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The process of pouring the molten alloy in the mold cavity. cavity.

When to start the casting?

Within 30 seconds from the time the ring is removed from the burn out furnace to avoid heat loss and contraction of the mold cavity. cavity.

To complete the casting process successfully the following items should be considered carefully; carefully;

- The metal to be casted. - Heat source to melt the metal. - The casting force to force the molten metal in the mold cavity.

I - Metal

There are various types of precious ,semiprecious and no precious alloys. . It is alloys. important to use enough weight of metal that suits every case. These were estimated to be case. 9grams for molars, 6 grams for premolars and anteriors and12 grams for a pontic. and12 pontic.

II - Heat Source
It is an essential part of the casting process to melt the metal with either  a) Blowpipe torch. torch.  b) Electric melting. melting.

Blowpipe torch
When a torch is used, the major objective in the melting procedure is to develop the most efficient gas-air flame gasthat quickly yet cleanly melts the metal. metal.  Different torch types are used in the casting procedures. procedures. 1) Town gas and compressed air which is used for melting alloys at a range below 1000C. 1000 2) Gas and oxygen torch which is used mainly for melting alloys of high fusing temperature (about 1300C). 1300C). 3) Oxyacetylene torch which is a multiorifice tip used for melting base metal alloys. alloys.

Zones of the flame

1) Mixing zone
The inner most blank- appearing cone, directly emanating from the nozel in blankwhich the air and gas combine prior to combustion (it is cool and colorless). colorless).

2) Combustion zone
It is slightly greenish and immediately surrounds the first ,it is an oxidizing zone and should be kept away from the metal during the fusion. fusion.

3) Reducing zone
The hottest part of the flame and has a bluish color , the area near the tip of the cone is the part of the flame that must stay on the metal during fusion. fusion.

4) Oxidizing zone
The outer zone in which combustion occurs with the oxygen of the air. This part air. of the flame should never be used to melt the alloy ,since its temperature is too low and it causes oxidation of the metal

Electric melting of the alloy

In this method the alloy is melted by an electric power, this either performed by: by: a- Convection from a heating muffle. muffle. b- Generation of an induction current in the alloy when the electrical resistance melting furnace casting machine is used. used.  This method provides a more easily controlled heating ,however ,these casting machines are expensive. expensive.

IIIIII- Casting force

The force required to push the melted metal to the mold cavity. It should be high enough to overcome cavity. the high surface tension of the molten alloy As well as the resistance of the gases within the mold cavity. cavity. The casting machines are either; either; 1. Pneumatic (air pressure and steam pressure). pressure). 2. Centrifugal. Centrifugal.

1) Air pressure casting machine

- The alloy is melted (with torch ) directly in the crucible formed in the investment. investment. - Above the ring there is a piston through which the air pressure is applied to force the molten alloy into the mold. mold. - The table below the ring is connect to a source of vacuum ,which is activated just before the pressure starts. starts. N.B. Such machines evacuate the mold cavity which has been shown to improve mold filling. filling.

2) Steam pressure casting machine

- A typical steam casting machine is the solbrig - Such machine uses steam to force the metal into the mold. mold.

3) Centrifugal casting machine

The molten metal is centrifugally forced into the mold. There are two centrifugal machines. a) Broken-arm. centrifugal casting machine. Brokenb) Spring wound centrifugal casting machine. b)Spring

Broken arm centrifugal casting machine

- It consists of two arms which meet at a central spindle. One arm contains a cradle for holding the ring and a crucible in which the metal is melted with a torch ,while the other arm carries a movable weight used to balance the machine. - It is powered by the spring at the base

B) Spring-wound centrifugal casting machine Spring-

It is a spring-wound with an attached electrical springresistance melting furnace. The alloy is furnace. electrically melted in the furnace and then centrifugally cast into the mold so there is no need for a torch .

SpringSpring-wound centrifugal casting machine

Induction casting machine

- Metal is melted by an induction field that develops within a crucible surround by water cooled tubing .The molten metal is forced into the mold by air pressure, vacuum or both at the other end of the ring. ring. - It is used for casting base metal alloys. alloys.

Induction casting machine

Steps of Casting technique

Casting armamentarium

Centrifugal casting machine Crucible Blowtorch Protective colored goggles Tongs Casting alloy

1) Line the crucible with wet asbestos. Take care not to obstruct the aperture at the end of the crucible. Heat the liner with gas air blow pipe to remove the impurities from the asbestos thus prolongs the life of the crucible and prevents the metal contamination. 2) Place the crucible in its place on the casting machine. 3) Place the casting metal on the asbestos line in the crucible

4) Light the gas-air blowpipe and adjust the air and gasgas knobs to produce conical brush flame. flame. 5) Melt the gold using the reducing zone until it is shinny and mirror like. like. When the metal reaches the casting temperature: temperature:- It has straw-yellow in color. strawcolor. - It wiggles easily in the crucible if it is tapped. tapped. - It will follow the flame if it is moved slightly. slightly.

6) Shake small amount of flux (powered boric acid and borax) on the metal. metal. - It acts as a reducing agent to prevent oxidation of the metal alloy. alloy. - It enhances alloy melting. melting.

Flux added

7) Keep the flame on the melted metal ,remove the ring from the burn out furnace and place it in the cradle with the sprue hole toward the crucible, it is then slide along the casting arm until it lies firmly against the casting ring

8) Hold the blow pipe in one hand and put gentle pressure on the counter weight with other hand until the pin drops. drops. Don Dont lift the pipe out of the position until the arm of the machine has been released. Allow the released. machine to spin itself to stop. stop.

Cleaning the cast

a) Devestment
1. 2. 3. Remove the casting ring with the casting togs. Wait 3-5 min. until the red glow is disappeared from the button. Quench the ring in cold water to; Disintegrate the hot investment. Anneal the gold thus providing better working qualities during finishing. N.B: Quenching the ring in water while it is still red will result in sudden drop in temperature leading to, distortion of the margin and thin areas. 4. Push the investment out of the ring, clean the cast as possible with a tooth brush.

B) Pickling - Put the casting in a porcelain container and cover it with 50% dilute HCL or sulphoric acid or Jel-Pac liquid 50% Jelwarmed gently below the boiling temperature for few moments until the surface become bright. bright. - Dilute solution of nitric acid can be used for badly stained casting. casting.

Precautions during pickling

1- The cast is placed in porcelain or Pyrex container. container. 2- Heat over a Bunsen .Dont allow boil to it . Don 3- Dont heat the cast and put it in cold acid, this will result in : Don - Distortion of the thin margins. margins. - Explosion that may damage the operator. operator. 4- The cast should never be healed with a steel tweezers or tongs and heated over a Bunsen burner as the insertion of the steel tongs in the acid will result in galvanic current that will deposit a deep layer of Cupper on the casting causing its distortion. So you distortion. have to use a plastic coated tweezers to remove the clean casting from the pickling solution and rinse it under cold running water. water.

- Air abrasion with small particles size abrasives is another preferable method for cleaning castings. castings.

Failure to obtain a perfect casting is certainly the result of deviation from the correct technique. Manifestation and possible causes of casting failure could be summarized as:

I) Surface roughness II) Black, Rough casting III) Nodules IV) Fins V) Incomplete Casting VI) Porosity VII) Over or under sized casting VIII) Wrapped or distorted restoration IX) Dark discolored casting resisting pickling

I) Surface roughness
The surface of the casting should be smooth, although finishing and polishing are required .These surface roughness maybe the result of : 1) Rough surface of the wax pattern. 2) Excessive wetting agent on the wax pattern. 3) Investment with large grain size. 4) Foreign body inclusion of investment particles or flux powder. 5) Over heating of the investment leads to rough ,brittle black surface due to decomposing and sulfur compounds.

II) Black, rough casting

Oxidation of the metal during melting due to: to: -Flame not properly adjusted. adjusted. -Flux not powdered on the melted metal. metal.

III) Nodules
Common form of surface roughness usually occur due to the presence of bubbles on the surface of the wax pattern , these air bubbles may be due to ; a- Lack of surfactant on the wax pattern. pattern. b- Inadequate vacuum during investing (mixing and pouring). pouring). C-Thick mix of the investment. investment. d- Movement of the ring during setting of the investment. investment.

IV) Fins
failure is due to ; 1.Dropped ring. ring. 2.Sudden increase in the temperature during burn out leads to cracks in the investment into which the metal will pass through. through. 3.Excessive casting force. force. 4.increase W/P ratio 5. improper pattern positioning

V) Incomplete Casting
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Too thin areas in wax pattern. Presence of investment fragments in the sprue channel. Incomplete wax elimination. The molten alloy not properly directed to the mold cavity. Inadequate metal. Cold ring (the casting not completed within 30 sec.) Inadequate melting of the alloy. Low casting force. Back pressure. Fracture of the investment in the base of the ring

VI) Porosity
Reduction in the density of casting by the presence of voids due to the absorption of mold gases and lack of precautions to compensate for alloy contraction. It may be ::a- Externally, lead to surface roughness of the cast. b- Internally, leads to; - Weakening the casting - Discoloration . - If sever leads to leakage at tooth restoration interface. N.B: Voids in the marginal area may be caused by debris trapped in the mold, a well waxed smooth sprue will help prevent them.

Types of porosity
a- Localized porosity (contraction porosity, suck back pressure). pressure). resulting from solidification shrinkage which occurs if the metal in the sprue channel solidify before that in the mold, when the sprue is too narrow ,too long ,incorrectly located in a thin area or when large casting is made in the absence of a vent. vent. b- Subsurface porosity: It is caused by entrapment of porosity: solid particles or gas bubbles during casting. It appears casting. during finishing of the casting

contraction porosity at the attachment of the thin sprue

c- Gaseous porosity
(gas inclusion porosity or occluded gases)
-Related to the entrapment of gases during solidification. -Characterized by spherical contour, small in size. -Gases may dissolve in molten alloy during melting and leave porosity defects. -Gases trapped mechanically in the mold by the molten metal during casting. -Spherical larger porosity can be caused by gas occluded from poorly adjusted blowpipe flame or if the reducing zone is not used

Gaseous porosity

d- Back pressure porosity

Entrapped air on the inner surface of the casting, result from inability of the air in the mold to escape through the investment (Fig 23). The entrapment is frequently found in a pocket at the 23) margin. margin.  N.B -As the molten metal enter the mold space, the gases contained in there must escape, preferably through the bottom of the mold. mold. -To assist the escape of gases, the investing material between the casting and the end of the ring should be as thin as consistent with strength. strength. -Also the ring should not be covered completely by any part of the casting machine. The plate of metal which supports the machine. ring must be perforated. perforated.

VII) Over or under sized casting

1- Over sized casting

Possible Causes
1. Improper investment mixing ratio 2. Stored beyond the date of expiration 3. Improper ratio of investment liquid to water

2- Under sized casting Possible Causes

1. Improper investment mixing ratio 2. Stored beyond the date of expiration 3. Improper ratio of investment liquid to water 4. Missing ring liner in the casting ring 5. Burn-out temperature too low

VIII) Wrapped or distorted restoration

It is due improper following to the precautionary measures during every step of the laboratory procedures. procedures.

IX) Dark discolored casting resisting pickling It is due to overheating of the investment leading to sulfur compounds that contaminated the casting. casting.