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Traditional Folk Media Of India.

Introduction:Apart from the highlu organized medium of mass communication that are used in excessive manner presently, like print, audio and audio-visual medium,traditional folke media is popular among the rural masses considerably well .Traditional media generally,cover folk song, folk dance drama that depict the the stories of most common rural dwellers.Traditional folk media can not present what it want to deliver, in glamorous and colourful manner equally, as compared to other organized sector of mass medium that we have.Traditional folk media cultivate the rural lifestyle and culture specifically,as to match their needs and demand,who are illiterate and backwarfed as well.Traditional folk media go with rural masses side by side, bringing slower change in their development.Although,they provide so many messages, that contribute to the rural development significantly.Traditional folk media can command a very strong position in the rural peoples mind , as it weave almost of its messages to serve thevarious needs and purposes as well as entertain the numerous rural people as well What consists of Traditional Folk media?

Traditional folk media generally include the presentation of different types of programmes like folk song & music, folk dance,yatra, drama & theatres, puppetry and street theatre etc.All programmes have the individual criterias and attraction as well, that can render distinctive taste and flavour to the audiences well. Here is few popular programmes, those are widely accepted among the people, in different states or region for its unique presentation of excellence. 1. Tamasha:- It is a commercial theatre like,widely popular in Maharastra and in other part of western india.Female performer carries on the programme of singing on demand as proposed by the patrons among the audiences.Such programme does not convey any message on religion or morals of life or social values.Only Dholkibaris,a refined from of Tamasha,delivers such effective messages. 2. Powada (Powala}:- It is a folk balad form,that is widely accepted by Maharastrian. It appeared during the 16th century,and carries a dramatic form of nature. Powada is presented mostly,by telling the stories of history. By singing in accordance with the musical instruments,is its main feature. Keertana (Harikeertan):- It is a kind of monodrama,in which whole presentation is operated or performed by single actor. Such a single actor enter into the topic, by acting different characters lying in it.Here,one actor,performs various roles simultaneously, at a time to tell the stories of all characters concerned.that y evolves an environment both interests and attractive moods within the audience . The uniqueness of keertana is,that the a single person carries the entire programme,by holding charm of the programme as well.Such harikeertana, is widely popular in many states in India like, Mmaharastra, Karnataka, Bengal etc.keertana,covers the stories in our epic generally. Yakshagana:- It is another type folk drama, that is widely popular in Karnataka. It is constituted basically on Bhagabata,but presented in addition with local flavour,as to produce extra charm into it. Here, the narrator sings and explains then the theme to the audiences. It is indeed, a mass medium for educating as well as entertaining the people as well.

Nautakin:- It is the most popular folk drama form,can be seen in north India widely.It is generally, performed openly irrespective to any special arrangement as done in Jatra.It starts with the presence of a sutradhar,who is narrator of the story,that taken from ancient epic or historical events.A small group or unit,take part in such drama nautakin,as to perform other roles pertaining to the story chosen for this purpose.It renders messages through its presentation is, both educative and entertaining as well. Jatra:- A popular folk drama that widely celebrated in east & north-east India like, West Bengal,orissa,tripura and Assam. It is an organized teamworks and performed by well set-up groups or units, who are professionally engaged for better presentation to the audiences,as to move forward this social & cultural form of folk media.In an well set-up stage outfit,equipped by light & sound system,The whole programme creats an environment of charming and attractive moods for the audiences.It goes through a chosen story,taken from history, ancient epic, social or political matter,which is well written by script writer.The characters all pertaiming to the story undertaken for Jatra,are pweformed by the other performers in the group concerned. Jatra,is really aducative as well as an entertaining form of rural folk media.It is also,adored in urban equally. Bhavai:- A stylized medieval dramatic form,Bhavai is extensively adored in Gujrat. Basically it is being operated initially,by Ranglo and Naik followed by other characters. Ranglo is considered to be a stock chacterand jester at the samerime. Naik is here,a sutradhar who delivers the dialogues abundantly in attractive style. The programme starts with devotional song which is dedicated to Amba.Then her son Gonesh enters into the stage to perform his role by hiding his appearance by a brass plate.At the end of his role, Gonesh faces to the audiences as usual form.The total programme carries a lot of varieties like dialosongs,music,songs,dances and acrobatics,that can not signify itsexcellence or improved quality rather than individual perticipantls uniqueness. Although,it can fetch much more audiences ,that implies its sound popularity. Therukoothu:- It is the most popular traditional folk media of Tamilnadu.Therukoothu includes a combination of different puppetry like,Puravi Attam, Nizhal Attam,Kazhai Koothu. Kalachem and Villupattu. It is a charming street theatre,composed in accordance with the music,drama and dances of classical flavaoured. The presentation,takes into account the characters like,koothadi (clown) and the god Ganesha Currently,Therukoothu has significantly been changed from its origin of forms and shapes. It is now being presented on thewell-arranged stage or screen, in the form of sangeetha and natakan in attractive form. Rammlia And Rashlila:-Bboth of the programs, are widely adored and accepted in rural society of India. Ramlila specifically,celebrated in northern India.It presents, a series of stories on lord Rama. It includes the stories,starting from the birth of prince Rama, childhood of Rama, sworn in as the king of Ayoddhya, marriage with Sita and so on, a long lasted dramatic play,that can attract and entertain so many viewers easily. Rashlila,on the other hand, is also, could be seen to be celebrated widely in northern state of India, Maharastra,Kerala and in other places in our country. Rashlila is an enchanting play,that presents the storiesall about the relative matters between lord Krishns and Radha,taking with the goppies.The entire play is very interesting, and flavoured with juicy entertainment wrapped with religious feelings and motives. Street Theatre:- .During the decade between seventy and eighty,the street theatre

appeared vigorously in Indian mass communication. Street theaters, that can be seen in different types and styles, involve the activities of differebt groups or organization who accomplish such dramatic play or show openly to render their messages to the public widely.Specially,political parties,student unions,religious groups,Women welfare organization and NGOs,are involved in presenting such attractive show or play,with a view to draw thepublic attention as well as generating the awareness whin them through the delivered messages.Such street thetre can be seen in different states like West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh,Kerala and Tamilnadu in India. About six oi seven thousand groups have been engaged in playing on such street thetre in India. In the year 1944,Bijan bhattacharya did set up Indian peoples Theatre Association (IPTA),apioneer theatre group,that conducted first play on the street.Its objective was to highlight the exploitation were taking places within the innocent and ignorant peasants of Bengal. The street theatres generally,carry the social culture and education as well for the audiences a lot.it cludes local folk forms and styles to remain as one of the streangthful medium of mass communication. Puppetry:- It is one of the most popular as well as adored folk medium, that can attract the children and adults equally. In India,puppetry can be seen in four types or forms.Puppetry is widely seen in Orissa,Karnataka, Tamilnadu,Andhrarajsthan and West Bengal.There are four types of puppetry. Sutradharika ,Rod Puppetry,Shadow puppetry and Hand Puppetry. . ** Strength & Folk Advantages Of Teaditional Media:-

Traditional folk media that cover the various performances that relate to express all events and facts,ideas & thoughts of the respective rural society through the presentation in the manner of pleasure & enjoyments.Although,traditional folk media,sya what,are mostly come to us ridiculously or humorously as well.But,it does never mean that the traditional folk media has no effective message,which is incapable to influence or impact the rural audiences.On the contrary,it could be stressfully said, that the traditional folk media can mould or motivate the numerous unwary and illiterate villagers effectively.It cater what for the rural people,are mostly in easy and understandable manner.It apply very common and widely used languages of the respective society which make any presentation understandable quickly. The presentations as catered by the traditional folk media, always come to the rural people in the form of entertainment and enjoyments as well. On the way of giving pleasure and enjoyment,traditional folk media educate the rural illiterates so many,by rendering useful informations regarding healthcare,child& women education,employment and other roundabout, as to make the rural people wary of the present life.As the performers of the traditional folk media,are all concerned to the respective rural society,can present various facts,difficulties,applicable resources for better output and all other ins and out of the society in better manner.So, messages evolved from such rural media naturally,would serve the purpose of numerous backwarded rural people definitely.Beside this, as there is minimal accessibility to the mass media like, newspaper,radio and television in the rural society, so,major peoples interests and emphasis is naturally lying on such traditional folk media predominantly.As the Traditional folk media ,cater its major programmes through face to facepresentations to the audiences,it can command the confidence of them as well.It can earn the credibility through its live

presentations easily from the audience.So,the Traditional folk media take the opportunity of moulding and motivatingthe rural people,by delivering its messages.It is true,that the traditional folk media have significant contribution towards bringing the success of many developmental programmes like Family Welfare,Children Educationetc as undertaken by the government of the state.It also have inspired the rural people in adopting the latest techniques in cultivation as well. Traditional folk media thus,can claim to be the mentor of unaware and backwarded rural society.Modern mass media today,pay more attention and emphasis on the various enchanting as well as humorous prgrammes all, as catered by the traditional folk media with a view to further presentation in their channels.Presently,the television medium cater off and on,the programmes from traditional folk medialively. It can be considered as the rewardpaid to the Traditional folk mediafor their dedication to the rural society people.Traditional folk media have considerable flexibility in comparishon to other mass madia that have.It can introduce any messages instantly,according to its necessity for beterising the presentation,which other mass medium can not perform.Above all,it can impact the audience with an immediate effect through its catered programmes, in exchange of less expenses that it can afford easily.At the sametime,the rural people so,can enjoy all programmes that the traditional folk media provide in dedicative manner. Role Of Folk Media:. Folk media play very important role on the rural citizens of our country. The rural people are mostly, illiterate, simple and ignorant as well,and this is why Folk Mediahave come to be very suitable to them all. As the messages all, delivered by the folk media, are easy and understandable quickly as well, So,the villagers can enjoy its presented programm as a whole.Very few common errors that take places in our daily life, folk media oftenly try to to point out those, as to aware through their presentation. Folk media carry a diverse messages,of education,political,social,healthcare and agricultural innovation,as to inform and educate the rural citizens.In the village life,wherethe medium of mass communication like radio, newspaper and television,. Have not been profuse introduced,folk media have tried to compensate such wider incoverage as well as the communication gap.Folk media,as it do not maintain any decorum and well any protected status like other mediums of mass communication have, that allows the rural audiences to come closer to such media considerably well..On the otherhand,the communicator presents the messages,, related to the facts that happen in villagelife everyday. As the major messages in folk media, are delivered in the form of entertainment, to the audiences,who have no experience or any tastes for other types of amusement or entertainment at all like other urban citizens, tend come to closer with such easily available rural media of interests and get themselves stick to its presented programmes all with greater emphasis The predominant emphasis of rural people,has been mostly utilized by the folk media, through their presentation of varied programmes, that contribute to the development of rural sector significantly.it cater so many programmes on family welfare, adult & women education uses of fertilizers to boost the crops production,pollio vaccinationetc. so many other issues, with a view to aware and motivate the unwary rural people,as to impulse them to the right direction,in achieving the goals for the development of the nation as well.Although,folk media messages, are insufficient,lack of proper exidence or documentation and indecently catered to the audiences,it appear to be fruitful and exist uptothe mark to the mark of the living standard of the rural villagers or people to persuit their needs and demands as well.

* Utilization Of Folk ..





In bringing change to the rural society, folk media perform what, is conceded significantly. It can act as the mover of rural education & culture in one hand, and act as the surveillantof the rural society on the other hand. The folk media possess wider flexibility (in few cases it maintain well rigidity although ),that determines the viability of this medium for rural communication. As have wider flexibility, the folk medium,can include any facts or event for delivering the same through their presentation, to the audiences immediately. The other medium of mass communication,have no such opportunity or way to execute the same. Beside this,a very quick or instant interaction between the audiences and the communicator,is possible satisfactorily in an easy environment. Such inter-active part done satisfactorily, can command a successful communication which may lead in developing the rural society with the utilization of rendered ideas and thoughts as available from it. The only need, that the folk media , should be improved more its quality of messages, selection oflatest issues and presenting style& formover all. Beside these, sense of decency and communicators ability to maintatin the balance between the message and entertainment, is necessary utmost, as to make the folk media more upgraded and standardized. The communicator who leads the programme here,would require the sense and awareness of presentable messages based on current interests at least. By avoiding vulgarity, impoliteness and reduncy in premted messages, rhe communicator would require, a sense of sophistication and perfection in its presentation. . Folk media,as being most popular medium of rural communication system,have mostly been fighting for their existence. Most of them.are economically suffered severely. As, theircatered programmes are neither being sponsord by any commercial organization, nor being commercially paid up (as held in cinema or theatre) by the viewers all, confrontation of monetary trouble, that impedes its progress oftenly, is a major comcerned, lying in folk media. So,a greater care and attention,would require indispensably.otherwise,folk media,might loose its strength all,in enhancing the rural culture & education as well as social values and morals. Moreover, a continuous study and innovation is required from the government of state adequately,for the better establishment of such rural media as it could run strengthfully, which is beloved and adored by villagers all. If folk media,could survive vigorously and could perform strengthfully, then more valueable contribution to the rural society might be expected, that could lead a significant change towards the society as well. ** How To Improve & Strengthen Folk Media? **

It is needless to say, that the folk media have been appeared and stood as the most important as well as an indispensablemedium for the rural society. It reflect the unwary life-style and inadvanced living condition of rural people,with a view to open their eyes and developing their mind and attitude as well.The traditional folk media speak all about the village life with the aid of their insufficient ability and and poor performances.In their presentations catered what,are conventional and lack many current or updated informations,that do not match to the present to other medium of mass communication can provide to the masses. Although,soon after the independence of India,in the year 1954, the government of India, established the song and drama division with its own initiation and sponsorship,in this purpose. The objectivity of forming such organization, was to facilitiatte necessary training amd education with developed ideas and thoughts in this regard.

Beyond this, the communicator,would require to perform an important role in enhancing the ideals and mission of folk media, with a view to achieving the required progress and prosperity for the rural society of India.For this purpose, a communicator must be aware of these points, as mentioned below; (a) He must naintain a balance between entertainment and messages, by avoiding exaggerated content materials. (b) He should be objective more,rather than descriptive unnecessarily. he should be well cautious and keep watch on the current happenings around him. (d) He must try to improve the quality of messages,that would need to deliver to the audience and should be so, correctly. (e) Selection of deliverable messages or contents to the audiences,that are available so many,is an important job of the communicator.So,the communicator,would require to perform the same very keenly and competently,with a view to making the applied efforts and time to such presentation,be successful as well. (f) Communicators delivered message, should be concise,specific,objectful and understandable to the audiences over all. *OvevView On Traditional Folk media:*

The citixens in major, of our country India, have been dwelling in the rural areas,that contribute to a greater part of nation amd its development. We can not deny,that Indias development,is mostly dependable on the progress and development of that greater part indeed. In the matter of urban development, mass communication mediums all,can command a significant role as they play in regular manner. It also our duty and responsibility,to inspire and impulse the traditional folk media,as they might run and play its role bitterly, as to serve the rural masses needs and demands as well. In this respect, the major mediums of the mass communication,would require to highlight the attractive presentations selectively in their own presentable slots or time. More enthusiasm would produce within the folk media concerned all.Such enthusiasm produced within them,would lead them further progress with new innovative activities in future, definitely.. **Indian Recorded Music Industry & Book Publishing**

. Introduction:-




Indian recorded music industry,primarily came with the hand of Gramaphone Company Of India(which is bitterly known as HMV),which started its business operation in the year 1907,with its office in Kolkata. Although, first music song was recorded during the year 1902,in Mumbai. It is true, that Indian recorded music industry got a breakthrough,after Indian talkis ,came into the film world rovustly, in the year 1931. Gramaphone Company Of India, have dominated the Indian music market,for a long period of time. Formerly, recorded musics were available in different types of discs like; Single Play (SP), Extended Play (EP),33 RPM and 78 R.P.M.(Long play). Many years after

independence, in Indian music market,Polydor and INRECO,another two companies appeared in the year 1969 and 1973 respectively.Beside this,a few number companies like EMI, Hinduatan Records,etc.also had sound involvement in the market of recorded music.








Recorded cassettes came predominantly in Indian music market, during the decade seventy.It is all but true, that the arrival of recorded cassettes have replaced the uses of older discs. Recorded cassettes, could impose or record many more musics than the older discs that we had. Not only that, the musuc cassettes have greater abilty in recording musics many more in numbers as compared to any older disc,but also, it is less expensive than any disc.So,the market of cassettes,remain alive still now in the present ongoing market of compact discs (CD). Compact disc, came with the latst computerized technology,where more space could be allotted for recording more musics or songs thant that of cassettets.A cassette,that can provide maximum 90 minutes program in all respect,where a compact disc can afford more larger programme than a cassette anytime with greater quality of sound and melody at least.Presently, any music market in the world, is largely based on the uses of compact discs.In India, the uses of compact discs,diffused extensively at the end of the decade ninety.During this period,the cost of CD players began to decline,which existed as affordable to common people. Although,India possesses, a big market ,but commercially it is not so highly compareable to globalstatus.The sales value of recorded musics in India is less than 2% of total value that globally held.




An old recorded music,which is still popular as compared to the earlier,is re-recorded to suit the needs and interests of the present music lovers as well as to achieve commercial gain from it. Remix or recorded albums,are generally articulated, by keeping the lyrics and tuneuninflicted.Only the whole is served by punchin a new beat in addition,as to flavour with a new taste. The music lovers of present generation,have been swallowing these new style of presenting the old film songs and others of higher popularity gained already in earlier days of the decades 50s to 80s. Remix album is prepared in two steps,as follows; (1) (2) Re-recording Super-imposing of of vocal rhythm track on track. it.

The crazy market of remix albums,began in the decade of eighties and flooded in the decade next nineties.There were so many manufacturers,who intended into such

gainful production of remix The practices of remix or re-recorded cassettes or compact discs although ,have been able to suit the needs of manyone music lovers in India, but the tendency of presenting newly created songs or other musics,has considerably been interrupted.









A new wave came in the mid nintees, that has striken Indian film songs and other musics as well. Indian pop has been punched with western,style and rhythm, as to present it with a new taste nd flavour to many music lovers. This newly presented (indi-pop) style,has considerably hit the market well,and has appeared to be an unavoidable challenge to the film songs indeed. Such indi-pop songs,unveild first with an album,in the title of Made In India, sung by Alishs Chinoy. This album did stir the recorded music market extensively, with the selling of 2.5 millioms of coppies. Then another hit album, Bolo Tara Ra Ra, sung by Daler Mehndi,attended the selling figure of over 1.5 millions coppies.Thus, indi-pop rhythm, went on vibrating predominantly across the country,that appeared as an growing challenge before the film songs and other musical songs as well.According to sources,indi-pop songs enjoy over 35% share in Indian msic market.Although, hindi film songs,continue its progress,in such competitive environment prevailing in India. Beside such tough marketing situation, the hindi film songs of Hum Hai Apke Koun and Dilwale Dulhanya Le Jayenge, could pick up their selling figures of album over 10 millins of coppies. It signifies, that hindi film songs are still popular and also, able to grow and maintain interests within the millions of music lovers as well.




A long back history, of over 400 hundred years,that India continues to carry on, in the world of Book Publishing. In the year 1566,India experiencedits first publishing works at Goa,. beside this, Chennai and Shreerampur (In Kolkata),can claim such publishin works at the same time. Later on , Shreerampur mission press,published over two lakhs of coppies in numbers of fifty different languages.Bu, India, as being a vast country with larger populations of 18% of the global,can contribute just 3% of global book titles. The print order is also, very miserable ! If the text books are excluded, the average print- run lies within 2000 copies only, where, the world average goes beyond 16000 copies. In the segment of book or pubishing,the important Book elements are Writer.

1.Author 2.Publisher 3.Printer. 4. 5.

Distributor Book Sellers.

The scenario of Indian book publishing industry,is not so highly recommendable. In India, we have so many readers or lovers ofIndian books,which does not reflect the soundness of this industry at all. In this segment of book publishing,we often follow the poor economic condition of those who are seriously involved with such great works of educating,informing and motivating the citizens of India. It is dismal,that the auther,who is the basis or initiator of the total works of book publishing,can enjoy a very little of monetary return from such entrepreneurship.Practically, the book industries all most,are in going with few inherent trouble and quietly unable to transcend the present competitive situation overall. Although,from the end of Indian government, a few recommendable strides,that have been taken for overcoming such awkward situation in the book publishing sector as well as to bring possible development in this regard. The National Book Development Board(NBDB),was set-up in the year of 1967,with the objectives,to bring further development and momentum in the book publishingsector. NBDB,with a better and well organized set-up,appeared in the year of 1970,where beside the government delegates,authesr,book publishers,Printers,Book sellers and non governmental agencies,were included for its (NBDB) higher performances and achievements in the total networks of book publishing. National Book Trust (NBT), was constituted in the year of 1970, with a view to produce and encourage the production of good books in literature in different languages, as to make those are available to major libraries,and other educational institutions also. It aimed at making the book industry more stronger,by allowing subsidy to them. NBT,organizes Book Fair, both in national lavel as well as regionally,as to enhance the peoples interests and emphasis.on book reading. Publication division of ministry for informations and broadcasting,takes the responsibility of production ,distribution and sale of books and journals of national importance,with a view to extend the dissemination of valuable and important informations to the Indian citizens as well as foreigners.






The Directorate of Indian Field Publicity,has its headquarters in new Delhi and has so many regional offices lying in different state capitals across the country.It is a massive as well as active organization which act throughout the country,and considered to be the best inter-personal communication medium for the millions of the country people.

The organization DFP,try to reach and contact to manymore individuals as fer as possible, with its formed units or teams, being equipped by competent personnels and useful materials. The objectives of the units are,to inform as well as aware the major people of the country of the plans,programmes and decisions,as undertaken by the government for the their benefit.over all. The units try to highlight all about it ,

with the help of conducted presentation,songs,drama,questioners

seminer,discussion,audio and etc to the

visual people.

The directorate has 22 regional offices other than its headquarters and 273 units,which are working mostly in border areas as well as other places in our country.The main objectivity of DFB as a whole,is to generate awareness amon the people of backward remote places,about the plan,programmes,measures and decision of the government,in order to facilitating their life in better manner,by utilizing the same available to them. The units are well engaged as well as encourage the discussions on any other specific subjects like healthcare,chidren education,selfemployment and agriculture etc.They provide the updated informations and indicate the possible ways for solution to the unaware people. Moreover,in the development programmes of the country,the people at large,are called into participations with their active involvements in such greater part of the nation.

Outdoor:- Beside the existin robust mediums of mass communication ,being operated organizingly, like print,radio,television and cinema, an extensively used medium for publicity, is outdoor. It works effectively, as suitable medium of communication for the major illiterate and poor people of our country,who have no such widely access to print medium as well.as the television. Outdoor publicity generally includes,the display of different types of messages for different purposes,as to communicate larger part of the populations of the country.Through its all messages rendered, outdoor publicity intends to aware as well as to inform a large number of people,being displayed at so many prominent places or spots,where possible crowding could be held.We can experiencesuch outdoor publicity at rail station,bus terminus,cinema hall. Near the court premises,hospital etc,wherethe congession of a large number people,that could be expected to go through the messaes, as displayed by the outdoor publicity. The messages for outdoor publicity, are generally displayed, as we see on the hoarding,signboard ,glow & neon sign, cinema slides kioskseven in the form of printed materials on paper like pamphlets,handbills,brouchers etc Practically,the messages for outdoor publicity,appear to the public,in brief,and easily understandable manner.Moreover,the messages are presented in attractive form accorded with choosy languages,letters and sign or pictographs,that could be widely acceptable to the viwers all. Outdoor publicity,can draw the attention from both literate and illiterate people as well.In India and other country also,where outdoor publicity can serve the purposes in manyways like the publicising of any unveild products or services of any company or any other organization, even any important messages in the form of alert or warning or any renderable important messages of development of the nation ,on behalf of the government of state or country, are widely spreaded through this means of outdoor publicity. Public service advertising The advertising techniques used to promote commercial goods and services can be used to inform, educate and motivate the public about non-commercial issues, such as HIV/AIDS, political ideology, energy conservation and deforestation.

Advertising, in its non-commercial guise, is a powerful educational tool capable of reaching and motivating large audiences. "Advertising justifies its existence when used in the public interestit is much too powerful a tool to use solely for commercial purposes." Attributed to Howard Gossageby David Ogilvy. Public service advertising, non-commercial advertising, public interest

advertising, cause marketing, and social marketing are different terms for (or aspects of) the use of sophisticated advertising and marketing communications techniques (generally associated with commercial enterprise) on behalf of non-commercial, public interest issues and initiatives. In the United States, the granting of television and radio licenses by the FCC is contingent upon the station broadcasting a certain amount of public service advertising. To meet these requirements, many broadcast stations in America air the bulk of their required public service announcements during the late night or early morning when the smallest percentage of viewers are watching, leaving more day and prime time commercial slots available for high-paying advertisers. Public service advertising reached its height during World Wars I and II under the direction of more than one government. During WWII President Roosevelt commissioned the creation of The War Advertising Council (now known as the Ad Council) which is the nation's largest developer of PSA campaigns on behalf of government agencies and non-profit organizations, including the longest-running PSA campaign,Smokey Bear. [edit]Marketing mix Main article: Marketing mix The marketing mix has been the key concept to advertising. The marketing mix was suggested by professor E. Jerome McCarthy in the 1960s. The marketing mix consists of four basic elements called the four Ps Product is the first P representing the actual product. Price represents the process of determining the value of a product. Place represents the variables of getting the product to the consumer like distribution channels, market coverage and movement organization. The last P stands for Promotion which is the process of reaching the target market and convincing them to go out and buy the product. [edit]Advertising theory Hierarchy of effects model[8]

It clarifies the objectives of an advertising campaign and for each individual advertisement. The model suggests that there are six steps a consumer or a business buyer moves through when making a purchase. The steps are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Awareness Knowledge Liking Preference Conviction Purchase

Means-End Theory

This approach suggests that an advertisement should contain a message or means that leads the consumer to a desired end state. Leverage Points

It is designed to move the consumer from understanding a product's benefits to linking those benefits with personal values. Verbal and Visual Images

[edit]Types of advertising

Paying people to hold signs is one of the oldest forms of advertising, as with thisHuman billboard pictured above

A bus with an advertisement for GAP in Singapore. Buses and other vehicles are popular mediums for advertisers.

A DBAG Class 101 with UNICEF ads at Ingolstadt main railway station Virtually any medium can be used for advertising. Commercial advertising media can include wall paintings, billboards, street furniture components, printed flyers and rack cards, radio, cinema and television adverts, web banners, mobile telephone screens, shopping carts, web popups,skywriting, bus stop benches, human billboards, magazines, newspapers, town criers, sides of buses, banners attached to or sides of airplanes ("logojets"), in-flight advertisements on seatback tray tables or overhead storage bins, taxicab doors, roof mounts and passenger screens, musical stage shows, subway platforms and trains, elastic bands on disposable diapers,doors of bathroom stalls,stickers on apples in supermarkets, shopping cart handles (grabertising), the opening section of streaming audio and video, posters, and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts. Any place an "identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is advertising. [edit]Digital advertising Television advertising / Music in advertising The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format, as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. The annual Super Bowl football game in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising event on television. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV

spot during this game has reached US$3 million (as of 2009). The majority of television commercials feature a song or jingle that listeners soon relate to the product. Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming through computer graphics. It is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops[9] or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcast audience.[10] More controversially, virtual billboards may be inserted into the background[11] where none exist in reallife. This technique is especially used in televised sporting events.[12][13] Virtual product placement is also possible.[14][15] Infomercials: An infomercial is a longformat television commercial, typically five minutes or longer. The word "infomercial" combining the words "information" & "commercial". The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse purchase, so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buys the product through the advertised toll-free telephone number or website. Infomercials describe, display, and often demonstrate products and their features, and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals. Radio advertising Radio advertising is a form of advertising via the medium of radio. Radio advertisements are broadcast as radio waves to the air from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. Airtime is purchased from a station or network in exchange for airing the commercials. While radio has the limitation of being restricted to sound, proponents of radio advertising often cite this as an advantage. Radio is an expanding medium that can be found not only on air, but also online. According to Arbitron, radio has approximately 241.6 million weekly listeners, or more than 93 percent of the U.S. population. Online advertising Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of delivering marketingmessages to attract customers. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads that appear on search engine results pages,banner ads, in text ads, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising, online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing, including e-mail spam. Product placements

Covert advertising, also known as guerrilla advertising, is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. For example, in a film, the main character can use an item or other of a definite brand, as in the movie Minority Report, where Tom Cruise's character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engraved with the Bulgari logo. Another example of advertising in film is in I, Robot, where main character played by Will Smith mentions his Converse shoes several times, calling them "classics," because the film is set far in the future. I, Robot and Spaceballs also showcase futuristic cars with theAudi and Mercedes-Benz logos clearly displayed on the front of the vehicles. Cadillac chose to advertise in the movie The Matrix Reloaded, which as a result contained many scenes in which Cadillac cars were used. Similarly, product placement for Omega Watches, Ford, VAIO, BMW and Aston Martin cars are featured in recent James Bond films, most notably Casino Royale. In "Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer", the main transport vehicle shows a large Dodge logo on the front. Blade Runner includes some of the most obvious product placement; the whole film stops to show a CocaCola billboard. [edit]Physical advertising Press advertising Press advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such as a newspaper, magazine, or trade journal. This encompasses everything from media with a very broad readership base, such as a major national newspaper or magazine, to more narrowly targeted media such as local newspapers and trade journals on very specialized topics. A form of press advertising is classified advertising, which allows private individuals or companies to purchase a small, narrowly targeted ad for a low fee advertising a product or service. Another form of press advertising is the Display Ad, which is a larger ad (can include art) that typically run in an article section of a newspaper. Billboard advertising: Billboards are large structures located in public places which display advertisements to passing pedestrians and motorists. Most often, they are located on main roads with a large amount of passing motor and pedestrian traffic; however, they can be placed in any location with large amounts of viewers, such as on mass transit vehicles and in stations, in shopping malls or office buildings, and in stadiums.

The RedEye newspaper advertised to its target market at North Avenue Beach with a sailboat billboard on Lake Michigan. Mobile billboard advertising Mobile billboards are generally vehicle mounted billboards or digital screens. These can be on dedicated vehicles built solely for carrying advertisements along routes preselected by clients, they can also be specially equipped cargo trucks or, in some cases, large banners strewn from planes. The billboards are often lighted; some being backlit, and others employing spotlights. Some billboard displays are static, while others change; for example, continuously or periodically rotating among a set of advertisements. Mobile displays are used for various situations in metropolitan areas throughout the world, including: Target advertising, One-day, and long-term campaigns, Conventions, Sporting events, Store openings and similar promotional events, and Big advertisements from smaller companies. In-store advertising In-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store. It includes placement of a product in visible locations in a store, such as at eye level, at the ends of aisles and near checkout counters, eye-catching displays promoting a specific product, and advertisements in such places as shopping carts and in-store video displays. Coffee cup advertising

Coffee cup advertising is any advertisement placed upon a coffee cup that is distributed out of an office, caf, or drive-through coffee shop. This form of advertising was first popularized in Australia, and has begun growing in popularity in the United States, India, and parts of the Middle East.[citation needed] Street advertising This type of advertising first came to prominence in the UK by Street Advertising Services to create outdoor advertising on street furniture and pavements. Working with products such as Reverse Graffiti and 3d pavement advertising, the media became an affordable and effective tool for getting brand messages out into public spaces. Celebrity branding This type of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power, fame, money, popularity to gain recognition for their products and promote specific stores or products. Advertisers often advertise their products, for example, when celebrities share their favorite products or wear clothes by specific brands or designers. Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns such as television or print adverts to advertise specific or general products. The use of celebrities to endorse a brand can have its downsides, however. One mistake by a celebrity can be detrimental to the public relations of a brand. For example, following his performance of eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China, swimmer Michael Phelps' contract with Kellogg's was terminated, as Kellogg's did not want to associate with him after he was photographed smoking marijuana. [edit]Sales promotions Sales promotions are another way to advertise. Sales promotions are double purposed because they are used to gather information about what type of customers you draw in and where they are, and to jumpstart sales. Sales promotions include things like contests and games, sweepstakes, giveaways, samples product coupons,

loyalty programs, and discounts.


ultimate is

goal to





potential customers to action.[16] [edit]Media and advertising approaches Increasingly, overtaking "traditional" because of other media many media a of such are the as

television, radio and newspaper shift toward consumer's usage of the Internet for news and music as well as devices like digital video recorders (DVRs) such as TiVo. Advertising on the World Wide Web is a recent phenomenon. Prices of Web-based advertising space are dependent on the "relevance" of the surrounding web content and the traffic that the website receives. Digital signage is poised to

become a major mass media because of its ability to reach larger audiences for less money. Digital signage also offer the unique ability to see the target audience where reached by Technological they the advances are have medium.

also made it possible to control the message on digital signage with much precision, enabling the messages to be relevant to the target audience at any given

time and location which in turn, gets more response from the advertising. Digital signage is being successfully employed in supermarkets.[17]Another successful use of digital signage is in hospitality locations such as restaurants.[18] and malls.[19] E-mail advertising is another

recent phenomenon. Unsolicited bulk E-mail advertising is known as "e-mail spam". Spam has been a problem for e-mail users for many years. Some companies have proposed placing messages or corporate logos on the side of booster rockets and the International Space Station. Controversy effectiveness exists on the of subliminal control),

advertising (see mind

and the pervasiveness of mass messages (seepropaganda). Unpaid advertising (also called "publicity provide minimal advertising"), good cost. exposure ("bring can at a



friend", "sell it"), spreading buzz, or achieving the feat of equating a brand with a common noun (in the United States, "Xerox" = "photocopier", "Kleenex" = tissue, "Vaseline" = petroleum



= vacuum

cleaner, "Nintendo" (often used by those exposed to many video games) = video games, and "Band-Aid" = adhesive bandage) these can be seen as the pinnacle campaign. of any advertising some However,

companies oppose the use of their brand name to label an object. Equating a brand with a common noun also risks turning that brand into a genericized it into a as trademark its legal turning

generic term which means that protection a trademark is lost. As the mobile phone became a new mass media in 1998 when the first paid appeared of time downloadable on mobile content matter

phones in Finland, it was only a until mobile also of first advertising followed, 2007 billion the and value had

launched in Finland in 2000. By mobile $2.2 such of advertising reached


as Admob delivered mobile ads. More include advanced



ads ads,

banner and

coupons, Multimedia Service picture messages,

Messaging video and


various engagement marketing campaigns. A particular feature driving mobile ads is the 2D Barcode, which replaces the need to do any typing of web addresses, and uses the camera phones access feature to to of web modern immediate gain

content. 83 percent of Japanese mobile phone users already are active users of 2D barcodes. A new form of advertising that is growing rapidly is social network advertising. networking It sites. is This online is a advertising with a focus on social relatively immature market, but it has shown a lot of promise as advertisers information are the able to take has advantage of the demographic user provided to the social networking site. Friendertising is a more precise advertising term in which people directly service. From time to time, The breaks CW short called are able to direct others network advertisements toward

using social


Network airs


"Content Wraps," to advertise one company's product during an entire commercial break. The

CW pioneered "content wraps" and some products featured Hero and were Herbal Essences, Crest, Guitar II, CoverGirl, recently Toyota. Recently, there appeared a new promotion "ARvertising", on Augmented Reality technology. [edit]Current trends [edit]Rise in new media With the dawn of the Internet came many new advertising opportunities. Popup, Flash, banner, Popunder, advergaming, and email advertisements (the last often being a form of spam) are now commonplace. Particularly since the rise of "entertaining" advertising, some people may like an advertisement enough to wish to watch it later or show a friend. In general, the advertising community has not yet made this easy, although some have used the Internet to widely distribute their ads to anyone willing to see or hear them. In the last three quarters of 2009 mobile and internet advertising grew by 18.1% and 9.2% respectively. Older media concept, advertising

advertising 14.8%


declines: and

10.1% (TV), 11.7% (radio), (magazines) 18.7% (newspapers ).[citation needed] [edit]Niche marketing Another the significant trend of

regarding future of advertising is growing importance the niche market using niche or targeted ads. Also brought about by the Internet and the theory of The Long Tail, advertisers will have an increasing ability to reach specific audiences. In the past, the most efficient way to deliver blanket However, customer growing content a message the usage profiles popularity brought sites, was to largest mass possible. tracking, and of about the niche by

market audience

everything from blogs to social networking provide advertisers with audiences that are smaller but much better defined, leading to ads that are more relevant to viewers and more effective for companies' marketing products. Among others, Comcast Spotlight is one such advertiser employing this method in their video on These demandmenus.

advertisements are targeted to a

specific group and can be viewed by anyone wishing to find out more about a particular business or practice at any time, right from their home. This causes the viewer to become proactive and actually view.

choose they

what want to


[edit]Crowdsourcing Main article: Crowdsourcing The to the trend concept of user-

of crowdsourcing has given way generated advertisements. Usergenerated ads are created by consumers as opposed to an advertising they are a agency result or of the brand company themselves, most often sponsored Bowl, Super the advertising Frito-Lays division the their allowing

competitions. For the 2007 Super of PepsiCo held consumers to the Crash create

Bowl contest,

ownDoritos commercial.[21] Chevr olet held a similar competition for their Tahoe line of SUVs.

Due to the success of the

Doritos user-generated ads in the 2007 Super Bowl, Frito-Lays relaunched the competition for the 2009 and 2010 Super Bowl. The resulting ads were among





liked Super Bowl ads. In fact, the winning ad that aired in the 2009 Super Bowl was ranked by the USA Today Super Bowl Ad Meter as the top ad for the year while the winning ads that aired in the 2010 Super Bowl were found by Nielsen's BuzzMetrics to be the "most buzzed-about".

This trend has given rise to several online on platforms behalf that of a in such host user-generated advertising competitions company. competitions ral Founded for brands

2007, Zooppa has launched ad as Google, Nike, Hersheys, Gene Mills, Microsoft, NBC advertisements Universal, Zinio, andMini Cooper. Crowdsourced have gained popularity in part to its cost effective nature, high consumer ability mouth. impact to engagement, generate it and word-ofremains

However, on the

controversial, as the long-term advertising industry is still unclear.[24] [edit]Global advertising Advertising has gone through five major stages of development: domestic, export, international, multi-national, and

global. there

For global are four,

advertisers, potentially

competing, business objectives that must be balanced when developing advertising: building worldwide a brand

while speaking with one voice, developing economies of scale in the creative process, maximising local effectiveness of ads, and increasing the companys speed of implementation. Born from the evolutionary stages of global marketing are the three primary and fundamentally different approaches to the development of global advertising executions: exporting executions, producing local executions, and importing ideas that travel.[25] Advertising research is key to determining the success of an ad in any country or region. The ability to identify which elements and/or moments of an ad that contributes to its success is how economies maximised. of Once scale one are knows

what works in an ad, that idea or ideas can be imported by any other of market. Market Attention, Flow insight of into research measures, such as Flow Emotion and branding moments provide

what is working in an ad in any country or region because the measures the ad.[26] [edit]Foreign messaging Foreign particularly public governments, those that own are based on the visual, not verbal, elements of

marketable commercial products or services, often promote their interests and positions through the advertising of those goods because the target audience is not only largely unaware of the forum as vehicle for foreign messaging but also willing to receive the message while in a mental during breaks, state of absorbing commercial reading a information from advertisements television while

periodical, or while passing by billboards in public spaces. A prime example of this messaging technique campaigns international to travel. isadvertising promote While

advertising foreign destinations and services may stem from the typical revenue carry goal by the of increasing more or drawing additional

tourism, some travel campaigns alternative intended purpose of promoting good sentiments or

improving existing ones among the target audience towards a given nation or region. It is common for advertising promoting foreign countries to be produced and distributed by the tourism ministries of those countries, so these ads often carry political statements and/or depictions of the foreign government's desired international public perception. Additionally, a wide range of foreign airlines and travelrelated services which advertise separately from the destinations, themselves, are owned by their respective not limited to, governments; the Emirates examples include, though are airline (Dubai), Singapore Airlines (Singapore), Qatar Airways (Qatar), China Airlines (Taiwan/Republic of China), and Air China (People's Republic of China). By depicting their destinations, airlines, and other services in a favorable and pleasant light, countries market themselves mitigate to prior populations public abroad in a manner that could impressions. See: Soft Power See also: International

Travel Advertising

[edit]Diversification In the realm of advertising industry seen has




observers note that big global clients don't need big global agencies any more.[27] This is reflected by the growth of nontraditional agencies in various global Canadian business TAXIand SMART in Australia and has been referred to as "a revolution in the ad world".[28] [edit]New technology The ability to record shows markets, such as

on digital video recorders (such as TiVo) allow users to record the programs through pre-recorded box offered for sale for later viewing, enabling them to fast forward commercials. sets are of television Additionally, as more seasons of

programs; fewer people watch the shows on TV. However, the fact that these sets are sold, means the company will receive additional profits from the sales of these sets. To counter this effect, many advertisers have opted for product placement on TV shows like Survivor. [edit]Advertising education

Advertising become widely

education has popular with

bachelor, master and doctorate degrees becoming available in the emphasis. to and social model is A the surge in advertising interest is typically attributed cultural online unique strong relationship advertising plays in technological networking. for A changes, such as the advance of teaching where create such Advertising AdU Network

advertising advertising advertising


the student-run

agency, students

campaigns for real companies. Organizations as American Federation and

partner established companies with students to create these campaigns. [edit]Criticisms Main article: Criticism advertising of

While advertising can be seen as necessary for economic growth, it is not without other become social forms so costs. Unsolicited commercial email and of spam have

prevalent as to have become a major nuisance to users of these services, as well as being a financial burden on internet


providers.[30] Advertising

is increasingly invading public spaces, such as schools, which some critics argue is a form of child exploitation.[31] In addition, advertising psychological inadequacy) consumer, harmful. [edit]Regulation Main regulation article: Advertising on frequently pressure the uses (for

example, appealing to feelings of intended may be which

In the US many communities believe that many forms of outdoor advertising blight the public realm.[32] As long ago as the 1960s in the US there were attempts advertising countryside. Paulo have outright ban having
[34] [33]

to in

ban the

billboard open an to

Cities such as So introduced legislation with London also


control unlawful displays. There efforts interest have to by been increasing the public the



content and the influence of advertising. Some examples are: the ban on television tobacco advertising imposed in many countries, and the total ban of advertising to children under 12

imposed government that

by in

the 1991.

Swedish Though in



effect for broadcasts originating within the country, it has been weakened by the European Court of Justice, which had found that Sweden was obliged to accept foreign programming, including those from neighboring countries or via satellite. are of a Greeces similar regulations

nature, banning advertisements for children's toys between 7 am and 10 pm and a total ban on advertisement for war toys".[35] In Europe and elsewhere, there is a vigorous debate on whether (or how much) advertising to children should be regulated. This debate was exacerbated by a report released by the Kaiser Family Foundation in February 2004 which suggested fast food advertising that targets children was an important factor in the epidemic of childhood obesity in the United States. In New Zealand, South Africa, Canada, countries, and many the European advertising Advertisers, and code the of on a

industry operates a system of self-regulation. advertising media agree agencies

advertising standards that they attempt to uphold. The general aim of such codes is to ensure that any advertising is 'legal, decent, Some industry, upholding codes the like honest and truthful'. self-regulatory but remain or

organizations are funded by the independent, with the intent of standards the Advertising

Standards Authority in the UK. In the UK most forms of outdoor advertising such as the display of billboards is regulated by the UK Town and County Planning system. Currently the display of an advertisement from the without Planning consent

Authority is a criminal offense liable to a fine of 2,500 per offence. All of the major outdoor billboard companies in the UK have convictions of this nature. Many advertisers employ a widevariety of linguistic devices to bypass regulatory laws (e.g. printing English words in bold and French translations in fine print to deal with the Article 120 of the 1994 Toubon Law limiting the use of English in French advertising).[36] The advertisement of controversial products such as cigarettes and

condoms countries.

are For

subject instance,

to the

government regulation in many tobacco industry is required by law in most countries to display warnings cautioning consumers about the health hazards of their products. Linguistic variation is often used by advertisers as a creative device to reduce the impact of such requirements. [edit]Advertising research Main research Advertising works to article: Advertising research improve is a the

specialized form of research that effectiveness and efficiency of advertising. It entails numerous forms of research which employ different Advertising methodologies. research includes

pre-testing (also known as copy testing) and post-testing of ads and/or campaignspre-testing is done before an ad airs to gauge how well it will perform and posttesting is done after an ad airs to determine the in-market impact of the ad or campaign on the consumer. tracking and the Communicus System competing examples of are postContinuous ad

testing types.



[edit]Semiotics Main research article: Advertising

Todays culture is made up of meanings between consumers that and marketers. These meanings depict signs and


are encoded in everyday objects. Semiotics is the study of signs has many hidden and how they are interpreted. Advertising signs and meanings withinbrand names, logos, package designs, print advertisements, and television advertisements. The purpose of semiotics is to study and interpret the message being conveyed in advertisements. Logos and ad vertisements can be interpreted at two levels known as the surface level and the underlying level. The surface level uses signs creatively to create an image or personality for their product. These signs can be images, words, fonts, colors, or slogan. The underlying level is made up of hidden meanings. The combination of images, words, colors, and slogan must be interpreted by the audience or consumer.[38] The key to





signifier and the signified. The signifier is the object and the signified is the mental concept.

A product has a signifier and signified. and has as The signifier name, is The and brand logo

the color, design, signified known

technology. two The A denotative

meanings denotative televisions

connotative. product.

meaning is the meaning of the denotative meaning would be that it is high definition. The connotative products meaning deep and is the hidden

meaning. A connotative meaning of a television would be that it is top of the line.


Apple is an excellent example of using semiotics in their advertising campaign. Apples commercials used a black silhouette of a person that was the age of Apple's target market. They placed the silhouette in front of a blue screen so that the picture behind the silhouette could be constantly changing. However, the one thing that stays the same in these ads is that there is music in the background and the silhouette is listening to that

music on a white iPod through white headphones. Through advertising, the white color on a set of earphones now signifies that the music device is an iPod. The white color signifies almost all of Apples products.[41] The semiotics of gender plays a key influence on the way in which When signs are interpreted. are considering gender roles individuals

in advertising,

influenced by three categories. Certain characteristics of stumuli may enhance or decrease the elaboration the of the message (if is perceived product

as feminine or masculine). Second, the characteristics of individuals affect attention and of can elaboration

themessage (traditional or

non-traditional gender-role orient ation). Lastly, situational factors may be important to influence the elaboration of themessage.

There are two types of marketing communication claims-objective and subjective.[43] Objective claims stem from the extent to which the claim associates the brand with a tangible product or service feature. For instance, the camera has auto focus

features. convey

Subjective emotional,



impressions of intangible aspects of a product or service. They are non-physical features of a product or servicethat cannot be directly perceived, as they have no physical reality. For instance the brochure has respond marketing claims respond better to a objective to to beautiful design.[44] Males tend to communications better

while females tend

subjective marketing communicationsclaims.[45] When to advertising how men to and

different genders it is important remember women process information. Females pro cess informationcomprehensivel y. Males process information thro ugh heuristic devices such as procedures, or strategies for solving problems.[46]Men prefer to have available and apparent cues to interpret the message where females engage in more creative, associative, imagerylaced interpretation. In advertisements, as are shown men in are more methods

represented They





Women are represented mainly as housewives and mothers. Men are more likely to be or shown advertising cars advertise domestic

business products, while women products. Men are more likely to be shown outdoors or in business settings. Women are depicted in domestic settings. Men are more often portrayed as authorities. As far as ads go, with age men seem to gain wisdom and are depriced as an authority figure. On the other hand women seem to disappear with age. Voiceovers are commonly used in advertising. Most voiceovers are men (figures of up to 94% There have have been been in and reported).

more female voiceovers household [edit] products,


recent years but mainly for food, feminine care products.