common.
Ihey all have the same
number of letters as their
name l4).
Can you find more numbers
like this?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 18 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Four Iwos Nake Ien ;; 16
Ihere are lots of ways of
making 8 with four 2s using
standard mathematical
notation. For example:
2+2+2+2 , or
even 2
2+2
2.
Can you find another way?
Can you find a way of making
9 with four 2s?
What is the biggest number
you can make with four 2s?
What is the smallest number
you can t make with four 2s?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 19 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Petrol Prices ;; 17
5ome petrol stations display
prices by sticking segments
together to make numbers.
What is the largest number
you can make with 10
segments?
What is the largest you can
make with 16 segments?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 20 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
1O.c
O1cJHSG1OO
A Fishy Iale ;;; 18
lf you write the word COD in
a grid like this there are two
ways of spelling the word.
How many ways can you
make HAKE?
What about COLEY or
5ALNON?
Can you predict how many
ways there are to make
BARRACUDA?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 21 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
C O
O 0
C O
O 0
C O
O 0
H A
A K
K
L
C O L
O L L
L L Y
5 A L
A L M
L M O
M
O
N
How Nany 5quares? ;; 19
How many squares can you
see in this pattern?
How many rectangles are
there?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 22 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Ihe Knigsberg Bridges ; 20
Ihe city of Knigsberg had
seven bridges that crossed
the river Pregel.
Can you find a way of
crossing all the bridges
exactly once?
You can t go over a bridge
more than once.
30 Malhs Slarlers page 23 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
IlanJ (0)
kiver bank (6)
IlanJ (C)
kiver bank (A)
Crooked Calculator ;; 21
Eric has got all the sums wrong. Each
time he pressed exactly one wrong
key.
MZZ

MZ

MZZ

MTZ

Can you work out which keys he
actually pressed?
Eric manages to press the right keys
but gets them in the wrong order.
Can you get the keys in the right
order?
MZZ

MZ

MZZZ

MTZ

30 Malhs Slarlers page 24 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Drinkers ;; 22
ln the town of Ketterby
80% drink cola
70% drink coffee
50% drink tea
ls it certain there is someone
who drinks cola, coffee and
tea?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 25 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Coin of the Realm ; 23
Ihese are the coins commonly
used in Britain today
What is the fewest number of
coins you need to make
la) 83p lb) 1.34 lc) 5.27?
What is the smallest amount
that needs more than 5 coins?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 26 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
z0p
$0p
l
l0p
$p lp zp
z
Four Lines ;; 24
Put 9 dots in a square like this
Can you go through all 9 dots
with four straight lines?
You can t take your pen off
the paper.
You can start where you like.
30 Malhs Slarlers page 27 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Back Io Front ; 25
Write down a 2 digit number
z
Reverse the digits
z
Work out the difference
z z = 8
Iry more 2 digit numbers.
Can you see a pattern?
What happens with 3 digit
numbers?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 28 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
5t. lves ; 26
As l was going to 5t. lves,
l met a man with 7 wives.
Each of the wives had 7 sacks.
ln each sack were 7 cats.
Each of the cats had 7 kits.
Kits, cats, sacks, wives how
many were going to 5t. lves?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 29 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Fruitful ;;; 27
Ihere are three boxes.
One box contains pears, one
contains oranges, and one
contains pears and oranges.
Ihe labels have fallen off and
all have been stuck back on
the wrong boxes.
Barry opens one box and
without looking in the box
takes out one piece of fruit.
He looks at the fruit and
immediately puts the labels
on the the right boxes.
How did he do it?
30 Malhs Slarlers page 30 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
P
e
a
r

P
e
a
r

O
r
a
n
g
e

Pear &
Orange
5um & Product A1
Find 2 numbers whose
sum is _____ and
product is _____ .
30 Malhs Slarlers page 31 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
+
=

=
+
=

=
Harry Ihe Hedgehog A2
30 Malhs Slarlers page 32 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
+
ll
8
z
7
8
l0
lz
$
z00
Ioday s Number A3
Ioday s number is
Add 17
Double it
Nultiply it by 10
Halve it
5ubtract 7
Nultiply by 6
5quare it
Find its factors
Find of it
30 Malhs Slarlers page 33 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Notes
1. Fihd 1he PaIh
Here is one soIulion:
5 + 7 + 6 + 6 + 9 + 4 + 5
+ 7 + 4 53
A lougher chaIIenge is
lo find a roule lo make
60.
2. Missihg Number
The missing number is 5 (add lhe bollom
lvo numbers and divide by lhe lop number).
Sludenls may be encouraged lo come up
vilh puzzIes of lheir ovn.
3. How Mahy 1riahgles?
12 + 6 + 2 20
4. 1imes 1able
11 + 11 = 10. This couId cIearIy be exlended
lo olher moduIi. The more observanl
sludenls may spol lhe cIue in lhe lilIe.
5. Missihg MaIches
Hov may differenl soIulions are lhere`
6. 1he 1umpihg Frog
It wi!! takc him 28 days tn cscapc. Afler 27
days and nighls lhe frog has onIy 3 melres lo
go. On lhe 28lh day lhe frog is abIe lo |ump
cIear.
7. Number Pyramids
57. Iach number is oblained by adding lhe
lvo immedialeIy beIov il. A good slralegy
for soIving lhese puzzIes is lo slarl vilh lhe
largel number in pIace and lo vork
dovnvards. This can cIearIy be exlended lo
non-inlegraI and negalive largels.
8. Number Race
The 12lh square and Iibonacci numbers are
bolh 144. Afler lhis lhe Iibonacci numbers
are in lhe Iead. The 10lh Iibonacci and
lrianguIar numbers are bolh 55. Afler lhis lhe
lrianguIar numbers are forever doomed lo
3rd pIace. A good opporlunily lo expIore lhe
Iibonacci numbers.
9. Per!ecIioh
28 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14. The nexl lvo are 496
and 8128. The even perfecl numbers are
reIaled lo lhe Mcrscnnc princs.
2
p
-1 is a prime if and onIy if 2
p-1
2
p
-1) is
a perfecl number. Il is nol knovn if lhere are
any odd perfecl numbers. You couId
invesligale muIlipIe-perfecl numbers, vhere
lhe sum of lhe proper divisors of a number is
an exacl muIlipIe of il.
10. Magic Squares
Here is one soIulion:
8 1 6 15
3 5 7 15
4 9 2 15
15 15 15
DiagonaIs: 4 + 5 + 6 15, 8 + 5 + 2 15.
See Appendix A for a fairIy simpIe melhod for
conslrucling magic squares of odd order.
30 Malhs Slarlers page 34 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
4 9 7 7 4
8 9 4 5 7
6 6 4 9 9
7 8 8 8 6
5 5 6 5 5
ll o'clock l0 o'clock
+ ll hour
11. Cames
Pnn!: 120
Iair off lhe baIIs 1+15, 2+14, elc.
This gives seven pairs. 7 16 112.
Adding lhe 8 baII gives 120.
Dnminncs: 28
Lisl lhe dominoes vilh a bIank (0):
0-0, 0-1, 0-2, ..., 0-6 (7 dominoes)
Then Iisl lhose vilh a 1:
1-1, 1-2, 1-3, ..., 1-6 (6 dominoes).
We miss oul lhe 1-0 as lhis is in lhe firsl Iisl.
Conlinuing in lhe same vay gives
1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 7 28
Dicc:

Podd on dice)=Peven)=
1
2
Podd sum)=Podd even)+Peven odd)
=
1
2

1
2
+
1
2

1
2
=
1
4
+
1
4
=
1
2
AIlernaliveIy you couId drav a sampIe space
diagram and gel counling...
12. 1he MohIy Hall Problem
You shouId switch (assuming you vouId
prefer a car lo a goal). Il is lempling lo
assume lhal lhe lvo remaining doors have
an equaI chance of hiding lhe slar prize, bul
lhis negIecls lhe facl lhal lhe hosl's choice of
door lo open is nol independenl of your
iniliaI choice.
The probabiIily of your iniliaI choice being
correcl is
1
3
. This probabiIily doesn'l change
vhen lhe hosl opens one of lhe olher doors.
So lhe probabiIily lhal lhe remaining door
hides lhe prize is
2
3
. You can find Iols more
on lhe 'Monly HaII IrobIem' al
hllp://malh.rice.edu/-ddonovan/monlyurI.hlmI
13. Number Lihes 1
You couId give lhe hinl lhal lhe cenlre digil
is 4.
14. Number Lihes 2
This is a IillIe easier lhan lhe previous
puzzIe. Iul 6 in lhe cenlre. Then pIace 1
opposile 11, 2 opposile 10, elc. lo give lolaIs
of 18. In bolh puzzIes lhe reaIisalion lhal you
shouId pul lhe median number in lhe cenlre
lo mainlain symmelry heIps enormousIy.
(You couId aIso pul 1 or 11 in lhe cenlre,
since lhe remaining numbers can be paired
off in lhese cases lo give lolaIs of 14 and 22.
15. Words & Numbers
An crincnunic nun|cr is one lhal has lhe
same number of Iellers as ils name suggesls.
Iour is prc|a||u unique in IngIish. (Hov
vouId you prove il`) Some more exolic
exampIes incIude queig (Manx, 5):
bederalzi (asque, 9): du (Isperanlo, 2)
and amashumi amabiIi nesikhombisa
(ZuIu, 27).
An inleresling queslion is lo find expressions
lhal are orlhonymic, e.g. five add seven (12
Iellers).
16. Four 1wos Make 1eh
Tvo olher vays of making 8 are 22 + 22
and lhe Iess obvious
2
2
+2)!+2 .
2
2
2+2
=65536 nau be lhe Iargesl if ve reslricl
ourseIves lo povers and lhe 4 basic
operalions. 7 is lhe smaIIesl posilive inleger
lhal cannol be made vilhoul resource lo
facloriaIs elc. A caIcuIalor is usefuI.
30 Malhs Slarlers page 35 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
7 2 3
4
5 6
1
17. PeIrol Prices
11111 and 11111111 a good vay of
shoving lhe imporlance of pIace vaIue. A
more inleresling queslion is lo ask hov
many !ijjcrcni numbers can be made vilh 7
segmenls.
18. A Fishy 1ale
COD: 2, HAKI: 3, COLIY: 6, SALMON: 10
The formuIa for a vord of Ienglh n is

n-1)!

n-1
2
)!
n-1
2
)!
. iI nis odd
n-1)!

n
2
-1)!
n
2
)!
. iI nis even
So ARRACUDA gives 8!/(4!4!) 70.
This is discussed in Appendix .
19. How Mahy Squares?
28 + 11, 16 + 22, 6 + 33, 2 + 44.
TolaI: 52
20. 1he 8ridges O! Khigsberg
Il can'l be done. Look al lhis nelvork:
Ivery lime ve enler a piece of Iand ve musl
Ieave il by a differenl bridge. So lhere musl
be an even number of bridges allached lo
each piece of Iand (excepl for lhe slarl and
finish). There are four pieces of Iand vilh an
odd number of bridges. Iven if ve lake lhe
slarl and finish inlo accounl lhere musl be
anolher piece of Iand vilh an unused bridge.
If you remove one of lhe bridges lhen il
becomes possibIe (such a palh is caIIed an
|u|crian pain). Does il maller vhich bridge
you remove`
You can find delaiIs of a visil by a
malhemalician lo Knigsberg al
hllp://vvv.aml.canberra.edu.au/koenigs.hlmI
21. Crooked CalculaIor
MZZ
MZ
MZZ
MTZZ
MZZ
MZ
MZZZ
MTZ
22. Drihkers
No il is nol cerlain. Suppose lhere vere 10
peopIe in Kellerby. You couId have:

coIa / / / / / / / /
coffee / / / / / / /
lea / / / / /
20% is lhe maximum possibIe percenlage of
peopIe vho drink none of lhe beverages.
23. Coih o! Ihe Realm
(a) 83p 50p + 20p + 10p + 2p + 1p
(b) 1.34 1 + 20p + 10p + 2p + 2p
(c) 5.27 2 + 2 + 1 + 20p + 5p + 2p
88p 50p + 20p + 10p + 5p + 2p + 1p needs six
coins.
24. Four Lihes
You have lo (IileraIIy) lhink oulside lhe box
lo soIve lhis oId cheslnul.
Here's one soIulion:
30 Malhs Slarlers page 36 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
A
D
B
C
25. 8ack 1o FrohI
The ansvers are aII mu!tip!cs nI 9.
Il's nol loo difficuIl lo prove lhis:
The originaI number can be vrillen as
x=10a+b vhere a and b are lhe lvo
digils. The reversed number is lherefore
v=10b+a and lhe difference is
]x-v]=]10a+b)-10b+a)]=]9a-9b]
=9]a-b]
i.e. 9 limes lhe difference in lhe digils of lhe
originaI number.
Ior lhree digil numbers you viII gel
mu!tip!cs nI 99.
26. SI. Ives
A lrick queslion. Since you mel lhe man on
lhe vay lo Sl. Ives, he and his enlourage
musl be coming jrcn Sl. Ives. So lhe ansver
is |usl one you. If you're feeIing eviI you
mighl vanl lo conspicuousIy dislribule
caIcuIalors for lhis puzzIe.
If you do acluaIIy go lhrough lhe
caIcuIalions you shouId gel 7+7
2
+7
3
+7
4
7
+ 49 + 343 + 2401 2800.
This probIem is very oId indeed. Il is
supposed lo dale back lo lhe ancienl
Igyplians:
hllp://malhsforeurope.digibeI.be/slory.hlm
27. FruiI!ul
arry opened lhe box IabeIIed pears &
oranges. This box musl conlain onIy pears
or onIy oranges. If he picks a pear lhen he
knovs lhe box he opens is pears and lhe
olher lvo boxes musl be oranges and
pears and oranges. The one IabeIIed
oranges musl be vrong so il is IabeIIed as
pears and oranges. A simiIar argumenl
vorks if he picks an orange.
In summary:
He lcks Peurs Orunges P S O
A pcar Oranges I & O Iears
An crangc I & O Iears Oranges
A1. Sum ahd ProducI
Here are a fev suggeslions:
sum roduct numbers
10 9 1, 9
15 50 5, 10
8 15 3, 5
18 56 4, 14
8 4 , 8
4 3 1, 2
3 1.89 0.9, 2.1
A IillIe aIgebra shovs lhal for sum s and
producl p lhe numbers are
1
2
s!.s
2
-4 p) .
A2. Harry 1he Hedgehog
Wrile a number in his beIIy...
A3. 1oday s Number
Iusl for fun lry .
30 Malhs Slarlers page 37 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
Appendix A Nagic 5quares
There is a veII knovn vay of conslrucling magic squares of ndd order: 33, 55, elc.
1. Iul lhe number 1 in lhe lop cenlre space.
2. Move diagonaIIy up and righl. If lhal space is aIready
occupied lhen move dovn inslead. Iul lhe nexl
conseculive number in lhal space.
3. Repeal unliI aII squares are fiIIed.
Of course you viII find lhal your moves lake you oul of
lhe originaI square. Il heIps lo lhink of lhe pIane being
liIed vilh copies of your square, so lhal you move lo lhe
corresponding space. In lhe diagram lo lhe righl a move
from B lakes you lo i (lhe bollom righl space), so lhe nexl
number viII go in |, lhe corresponding space in lhe main square.
Here's hov il vorks for a 33 square:
Afler ve have pIaced 3 ve find lhal lhe sIol
for 4 is aIready fiIIed,so ve move dovn
inslead. We aIso have lo do lhis vhen lrying
lo pIace 7.
See if you can reproduce lhis 55 magic
square using lhis melhod.
30 Malhs Slarlers page 38 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
a b c a b c a b c
d e f d e f d e f
g h i g h i g h i
a b c A C a b c
d e f D I I d e f
g h i G H I g h i
a b c a b c a b c
d e f d e f d e f
g h i g h i g h i
i g h i g
c A
1
C a
f D I I d
i G H I g
c a b c a
i g h i g
c A
1
C a
f D I I d
i G H
2
g
c a b c a
i g h i g
c A
1
C a
f
3
I I d
i G H
2
g
c a b c a
i g h i g
c A
1
C a
f
3
I I d
i
4
H
2
g
c a b c a
i g h i g
c A
1
C a
f
3 5
I d
i 4 H 2 g
c a b c a
i g h i g
c A
1 6
a
f
3 5
I d
i
4
H
2
g
c a b c a
i g h i g
c A
1 6
a
f
3 5 7
d
i
4
H
2
g
c a b c a
i g h i g
c
8 1 6
a
f
3 5 7
d
i
4
H
2
g
c a b c a
8 1 6
3 5 7
4 9 2
17 24 1 8 15
23 5 7 14 16
4 6 13 20 22
10 12 19 21 3
11 18 25 2 9
Appendix B City Blocks
IuzzIe 18 is in facl a varialion of lhe 'Cily Iocks IrobIem':
You are in a cily vhere lhe roads are Iaid oul in a grid. Al each inlerseclion you can onIy
lraveI Iasl or Soulh. Hov many differenl vays are lhere of gelling from A lo `
You shouId be abIe lo convince yourseIf lhal vhalever roule you choose requires four
'Iasls' and lhree 'Soulhs':
ISISISI IIISISS ISSIIIS SISISII
So lhe probIem reduces lo Hov many differenl vays are lhere of vriling four I's and
lhree S's` Il's nol immedialeIy obvious hov ve can find lhe ansver. So ve Iook al a
simiIar probIem:
Hov many differenl pcrnuiaiicns are lhere of lhe Iellers A, , C, D, I, I, G.
There are seven vays of choosing lhe firsl Ieller.
No maller vhich Ieller you choose (e.g. C) lhere are six Iellers remaining (e.g. A, , D, I, I,
G) , so lhere are 7 6 vays of picking lhe firsl lvo Iellers.
Nov lhere are five Iellers Iefl so ve have 7 6 5 vays of picking lhe firsl lhree Iellers.
Conlinuing in lhis vay ve find lhere are 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 5040 permulalions.
We vrile 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 as 7! (facloriaI seven).
The number of permulalions of n differenl ob|ecls is n! .
Thal's fine if aII lhe Iellers are differenl bul in our Cily Iock probIem some of lhe Iellers
are repealed. Lel's Iook al a simpIer probIem:
Here ve have lhree 'Iasls' and lvo 'Soulhs'. So lhe probIem is lhe same as
Hov many permulalions are lhere of lhe Iellers I, I, I, S, S `
30 Malhs Slarlers page 39 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
A
6
A
6
A
6
A
6
A
6
A
6
Appendix B City Blocks
A bil of lriaI and error shouId convince you lhere are len permulalions:
IIISS IISIS IISSI ISIIS ISISI ISSII SIIIS SIISI SISII SSIII
We knov lhal lhere are 5! 5 4 3 2 1 120 permulalions of A, , C, D, I. So by
repealing Iellers ve have draslicaIIy reduced lhe number of permulalions. We can see vhy
by dislinguishing lhe I's. Suppose ve vrile lhe I's as I
1
, I
2
, I
3
. We can see lhal each of
our soIulions above can be vrillen in six vays, e.g. The soIulion ISSII vouId become six
differenl soIulions:
I
1
SSI
2
I
3
I
1
SSI
3
I
2
I
2
SSI
1
I
3
I
2
SSI
3
I
1
I
3
SSI
1
I
2
I
3
SSI
2
I
1
There are in facl 3! 3 2 1 6 differenl permulalions of I
1
, I
2
, I
3
. The number of
permulalions is reduced by a faclor of 3!. SimiIarIy repealing lhe S reduces lhe number of
permulalions by a faclor of 2!. So for our smaIIer Cily Iock probIem ve have
5!
3!2!
=
120
62
=10 soIulions.
We have a generaI soIulion for any Cily Iock probIem:
A Cily Iock probIem vilh e 'Iasls' and s 'Soulhs' has
e+s)!
e! s!
differenl roules.
Our originaI cily bIock probIem has e=4 and s=3 so has
7!
4!3!
=
5040
246
=35 differenl roules.
We can appIy lhis lo lhe 'Iishy TaIe' probIem. Here's ARRACUDA vrillen as a Cily
Iock probIem:
Here e=4 and s=4 so lhere are
8!
4! 4!
=
40320
2424
=70 roules.
A IillIe more vork Ieads lo lhe formuIa given in lhe noles:
A vord of Ienglh n can be speIIed in

n-1)!

n-1
2
)!
n-1
2
)!
. iI nis odd
n-1)!

n
2
-1)!
n
2
)!
. iI nis even
vays.
30 Malhs Slarlers page 40 vvv.sublangenl.com/malhs
6 A k k A
A k k A C
k k A C u
k A C u 0
A C u 0 A